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Gathering information 1111

Language focus 1: Hypothetical past situations


A Wish/If only and alternatives 2 Match each sentence beginning 1-6 with an appropriate
ending, a-f.
C> Look at the following utterance from the first
conversation in Listening 1. Example: 1 c
If only we'd had (the Internet) when I was first starting out. 1 If she hadn't found his name on the Internet,
If only is used to add emphasis to hypothetical situations. 2 Had I known it was going to rain so heavily,
With past events it can also be used to express regret and/or 3 If it hadn't been for her quick thinking,
criticism. Look at the following alternative ways of saying the 4 If I didn't have three kids and a mortgage,
same thing. 5 If they hadn't lost their last three matches,
1 If only ... 6 If I got into trouble at school,
2 I wish . . . she hadn't told him. a she could have had a serious accident.
3 I'd rather/sooner ... b they'd be top of the league now.
In each case: c they might never have seen each other again.
a Did she tell him? d my parents used to stop my pocket money.
b How does the speaker feel about this? e I'd have given up this job a long time ago.
f I would have taken my waterproofs.
2 C> If the subject is the same in both parts of a sentence
3 Look at the sentences in exercise 2 and answer these questions.
introduced by would rather, would sooner, would prefer to
or would like to, a perfect infinitive is used when referring to 1 Which sentences are third conditionals?
the past, e.g. 2 Which sentences include a combination of past and
present time reference (mixed conditionals)?
I'd rather/sooner have seen it with subtitles. Wouldn't you?
3 Which sentence uses the past simple to refer to past time?
She'd prefer to have travelled on her own.
He'd like to have come, but he's very busy these days.
E> Read more about the points in sections A and B opposite
How does the meaning change if the present infinitive, see, in Part A of the Grammar reference on pages 216 and 217.
travel and come, is used in these sentences?
Practice
Practice
Rewrite the ideas expressed in the following sentences using
For 1-6, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar the structures studied in A and B opposite. Write one sentence
meaning to the first sentence. for each situation, using a different structure each time.
1 If only I'd gone to France instead.
Example:
I'd sooner _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ __ _ _
We didn't get back in time to see him. It was a real shame.
2 I do think you might have phoned earlier.
If onlv we'd got back in time to see him.
I wish _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
3 We don't think you should have done that. 1 He didn't revise for his exams. He regrets this now.
We'd rather _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 2 I didn't take any books with me on holiday. I got
4 Don't you regret not going to university? really bored.
Don't you wish ____ _ _____________ ? 3 It's a good job Steve was there. Thanks to him we were
5 If only you'd mentioned it before! able to get the car started.
You should _________ ____ ________ 4 My parents bought me an iPod. An iPad would have
6 Do you wish you had stayed longer? been better.
Would you like _____________________ ? 5 I couldn't see the film on telly last night. That was a pity-
1 really wanted to.

B Past conditionals 6 My French isn't very good. That's probably why I didn't get
the job.
Third conditional sentences can be used to talk about
7 They showed us all their holiday snaps. I was hoping to
imaginary situations in the past, as in this example: watch the football.
If the police had received this information earlier, they
might have had more success in solving the crime. 2 C> With a partner write a six-line dialogue. The first or
Here is a more formal way of expressing the underlined part of last line of the dialogue must be one of these sentences.
the sentence: I wish you'd told the truth.
Had the police received this information earlier, they might I'd rather you hadn't lent it to him.
have had .. . If only you'd been there - it was so funny.
I'd love to have seen his face when he found out.
If it hadn't been for your stupidity, we wouldn't be in this mess.

3 c::> Read your dialogue to another pair of students, but


do not read out the sentence from exercise 2. Can the other
students guess which sentence you chose?

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Gathering information 1111
Language focus 2: Present and future conditionals

Match each of the conditional sentences from the listening Example:


with one of the explantions a-c. If you woo-Id have enough time, will you help me to clean
the garage out?
Zero conditional: If you cut (a tree back), it grows much
stronger. If it weren't broken for my leg, I'd definitely run in the
First conditional: If no positive action is taken, they'll London Marathon next month.
simply die out. 2 It's very unlikely you'll see her at the concert, but if you
Second conditional: If you spoke a different language, should happen bump into her, give her my regards,
you'd be a different person. won'tyou?
3 She's always moaning about him - I wouldn't be in the
a an imaginary situation in the present or future least bit surprised if she would split up with him soon.
b a possible future situation and its probable result 4 I know you don't think there's much chance of it
c a situation which is always true happening, but just if suppose you did win first prize. How
do you think you'd spend all that money?
2 Look at the following alternative structures to those used in 5 Imagine that you came face to face with a bull: what
two of the above examples from the listening. might be the sensible thing to do 7Would you have run
away, for example?
6 We'd have to come to some sort of decision ourselves if
First conditional
the meeting were to put off for any reason.
If+ happen to/should makes an event seem more unlikely, or
more of a chance possibility.
If+ will/would/going to
If I happen to .. . see anything I think she might like for
1 In some situations if can be followed by will, would or
her birthday, I'll buy it.
going to in the same clause. Match each of the functions
If I should (happen to) ...
in the box with one of the sentences 1-5, according to the
In more formal contexts, the following inversion is possible: idea expressed in the if clause.The exercise begins with an
Should you require any further information, please do not example (0).
hesitate to contact us. Willingness Refusal ~
Intention Insistence Result
Second conditional
O If you'll come this way, Ms Taylor will see you now.
A If+ were to +verb also makes an event seem more
unlikely. Request
If you will keep eating chocolate, it's no wonder you're
If I were to tell the boss what you've just said, he'd
putting on weight.
probably sack you.
Again, an inversion is possible in formal contexts: 2 If you won't turn your music down, we'll just have to call
Were you to accept our proposal, some funding would the police.
be made available to you. 3 If it'll help you relax, I'll get you a drink or something.
4 If we're going to go for a walk, I think we should leave
B Compare the following two structures. Which refers to the now.
present and which to the past? 5 If you would just let me explain, I'm sure you'd change
your mind.
If it weren't for my dog, I'd probably go away more.
If it hadn't been for his time in prison, he might have 2 C> Choose three of the sentences in exercise 1 and
got the job. for each one rewrite the second clause (the part after the
comma). Ask your partner to match each of the new sentence
C Supposing/Suppose/Imagine can all be used instead of if, halves to an appropriate if clause in exercise 1.
especially in everyday speech.
Imagine you lost your job. What would you do? Example:
O ... I'll show you where the lift is.
3 For 1- 6 opposite, find one unnecessary word in each
sentence or pair of sentences. The word is either grammatically E> Read more about present and future conditionals in
incorrect or does not fit in with the sense of the sentence(s). Part B of the Grammar reference on page 217.

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