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2016 Engine Internals Design Outline

Abstract

The Engine Internals Subsystem of the Louisiana State University Formula SAE team aimed to
help fulfill the goals of the Powertrain System: lose weight and improve efficiency. The Subsystem
succeeded in reducing the weight of the transmission by removing gears associated with fifth and sixth
gear. The Subsystem was also successful in modifying the transmission to reorder the gears into a N-1-2-
3-4 shifting pattern. These modifications reduced the transmission weight by 1.2941 pounds. The
modified shifting pattern allows drivers to shift from first to second gear with ease without worrying
about jumping into neutral, a notable issue before the modification. However, the Subsystem failed to
implement new ideas and designs, such as adjusting valve timing, reducing crankshaft weight, and
swapping the intake camshaft for another exhaust camshaft.

Table of Contents and List of Figures

Introduction...................................................................................................................................... 3
Specific Terminology or Acronyms ..................................................................................................... 3
History.............................................................................................................................................. 5
Goals/Objectives............................................................................................................................... 5
Theory .............................................................................................................................................. 6
Design Constraints ............................................................................................................................ 7
Concept Generation .......................................................................................................................... 7
Concept Selection ............................................................................................................................. 8
Design Changes............................................................................................................................... 10
Engineering Analysis ....................................................................................................................... 11
Testing............................................................................................................................................ 12
Conclusion ...................................................................................................................................... 13
Manufacturing ................................................................................................................................ 14
Parts and Purchasing ....................................................................................................................... 15
Suggested Schedule ........................................................................................................................ 15
Appendix ........................................................................................................................................ 17
Introduction

The Society of Automotive Engineers is a non-profit educational and scientific organization that
is dedicated to the advancing mobility technology. This competition challenges SAE student members to
create an open-wheel racecar based on a set of specifications outlined in the rules manual. At the
competition, teams must go through both dynamic and static testing. For dynamic testing, the actual
performance of the vehicle is tested by means of the acceleration test, skip pad, autocross, and
endurance. For static events, the teams present their cost report, business presentation, and design
presentations. These static events highlight the importance of communication and organization. The
Louisiana State University Formula SAE team has been involved in the competition since 2013 and has
since then learned and improved in competitions. The team is split into two systems: chassis and
powertrain.

The Engine Internals Subsystem is a subsystem of the Powertrain System. The Subsystem is
firstly responsible for rebuilding engines and maintaining the reliability of the engines. Rebuilds involve
gasket, bearing, O-ring, and sealant replacement. After purchasing an engine, the Subsystem must
ensure its functionality by disassembling the engine and rebuilding it with replacement parts. This year,
the Subsystem has spread to a more involved goal, which was to reduce weight in the engine and
improve overall performance of the engine. The Subsystem is also critical in collaborating with the
Intake and Exhaust Subsystems to design for optimal performance of the engine, taking into
consideration the intake restrictor.

The most important rule pertaining to the engine selection is that it does not exceed 610 cubic
centimeters per cycle as accordance to rule IC1.1.1. The Honda CBR600 F4i is a 599.2048 cc engine. A
piston engine using a four-stroke primary heat cycle. Hybrid powertrains are prohibited. The engine can
be modified within the restrictions of the rules (IC1.1.2). These rules apply general constraints to what
engines teams can run or build. Transmission rules also pertain to the Engine Internals subsystem due to
modifications. According to rule T8.3, any transmission and drivetrain may be used. Lastly, it is
important that a proper rebuild with the correct gaskets, O-rings, and sealants are used to ensure no oil
or other fluids leak from the engine during the forty-five-degree angle tilt test.

Specific Terminology or Acronyms

 TDC – Top Dead Center


 ATDC – After Top Dead Center
 DOHC – Dual Overhead Camshaft
 CFM – cubic feet per minute
 Constant mesh transmission – typically found in most manual motorcycle gearboxes where the
transmission gears are always mated but may rotate freely on a shaft until locked by a dog
clutch
 Countershaft – the transmission driveshaft that transmits power from the crankshaft to the
mainshaft. Dog gears/clutches associated with this shaft are denoted with C.
 Dog clutch – a toothed, double-sided gear that slides along
a transmission shaft. Internal teeth of the dog clutch
interlock it in slots on the transmission shaft. A shift fork
sits on an external bearing surface on the dog clutch and
controls whether is moves left or right. The dog clutch will
then either engage or disengage dog gears with dog teeth
that fit into slots on the gears or other dog teeth. See
Figure A.1.
 Dog gear – a toothed gear that spins freely on the
transmission shaft. The dog gear has the slots that the Figure 1
dog teeth fall into and interlock, but sometimes have dog
teeth as well, that interlock with the dog teeth of the dog clutch. See Figure 1.
 Dog teeth – horizontal teeth on the dog clutch that fall into the slots on the dog gear. Should
not be confused with the gear teeth. See Figure 1.
 Mainshaft – the transmission driveshaft that transmits power from the countershaft to the
primary drive sprocket. Dog gears/clutches associated with this shaft are denoted with M.
 Shift drum – a cylindrical piece that is rotated via the shift lever. The drum has three embedded
pathways wrapped around the surface of the cylinder where three shift forks can each fit in and
slide along the pathways. As the shift drum rotates, the forks follow the pathways that cause the
lateral motion of the forks.
 Shift fork – a shift fork is a wishbone-shaped piece that slots into a dog clutch. It has a nub that
fits in the pathways on the shift drum and are moved laterally to different fork positions that
cause the dog clutches to engage or disengage other dog gears/clutches.
 Shift star – a six-point star with rounded points that is bolted on one end of the shift drum. This
controls the amount of rotation the drum undergoes when the shift lever is actuated. A roller
wheel that is kept under tension by a tension spring sits in between the star points. There is one
point of the star that is ground down so that a half-shift is necessary to sit on that point. This
half shift is for the neutral gear.
 Advance – shifting the intake/exhaust opening or closing event earlier
 Retard – shifting the intake/exhaust opening or closing event later
 Valve overlap – the amount of crankshaft degrees the intake and exhaust valves are
simultaneously open
 Lift – distance from the peak of the lobe to the base circle
 Duration – the amount of crankshaft degrees during which the valve is lifted
 Valve clash – a moment in which the valve opens and hits the piston head resulting in severe
damage
History

The Subsystem was first established in Fall 2014. After a major power plant failure during the
autocross event in FSAE Michigan 2013 and the endurance event in FSAE Lincoln 2014, the team created
a subsystem with the original intention that it would be dedicated to rebuilding and maintaining the
engines the team bought. However, the Subsystem was brand new and did not want to jump to any
major design changes. The Subsystem spent the year researching for the following year and learning
how to rebuild the engine. The most prevalent obstacle during that year was the lack of knowledge
among the Subsystem about engine rebuilding, resulting in the first rebuild taking much longer than
anticipated. An unorganized rebuild and inconsistent shop attendance cause lots of setbacks to the
progress of the rebuild, including losing parts and having to order and wait for more. This year, the
Subsystem plans to have more organized and faster engine rebuilds, while being more thorough and
meticulous.

Goals/Objectives

The first goal is to lose five pounds from the engine. The priority is to take out 5 th and 6 th gear
out of the transmission. This will remove unnecessary weight, seeing that the car rarely ever reaches
higher gears.

The second goal is to increase the performance in respect to torque. The Subsystem wants to
tune the engine for max power between 8000-11000 RPM and to increase torque between 6000-12000
RPM. The priority here is to use Ricardo WAVE and theory to tune adjustable timing cam sprockets to
change the opening and closing point of the intake/exhaust valves to optimize the volumetric efficiency,
considering the intake restrictor. An objective for reaching this goal is to exchange the intake camshaft
for an exhaust camshaft.

An objective of the Subsystem is to improve drivability, specifically power delivery. By improving


how the engine runs with the restrictor, the drivers can have a better feel of how the car should perform
and behave on the track. Back to the transmission, the Subsystem will also modify the shift drum and
shift star to rearrange the shifting order, originally 1-N-2-3-4-5-6, to N-1-2-3-4.
Theory

For 2016, the Subsystem focused on valvetrain theory. In order to tune the camshaft timing, the
Subsystem had to research and learn how changing the timing affected engine behavior. Before delving
into the theory, the function of the valves must be explained. The valvetrain mainly consists of the
camshafts, valves, valve lifters or rockers, and valve components (springs, retainers, seals, etc.). For the
Honda CBR600 F4i, it utilizes valve lifters and a DOHC setup across 16 valves, eight intake valves and
eight exhaust valves. On the camshafts are cam lobes that rest on top of valve lifters. These lifters are
each pushed down by the cam lobes at different times across intake or exhaust valves as the camshaft
rotates. Camshaft timing refers to the time relative to the rotation of the crankshaft during which valve
events (opening or closing) take place. Below is a camshaft timing graph generated from numbers
collected by measuring the camshaft lobe every degree using a mill chuck, indexing head, and a dial
indicator.

Cam Lobe Lift vs Crankshaft Rotation


10
Cam Lobe Lift (mm)

4
Figure 3
2 The camshaft lobe is comprised
of the base circle and the lobe lift.
0 The amount of the lift a valve
0
36
72

216

288

360

432

504

576

648
108
144
180

252

324

396

468

540

612

684
720

tappet undergoes is the distance


from the lobe to the base circle.
Crankshaft Rotation (degrees)

Figure 2
This graph shows camshaft lobe lift (mm) versus the crankshaft angle (degrees).

Figure 2 shows the amount of lift a set of exhaust and intake valves undergo during two full
revolutions of the crankshaft. Two main features of the cam lobes are the lift and duration. Peak lift is
the distance from the peak of the lobe to the base circle (See Figure 3). The duration is the amount of
crankshaft degrees during which the valve is lifted.

The Subsystem intends to remove the intake camshaft and to replace it with another exhaust
camshaft. This will decrease lift and duration which results in improved low-end power. Decreasing lift
will improve atomization of the air/fuel mixture due to the decreased entry velocity, and since the
intake is restricted, there’s no need to try to add lift and attempt to take in more air. Decreasing
duration will improve low-end power as well as preventing gases from being pushed back in the intake
at lower RPMs.

Utilizing the adjustable timing gears, engine performance can further be improved. By advancing
or retarding the camshafts, desirable engine behavior can be obtained. The Subsystem intends to
advance the exhaust camshaft and retard the intake camshaft. This results in the exhaust valve
opening/closing sooner and the intake valve opening/closer later. This reduces valve overlap, which
increases low-speed power and reduces engine loping, or lumpy idling.
Design Constraints

One major concern with adjusting the camshaft timing is piston-valve clash. The cylinder head
was taken off of the engine and through a method of claying the engine, the height between the valve at
peak lift and the piston can be found. Clay was applied to the piston head and the cylinder head was put
back on and tightened by several head bolts. The timing chain was put back on and then the crankshaft
was rotated for at least two full revolutions (which constitutes in at least one full revolution of the
camshafts). The head was taken back off and the imprint left by the valves at TDC were measured from
the piston head. This operation was applied to all pistons and the average was taken among all eight
valve clearances.

The exhaust valve clearance is 0.013 inches (0.320 millimeters)


and the intake valve clearance is 0.135 inches (3.419 millimeters). The
original plan in regards to adjusting the timing, included advancing and
retarding each camshaft a maximum of five degrees to run tests,
however retarding the exhaust camshaft too much will result in valve
clash. Since the exhaust valve clearance is already so low, the Subsystem
ruled out retarding the exhaust cam. In regards to the intake camshaft,
retarding the intake will actually increase valve clearance and so there
will be no risk of valve clash. After doing some basic calculations, the
clearance after advancing the exhaust camshaft will be 0.033 inches
(0.848 millimeters). The clearance after retarding the intake camshaft will
approximately be 0.115 inches (2.928 millimeters).

Another design constraint the Subsystem has to take into consideration is


the 610 cubic centimeters limit on the engine. If the Subsystem were to
bore the cylinders to increase cylinder volume, the maximum bore would
Figure 4 be 2.66367 inches, 0.02367 inches larger than the stock 2.64 bore.
Thickness of the clay is
Testing and validation would have to be necessary if the Subsystem were
measured after it has been
pressed by the valve heads to implement this idea.

Concept Generation

The first idea that was easy and attainable was modifying the transmission. This was an
obvious first step because of last year’s issues with slipping into neutral during the acceleration event.
Typically, on motorcycles, neutral gear is a half-shift after first gear and before second gear. This is not
the desired location for an FSAE vehicle because the driver can accidentally shift into neutral when
coming from first gear on a launch. This slip can damage internals when experiencing high RPMs, as well
void acceleration runs and add seconds to lap times. The half shift is also difficult to modulate when
using an electric shifter. Drivers would press the shift button and sometimes this would send the car into
neutral gear. To remedy this, the Subsystem wanted to rearrange the transmission gears to a N-1-2-3-4
configuration by modifying the shift drum and shift star.

Losing weight in the transmission is also an objective that contributes towards the powertrain
system goal. Seeing that the car never reaches high gear, the M5 and M6 dog gears, which are
associated with fifth and sixth gear, should be removed. The C5 and C6 dog clutches on the countershaft
that typically engage these gears could then have the gear teeth grinded down. The M3/4 dog clutch on
the mainshaft that engages the M5 and M6 would also be rendered useless. The Subsystem could either
grind down the dog clutch teeth or remove the gears entirely. Removing the dog gears would lose much
more weight than only grinding the dog teeth, which make up a small portion of the total mass.
However, the gear teeth on the clutch mesh with gears on the countershaft, which may change the gear
ratio of the transmission for first through fourth gear.

Another pitch from the Subsystem was to knife-edge the crankshaft. By knife-edging the
crankshaft, it will cut through oil easier and lighten the counterweights, effectively decreasing rotational
mass and increasing the RPM rate. This would significantly lighten the engine, at minimum two pounds
to meet weight loss requirements after lightening the transmission.

Custom cam lobe grinding was also a concept brought up for modification. This would
significantly improve the performance and power of the engine by controlling the valve train behavior. A
properly designed custom cam lobe will maximize volumetric efficiency with the restrictor, as well as
result in an improved function of the intake and exhaust. Another solution to a better performing engine
is to utilize adjustable cam timing gears. These gears allow the cams to be advanced or retarded, altering
the timing events of the intake and exhaust valves. If designed and tuned properly, these are an
effective method to improving engine behavior while taking the intake restrictor into consideration.
Another idea is to replace the intake camshaft with another exhaust camshaft, therefore running two
exhaust camshaft. The exhaust cam has a shorter lift and a shorter duration, which would theoretically
improve low-end power.

Lastly, a significant amount of mass can be lost by replacing engine internal components with
titanium components. By replacing the piston connecting rods, valves, and valve springs, the engine can
lose weight and those components can last longer due to titanium’s high tensile strength and toughness.

Concept Selection

After brainstorming ideas and concepts, a selection process was used to choose the best option
or to decide if the concept was worth time investment. Changing the shifting order was an important
and necessary change which can be proven with the following pros/cons table.

Pros Cons
No slipping into neutral gear after first gear Potential slipping into neutral gear
No need to modulate half/full-shifting Electric shifter doesn’t modulate half/full-shifting
Consistent shifting every time Driver must consciously try to make a full shift
Quicker times in dynamics events Losing time due to power loss in neutral gear

It was an obvious choice to remove the M5 and M6 dog gears, since it was unnecessary gears
that the drivers never use and therefore unnecessary weight. Grinding down the gear teeth for the C5
and C6 dog clutches was a then collateral modification. After removing the M5 and M6 gears, the
hardware along with those gears, and grinding down the C5 and C6 gear teeth and M3/4 dog teeth, the
transmission was projected to lose 1.1857 pounds. This was 23.71% of the desired weight loss goal of
five pounds. The Subsystem decided this was a worthwhile modification since it fulfilled nearly a quarter
of the weight loss goal.
For the M3/4 dog clutch, deciding whether to grind or remove the gears was an evaluation of
research, or the lack thereof. Not many resources have information regarding gear ratios in constant
mesh transmissions, and there is no doubt that it is not as simple as a one-on-one gear ratio since the
entire transmission is engaged. Therefore, due to the lack of research, the Subsystem opted to play it
safe and left the dog clutch in the transmission.

The crankshaft was left untouched and was not knife-edged. The Subsystem decided that this is
a rather difficult modification to validate. Validating the knife-edge crankshaft would require two dyno
runs to compare stock and modified output performance, as well as multiple mock acceleration runs
that will require engine swaps. A cost analysis (in terms of dollar per second) would have to take place
to validate the money spent on this modification. However, the main reason for not selecting this
modification is because the team did not have the necessary funds to modify multiple crankshafts since
it is necessary to have an identical backup engine.

Custom cam grinding was not developed due to the immense amount of work and time put into
designing a cam lobe that works. This process requires a lot of research, testing, and data acquisition
before any modification can take place. Due to time constraints, there was not enough time to create a
complete and thorough plan in regards to cam lobe design and theory. The Subsystem hopes to explore
this extremely significant source of power gain in the future. Adjustable cam timing would be a viable
second option however due to time constraints early in the season and a lack of adequate research to
develop a fully functioning computer simulation model to validate the change.

The next best solution is to replace the intake cam with the exhaust cam. The exhaust cam has
less lift, duration and would decrease the valve overlap all of which would in theory improve low end
performance. This modification would be simple to implement and validate, as long as the intake valves
stay within physical constraints. The decrease of valve overlap is accompanied by the following pros and
cons table.

Pros Cons
Shifts power band towards low-end RPMs Less power in high-end RPMs
Produces more midrange torque Loss of upper RPM and peak torque
Lower cylinder pressure Decrease effective compression
Widens power band
Increases piston-valve clearance
Idle quality improves
Diminished combustion efficiency
Decreased exhaust gas flow efficiency
Source: Cam Gear Timing Basics – Team Integra Forums, http://www.team-integra.net/forum/14-performance/15390-cam-gear-tuning-basics.html

Of course, simulations and testing will provide data that will decide whether or not to continue
to run with the camshaft swap

Titanium parts were not purchased this year due to an insufficient team budget.
Design Changes

The Subsystem modified the shift drum to change the


shifting order. The pathways of the shift drum designate the
lateral location of the shift forks and thus determine what dog
gears engage and what gear the transmission is in (See Figure 4).
Continuing the transmission modification analysis, the shift
drum and shift star were modified to move the neutral gear to
before first gear.

The objective is to replicate the neutral gear fork


configuration to have it before the first gear fork configuration,
Figure 5
effectively resting in the sixth gear configuration. By machining
As the shift drum (bronze) rotates, the
the shift drum to complete the pathway from sixth to first on the shift forks follow the pathways, moving
left and right pathway, the shift forks can be placed in a neutral gears laterally to engage or disengage
position because the sixth gear fork configuration is identical to other gears.
the first gear configuration, save the middle pathway.

This middle pathway one is not a concern because the


middle fork slots into the M3/4 dog clutch, a clutch that is not in
use anymore due to sixth gear being rendered obsolete. In turn,
this allows the middle shift fork to be taken out since there is no
need for the M3/4 dog clutch to engage anything.

The Subsystem decided to grind down the M3/4 dog


teeth instead of physically removing the gears. In addition, the
M5 and M6 gears were removed. These modifications resulted Figure 6
in a 1.2941-pound loss in the transmission, more than our (From left to right) The M3/4, C5, and C6
anticipated 1.1857-pound loss and 25.88% of our weight loss dog clutches after grinding modifications.

goal.

Another design change would be replacing the intake camshaft with an exhaust camshaft.
According to Learn & Compete written by Michael and Suzanne Royce, “a shorter duration [intake] cam
would be desirable.” This can be accomplished with the camshaft replacement. The intake cam has a
duration of 245.0 crankshaft degrees @ 0.10 millimeters of lift. The exhaust as a duration of 225.0
crankshaft degrees @ 0.10 millimeters of lift. The lobe center of the intake camshaft is at 100.5 degrees
ATDC, so if the replacement exhaust camshaft is placed in, the crankshaft would have to be rotated
clockwise 206 degrees then the exhaust cam sprocket timing mark can line up with the head and
assume proper timing. This would decrease lift on the intake valves by 0.052 inches (1.321 millimeters)
and the change in duration would decrease the valve overlap by 10 crankshaft degrees.

A change introduced this year that is not necessarily a design change, but necessary to mention
nonetheless. The Subsystem is introducing head rebuilds to the overall engine rebuild. Head rebuilds are
necessary to maintain reliability in the valve train. Rebuilding the head includes re-shimming the
tappets, replacing valve springs and cotters, and valve seat re-facing.
Engineering Analysis
Before grinding the gear teeth off the dog clutches, the strength of the clutch must be evaluated
after grinding the teeth. The C5 and C6 dog clutches, the clutches that mesh with the gears necessary for
fifth and sixth gear, were modeled in Solidworks and a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was performed on
each clutch before and after modification. The FEA simulated the clutch engaging another gear and the
force of that contact under high speeds. To determine the force that the dog teeth experience,
Newton’s Second Law was calculated, using the mass of the engaging gear and the speed at which that
gear rotates. The C5 gear engages gears at second and third gear. The C6 gear engages gears at first and
fourth gear. Redline for the Honda CBR600 F4i is 14,000 RPM and the primary drive reduction ratio is
1.822, therefore the clutch basket and the transmission mainshaft spins at 25,508 RPM. This RPM can be
translated to force using the following formula.
( # 𝑟𝑒𝑣) (2𝜋𝑟) (25,508 𝑟𝑒𝑣)(2𝜋𝑟) 𝑣
𝑣𝑐 = = 𝑎= 𝐹 = 𝑚𝑎
𝑡 60 𝑠𝑒𝑐 𝑡

This velocity can be used to find the acceleration of the dog clutch, which is assumed to be
initially stationary. It is also assumed that time 𝑡 is 0.1 second, due to the quick change in speed when
the dog clutch engages a dog gear.

Using these formulas and plugging in the C5 C6


radius of the gear (𝑟), the amount of force the dog 𝑟 = 0.02935 𝑚 𝑟 = 0.02811 m
teeth experiences can be determined. Analyzing the 𝑣 = 78.39947 𝑚/𝑠 𝑣 = 75.07384 𝑚/𝑠
dog teeth on the same side as the grind, a 297.9180 N 𝑎 = 783.9947 𝑚/𝑠 2 𝑎 = 750.7384 𝑚/𝑠 2
force was found on the C5 clutch and a 299.5446 N 𝐹 = 297.9180 𝑁 𝐹 = 299.5446 𝑁
force was found on the C6 clutch. The C5 and C6 dog
clutches was analyzed first, using the found force. The C5 dog teeth experienced a maximum von Mises
stress of 17.75 MPa and the C6 dog teeth experienced a maximum von Mises stress of 14.40 MPa. The
same method was performed on the modified dog clutches and found that the modified C5 dog teeth
experience a maximum 18.27 MPa von Mises stress and the modified C6 dog teeth experience a
maximum 14.97 MPa von Mises stress. See Appendix for FEA analysis results for both unmodified and
modified dog clutches (A1-2).

These stress outputs are acceptable because


when the maximum stress on the modified dog clutches
are compared to the maximum stress found on the
unmodified gears, the results are near identical.
Therefore, if the stock dog clutches currently do not
experience failure, it is safe to assume that because the
FEA results were similar, the modified dog clutches will
also not fail. Also, the material of the gears (simulated
AISI 4340, normalized steel) has a tensile yield strength
of 862 MPa. Multiplying that by the area of the tooth Figure 7
-5 2
face (6.181×10 m ), it can withstand 53280.22 N, The C5 dog clutch FEA. The dog clutch was fixed at the
center spline and the forces were applied on the right
much greater than the forces calculated earlier. face of the dog teeth in a counterclockwise direction
In order to run Ricardo WAVE engine
simulations, the Subsystem was required to collect flow data from the cylinder head and valves. A flow
bench was used to collect this data from an intake and exhaust valve and the data generated can be
found in the Appendix (A3).
This data was obtained by using a dry
flow bench similar to that of Figure 9. Given the
cylinder head dimensions, one mock cylinder was
made to bolt on to the head then attached to the
top of the test plenum. The valve springs were
replaced by softer springs to facilitate easier
spring compression and valve lifting. Data was
collected every 0.05 inches (1.27 millimeters) of
valve lift. Ambient conditions were recorded to
be 70 degrees and 30 inches of H2 O.

A correction factor was applied to the


actual CFM measurements in to order to take
into consideration the atmospheric conditions Figure 8
that may have affected the resulting data. Testing A dry flow bench similar to that used to collect the flow data
conditions were a test temperature of 70 degrees from the cylinder head.
and a test pressure of 30 inches of H2O. The following formula was used per SAE standard J1723.

401.87 𝑖𝑛. 𝐻2 𝑂 𝑇1
𝑊 = 𝑚̇( )√
𝑃1 537°𝑅

Inputs include air mass flow (𝑚̇), test pressure (𝑃1 ), and test temperature (𝑇1 ). After calculations
using these inputs, the corrected flow 𝑊 was determined (See Table A3 in the Appendix, under
“Corrected Flow”).

This corrected flow is necessary to calculate flow coefficients which can be determined by the
following formula:
𝑆𝑃
𝐶 = 𝑄√
∆𝑃
Inputs include rate of flow (𝑄), specific gravity of fluid (𝑆𝑃), and pressure drop across the valve
∆𝑃). At ambient conditions, air has a specific gravity of 0.076 kg/m3 , which will be used for this formula.
After calculations using these inputs, the flow coefficient of the valve 𝐶 was determined.

With the necessary data, Ricardo WAVE is now able to run simulations of the Honda CBR600 F4i
model. This model will allow adjustments to different parameters that will be used to test modifications
to the vehicle, including the intake cam replacement, adjustable cam timing, and more future
modifications. These models will be based off of pre-made models than modified to match the geometry
and other inputs of the FSAE vehicle. Once output results are generated from the stock simulation,
performance readings can be compared to dynamometer results to verify that the model is accurate.
From here, the model can be modified to test design changes to the engine internals.

Testing
Two modifications will go through testing: the camshaft replacement and the transmission
modification. The camshaft replacement will first be tested using Ricardo WAVE. An accurate WAVE
model will be used to do the test. This model is deemed accurate by running similar intake and exhaust
geometry to that of last year’s car and running tests to acquire similar data to the dynamometer runs
performed on last year’s vehicle. Once an accurate model is acquired, it will be used to simulate the
camshaft replacement. By inputting the exhaust cam lobe profile data as the intake cam lobe, multiple
simulations will be used to retrieve performance output between 4000 and 12000 RPM at 2000 RPM
increments. After the simulations are complete, a dynamometer test with the camshaft replacement will
be used to verify the simulation results.

The transmission modifications will be hand tested on an engine stand and then through test
driving.

Conclusion
The Subsystem succeeded to implement the transmission modification. This change has
successfully converted the shifting order to an automobile setup, resulting in easier driving, quicker
shifts, and less weight. The loss of rotating mass also improves the energy efficiency of the engine,
therefore resulting in more power.

The Subsystem failed to implement the adjustable cam sprockets and camshaft swap due to lack
of data for simulation and validation time. Prospectively, this modification can take place next year.

Rebuilds again had a time issue due to having unavailable parts (such as the cylinder head for
flow benching). Thus, without the head, the head rebuild took longer to complete. Now that a head
rebuild has been finished, it should take much less time next time. One tip is to measure valve
clearances immediately after opening the valve cover. This is so that measurements are accurate to how
it was when the engine was bought so that it rules out any errors and mistakes when measuring valve
clearances after the rebuild.

Testing should take considerably less time now that an accurate model has been created. If the
same motor is maintained for next year, then the only thing to change on the model is the intake and
exhaust geometry. If a new model for a new motor is necessary, then work on that should take place as
soon as possible. This will allow us to run simulations and get results earlier in the year.
Manufacturing
The gears were machined by using a lathe with a CNMG 433 drill bit. The lathe was run at a
cutting speed of fifty surface feet per minute, and due to the low speed, the cut was clean and square,
with little to no deflection. The depth of cut was set to 0.01 inches. The coolant used for the cut was
Hangsterfer’s S-500 CF, standard machine shop coolant.

For the shift drum, the pathway was machined on a four-axis mill using a 0.25-inch end mill. The
hole for the stopper bolt was drilled using a -inch drill bit approximately 65 degrees counterclockwise of
the first gear (original gear configuration) pathway configuration, with the progression of gears
continuing clockwise.

The shift star was drilled on a mill. A cut was made 60 degrees counterclockwise of the original
slot of the shift drum nub at the same depth as the original nub.

The mainshaft had grooves machined for snap rings to hold the M3/4 dog clutch in place. Refer
to the drawing A5 in the Appendix.

For engine mounting, a long bolt and nut was used to mount the engine to the chassis tubes.
The tube with the nut is larger in inner diameter to fit a wrench socket for easier removal of the nut.
Parts and Purchasing
Part Quantity Part Number Part Name Unit Price Total Price
Gasket kit 2 06112-MBW-600 GASKET KIT B $28.39 $56.78
Head gasket 2 12251-MBW-013 GASKET, CYL HD $46.46 $92.92
Crankshaft bearing
(green) 8 13314-MBW-003 BRG B, CRANKSHAFT $6.06 $48.48
Crankshaft bearing
(yellow) 2 13316-MBW-003 BRG D, CRANKSHAFT $6.06 $12.12
Connecting rod bearing 8 13224-MAL-601 BEARING A, CONN ROD $7.61 $60.88
Piston ring set - std bore 9 13011-MBW-306 RING SET (STD) $25.11 $225.99
Adjustable Cam
Sprockets 2 ACS600-4H ADJ CAMSHAFTS $59.95 $119.90
Hotcams Engine Valve
Shim Kit 1 290-4704-63871 Valve Shims $59.95 $59.95
Valve Cotter 6 14781-MV9-671 Valve Keepers $4.12 $24.72
Exhaust Valve Spring 8 14752-MBW-J21 Exhaust Valve Spring $5.20 $41.60
Outer Valve Spring 8 14751-MBW-E20 Outer Intake Spring $5.20 $41.60
Inner Valve Spring 8 14761-MBW-E20 Inner Intake Spring $4.39 $35.12
Valve Lapping Tool 1 LIL-21200 Valve Lap Tool $4.97 $4.97
3oz Bottle of Lapping
Lapping Compound 1 PTX-80037 Compound $4.99 $4.99

Suggested Schedule
Before a suggested schedule is provided, a few notes must be mentioned. If a new engine is to
be implemented, steps to collect data must be taken early. This includes collecting flowbench data,
camshaft lobe profile data, and a Ricardo WAVE model. This will allow simulations and testing early on.
It is recommended that all necessary research is to take place during the summer, manufacturing,
rebuilding, and testing should take place during the fall semester, and validation should take place
during the spring semester. Note that simulations and engineering analysis take place during the design
phase; physical validation and testing take place during the validation phase. This is all necessary to have
a running car early in the year.

1. June-July
a. Research (seven weeks)
b. Rebuilding previous comp engine (one week, make sure to have all parts ready, order at
Lincoln comp)
2. August (Manufacturing Month)
a. Transmission modifications (star, shift, gears) (three weeks)
b. Begin design (one week)
3. September
a. Continue design (throughout month)
4. October
a. Continue design (three weeks)
b. Begin rebuild of second engine (one week)
5. November
a. Finish second engine rebuild (one-half/two weeks)
b. Continue design (throughout month)
6. December
a. Begin validation testing (throughout month)
7. January
a. Finish validation testing (throughout month)
8. February
a. All work should be complete for vehicle testing season
Appendix

A1
C5 Gear Finite Element Analysis
Force: 297.9180
Fixed: Inner Spline
Maximum von Mises stress: 17.75 MPa
A2
C6 Gear Finite Element Analysis
Force: 299.5446 N
Fixed: Inner Spline
Maximum von Mises stress: 14.40 MPa
Test
Lift/Diameter Pressure Corrected
Lift (in) (Valve seat) Range (in. H2O) Flow/Pressure CFM Flow Coefficient
Intake
0.05 0.036 3 27.97 21.7 32.6 0.222250652
0.1 0.072 3 27.97 42.5 63.9 0.435638547
0.15 0.108 3 27.97 62 93.2 0.635391434
0.2 0.144 3 27.96 77.6 116.7 0.795745055
0.25 0.18 3 27.97 88 132.3 0.901955865
0.3 0.216 3 27.96 90 135.4 0.923255188
0.35 0.252 3 27.89 91.6 137.9 0.941481271

Exhaust
0.05 0.042 3 27.97 14.9 24 0.163620112
0.1 0.084 3 27.97 31.7 51.2 0.349056238
0.15 0.126 3 27.96 44.5 71.8 0.489584361
0.2 0.168 3 27.96 52.8 85.2 0.580955259
0.25 0.21 3 27.96 57.7 93.1 0.634823176
0.3 0.252 3 27.95 60.7 98 0.668354453
0.35 0.294 3 27.96 62.9 101.5 0.692100455

A3
’01-’03 Honda CBR600 F4i Cylinder Head Port Flow Data Table (provided by Arty Ross Engineering)

Flow Rate vs Valve Lift


160
Flow Rate (cubic feet per minute)

140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35
Valve Lift (inch)

Corrected CFM (Intake) Corrected CFM (Exhaust)

A4
Flow Rate vs Valve Lift Graph for the Intake and Exhaust Cylinder Ports
A5
Mainshaft modification drawing
A6
The C5 gear weight in grams before (left) and after (right) the modification.

A7
The C6 gear weight in grams before (left) and after (right) the modification.

A8
The M3/4 gear weight in grams before (left) and after (right) the modification.
A9
The mainshaft with M5 and M6 (left) and without M5 and M6 (right).

A10
Rendering of the Honda CBR600 F4i transmission.

A11
Side-by-side comparison of the before (left) and the after (right) of the transmission modification.
A12
Gearing Commander Table for Stock Transmission.
A13
Gearing Commander Table for Modified Transmission.
GSXR GSXR GSXR CBR RR CBR RR R6 03- R6 06-
Category Weight 01-03 04-05 06-07 05-06 07-08 05 07 CBR F4I

Availability 6 1 2 2 2 2 0 -1 1
Reliability 9 1 0 -2 1 1 2 2 2
Familiarity 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0
Torque 4 0 0 -2 0 0 1 1 0
Cost 7 2 2 1 0 0 -2 -1 1

Total 27 30 27 -6 22 22 8 9 31

A13
Gearing Commander Table for Modified Transmission.

Percentage of Teams Running Certain Engines

8%
23%
2015 Michigan
4%
11%

9%
20% Yamaha YZF-R6
2014 Michigan
6% Honda CBR 600 RR
16% Suzuki GSX-R 600
Honda CBR 600 F4i

6%
16%
2013 Michigan
5%
13%

0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25%


Percent of Teams

A14
“Percentage of Teams Running Certain Engines”
Percentage of Teams Running GSX-R vs CBR 600 F4i

6%
2014 Michigan
16%

Suzuki GSX-R 600


Honda CBR 600 F4i
5%
2013 Michigan
13%

0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 16% 18%


Percent of Teams

A13
“Percentage of Teams Running GSX-R vs CBR 600 F4i”