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ANSI/AMCA

Standard 300-14
Reverberant Room Method for
Sound Testing of Fans

An American National Standard


Approved by ANSI on August 14, 2014

AIR MOVEMENT AND CONTROL


ASSOCIATION INTERNATIONAL, INC.
30 West University Drive

AIR MOVEMENT AND CONTROL


Arlington Heights, IL 60004-1893 U.S.A.
Tel: (847) 394-0150 Fax: (847) 253-0088
Email : info@amca.org Web: www.amca.org

The Air Movement and Control Association International Inc. is a not-for-profit international association of the
ASSOCIATION INTERNATIONAL INC.
world’s manufacturers of related air system equipment, primarily but not limited to fans, louvers, dampers, air
curtains, airflow measurement stations, acoustic attenuators and other air system components for the industrial,
commercial and residential markets.
The International Authority on Air System Components
ANSI/AMCA Standard 300-14

Reverberant Room Methods


for Sound Testing of Fans

Air Movement and Control Association International


30 W. University Drive
Arlington Heights, Illinois
60004
AMCA Publications

Authority AMCA Standard 300-14 was adopted by the membership of the Air Movement and Control Association
International Inc. on August 21, 2014. It was approved by the American National Standards Institute on
August 14, 2014.

Copyright © 2005 by Air Movement and Control Association International Inc.

All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of any part of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 and 108 of the United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.
Requests for permission or further information should be addressed to the executive director, Air Movement
and Control Association International Inc. at 30 West University Drive, Arlington Heights, IL 60004-1893
U.S.A.

Objections Air Movement and Control Association International Inc. will consider and decide all written complaints
regarding its standards, certification programs, or interpretations thereof. For information on procedures for
submitting and handling complaints, write to:

Air Movement and Control Association International


30 West University Drive
Arlington Heights, IL 60004-1893 U.S.A.

European AMCA
Avenue des Arts, numéro 46
à Bruxelles (1000 Bruxelles)

Asia AMCA Sdn Bhd


No. 7, Jalan SiLC 1/6,
Kawasan Perindustrian SiLC Nusajaya,
Mukim Jelutong, 79200 Nusajaya, Johor
Malaysia

Disclaimer AMCA uses its best efforts to produce standards for the benefit of the industry and the public in light of avail-
able information and accepted industry practices. However, AMCA does not guarantee, certify or assure
the safety or performance of any products, components or systems tested, designed, installed or operated
in accordance with AMCA standards or that any tests conducted under its standards will be non-hazardous
or free from risk.
Review Committee

David Johnson Berner International Corporation


Committee Chair

John Cermak Acme Engineering & Manufacturing Corporation

Marcel Kamutzki Daltec Canadian Buffalo Manufacturing Ltd.

Alex Zhang DongGuan Wolter Chemco Ventillation Ltd.

Scott Kurszewski Greenheck Fan Corporation

Tim Kuski Greenheck Fan Corporation

Manoj Khati Greenheck Fan Corporation, India

Kim Osborn Governair LLC

David Gaskin Howden North America Inc.

Phillip Santolucito MacroAir Technologies

Dario Brivio Nicotra Gebhardt Company Ltd.

Chris Papadimos Papadimos Group

Charles Gans Strobic Air Corporation

Scott Hausmann The Trane Company

Matt Settergren Twin City Fan Companies Ltd.

Roberto Arias Zitron, S.A.

Tim Orris AMCA Staff


Related AMCA Documents

Related AMCA Publication 302 Application of Sone Loudness Ratings for Non-Ducted Air Moving Devices
Publications
AMCA Publication 303 Application of Sound Power Level Ratings for Fans

AMCA Publication 311 Certified Ratings Program — Product Rating Manual for Fan Sound
Performance

Related ANSI/AMCA Standard 301 Methods for Calculating Fan Sound Ratings from Laboratory Test Data
Standards
ANSI/AMCA Standard 320 Laboratory Methods of Sound Testing of Fans Using Sound Intensity
Contents

1. Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

2. Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

3. Definitions/Units of Measure/Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

3.1 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

3.2 Symbols and Subscripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

4. Instruments/Methods of Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

4.1 Sound level meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

4.2 Microphone system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

4.3 Frequency analyzer and weighting system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

4.4 Data recording equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2


4.5 Reference sound source (RSS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

4.6 Test method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

5. Equipment/Setups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

5.1 Reverberant room . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

5.2 Setup categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

5.3 Aerodynamic performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

5.4 Mounting methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

5.5 Duct length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

5.6 Microphone travel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

5.7 Calibration of system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

5.8 Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

6. Observations and Conduct of Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

6.1 Observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
7. Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

7.1 Background correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

7.2 Sound power level (LW) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

8. Results and Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

8.1 Test subject . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

8.2 Laboratory and Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

8.3 Acoustical data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Annex A Room Qualification: Full and One-Third Octave (Normative) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Annex B Room Qualification: Pure Tones/Narrow Band (Informative) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Annex C Uncertainties Analysis (Informative) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Annex D Alternative Procedure for Reference Sound Source Calibration (Informative) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20


Annex E Duct End Reflection Correction (Normative) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Annex F Filter-Weighted Measurements (Informative) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Annex G Radiation of Sound by Fan Casing (Informative) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

Annex H References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Technical Erratum for the 2014 Edition of ANSI/AMCA Standard 300 (Informative) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Reverberant Room Method For Sound Testing of Fans

1. Purpose 3.1.5 End reflection


A phenomenon that occurs whenever sound is transmitted
This standard establishes a method of determining the across an abrupt change in area, such as at the end of a
sound power levels of a fan. It was originally developed in duct in a room. When end reflection occurs, some of the
response to the need for a reliable and accurate method of sound entering the room is reflected back into the duct and
determining the sound power levels of fan equipment. does not escape into the room.

3.1.6 Frequency
2. Scope The number of times in one second that a periodic function
repeats itself.
This standard applies to fans of all types and sizes. It is
limited to the determination of airborne sound emission for 3.1.7 Informative
the specified setups. Vibration is not measured, nor is the A term that indicates that the referenced material is provided
sensitivity of airborne sound emission to vibration effects as advice to the reader but does not constitute a mandatory
determined. requirement.

The size of a fan that can be tested in accordance with this 3.1.8 Non-ducted fan
standard is limited only by the practical aspects of the test A fan without ducts connected to its inlet and outlet.
setups. Dimensional limitations, test subject dimensions,
and air performance will control the test room size, power 3.1.9 Normative
and mounting requirements for the test subject. A term that indicates that the referenced material, if applied,
constitutes a mandatory requirement.
The test setup requirements in this standard establish the
laboratory conditions necessary for a successful test. Rarely 3.1.10 Octave band
will it be possible to meet these requirements in a field situ- The interval between any two frequencies having a ratio
ation. This standard is not intended for field measurements. of two. Fan sound power levels are reported in eight stan-
dardized octave bands, shown in Table 2. Fan sound power
3. Definitions/Units of Measure/Symbols levels may also be reported in one-third octave bands, also
shown in Table 2.
3.1 Definitions
3.1.11 Reverberant room
3.1.1 Blade passage frequency (BPF) An enclosure meeting the requirements of Annex A or Annex
The frequency of fan impeller blades passing a single fixed A and B.
object, per the following formula:
3.1.12 Shall and should
The word “shall” is to be understood as mandatory; the word
BPF = (number of blades)(fan rotational speed,
“should” is to be understood as advisory.
rev/min)/60, in Hz.
3.1.13 Sound power level
3.1.2 Chamber
Expressed in decibels (dB), the value of 10 times the loga-
An enclosure used to regulate airflow and absorb sound;
rithm (base 10) of the ratio of the sound power W to the
it may also conform to air test chamber conditions given in
reference sound power Wref, according to:
ANSI/AMCA Standard 210 [1].
LW, in dB = 10 log10 ( W/Wref ) Eq. 3.2-1
3.1.3 Decibel (dB)
A dimensionless unit of level in logarithmic terms for express- 3.1.14 Sound pressure level
ing the ratio of a power or power-like quantity to a similar Expressed in decibels (dB), the value of 20 times the loga-
reference quantity (see Sections 3.1.13 and 3.1.14). rithm (base 10) of the ratio of the sound pressure p to the
reference sound pressure pref, according to:
3.1.4 Ducted fan
A fan having a duct connected to either its inlet, its outlet or Lp, in dB = 20 log10 ( p/pref ) Eq. 3.2-2
to both.

ANSI/AMCA 300-14 | 1
--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`

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AMCA INTERNATIONAL, INC. ANSI/AMCA 300-14

Reverberant Room Method for ANSI S1.40-1984 Standard Specification for


Acoustical Calibrators, Acoustical Society of America,
Sound Testing of Fans 120 Wall St., 32nd Floor, New York, NY 10005-3993
U.S.A., 1984 (AMCA #1895-84-AO)
1. Scope
ANSI S12.5-1990 Requirements for the Performance
This standard applies to fans of all types and sizes. and Calibration of Reference Sound Sources,
This standard is limited to the determination of Acoustical Society of America, 120 Wall St., 32nd
airborne sound emission for the specified setups. Floor, New York, NY 10005-3993 U.S.A., 1990
Vibration is not measured, nor is the sensitivity of (AMCA #1863-90-AO)
airborne sound emission to vibration effects
determined. ANSI S12.12-1992 Engineering Method for the
Determination of Sound Power Levels of Noise
The size of a fan that can be tested in accordance Sources Using Sound Intensity, Acoustical Society of
with this standard is limited only by the practical America, 120 Wall St., 32nd Floor, New York, NY
aspects of the test setups. Dimensional limitations, 10005-3993 U.S.A., 1992 (AMCA #1850-92-AO)
test subject dimensions, and air performance will
control the test room size and power and mounting ANSI/IEEE/ASTM SI 10-1997 Standard for Use of the
requirements for the test subject. International System of Units (SI): The Modern Metric
System, Institute of Electrical and Electronic
The test setup requirements in this standard Engineers, 345 east 47th Street, New York, NY 10017
establish the laboratory conditions necessary for a U.S.A., 1997 (AMCA #2924-97-AO)
successful test. Rarely will it be possible to meet
these requirements in a field situation. This standard 3. Definitions / Units of Measure / Symbols
is not intended for field measurements.
3.1 Definitions
2. Normative References
3.1.1 Blade passage frequency (BPF). The
The following standards contain provisions that, frequency of fan impeller blades passing a single
through specific reference in this text, constitute fixed object, per the following formula:
provisions of this American National Standard. At the
time of publication the editions indicated were valid. BPF = (number of blades)(fan rotational speed,
All standards are subject to revision, and parties to rev/min) / 60, in Hz.
agreements based on this American National
Standard are encouraged to investigate the 3.1.2 Chamber. An enclosure used to regulate
possibility of applying the most recent editions of the airflow and absorb sound; it may also conform to air
standards listed below. test chamber conditions given in ANSI/AMCA 210.

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
ANSI/AMCA 210-99 / ANSI/ASHRAE 51-1999 3.1.3 Decibel (dB). A dimensionless unit of level in
Laboratory Methods of Testing Fans for Aerodynamic logarithmic terms for expressing the ratio of a power,
Performance Rating, Air Movement and Control or power-like, quantity to a similar reference quantity
Association International, Inc., 30 W. University (see Sections 3.1.13 and 3.1.14).
Drive, Arlington Heights, IL 60004-1893 U.S.A, 1999
3.1.4 Ducted fan. A fan having a duct connected to
ANSI S1.4-1983; S1.4A-1985 Specification for either its inlet, its outlet, or to both.
Sound Level Meters, Acoustical Society of America,
120 Wall St., 32nd Floor, New York, NY 10005-3993 3.1.5 End reflection. A phenomenon that occurs
U.S.A., 1985 (AMCA #2315-83-AO) whenever sound is transmitted across an abrupt
change in area, such as at the end of a duct in a
ANSI S1.11-2004 Specification for Octave Band and room. When end reflection occurs some of the sound
Fractional Octave Band Analog and Digital Filters, entering the room is reflected back into the duct and
Acoustical Society of America, 120 Wall St., 32nd does not escape into the room.
Floor, New York, NY 10005-3993 U.S.A., 1986
(AMCA #1727-86-AO)
Copyright Air Movement and Control Association Inc.
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1
ANSI/AMCA 300-14

3.1.6 Frequency. The number of times in one 3.1.14 Sound pressure level. The value, expressed
second that a periodic function repeats itself. in decibels (dB), of twenty times the logarithm (base
10) of the ratio of the sound pressure p to the
3.1.7 Informative. A term that indicates that the reference sound pressure pref, according to:
referenced material is provided as advice to the
reader but does not constitute a mandatory Lp, in dB = 20 log10 ( p / pref ) (3.2-2)
requirement.
3.1.15 Wavelength. The distance between two
3.1.8 Non-ducted fan. A fan without ducts connected points having the same phase in two consecutive
to its inlet and outlet. cycles of a periodic wave, along a line in the direction
of propagation [5]. Wavelength (λ) is determined by
3.1.9 Normative. A term that indicates that the frequency and the speed of sound in the air through
referenced material, if applied, constitutes a which the wave propagates:
mandatory requirement.
γ=c/f (3.2-3)
3.1.10 Octave band. The interval between any two
frequencies having a ratio of two. Fan sound power Where:
levels are reported in eight standardized octave
bands shown in Table 1. Fan sound power levels may f = frequency, Hz
also be reported in one-third octave bands, also c = 343 m/s @ 20°C (1125 ft/s @ 68°F)
shown in Table 1.
The value for c is acceptable for use in this standard
3.1.11 Reverberant room. An enclosure meeting the within the limits of ± 5°C (9°F) for standard air.
requirements of Annex A, or Annex A and Annex B.
3.1.16 Standard air. Air having a density of 1.2 kg/m3
3.1.12 Shall and should. The word shall is to be (0.075 lbm/ft3). Standard air has a ratio of specific
understood as mandatory; the word should as
heats of 1.4 and a viscosity of 1.8185 × 10-3 Pa•s
advisory.
(1.222 × 10-5 lbm/ft-s). Air at 20°C (68°F), 50%
3.1.13 Sound power level. The value, expressed in relative humidity, and 101.325 kPa (14.696 lbm/in.2,
decibels (dB), of ten times the logarithm (base 10) of 29.92 in. Hg) barometric pressure has these
the ratio of the sound power W to the reference properties, approximately).
sound power Wref, according to:

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
LW, in dB = 10 log10 ( W / Wref ) (3.2-1)

Table 1 - Standardized Octave and One-Third Octave Bands [5]

Octave Bands

Band no. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
ANSI Band no. 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 39
Center frequency f, Hz 63 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 8000

One-Third Octave Bands

Band 1 Band 2 Band 3 Band 4


ANSI Band no. 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
Center freq. f, Hz 50 63 80 100 125 160 200 250 315 400 500 630

Band 5 Band 6 Band 7 Band 8


ANSI Band no. 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
Center freq. f, Hz 800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500 3150 4000 5000 6300 8000 10000

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ANSI/AMCA 300-14

3.2 Symbols
UNIT OF MEASURE
SYMBOL DESCRIPTION SI I-P

Amin Minimum distance to reverberant field m ft


c Speed of sound m/s ft/s
D Duct diameter m ft
Eo End reflection factor, at duct outlet dB dB
Ei End reflection factor, at duct inlet dB dB
EW End reflection factor, adjustment to sound power level dB dB
f Frequency Hz Hz
J1 Bessel function of the first kind, first order --- ---
k Wave number --- ---
Lp Sound pressure level, re 20 μPa (0.0002 μbar) dB dB
Lpc Corrected fan sound pressure level dB dB
Lpb Sound pressure level of room background, measured over the
normal microphone path dB dB
Lpm Sound pressure level of fan + room background, measured
over the normal microphone path dB dB
Lpq Sound pressure level of the RSS, corrected dB dB
Lpqm Sound pressure level of RSS + room background, measured

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
over the normal microphone path dB dB
LW Sound power level re 1 picowatt (1.0 ×10-12 W) dB dB
LWi Sound power level; transmitted to inlet duct from fan dB dB
LWmi Sound power level measured at the open inlet of the fan dB dB
LWmo Sound power level measured at the open outlet of the fan dB dB
LWmt Sound power level measured at the open inlet and outlet of
the fan
LWo Sound power level transmitted to the outlet duct from fan dB dB
LWr Sound power level of RSS dB dB
p Sound pressure Pa bar
pref Sound pressure reference level, 20 μPa (0.0002 μbar) Pa bar
Ps Fan static pressure Pa in. wg
Pt Fan total pressure Pa in. wg
r Ratio (of Duct area / Orifice area) dimensionless --- ---
R Reflection coefficient dimensionless --- ---
s Standard deviation dB dB
W Sound power (in watts) W W
Wref Reference sound power (1 picowatt) W W
ZM Mechanical impedence N⋅s/m ---
α Ratio of transmitted to reflected sound dimensionless
γ Ratio of specific heats dimensionless
λ Wavelength m ft
ω Angular frequency rad/s rad/s

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ANSI/AMCA 300-14

4. Instruments / Methods of Measurement 4.5.3 The RSS shall be equipped with vibration
isolators that minimize transmitted vibration. The
4.1 Sound level meter degree of isolation should be 20 dB or more. If metal
springs are used as vibration isolators, rubber pads
The sound level meter shall meet the requirements of shall be used between the isolator and the structure
ANSI S1.4 and S1.4A. The sound level meter should of the reverberant room.
be capable of accepting a microphone extension
cable. 4.5.4 To ensure compliance with the stability
requirements of ANSI S12.5, all operating parts of the
4.2 Microphone system RSS shall be rigidly and permanently attached. No
rubbing or wearing parts shall be permitted (except
The microphone system (transducer and any lubricated bearings) and protection shall be provided
associated components and cable) shall meet the against corrosion.
requirements for use in a Type 1 precision sound
level meter according to ANSI S1.4 and S1.4A. A 4.5.5 The RSS calibration shall consist of a
microphone with a nominal diameter of 13 mm (0.5 determination of the sound power level radiated by
in.) is recommended. the RSS (including vibration isolators) when it is in

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
operation on a reflecting plane with radiation into a
free field above that plane. The calibration shall be in
4.3 Frequency analyzer and weighting
accordance with ANSI S12.5 or as provided in Annex
system D. The maximum time interval since calibration shall
not exceed that specified by the manufacturer or
An octave band or one-third octave band filter set is three years, whichever is shorter.
required and shall meet the Order 3 Type 3-D
requirements of ANSI S1.11. An A-weighting network
4.6 Test method
shall meet the requirements of ANSI S1.4 and S1.4A.
Other weighting networks may be used to improve
The test method is based on a Reference Sound
the accuracy, as outlined in Annex F.
Source (RSS) substitution for the determination of
sound power.
4.4 Data recording equipment
Application of the test method requires that the test
This standard does not attempt to set limitations on subject fan be set in position in a test room that is
data recording equipment. Considerations include qualified according to the requirements of Section
long-term stability, ease of use, and the method of 5.1.
averaging the sound pressure signal. Modern
integrating-type analyzers that comply with IEC 804 Once the test room has been qualified, sound
are recommended because they produce Lp values pressure levels are recorded with the RSS operating.
eliminating any need for visual averaging. Graphic The fan is then operated, without the RSS in
level recorders can be used to make permanent operation, at various performance points of interest
records and ease the problem of making visual for the given test speed and the sound pressure
averages from sound level meter indications. levels are recorded. Since the sound power levels of
the RSS are known, the substitution method is used
4.5 Reference sound source (RSS) to determine the sound power levels of the fan for
each operating point.
The reference sound source should comply with the
requirements of ANSI S12.5. Current ANSI and ASA documents on sound testing,
facilities and equipment are useful references. See
4.5.1 The RSS shall be a small, modified, direct- Annex H.
driven centrifugal fan having maximum overall
dimensions of 610 mm (2 ft) or less. 4.7 Accuracy of results
4.5.2 The RSS shall produce steady broad-band Accuracy of test results is addressed in Annex C and
sound over at least the frequency range from 50 Hz depends upon several variables, including the room
to 10,000 Hz. It shall comply in all respects with the qualification and the type of test setup utilized.
performance requirements of ANSI S12.5.

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5. Equipment / Setups dense non-absorptive material and have no exposed


sound absorption material on the interior or exterior
5.1 Reverberant room surfaces.

An enclosure meeting the requirements of Annex A is The driving motor and drive, when not an integral part
mandatory for the purposes of this standard. An of the test subject, may be damped or enclosed in
enclosure meeting the requirements of Annex B is any manner that does not expose sound absorption
recommended for broad-band sound testing and is material to the test room. When a driving motor and
mandatory for the purpose of investigating pure tones drive are an integral part of the test subject, they may
and narrow bands. not be treated in any manner, and normal belt
tensions, bearings, and lubricants shall be used.
5.2 Setup categories When a fan and its drive are both in the reverberant
room, the test results may contain sound
A number of specific fan test setups are allowed. contributions from flanking paths as well as
They are determined by the airflow direction and the mechanical and/or electrical sound from the drive
particular mounting arrangement of the test subject. system.
The test setups fall into two general categories.
5.5 Duct length
The first category is for a free-standing unit that
would be placed entirely in the test room (see Figure On a chamber or two-room setup, the length of duct
--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

1). Results of this arrangement yield total sound shall be consistent with acceptable practice per
power, LWmt, of the test subject, non-ducted. For the ANSI/AMCA 210 necessary to accurately establish
total sound power of a ducted test subject located the point of rating.
entirely in the test room, see Annex H.
The length of duct shown in Figures 2 and 3 is
The second category includes those fans that would consistent with the procedures of ANSI/AMCA 210.
be tested on a chamber or two-room system where Care must be exercised to ensure that no duct
only the inlet or outlet terminate in the test room (see resonances exist in close proximity to specific
Figures 2 and 3). These arrangements result in the frequencies of interest such as the Blade Pass
determination of inlet (LWi) or outlet (LWo) sound Frequency.
power. Section 5.6 discuses the limitations that must
be imposed on the test room for determining the
5.6 Microphone travel
position of the test subject and the location of the
microphone. The choice of test setup for a specific When using the substitution method, the minimum
test will depend on the way the fan is expected to be distance between the sound source and the nearest
applied in the field. microphone position may also be calculated from:

( LWr −Lpq ) / 20
5.3 Aerodynamic performance Amin = C210

Where an aerodynamic performance test is Where:


necessary to determine the point of operation of a
test subject, the test shall be performed in Amin = the minimum distance between the sound
accordance with ANSI/AMCA 210 or other fan
source and the microphone, m(ft)
aerodynamic performance test standard having a
demonstrated accuracy equivalent to ANSI/AMCA
C2 = 0.61 (if using SI units), (2.0 if using IP units)
210.
(LWr-Lpq) = is the maximum value for Octave Bands
5.4 Mounting methods
2 through 7
The method of mounting a test subject, or connecting
it to a non-integral driver, or connecting it to an airflow If the test room and test setup have been qualified in
test facility is not specified. Any conventional method accordance with Annex A, the continuous
may be used including vibration isolation devices and microphone traverse used for the qualification shall
short flexible connectors. Other than these, sound also be used for the sound pressure measurements.
and vibration absorptive material may not be
incorporated in the test subject unless it is a standard The microphone travese shall meet the following
part of the fan. Ducts shall be of metal or other rigid, requirements:

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ANSI/AMCA 300-14

a) No point on the traverse shall be any closer than In conformance with ANSI S1.40, the calibrator shall
Amin from the sound source; be checked at least once every year to verify that its
output has not changed. In addition, an electrical
b) No point on the traverse shall be any closer than calibration of the instrumentation over the entire
1.0 m (3.333 ft) to any surface of the test room; frequency range of interest shall be performed
periodically, at intervals of not more than one year.
c) No point on the traverse shall, at any time, be
closer than 0.5 m (1.67 ft) to any surface of a The microphone and its associated cable shall be
rotating diffuser; chosen so that their sensitivity does not change by
more than 0.2 dB over the temperature range
d) The microphone traverse should not lie in any encountered during the measurement. If the
plane within 10° of a room surface; microphone is moved, care shall be exercised to
avoid introducing acoustical or electrical noise (for
e) The microphone shall swing or move on a normal example, from gears, flexing cables, or sliding
path of an arc or straight line with a minimum contacts) that could interfere with measurement.
distance of 3 m (10 ft) between the extreme
points of travel. The frequency response of the instrument system
shall be flat over the frequency range of interest
f) the maximum air velocity over the microphone within the tolerances given in Table 2.
shall be 1 m/s (200 fpm);
5.8 Equations
g) room volume is not specified but the room must
be large enough in volume such that the volume The type of fan and its test setup determine the
of the test fan and associated ductwork does not calculations required to determine the sound power
exceed 1% of the room volume; levels (LWmt, LWi, LWmi, LWo, LWmo) of the test subject.
Equations for each test setup are included under the
h) neither the RSS nor fan shall be within 300 mm specific arrangement along with any qualifying
(1 ft) of any room centerline. statements or limitations. Also included are any
assumptions that were made regarding these specific
5.7 Calibration of system setups. End reflection factors (Ei) and (Eo), when
required, shall be calculated from Annex E Duct End
Before each sound power determination, the Reflection Correction, using the appropriate duct
following calibration checks shall be performed. A size.
calibration check shall be made of the entire
measurement system at one or more frequencies It cannot be assumed that the inlet and outlet sound
within the frequency range of interest. An acoustical powers are always equal. Therefore, total sound
calibrator conforming to ANSI S1.40 and with an power levels shall not be used to derive inlet or outlet
accuracy of ± 0.5 dB shall be used for this purpose. sound power levels.

Table 2 - Tolerances for the Instrument System

One-third Octave Band Tolerance


Center Frequency (Hz) (dB)
40-80 ±1.5
--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

100-4000 ±1.0
5000-8000 ±1.5
10000 ±2.0
12500 ±3.0

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AIRFLOW

Fan

A: FREE INLET
FREE OUTLET

SOUND POWER CALCULATIONS

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Installation Type LW Equation

A: Free Inlet LWmt =Lpc+(LWr-Lpq)


Free Outlet

This test procedure and the above calculations are based on the following assumptions:

1. Directivity from the fan is averaged by the reverberant room and the microphone location is such that it is
sensing total averaged sound pressure levels.

2. No resonances are present on either the fan structure, supporting devices, or driving devices that may add to
the fan recorded sound pressure levels.

Section 5, Figure 1 - Fan Total Sound Testing

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Sound Power Calculations


--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Installation Type LW Equations

A or B: Free Inlet LWmi = Lpc + (LWr-Lpq)


C or D: Ducted Inlet LWi = Lpc + (LWr-Lpq) + Ei

This test procedure and the above calculations are based on the following assumptions:

1. Acoustical energy in an outlet duct which terminates in a second room or chamber does not contribute to fan
test sound pressure levels. This requires adequate transmission loss between adjoining rooms and the addition
of absorptive material within a chamber to absorb this energy.

2. Adequate absorption takes place at the discharge of a duct in a second room or chamber so that any energy
passing down that duct is adequately attenuated.

3. Directivity from the fan is averaged by the reverberant room and the microphone location is such that it is
recording total averaged sound pressure levels.

4. Duct construction is such that the transmission loss through the duct wall is large enough to eliminate any
addition to measured room sound pressure levels.

5. No resonances are present on either the fan structure, supporting devices, or driving devices that may add to
the recorded fan sound pressure levels.

6. Inlet orifices to control the operating point are not permitted, unless integral to the fan.

*May require acoustical treatment.

Section 5, Figure 2 - Fan Inlet Sound Testing

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--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Sound Power Calculations

Installation Type LW Equations

A or C: Free Outlet LWmo = Lpc + (LWr - Lpq)


B or D: Ducted Outlet LWo = Lpc + (LWr - Lpq) + Eo

This test procedure and the above calculations are based on the following assumptions:

1. Acoustical energy in an inlet duct that terminated in a second room or chamber does not contribute to fan test
sound pressure levels. This requires adequate transmission loss between adjoining rooms and the addition of
absorptive material within a chamber to absorb this energy.

2. Adequate absorption takes place at the inlet of a duct in a second room or chamber so that any energy passing
down that duct is adequately attenuated.

3. Directivity from the fan is averaged by the reverberant room and the microphone location is such that it is
recording total averaged sound pressure levels.

4. Duct construction is such that the transmission loss through the duct wall is large enough to eliminate any
addition to measured room sound pressure levels.

5. No resonances are present on either the fan structure, supporting devices, or driving devices that may add to
the recorded fan sound pressure levels.

6. Outlet orifices to control the operating point are not permitted, unless integral to the fan.

*May require acoustical treatment.

Section 5, Figure 3 - Fan Outlet Sound Testing

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6. Observations and Conduct of Test pressure level measurements. Operation of the


microphone traverse and any rotating vanes shall be
6.1 Observations the same for all measurements. Observers and
operators should not be in the test room during
6.1.1 Point of operation. Although the acoustical measurements, but if it is absolutely necessary for
observations necessary to determine sound power them to be present, they shall be away from the test
output are the same for all types of fans, the non- subject and remain in the same position during the
acoustical observations necessary to determine the test. Readings should be a time weighted average
aerodynamic point of operation differ. This standard over an integral number of microphone swings. The
provides different test setups for the testing of various time span used shall be sufficient to provide a stable
fan types. Regardless of the test setup, the point of value and shall be a minimum of 30 seconds for
operation shall be determined. If the sound test setup frequency bands ≤ 160 Hz, and 15 seconds for
also conforms to one of the test setups in frequency bands ≥ 200 Hz.
ANSI/AMCA 210, then the point of rating can be
established with sufficient accuracy. If the sound test 6.2 Information to be recorded
setup does not conform to one of the test setups in
ANSI/AMCA 210, steps must be taken to ensure that As applicable, the following information shall be
the fan rotational speed is known within ±1% and the compiled and recorded for all observations made in
point of operation can be established within ±5% accordance with this standard.
--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

along a system curve.


6.2.1 Test subject
6.1.2 Sound pressure levels
A) Description of the test subject
6.1.2.1 Sound pressure levels, background (Lpb).
Background sound pressure levels are those 1) Manufacturer
measured in the test room with the test subject and 2) Model
the RSS off. The background noise includes all noise 3) Nominal size
sources not directly associated with fan sound. 4) Impeller diameter, mm (in.)
Examples of background noise sources are: noise 5) Number of impeller blades
due to the motion of the microphone and noise due to 6) Blade angle setting (adjustable or variable
any other external source. Efforts should be made to pitch fans only)
keep the background noise level at a minimum. For a 7) Number of stator vanes
test, or set of determinations, at various points of test 8) Inlet area, m2 (ft2)
subject operation, background sound pressure levels 9) Outlet area, m2 (ft2)
need to be observed once.
B) Operating conditions
6.1.2.2 Sound pressure levels, RSS (Lpqm). RSS
sound pressure levels are those measured in the test 1) Fan rotational speed, rev/min
room with the RSS operating and the test subject off. 2) Fan airflow rate, m3/s (ft3/min)
RSS sound pressure levels include background 3) Fan static pressure or total pressure at actual
sound pressure levels. For a test, or set of test conditions, Pa (in. wg)
determinations, at various points of test subject 4) Fan air density, kg/m3 (lbm/ft3)
operation, RSS sound pressure levels need to be
observed once. C) Mounting conditions

6.1.2.3 Sound pressure levels, fan (Lpm). Fan 1) Test figure per this standard
sound pressure levels are those measured in the test 2) Test Installation Type
room with the test subject operating and the RSS off. 3) Sketch showing the test room setup,
Fan sound pressure levels include background including the dimensional locations of the
sound pressure levels. Fan sound pressure levels test subject and points or path of acoustical
must be observed for each operating point. measurements

Note: The observations above are valid only when 6.2.2 Test environment
taken in a room that is qualified per the procedures
defined in Annex A or B. A) Barometric pressure, kPa (in. Hg)

6.1.3 Test conditions. The test conditions shall, as B) Ambient dry-bulb temperature, °C (°F)
nearly as possible, be the same for all sound
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C) Ambient wet-bulb temperature, °C (°F) the observed sound pressure level. Background
correction values depend on the difference between
D) Fan inlet dry-bulb temperature, °C (°F) the observed sound pressure levels and the
background noise levels.
E) Static pressure at the fan inlet, Pa (in. wg)
When the difference between the observed sound
6.2.3 Laboratory and instruments pressure levels (RSS – background) in a frequency
band is less than 6 dB, the corresponding sound
A) Laboratory name pressure level from the source cannot be determined
accurately by this standard. For any band for which
B) Laboratory location the difference between the background and the
(background + source) sound pressure level is less
C) Technician(s) conducting test than 6 dB, Lpc shall be reported as 1.3 dB less than
Lpm. The data for each such band shall be clearly
D) List of test equipment used, with calibration marked as upper boundary levels.
information
A sound pressure level reading shall be corrected for
E) Scope of room qualification. Data shall indicate background noise level by logarithmic subtraction
whether the room is qualified for full octaves or using the following formulae:
one-third octaves, and in the case of pure tone
testing, the one-third octaves for which the Test subject (fan) sound pressure level:
qualification applies.

6.2.4 Acoustical data ⎛ ⎛⎜⎜ Lpm ⎞⎟⎟ ⎟⎞


⎛ Lpb ⎞
⎜⎜
10 ⎟

Lpc = 10 log10 10 ⎝ 10 ⎠
− 10⎝ ⎠ ⎟ Eq. 7.1-1
⎜ ⎟
A) Background sound pressure levels Lpb ⎝ ⎠
B) RSS sound pressure levels Lpqm
RSS sound pressure level:
C) Background corrections for the RSS
⎛ ⎛⎜⎜ Lpqm ⎞⎟⎟ ⎟⎞
⎛ Lpb ⎞
⎜⎜
10 ⎟
D) Fan sound pressure levels Lpm Lpq = 10 log10 ⎜ 10 − 10⎝ ⎠ ⎟
⎝ 10 ⎠
Eq. 7.1-2
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
E) Background corrections for the fan
Example: The sound pressure level of a fan in a
F) Un-weighted fan sound power levels LWmi or LWmo
given frequency band is observed to be 58 dB. The
background sound pressure level in the same band is
G) End reflection correction data observed to be 51 dB. The background value is
subtracted logarithmically from the fan sound
--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

1) End reflection correction values Ei or Eo pressure level using Equation 7.1-1, which results in
2) Duct length 57 dB (rounded).
3) Flush or non-flush mounting of the duct into
the test room 7.2 Sound power level (LW)
4) Orifice plate inside diameter, m (ft)
A sound power level is calculated using equations
H) Test date
given in Section 5. The equations vary with product
type and test setup. The sound power level of a full
7. Calculations octave band may be calculated from one-third octave
band values by using the formula:
Calculations are affected by the Installation Type and
setup. See Section 5.8 in addition to the following.
⎛ ⎛⎜ LW1 ⎞⎟ ⎛ LW2 ⎞
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟⎞
⎛ LW3 ⎞

LW = 10 log10 ⎜ 10⎝ 10 ⎠ + 10⎝ 10 ⎠ + 10⎝ 10 ⎠ ⎟ Eq 7.2-1


7.1 Background correction ⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
The observed RSS or test subject sound pressure
levels include both the sound source and background Where:
noise. The effect of background noise level is termed
background correction and must be subtracted from LW1, LW2, and LW3 are one-third octave sound power
level values.
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8. Results and Report E) RSS sound pressure level in each reported band

Test results are presented as the sound power level, F) Background correction for test subject, in each
in dB, in each of the eight full octave bands for each reported band
fan test speed and point of operation. Full octave
bands are given in Table 1. The report shall also G) Test subject sound pressure level, in each
include data defined in Sections 8.1 through 8.3. reported band
This standard does not require that pure tone effects
be isolated from broad-band sound. However, a
laboratory equipped with suitable instrumentation is
encouraged to investigate and report pure tones
separately.

8.1 Test subject

A) Description of the test subject

1) Manufacturer
2) Model
3) Nominal size
4) Impeller diameter, mm (in.)
5) Number of impeller blades
6) Blade angle setting (adjustable or variable

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
pitch fans only)

B) Operating conditions

1) Aerodynamic performance test standard


2) Fan rotational speed, rpm
3) Fan airflow rate, m3/s (ft3/min)
4) Fan static pressure or total pressure at actual
test conditions, Pa (in. wg)
5) Fan air density, kg/m3 (lbm/ft3)

C) Mounting conditions

1) Test Figure per this standard


2) Installation Type

8.2 Laboratory and Instruments

A) Laboratory name

B) Laboratory location

8.3 Acoustical Data

A) Un-weighted fan sound power level, in each of


eight octave bands, reported to the nearest
whole decibel

B) Test date

C) Background sound pressure level in each


reported band

D) Background correction for the RSS for each


reported band
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Annex A. Room Qualification: Full and A.3.2 With the RSS at each of the eight (or more)
One-Third Octave (normative) above locations, determine the average sound
pressure levels in accordance with the procedures of
Section 6.
A.1 General
A.3.3 The microphone traverse, sound diffuser (if
This annex covers the procedures for a broad-band
any), instruments and observation times shall be
qualification of a test room for full and one-third
identical to those to be used for a test subject.
octave bands. If pure tone qualification is required,
refer to Annex B.
A.4 Computation procedure
A.2 Instruments and equipment
For each frequency band for which the test room is to
be qualified, the standard deviation s, in dB, shall be
The instruments and microphone traverse shall be
computed using the formula:
the same as those used during the actual testing of a
nRSS
fan. The instruments shall conform to the 2

∑ ⎡( L )
1
s= − Lpq ⎤⎥ Eqn A.4-1
requirements given in Sections 4.1. through 4.4, − 1 ⎣⎢ ⎦
pq j
nRSS j =1
inclusive. The microphone traverse shall conform to
the requirements of Section 5.6. The test procedure
given in this annex requires the use of a Reference Where:
Sound Source (RSS) having the characteristics
specified in Section 4.5. (Lpq)j = the sound pressure level, in dB, averaged
over all microphone positions, when the RSS is in the
A.3 Test procedure jth location
___
Eight or more measurements shall be made of the Lpq = arithmetic mean of (Lpq)j values, in dB,
reverberant field sound pressure levels in the room, averaged over all RSS locations
each with the RSS placed at a different location
within the room, under the following conditions: nRSS = number of RSS locations, a minimum of eight

A.3.1 Each location for the RSS shall be selected on A.5 Qualification
the floor and shall not be closer than 1 m (3 ft) from
a wall and not closer to any microphone than For each frequency band, the test room qualifies for
permitted by equation Amin (Section 5.6). The the measurement of broad-band sound if the
distance between any two RSS locations shall be computed standard deviation s, in dB, does not
greater than 0.9 m (3 ft). No source location shall lie exceed the limits given in Table A.1.
within ± 300 mm (1 ft) of a room centerline. The RSS
locations shall be in the general vicinity of the
locations intended for the test subject as seen in a
plan view of the test room.

Table A.1 - Maximum Allowable Standard Deviation s, (dB)

One-Third Maximum
Octave Band
Octave Band Allowable
Center
Center Standard
Frequencies
Frequencies Deviation (dB)
(Hz)
(Hz) s
63 50 to 80 3.0
125 100 to 160 1.5
250 and 500 200 to 630 1.0
--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

1000 and 2000 800 to 2500 0.5


4000 and 8000 3150 to 10000 1.0
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Annex B. Room Qualification: Pure room itself. In both sections, measurements are
Tones / Narrow-Band (informative) made for each of the discrete frequencies associated
with the one-third octave band being qualified. The
same test equipment must be used for both sections
B.1 General
of the qualification testing.
This annex covers the procedure for the qualification
B.3.1 Loudspeaker / horn test. The loudspeaker /
of a test room to investigate pure tones. Qualification
testing applies only to those one-third octave bands horn shall be located on the horizontal surface of a
having mid-frequencies from 100 Hz to 2500 Hz, hemi-anechoic field with the open cone facing
inclusive, as shown in Table B.1. Qualification upward. A microphone with diaphragm horizontal is
excludes those bands having mid-frequencies below located over the center of the loudspeaker / horn 10
100 Hz and is not required for those bands having a to 20 mm (0.375 to 0.75 in.) above the plane of the
mid-frequency greater than 2500 Hz. The loudspeaker / horn rim. The input voltage to the
qualification testing applies to a specific location in loudspeaker / horn must be sufficient to overcome
the test room and determines which of the one-third background noise but must in no case be permitted
octave bands the test room location is qualified for. A to cause physical distortion of the loudspeaker / horn
sound test based on such qualification must state the components. The sound pressure levels for the
mid-frequency of the one-third octave band(s) discrete frequencies of a one-third octave band are
qualified for the test by this procedure. then measured. The loudspeaker / horn is suitable
only if the sound pressure levels at adjacent
frequencies do not differ by more than 1 dB. This test
B.2 Instruments and equipment
determines the near-field characteristics of the
loudspeaker / horn and gives calibration sound
The instruments shall be as specified in Section 4
pressure levels for the loudspeaker / horn.
with the following substitutions / additions.
B.3.2 Room test. The loudspeaker / horn shall be
A) The signal analyzer shall be a one-third octave
positioned in the room at the horizontal and vertical
band analyzer conforming to ANSI S1.11.
coordinates intended for the test subject and placed
so that the open cone faces away from the nearest
B) The sound source will consist of:
room surface. Using the same input voltage to the
loudspeaker(s) / horn(s) as for the loudspeaker / horn
1) A loudspeaker / horn: one or more, each
test, space and time averaged sound pressure levels
having a sufficiently smooth frequency
Lps are measured for the discrete frequencies of the
response within the range of frequencies to
be qualified. one-third octave band.

2) A frequency generator, tunable to and B.4 Computation


meeting the tolerances given for the
frequencies given in Table B.1. A digital The room test sound pressure level is then corrected
frequency synthesizer is recommended for to remove the effect of the loudspeaker’s / horn’s
ease of setting frequency. near-field characteristic by subtracting the
loudspeaker / horn test sound pressure level. The
3) A frequency counter accurate within ± 0.05 arithmetic mean for the room sound pressure level is
Hz over the pertinent frequency range. then calculated, and the standard deviation s of the
difference between the average sound pressure level
4) A power amplifier of suitable power and and the arithmetic mean sound pressure level is
having an output impedance compatible with determined by:
the loudspeaker(s) / horn(s).
n
1 ⎡( Lps ) − Lps ⎤
2
5) A voltmeter capable of monitoring within ± s= ∑
( n − 1) k =1 ⎣ k ⎦ (B.4-1)
0.05% of the voltage across the
loudspeaker(s) / horn(s) at all test
frequencies. Where:

B.3 Test procedure (Lps)k = the corrected sound pressure level, in dB,
averaged over all microphone positions, of
Qualification testing consists of two sections, the first the kth discrete frequency
being concerned with the near-field characteristics of
the loudspeaker / horn and the second with the test--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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Lps = the arithmetic mean of (Lps)k values averaged


over all n test frequencies within the one-third Table B.2 - Maximum Allowable Sample
octave band Standard Deviation, s

n= the number of discrete frequencies within the One-third Octave Band Maximum Allowable
one-third octave band Center Frequencies Standard Deviation s
(Hz) (dB)
B.5 Qualification
100 to 160 3.0
A test room is accepted as qualified for pure tone
testing within a given one-third octave band if the 200 to 315 2.0
standard deviation s, in dB, for that band does not
exceed the values given in Table B.2. If a one-third 400 to 630 1.5
octave band does not qualify, some modification will
be required to the microphone location, to the test 800 to 2500 1.0
position, or to the room absorption [7] [8].

Table B.1 - Test Frequencies for Alternative Qualification of Reverberant Room Facility for Measuring Sound
Power Levels of Noise Sources Containing Significant Discrete Frequency Components (from ANSI S12.51-2002)

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Center frequency of one-third octave bands, Hz
100 125 160 200 250 315 400 500 630 800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500
-- -- 147 -- -- -- 361 -- -- -- -- -- 1470 -- --
-- 113 148 -- 226 -- 364 -- -- -- -- 1130 1480 -- 2260
-- 114 149 -- 228 -- 367 445 564 712 -- 1140 1490 -- 2280
90 115 150 180 230 285 370 450 570 720 900 1150 1500 1800 2300
91 116 151 182 232 288 373 455 576 728 910 1160 1510 1820 2320
92 117 152 184 234 291 376 460 582 736 920 1170 1520 1840 2340
93 118 153 186 236 294 379 465 588 744 930 1180 1530 1860 2360
94 119 154 188 238 297 382 470 594 752 940 1190 1540 1880 2380
95 120 155 190 240 300 385 475 600 760 950 1200 1550 1900 2400
96 121 156 192 242 303 388 480 606 768 960 1210 1560 1920 2420
97 122 157 194 244 306 391 485 612 776 970 1220 1570 1940 2440
98 123 158 196 246 309 394 490 618 784 980 1230 1580 1960 2460
99 124 159 198 248 312 397 495 624 792 990 1240 1590 1980 2480
100 125 160 200 250 315 400 500 630 800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500
101 126 161 202 252 318 403 505 636 808 1010 1260 1610 2020 2520
102 127 162 204 254 321 406 510 642 816 1020 1270 1620 2040 2540
103 128 163 206 256 324 409 515 648 824 1030 1280 1630 2060 2560
104 129 164 208 258 327 412 520 654 832 1040 1290 1640 2080 2580
105 130 165 210 260 330 415 525 660 840 1050 1300 1650 2100 2600
106 131 166 212 262 333 418 530 666 848 1060 1310 1660 2120 2620
107 132 167 214 264 336 421 535 672 856 1070 1320 1670 2140 2640
108 133 168 216 266 339 424 540 678 864 1080 1330 1680 2160 2660
109 134 169 218 268 342 427 545 684 872 1090 1340 1690 2180 2680
110 135 170 220 270 345 430 550 690 880 1100 1350 1700 2200 2700
111 136 171 222 272 348 433 555 696 888 1110 1360 1710 2220 2720
-- 137 172 -- 274 -- 436 -- 702 -- -- 1370 1720 -- 2740
-- 138 173 -- 276 -- 439 -- -- -- -- 1380 1730 -- 2760
Increment, Hz 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 5 6 8 10 10 10 20 20

Tolerance of
Increment, Hz ±0.3 ±0.3 ±0.3 ±0.5 ±0.5 ±1 ±1 ±1.5 ±2 ±3 ±3 ±5 ±5 ±5 ±5

Number of test
frequencies, n 22 26 27 22 26 22 27 23 24 23 22 26 23 22 26
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Annex C. Uncertainties Analysis determining the acoustical power of a source, such


(informative) as a fan, that emits a steady sound power. The
reverberant room must be diffuse enough to produce
a reverberant field.
C.0 General
When a sound source is operated inside a
The analysis of the uncertainty associated with
reverberant room, the sound waves are reflected by
measurements made in accordance with this
the walls and are propagated in all directions. If the
standard provides identification of certain critical
paths of all the waves could be seen, we would notice
points so as to recognize the limitations of the results.
a number of repetitions, (e.g., the path followed by a
Furthermore, it provides an approximation, in real
wave between two parallel walls). These paths are
values, of the imprecision in the recorded results.
called normal modes. The greater the number of
normal modes, the better the sound dispersion in the
C.1 Definitions room. The modes must be sufficiently numerous in
any measurement band so that the microphone
Precision error is an error that causes readings to traverse will serve to average the sound pressure.
take random values on either side of some mean The number of normal modes in a given space
value. increases with frequency. Hence, it is usually more
precise to measure higher frequencies. When the

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Systematic error is an error that persists and cannot number of modes are few, it helps to measure the
be considered as due entirely to chance. sound in many locations and average the results.
Two important sources of error may affect the
Uncertainty is an estimated value for error, i.e., what measurements made in a reverberant room: 1) the
we think an error would be if we could and did error introduced by measuring the sound field at a
measure it by calibration. Although uncertainty may limited number of points, and 2) variations in sound
be the result of both precision and systematic errors, power due to the location of the sound source. Many
only precision errors can be treated by statistical sources radiate sound that is not entirely broad-band,
methods. but contains significant discrete-frequency
components, or pure tones. Some fans generate a
The uncertainty in a researched value is described by pure tone at the blade passage frequency and
specifying the measured value followed by the sometimes at harmonic frequencies.
uncertainty interval at the desired confidence level:
In a reverberant room, a pure tone tends to excite
LW = m ± w at P confidence level Eqn C.1-1 certain modes that will dominate all others. This
noticeably increases the variability of the pressure
Where: field due to an insufficient dispersion of the sound
m = measured value field. Due to the consequent inaccuracy of sound
w = uncertainty pressure averaging, the precision of the results is
P = percent reduced.

C.2 Uncertainties C.3.1 Broad-band measurement in a


reverberation room. Broad-band sound is uniformly
The uncertainties associated with the determination distributed in frequency with relatively steady levels
of sound power levels through measurements and with no prominent discrete-frequency or narrow-
performed in accordance with this standard are room band components. Measurement of broad-band
response (Section C.3), fan operating points (Section sound may be made in a test room qualified per
C.4), instrument error (Section C.5), and RSS Annex A.
(Section C.6). Uncertainties associated with duct end
reflection corrections involve the accuracy of C.3.2 Pure-tone measurement in a reverberation
estimating the losses from orifice plates (Section room. When a discrete-frequency component is
C.8). Other areas of interest involve the use of octave present in the sound spectrum of a source, the
or one-third octave bands (Section C.9) and the spatial variations in sound pressure level usually
problems associated with testing in the 63 Hz band exhibit maxima separated by minima having an
(Section C.10). average spacing of approximately 0.8λ, where λ is
the wavelength corresponding to the discrete
C.3 Room response frequency of interest.

A reverberant room is an appropriate place for The presence of a significant discrete-frequency

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component in the sound produced by a source can The magnitude of s depends upon the properties of
often be detected by a simple listening test. If such a the sound field in the test room. These properties are
component is audible, or detectable by narrow-band influenced by the characteristics of the room as well
analysis, the qualification procedure described in as the characteristics of the sound source (i.e.,
Annex B is recommended. directivity and spectrum of the emitted sound). In
theory, a standard deviation of 5.57 dB corresponds
If the test room is not qualified for pure-tone to a spectral component of zero bandwidth, i.e., a
measurement, the measurement uncertainty will discrete tone.
most probably be higher in the bands containing the
blade passage frequency and its harmonics than if Table C.1 - Characterization of the Presence
measured in a qualified test room. of Discrete-Frequency or Narrow-Band
Components, Based Upon the Spatial
Discrete-frequency components may be present in Variation of the Sound Field
the sound spectrum even when these components
are not audible. A conclusion that no discrete- Standard
frequency components are present can only be Characterization
Deviation, s (dB)
reached by performing the test described in Section
C.3.3.
Assume broad-band source
C.3.3 Test for discrete-frequency components. s < 1.5
(use procedures of Annex A).
The following procedure can be used to estimate the
spatial standard deviation of the sound pressure
levels produced by the test subject in the test room. Assume that a narrow-band of
noise is present. Recommend
1.5 < s < 3
Select an array of six fixed microphones (or a single use of the qualification
microphone at six positions) spaced at least λ/2 procedure in Annex B.
apart, where λ is the wavelength of the sound
corresponding to the lowest band mid-frequency of Assume that a discreet tone is
interest and meeting all the requirements for s>3 present. Test room must qualify
microphone positions in Annex A. Locate the sound per Annex B.
source at a single position in the test room in
accordance with Annex A.
C.4 Fan operating points
Obtain the time-averaged sound pressure level Lpj at
each microphone position according to the When the sound power levels of a fan are
techniques described in Annex A. determined, each measurement must relate to one
point of operation of the fan. Uncertainty in identifying
For each one-third octave band within the frequency this point thus affects the global uncertainty of the
range of interest, calculate the standard deviation s, results. Therefore it is recommended that the
in dB, from the following equation: procedures of ANSI/AMCA 210 or other recognized
fan aerodynamic performance test standard be used
as a guideline in identifying the test subject’s
1 nm
( ) operating points. The sensitivity of the sound levels to
2
s= ∑ Lpcj − Lpj
nm − 1 j =1
Eqn C.3-1
a change in point of operation is a function of the test
subject’s performance characteristics, and this will
dictate how accurately the point of operation must be
Where:
determined. A fan that exhibits a large change in
--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

sound power level as airflow is changed (at a given


Lpcj = sound pressure level, corrected for the
fan rotational speed) is of more concern than one that
background sound level in accordance with shows a small change in sound power level for the
the procedures of Section 6.2.1 for the jth same airflow change.
microphone position, dB
__ C.5 Instrument error
Lpj = arithmetic mean of (Lpc)j values, averaged over
all microphone positions, dB The frequency response of the instrument system
shall be flat over the frequency range of interest to
nm = number of microphone positions = 6 within the tolerances given in Table C.2.

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Table C.2 - Tolerances for the Instrument System Table C.5 - Uncertainties in Duct End
Reflection Correction E
Frequency (Hz) Tolerance (dB)
Uncertainty in E (dB)
100 to 4000 ±1.0 Duct
r Range of 0.5 kD
5000 to 8000 ±1.5 Configuration
< 0.25 0.25-1 >1
10000 ±2
Flush 1 ±3 ±2 ±0.5
1 ±3 ±2 ±0.5
C.6 Reference sound source (RSS) Free Space 1-2 ±3 ±2 ±0.5
2-5 ±4 ±3 ±1
The sound power produced by the RSS shall be
determined in octave and one-third octave bands
within the tolerances specified in Table C.3. Note: When pure tones are present, uncertainties will
be substantially greater.
Table C.3 - Calibration Accuracy for RSS
C.9 Octave band vs. one-third octave band
One-Third Octave Band
Tolerance (dB) According to this standard, the frequency analysis of
Center Frequency (Hz)
sound may be performed either in full octave bands
100 to 160 ±1.0 or in one-third octave bands. Qualification of a
200 to 4000 ±0.5 reverberant test room for pure tones can only be
5000 to 10000 ±1.0 effected in the one-third octave bands. Full octave
band analysis takes less time because fewer
numerical values are treated. However, this analysis
C.7 Estimated standard deviation for supplies little information on the shape of a sound
determination of sound power levels spectrum. Furthermore, full octave band analysis
does not allow isolation of pure tones in a spectrum;
The determination of sound power levels through the poor resolution of an octave band gives little
measurements made in accordance with this information about a steeply sloping spectrum. The
standard will result, with very few exceptions, in pure-tone value produced by a test subject may be
standard deviations that are less than or equal to reduced by 1 to 2 dB without changing the octave
those given in Table C.4. The standard deviations in band reading.
Table C.4 take into account the cumulative effects of
all causes of measurement uncertainty noted in C.3 For certain test conditions, this standard uses a duct
through C.6 above, except for duct end reflection end reflection correction factor that is frequency
corrections and the testing in an unqualified test dependent. Because of this dependence, analysis in
room of fans containing puretones. full octave bands instead of one-third octave bands
may cause an error of up to ± 2 dB.
Table C.4 - Estimated Deviation of
Sound Power Level Determinations Example:

Octave Band 1/3 Octave Test Conditions: A fan having a 508 mm (20 in.)
Standard
Center Band Center diameter inlet, no orifice plate, and low airflow.
Deviation (dB)
Frequency (Hz) Frequency (Hz)
There is a significant difference between the two
125 100 to 160 3.0 methods of determining the octave band values. This
250 200 to 315 2.0 difference is a function of two things:
500 to 4000 400 to 5000 1.5
--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

8000 6300 to 10000 3.0 1) The shape of the sound spectrum determined by
one-third octave band analysis, and

C.8 Duct end reflection corrections 2) The slope of the duct end reflection attenuation
curve at the point where the attenuation value is
Table C.5 gives the uncertainties for duct end evaluated.
reflection correction E for various 0.5 kD and r
values. The error made in using octave band analysis can
overestimate or underestimate the real values.

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Therefore, the use of one-third octave band analysis C.10 Accuracy of the 63 Hz octave band
is recommended. Refer to Figure C.1.
At low frequencies, the sound power output of a
If full octave band analysis is performed, a precaution source depends upon its position in the test room. At
would be to adjust the fan rotational speed to caused low frequencies, very few modes are excited, and
the blade passage frequency to fall in the central because of reflections from test room surfaces, the
one-third octave band of any full octave band. Care reflected pressure at the source combines with the
should also be taken to keep the blade passage direct sound pressure field produced by the source.
frequency from falling on the border between bands, This affects the radiation impedance seen by the
thus avoiding the problems associated with the source, and therefore its sound power output. This is
characteristics of filter skirts. particularly true of the 63 Hz octave band. Most
standards do not discuss this band, although it is
Table C.6 - Example Using Full important to fan manufacturers and users alike.
Octave Band Analysis Measurements in this band must be reported.
However, the measured sound pressure values, and
1/3 Octave
Lp = (Lp+E) therefore the determined sound power level values,
Center
Combined +E have an uncertainty of ± 6 dB at best.
Frequency, Measured dB
(Hz)
50 80
63 65 80.2 +10.2 =90.4
80 64
--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Table C.7 - Example Using One-Third


Octave Band Analysis
1/3 Octave
Center Lp =(Lp+E)
Combined +E
Frequency, Measured dB
(Hz)
50 80 +12.1 =92.1
63 65 +10.2 =75.2 =92.2
80 64 +8.3 =72.3

OCTAVE OCTAVE OCTAVE


BAND BAND BAND

OVER ESTIMATION NO ERROR UNDER ESTIMATION

Figure C.1 - Effect of Summing One-Third Octave Bands


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Annex D. Alternative Procedure for alternative calibration procedure below may be used.
Reference Sound Source Calibration If the calibration is not in complete conformance with
ANSI S12.5 for any other reason, the alternative
(informative) calibration procedure is not applicable.
D.1 General D.4 Procedure
Calibration of a Reference Sound Source (RSS) in The requirements of ANSI S12.5 are duplicated in the
conformance with the requirements of ANSI S12.5 lowest three full octave (nine one-third octave)
requires a hemi-anechoic room qualified for bands, with the substitution of sound intensity level
measurements over the entire frequency range of measurements, made in compliance with ANSI
interest. Laboratories that otherwise would be able S12.12, for the sound pressure level measurements
to perform the required calibration but which are not required by ANSI S12.5. For all measurements,
qualified for measurements in the first octave band sound intensity shall be measured in the outward
may use the alternative procedure of this Annex. radial direction. The sound power levels determined
This alternative procedure is based on sound from these measurements shall be compared with
intensity measurements per ANSI S12.12. those determined from the corresponding sound
pressure level measurements. If in all frequency
D.2 Equipment and facilities bands the determined sound power levels differ by no
more than the tolerances given in Table D.1, the
Equipment and facilities shall be as required for RSS calibrated sound power levels for the RSS are
calibration in conformance with ANSI S 12.5, with the reported as specified in Section D.5. The directivity
exception that the hemi-anechoic chamber need not index is not calculated from the intensity
be qualified below the 125Hz full octave band (100 measurements.
Hz one-third octave band). Sound intensity
measuring equipment shall comply with the Table D.1 - Tolerance for Measured Sound
requirements of ANSI S 12.12. Power Level Difference

Additional RSS units may be sound power level One-third


Octave Tolerance
calibrated by comparing the sound power levels of Octave
Band (Hz) (dB)
the source to another unit that was calibrated in Band (Hz)
accordance with Sections D.1 through D.5. It is not 63 50-80 ±4.0
necessary that each and every reference sound 125-250 100-315 ±1.0
source be calibrated directly in accordance with the
procedures described below. It may be possible to
transfer a calibration from one unit to another by D.5 RSS sound power levels
using a simpler type of test. For example, the
Substitution Method of the present standard might be The reported RSS sound power levels and directivity
used to calibrate (secondary calibration) one index shall be as determined by the ANSI S12.5
reference sound source relative to another, similar, procedure for the 100 Hz through 10,000 Hz one-
reference sound source that has been calibrated as third octave bands and the 125 Hz through 8,000 Hz
described below (primary calibration). In order that full octave bands. For the 50 Hz through 80 Hz one-
such a secondary calibration does not result in an third octave bands and the 63 Hz full octave band,
unacceptable degradation of accuracy, it normally will the reported RSS sound power level(s) shall be as
be necessary to use more source locations and determined from the sound intensity measurements,
microphone positions than the minimum and the directivity index is not to be reported. The
requirements of the present standard and to exercise calibration report shall be marked to indicate the
additional caution in carrying out the measurements. levels determined from sound intensity
measurements, and shall indicate whether the
D.3 Qualification calibration was performed in full compliance with this
Annex.
The RSS calibration procedure of ANSI S12.5 shall
be carried out over the 50 Hz through 10,000 Hz one-
third octave band frequency range and 63 Hz through
8000 Hz full octave band frequency range. If the
calibration is in conformance with ANSI S12.5 in all
respects except for the qualification of the test facility
below the 100 Hz one-third octave band, the
--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,

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Annex E. Duct End Reflection Correction Where:


(Normative)
k = ω/c = 2π/λ
a = D/2
E.1 General
ω = 2πf
Conditions at the end of a test duct will prevent some
And:
of the sound energy from being transmitted into the
test room. Therefore, the sound power measured in
k is the wave number
the room will be less than the true sound power in a
ω is the angular frequency, rad/s
duct. Unless an anechoic termination is used,
c is the speed of sound, m/s (ft/s)
correction factors must be added to the fan sound
λ is the wavelength, m (ft)
pressure measured in the test room in order to
D is the duct diameter, m (ft)
account for the reduction caused by end reflection.
f is the frequency, Hz
The prediction of the duct end reflection is difficult.
For rectangular ducts, use the equivalent round duct
Theoretical solutions exist only for round ducts with
diameter:
highly idealized end conditions and are based on the
assumption that the frequency is low enough that
only plane waves exist (which implies that ka < π). D = 4wh / π
Actual fan test setups rarely, if ever, conform to the
conditions under which the theoretical solutions are Where w and h are the rectangular duct’s width and
valid. Using the methods suggested in this Annex will height.
result in predicted values that are reasonably close to
the actual values. Nonetheless, the test setup should The two equations are:
be selected to minimize the potential error by using
components that most closely reproduce the For ka < 1
theoretical conditions.
⎡ −(ka )2 ⎤ ⎡ (ka )4 ⎛ ⎛ 1 ⎞ 19 ⎞ ⎤
For open ducts, theoretical solutions exist for two R = exp ⎢ ⎥ ⎢1 + ⎜ loge ⎜ ⎟ + 12 ⎟ ⎥
cases: a thin-walled round duct terminating in an ⎣ 2 ⎦⎣ 6 ⎝ ⎝ 1 . 7810 × ka ⎠ ⎠⎦
infinite space [On the Radiation of Sound from an Eq. E.1
Unflanged Circular Pipe, Levine, H., and
Schwinger, J. – Physical Review, Vol. 72, No. 4, And:
February 15, 1948] and a round duct terminating in

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
an infinite wall [Fundamentals of Acoustics, 3rd For ka > 1
Edition, Kinsler, Frey, Coppens and Sanders, Wiley,
New York, 1982 , equations 9.13 and 9.14]. Most test ⎡ 3 1 ⎤
R = (π ka ) exp( −ka) ⎢1 + ⎥ Eq. E.2
setups incorporate terminations that use a flanged ⎢⎣ 32 ( ka )2 ⎥

duct terminating in a large space, which would make
the solution provided by Levine & Schwinger more
appropriate.
Note: loge indicates a natural logarithm and log10
E.2 End reflection curves indicates a base 10 logarithm

In the event that circumstances require a setup The ratio between the transmitted sound and the
indicating the presence of a duct end correction there reflected sound is α = 1 - |R|2 and thus the end
are two cases to be considered. The two cases are correction (in dB) is E =|10 log10α|. These equations
considered separately below. shall be used to calculate E as a function of ka
(0.5kD). The resulting curve is shown for illustrative
E.2.1 Open ducts in a large space. To determine purposes in Figure E.1. Values are presented up to
the end reflection values, it is necessary to first ka = 4, even though the equations are strictly limited
calculate the reflection coefficient R, which gives the to ka < 3.832.
fraction of the energy reflected back into the duct.
Levine and Schwinger reduced the exact solutions E.2.2 Open ducts terminated in a large wall. For
to manageable forms, one for ka < 1 and one for ka the case of a round duct terminated at a large wall,
> 1. the end correction can be determined using
Equations 9.13 and 9.14 from Kinsler, Frey,
Coppens and Sanders with the impedence
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calculated using Equations 5.1, 5.2 and 5.3 from


Beranek. It should be noted that there is no transition
at the wall-duct interface. The equations to be used
to calculate E as a function of ka are given below.

⎡ J ( 2ka ) ⎤ πρ c
ZM = π a 2 ρ c ⎢1 − 1 ⎥ + j 2 K1 ( 2ka ) Eq. E.3
⎣ ka ⎦ 2k

( 2ka ) ( 2ka ) ( 2ka ) ( 2ka )


3 5 7

J1 ( 2ka ) = − + − L
2 22 × 4 22 × 4 2 × 6 22 × 4 2 × 6 2 × 8
Eq. E.4

2 ⎛ ( 2ka ) ( 2ka ) ( 2ka ) ⎞


3 5 7

K1 ( 2ka ) = ⎜ − 2 + 2 L⎟
π⎜ 3 3 ×5 3 ×5 ×7 ⎟ 2
⎝ ⎠
Eq. E.5

( (
ZM / π a 2 ρ c )) − 1

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
B
R= = Eq. E.6
A ( (
ZM / π a 2 ρ c )) + 1
2
α = 1− R Eq. E.7

E = 10 log10 α Eq. E.8

Note: log10 indicates a base 10 logarithm

The series for K1 and the Bessel function J1 converge


rapidly (at least for values of ka < 3.6), so the
computation of E vs. ka is straightforward. The
resulting curve for illustrative purposes is shown in
Figure E.2. As before, values are shown up to ka = 4,
but for ka >3.6, the value of α is defined to be 1.

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Table E.1 - End Corrections for Ducts Terminating in a Large Space

ka E ka E ka E ka E
0.14 17.20 0.60 5.92 1.5 1.28 2.8 .15
0.15 16.62 0.65 5.42 1.6 1.08 2.9 .12
0.16 16.08 0.70 4.97 1.7 .92 3.0 .10
0.17 15.57 0.75 4.56 1.8 .78 3.1 .09
0.18 15.09 0.80 4.20 1.9 .66 3.2 .07
0.19 14.64 0.85 3.86 2.0 .56 3.3 .06
0.20 14.22 0.90 3.56 2.1 .47 3.4 .05
0.25 12.39 0.95 3.28 2.2 .40 3.5 .04
0.30 10.94 1.0 3.02/3.09 2.3 .34 3.6 .04
0.35 9.74 1.1 2.55 2.4 .29 3.7 .03
0.40 8.73 1.2 2.13 2.5 .24 3.8 .03
0.45 7.88 1.3 1.79 2.6 .21 3.9 .02
0.50 7.14 1.4 1.51 2.7 .17 4.0 .02
0.55 6.49

20

18

16

14
End Correction dB

12

10

0
0.10 0.50 1.00 4.00
ka
--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Figure E.1 - End Correction for Open Ducts in Large Space

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Table E.2 - End Corrections for Ducts Terminating in a Wall

ka E ka E ka E ka E
0.14 14.22 0.60 3.68 1.5 0.67 2.8 0.06
0.15 13.65 0.65 3.28 1.6 0.57 2.9 0.04
0.16 13.11 0.70 2.93 1.7 0.48 3.0 0.03
0.17 12.61 0.75 2.63 1.8 0.41 3.1 0.03
0.18 12.14 0.80 2.37 1.9 0.35 3.2 0.02
0.19 11.70 0.85 2.14 2.0 0.29 3.3 0.01
0.20 11.29 0.90 1.93 2.1 0.25 3.4 0.01
0.25 9.52 0.95 1.75 2.2 0.21 3.5 0.01
0.30 8.13 1.0 1.59 2.3 0.17 3.6 0.01
0.35 7.01 1.1 1.32 2.4 0.14 3.7 0
0.40 6.09 1.2 1.11 2.5 0.12 3.8 0
0.45 5.33 1.3 0.93 2.6 0.09 3.9 0
0.50 4.69 1.4 0.79 2.7 0.07 4.0 0
0.55 4.14

16.00

14.00

12.00
End Correction dB

10.00

8.00

6.00

4.00

2.00

0.00
0.10 0.50 1.00 4.00

ka

Figure E.2 - End Correction for Open Ducts Terminated in a Large Wall

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Copyright Air Movement and Control Association Inc.


24
Provided by IHS under license with AMCA
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ANSI/AMCA 300-14

Annex F. Filter-Weighted Measurements


(informative)

In certain sound measurement situations, the


presence of high amplitude sound at frequencies ≤
45 Hz can reduce the effective dynamic range of the
analyzer in the measurement frequency range of
interest for this standard (45 Hz to 11,200 Hz). While
use of an analyzer with a large dynamic
measurement range can solve this problem, it may
sometimes be necessary to use another approach.

Sound pressure level readings may be made with the


sound level meter or signal amplifier set for a well-
defined filter weighting effect in order to improve the
dynamic range and measurement quality, provided
that any effect in the frequency range 45 Hz to 11,200
Hz is compensated and the equipment satisfies all
the requirements of Section 4 of this standard. The
weighting filter shall be the same for all
measurements (background, RSS, and fan).

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25
ANSI/AMCA 300-14

Annex G. Radiation of Sound by Fan


Casing (informative)

G.1 General

The sound radiated by a fan casing may be


determined by the following method. Except as
provided for below, all the requirements of this
standard apply.

G.2 Instruments and equipment

Shall be as required in Section 4.

G.3 Setup and test

The fan inlet and fan outlet shall be ducted to


termination points outside the test room. Ducts and
connections should be constructed and secured such
that the acoustic energy radiated through this
equipment is no more than 10% of the total energy
radiated by the fan casing into the test room. The
test room sound pressure levels may be affected by
sound radiating from the inlet and discharge
ductwork connected to the test subject, causing
measured sound pressure levels to be somewhat
higher than the true casing radiated sound pressure
levels. This effect can be minimized by using
internally lined round ductwork. No correction for
duct-radiated sound power is allowed.

Note: If there is any doubt concerning the


contribution of extraneous sound transmitted by
ductwork, the importance of same can be checked by
increasing the transmission loss of the ductwork.

G.4 Observations and calculations

Sound pressure levels Lpq and Lpk shall be observed


as provided for in Section 6. The sound pressure
levels Lpq and Lpk are observed and subject to the
provisions for Lp in Section 6. For possible pure tones
and additional testing, the results of the test of a fan
casing are subject to the same requirements as the
test of a fan.

LWk = Lpk + (LWr - Lpq ) in each frequency band


Eq. G.4-1

Where:

LWk = sound power radiated through the fan casing,


Lpk = fan casing sound pressure level.

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Copyright Air Movement and Control Association Inc.


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Provided by IHS under license with AMCA
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ANSI/AMCA 300-14

Annex H. References (informative)

[1] AMCA Standard 300-67 Test Code for Sound Rating, Air Movement and Control Association International,
Inc., Arlington Heights, IL, 1967.

[2] AMCA Standard 301-90 Methods for Calculating Fan Sound Power Levels from Laboratory Test Data, Air
Movement and Control Association International, Inc., Arlington Heights, IL, 1990.

[3] Harris, C.M., Editor, Handbook of Noise Control, 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, 1979

[4] Parker, S.P., Dictionary of Scientific and Engineering Terms, 4th Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, 1989

[5] ANSI S1.6-1984 (R1990) Preferred Frequencies, Frequency Levels and Band Numbers for Acoustical
Measurements, Acoustical Society of America, New York, NY, 1990 (AMCA #1108-84-AO)

[6] Sepmeyer, L.W., Computed Frequency and Angular Distribution of the Normal Modes of Vibration in
Rectangular Rooms, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, New York, NY, Vol. 37 – No. 3, March,
1985 (AMCA #1891-65-AO)

[7] AMCA #1901-85-A1 List of References on Room Calibration, Air Movement and Control Association
International, Inc., Arlington Heights, IL, 1985.

[8] Crocker, M. J., w/ Pande, L. and Sandbakken, R., Investigation of End Reflection Coefficient Accuracy
Problems with AMCA 300-67, Herrick Laboratories Report HL 81-16, Purdue University, West Lafayette,
IN, 1981. (AMCA #1184-81-A6)

[9] Noise Control Engineering, Vol. 7, No. 2, Noise Measurement Facilities, and ANSI S1.21-1972, Methods
for the Determination of Sound Power Levels of Small Sources in Reverberant Rooms.

[10] ANSI S12.11-1987 (R1993) Methods for the Measurement of Noise Emitted by Small Air Moving Devices,
Acoustical Society of America, New York, NY, 1993.

[11] Baade, P.K., 1977, Effects of acoustic loading on axial flow fan noise generation, Noise Control
Engineering, 8(1):5-15

[12] ANSI S12.51-2002 Nationally Adopted International Standard (NAIS Standard), Acoustics – Determination
of sound power levels of noise sources using sound pressure – Precision method for reverberation rooms,
Acoustical Society of America, New York, NY, 1993.

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27
AIR MOVEMENT AND CONTROL
ASSOCIATION INTERNATIONAL, INC.
30 West University Drive
Arlington Heights, IL 60004-1893 U.S.A.
Tel: (847) 394-0150 Fax: (847) 253-0088
E-Mail : info@amca.org Web: www.amca.org

The Air Movement and control Association International, Inc. is a not-for-profit international association of the
world’s manufacturers of related air system equipment primarily, but limited to: fans, louvers, dampers, air
curtains, airflow measurement stations, acoustic attenuators, and other air system components for the industrial,
commercial and residential markets.

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Copyright Air Movement and Control Association Inc.


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No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale