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7r+ and proton combined momentarily to form a short-lived particle before coming

apart again, or at least that they resonated together for a short time. Indeed, the

large peak in Fig. 43-14 resembles a resonance curve (see Figs. 14-23,14-26, and

30-22), and this new “ particle” — now called the A— is referred to as a resonance.

Hundreds of other resonances have been found, and are regarded as excited states

of lighter mass particles such as the nucleon.

The width of a resonance— in Fig. 43-14 the fu ll width of the A peak at half the

peak height is on the order of 100 MeV— is an interesting application of the uncertainty

principle. If a particle lives only 10-23 s, then its mass (i.e., its rest energy) w ill be

uncertain by an amount

A E ra h /{ 2 ir A t)

which is what is observed. Actually, the lifetimes of « 10_23s for such reso

nances are inferred by the reverse process: from the measured width being

» 100 MeV.

Towards a New Model

In the early 1950s, the newly found particles K, A, and 2 were found to behave

rather strangely in two ways. First, they were always produced in pairs. For

example, the reaction

77“ + p K° + A°

occurred with high probability, but the similar reaction 7r“ + p \> K° + n, was

never observed to occur even though it did not violate any known conservation

law. The second feature of these strange particles, as they came to be called, was

that they were produced via the strong interaction (that is, at a high interaction

rate), but did not decay at a fast rate characteristic of the strong interaction (even

though they decayed into strongly interacting particles).

To explain these observations, a new quantum number, strangeness, and a new

conservation law, conservation of strangeness, were introduced. By assigning the

strangeness numbers (S ) indicated in Table 43-2, the production of strange parti

cles in pairs was explained. Antiparticles were assigned opposite strangeness from

their particles. For example, in the reaction 7r“ + p — » K° + A0, the in itia l state

has strangeness S = 0 + 0 = 0, and the final state has S = + l — 1 = 0, so

strangeness is conserved. But for 7r“ + p \> K° + n, the initia l state has S = 0

and the final state has S ' = + l + 0 = + l , so strangeness would not be

conserved; and this reaction is not observed.

To explain the decay of strange particles, it is assumed that strangeness is A c a u t i o n ____________

conserved in the strong interaction but is not conserved in the w eak interaction. Partially conserved quantities

Thus, strange particles were forbidden by strangeness conservation to decay

to nonstrange particles of lower mass via the strong interaction, but could

decay by means of the weak interaction at the observed longer lifetimes of 10-10 to

10-8 s.

The conservation of strangeness was the first example of a partially conserved

quantity. In this case, the quantity strangeness is conserved by strong interactions

but not by weak.

CONCEPTUAL EXAMPLE 45-8~| Guess the missing particle. Using the conser

vation laws for particle interactions, determine the possibilities for the missing

particle in the reaction

7T~ + p K° + ?

in addition to K° + A0 mentioned above.

RESPONSE We write equations for the conserved numbers in this reaction, with

B, L e, S, and Q as unknowns whose determination w ill reveal what the possible

particle might be:

Baryon number: 0 + 1 = 0 + B

Lepton number: 0 + 0 = 0 + Le

Charge: -1 + 1 = 0 + Q

Strangeness: 0 + 0 = 1 + S.

The unknown product particle would have to have these characteristics:

B = +1 Le = 0 Q = 0 S = - 1.

In addition to A0, a neutral sigma particle, 2°, is also consistent with these numbers.

In the next Section we w ill discuss another partially conserved quantity which

was given the name charm. The discovery in 1974 of a particle with charm helped

solidify a new theory involving quarks, which we now discuss.

4 3 -9 Quarks

A ll particles, except the gauge bosons (Section 43-6), are either leptons or

hadrons. One difference between these two groups is that the hadrons interact

via the strong interaction, whereas the leptons do not.

There is another major difference. The six leptons (e“ , /jl~, t ~, v e, , vT) are

considered to be truly fundamental particles because they do not show any internal

structure, and have no measurable size. (Attempts to determine the size of leptons

have put an upper lim it of about 10-18 m.) On the other hand, there are hundreds of

hadrons, and experiments indicate they do have an internal structure.

In 1963, M. Gell-Mann and G. Zweig proposed that none of the hadrons,

not even the proton and neutron, are tru ly fundamental, but instead are made

up of combinations of three more fundamental pointlike entities called

(somewhat whimsically) quarks.1 Today, the quark theory is well-accepted,

and quarks are considered truly fundamental particles, like leptons. The

three quarks originally proposed were labeled u, d, s, and have the names up,

down, and strange. The theory today has six quarks, just as there are six leptons—

based on a presumed symmetry in nature. The other three quarks are called

charmed, bottom, and top. The names apply also to new properties of each

(quantum numbers c ,b ,t) that distinguish the new quarks from the old quarks (see

Table 43-3), and which (like strangeness) are conserved in strong, but not weak,

interactions.

tGell-Mann chose the word from a phrase in James Joyce’s Finnegans Wake.

Quarks

Mass Charge Baryon Number Strangeness Charm Bottomness Topness

Name Symbol (MeV/c2) Q B S c b t

Up u 2 + le l 0 0 0 0

3

Down d 5 1 0 0 0 0

3

Strange s 95 1 -1 0 0 0

~ \e 3

Charmed c 1250 1 0 +1 0 0

+ ie 3

Bottom b 4200 1 0 0 -1 0

3

Top t 173,000 1 0 0 0 +1

+ie 3

TABLE 43-4 Partial List of Heavy Hadrons, with Charm and Bottomness (Le =

II

II

0)

b-

4

Baryon

Anti Mass Number Strangeness Charm Bottomness: Mean life

Category Particle particle Spin (MeV/c2) B S c b 00 Principal Decay Modes

Mesons D+ D“ 0 1869.4 0 0 +1 0 10.6 X 10“13 K + others, e + others

D° D° 0 1864.5 0 0 +1 0 4.1 X 10“13 K + others, juor e + others

D5 0 1968 0 +1 +1 0 5.0 X 10“13 K + others

J/iA (3097) Self 1 3096.9 0 0 0 0 « io-20 Hadrons, e+e_, /jl+/jT

Y (9460) Self 1 9460 0 0 0 0 « io-20 Hadrons, e+e“, t+t“

B“ B+ 0 5279 0 0 0 -1 1.6 X 10“12 D° + others

B° B° 0 5279 0 0 0 -1 1.5 X 10“12 D° + others

Ac 2

2C

++ 1 2454 +1 0 +1 0 « 10“21 A+7T+

2 r 2

1 2453 +1 0 +1 0 « 10“21 A<!"IT0

2C

+ 2C“ 2

2° 2° 1 2454 +1 0 +1 0 « 10“21 AcTT~

2

Ag 1 5620 +1 0 0 -1 1.2 X 10“12 J/j/fA°, pD°7r_, Ac7r+Tr~7r~

n 2

(that is, a fraction of the previously thought smallest charge e). Antiquarks have

opposite sign of electric charge Q, baryon number B, strangeness S, charm c,

bottomness b, and topness t. Other properties of quarks are shown in Table 43-3. FIGURE 43-15 Quark

A ll hadrons are considered to be made up of combinations of quarks (plus the compositions for several particles.

gluons that hold them together), and their properties are described by looking at

their quark content. Mesons consist of a quark-antiquark pair. For example,

a 7r+ meson is a ud combination: note that for the ud pair (Table 43-3),

Q = \ e + \ e = + le , B = \ — \ = 0, 5 = 0 + 0 = 0, as they must for a 7r+;

and a K + = us, with Q = +1, B = 0, S = +1.

Baryons, on the other hand, consist of three quarks. For example, a neutron is

n = ddu, whereas an antiproton is p = u u d . See Fig. 43-15. Strange particles

all contain an s or s quark, whereas charmed particles contain a c or c quark. A

few of these hadrons are listed in Table 43-4.

A fter the quark theory was proposed, physicists began looking for these frac

tionally charged particles, but direct detection has not been successful. Current

models suggest that quarks may be so tightly bound together that they may not

ever exist singly in the free state. But observations of very high energy electrons

scattered off protons suggest that protons are indeed made up of constituents.

Today, the truly fundamental particles are considered to be the six quarks,

the six leptons, and the gauge bosons that carry the fundamental forces. See

Table 43-5, where the quarks and leptons are arranged in three “ families” or

“ generations.” Ordinary matter— atoms made of protons, neutrons, and electrons—

is contained in the “ first generation.” The others are thought to have existed in

the very early universe, but are seen by us today only at powerful accelerators

or in cosmic rays. A ll of the hundreds of hadrons can be accounted for by combi

nations of the six quarks and six antiquarks.

I

EXERCISE D Return to the Chapter-Opening Questions, page 1164, and answer them again

now. Try to explain why you may have answered differently the first time.

First Second Third

Gauge bosons Force generation generation generation

Gluons Strong Quarks u, d s, c b, t

W±,z 0 Weak Leptons e, ve /A, Vp T, VT

7 (photon) EM

fThe quarks and leptons are arranged into three generations each.

CONCEPTUAL EXAMPLE 45-91 Quark combinations. Find the baryon

number, charge, and strangeness for the following quark combinations, and identify

the hadron particle that is made up of these quark combinations: (a) udd, (b ) uu,

(c) uss, (d ) sdd, and ( e) bu.

RESPONSE We use Table 43-3 to get the properties of the quarks, then

Table 43-2 or 43-4 to find the particle that has these properties.

(a) udd has

Q = + \e - \e ~ \e = 0,

B = 5 + 5 + 5 = 1,

5 = 0 + 0 + 0 = 0,

as well as c = 0, bottomness = 0, topness = 0. The only baryon (B = +1)

that has Q = 0, S = 0, etc., is the neutron (Table 43-2).

(b) uu has Q = \ e — \ e = 0, B = \ — \ = 0, and all other quantum

numbers = 0. Sounds like a i r° (dd also gives a 7r°).

(c) uss has Q = 0, B = +1, S = -2 , others = 0. This is a H°.

((d) sdd has Q = -1 , B = +1, S = -1 , so must be a 2 _.

(ie) bu has Q = -1 , B = 0, 5 = 0, c = 0, bottomness = — 1, topness = 0.

This must be a B“ meson (Table 43-4).

| EXERCISE E What is the quark composition of a KT meson?

Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and

Electroweak Theory

Not long after the quark theory was proposed, it was suggested that quarks have

another property (or quality) called color, or “ color charge” (analogous to electric

charge). The distinction between the six types of quark (u, d, s, c, b, t) was referred

to as flavor. According to theory, each of the flavors of quark can have three

colors, usually designated red, green, and blue. (These are the three primary colors

which, when added together in appropriate amounts, as on a TV screen, produce

white.) Note that the names “ color” and “ flavor” have nothing to do with our

senses, but are purely whimsical— as are other names, such as charm, in this new

field. (We did, however, “ color” the quarks in Fig. 43-15.) The antiquarks are

colored antired, antigreen, and antiblue. Baryons are made up of three quarks, one

of each color. Mesons consist of a quark-antiquark pair of a particular color and

its anticolor. Both baryons and mesons are thus colorless or white.

Originally, the idea of quark color was proposed to preserve the Pauli exclu

sion principle (Section 39-4). Not all particles obey the exclusion principle. Those

that do, such as electrons, protons, and neutrons, are called fermions. Those that

don’t are called bosons. These two categories are distinguished also in their spin

(Section 39-2): bosons have integer spin (0,1,2, etc.) whereas fermions have half

integer spin, usually \ as for electrons and nucleons, but other fermions have

spin | , f , etc. M atter is made up mainly of fermions, but the carriers of the forces

(7, W, Z, and gluons) are all bosons. Quarks are fermions (they have spin \) and

therefore should obey the exclusion principle. Yet for three particular baryons

(uuu, ddd, and sss), all three quarks would have the same quantum numbers, and

at least two quarks have their spin in the same direction (since there are only two

choices, spin up [m s = + or spin down [m s = — | ] ). This would seem to violate

the exclusion principle; but if quarks have an additional quantum number (color),

which is different for each quark, it would serve to distinguish them and allow the

exclusion principle to hold. Although quark color, and the resulting threefold

increase in the number of quarks, was originally an ad hoc idea, it also served to

bring the theory into better agreement with experiment, such as predicting the

correct lifetime of the ir° meson, and the measured rate of hadron production in

observed e+e” collisions at accelerators. The idea of color soon became a central feature

1184 CHAPTER 43 of the theory as determining the force binding quarks together in a hadron.

u (blue) d (red)

Gluon

u (red) d (blue)

(a) (b) (c)

FIGURE 43-16 (a) The force between two quarks holding them together as part of a proton, for example, is

carried by a gluon, which in this case involves a change in color, (b) Strong interaction n + p —» n + p with

the exchange of a charged tt meson (+ or - , depending on whether it is considered moving to the left or to the

right), (c) Quark representation of the same interaction n + p —» n + p. The blue coiled lines between

quarks represent gluon exchanges holding the hadrons together. (The exchanged meson may be regarded as ud

emitted by the n and absorbed by the p, or as ud emitted by p and absorbed by n, because a u (or d) quark

going to the left in the diagram is equivalent to a u (or d) going to the right.)

Each quark is assumed to carry a color charge, analogous to electric charge,

and the strong force between quarks is referred to as the color force. This theory

of the strong force is called quantum chromodynamics (chroma = color in Greek),

or QCD, to indicate that the force acts between color charges (and not between,

say, electric charges). The strong force between two hadrons is considered to be a

force between the quarks that make them up, as suggested in Fig. 43-16. The parti

cles that transmit the color force (analogous to photons for the EM force) are

called gluons (a play on “ glue” ). They are included in Tables 43-2 and 43-5. There

are eight gluons, according to the theory, all massless and all have color charged

You might ask what would happen if we try to see a single quark with color by

reaching deep inside a hadron and extracting a single quark. Quarks are so tightly

bound to other quarks that extracting one would require a tremendous amount of

energy, so much that it would be sufficient to create more quarks (E = m e1).

Indeed, such experiments are done at modern particle colliders and all we get is

more hadrons (quark-antiquark pairs, or triplets, which we observe as mesons or

baryons), never an isolated quark. This property of quarks, that they are always

bound in groups that are colorless, is called confinement.

The color force has the interesting property that, as two quarks approach each

other very closely (equivalently, have high energy), the force between them

becomes small. This aspect is referred to as asymptotic freedom.

The weak force, as we have seen, is thought to be mediated by the W +, W - ,

and Z° particles. It acts between the “ weak charges” that each particle has. Each

elementary particle can thus have electric charge, weak charge, color charge, and

gravitational mass, although one or more of these could be zero. For example, all FIGURE 43-17 Quark

leptons have color charge of zero, so they do not interact via the strong force. representation of the Feynman

diagram for fi decay of a neutron

CONCEPTUAL EXAMPLE 45-10 I Beta decay. Draw a Feynman diagram, into a proton.

showing what happens in beta decay using quarks.

RESPONSE Beta decay is a result of the weak interaction, and the mediator is

either a W 1 or Z° particle. What happens, in part, is that a neutron (udd quarks)

decays into a proton (uud). Apparently a d quark (charge — \e ) has turned into a

u quark (charge + \ e ) . Charge conservation means that a negatively charged

particle, namely a W “ , was emitted by the d quark. Since an electron and an anti

neutrino appear in the final state, they must have come from the decay of the

virtual W “ , as shown in Fig. 43-17.

Compare to the EM interaction, where the photon has no electric charge. Because gluons have color

charge, they could attract each other and form composite particles (photons cannot). Such “glueballs” n

are being searched for.

SECTION 43-1 0 The "Standard Model": Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and Electroweak Theory 1185

To summarize, the Standard Model says that the truly fundamental particles

(Table 43-5) are the leptons, the quarks, and the gauge bosons (photon, W and Z,

and the gluons). The photon, leptons, W +, W - , and Z° have all been observed in

experiments. But so far only combinations of quarks (baryons and mesons) have

been observed, and it seems likely that free quarks and gluons are unobservable.

One important aspect of theoretical work is the attempt to find a unified basis

for the different forces in nature. This was a long-held hope of Einstein, which he

was never able to fu lfill. A so-called gauge theory that unifies the weak and elec

tromagnetic interactions was put forward in the 1960s by S. Weinberg, S. Glashow,

and A. Salam. In this electroweak theory, the weak and electromagnetic forces are

seen as two different manifestations of a single, more fundamental, electroweak

interaction. The electroweak theory has had many successes, including the

prediction of the W * particles as carriers of the weak force, with masses

of 80.38 + 0.02GeV/c2 in excellent agreement with the measured values of

80.403 + 0.029 G eV/c2 (and similar accuracy for the Z°).

The combination of electroweak theory plus QCD for the strong interaction is

often referred to today as the Standard Model.

EXAMPLE 43-11 ESTIMATE! Range of weak force. The weak nuclear force

is of very short range, meaning it acts over only a very short distance. Estimate

its range using the masses (Table 43-2) of the W * and Z: m « 80 or

90 G eV/c2 « 102G eV/c2.

APPROACH We assume the W * or Z° exchange particles can exist for a time A t

given by the uncertainty principle, A t ~ h /A E , where A E ~ m e2 is the energy

needed to create the virtual particle (W ±, Z) that carries the weak force.

SOLUTION Let Ax be the distance the virtual W or Z can move before it must

be reabsorbed w ithin the time A t « h /A E . To find an upper lim it on A x , and

hence the maximum range of the weak force, we let the W or Z travel close to

the speed of light, so Ax ^ c At. Recalling that 1 GeV = 1.6 X 10-10 J, then

Ch (3 x 108m /s)(l0 -34J-s)

Ax S C A t ~ —— ~ 7— ^------- 77--------------— ;------ r ss 10 15m.

AE (10 G eV)(l.6 X 10 J/G eV)

This is indeed a very small range.

NOTE Compare this to the range of the electromagnetic force whose range is

infinite (1 /r 2 never becomes zero for any finite r), which makes sense because

the mass of its virtual exchange particle, the photon, is zero (in the denominator

of the above equation).

We did a similar calculation for the strong force in Section 43-2, and esti

mated the mass of the tt meson as exchange particle between nucleons, based on

the apparent range of 10-15 m (size of nuclei). This is only one aspect of the strong

force. In our deeper view, namely the color force between quarks within a

nucleon, the gluons have zero mass, which implies (see the formula above in

Example 43-11) infinite range. We might have expected a range of about 10-15 m;

but according to the Standard Model, the color force is weak at very close distances

and increases greatly with distance (causing quark confinement). Thus its range

could be infinite.

Theoreticians have wondered why the W and Z have large masses rather than

being massless like the photon. Electroweak theory suggests an explanation by

means of an hypothesized Higgs field and its particle, the Higgs boson, which

interact with the W and Z to “ slow them down.” In being forced to go slower

than the speed of light, they would have to have mass (m = 0 only if v = c).

Indeed, the Higgs is thought to permeate the vacuum (“ empty space” ) and to perhaps

confer mass on all particles with mass by slowing them down. The search for

the Higgs boson w ill be a priority for experimental particle physicists when

CERN’s Large Hadron Collider (Section 43-1) starts running. So far, searches

suggest the Higgs mass is greater than 115 G eV/c2. Yet it is expected to have a mass

no larger than 1 TeV /c2. We are narrowing in on it.

43—11 Grand Unified Theories

The Standard Model, for all its success, cannot explain some important issues—

such as why the charge on the electron has exactly the same magnitude as the

charge on the proton. This is crucial, because if the charge magnitudes were even a

little different, atoms would not be neutral and the resulting large electric forces

would surely have made life impossible. Indeed, the Standard Model is now

considered to be a low-energy approximation to a more complete theory.

With the success of unified electroweak theory, theorists are trying to incorporate

it and QCD for the strong (color) force into a so-called grand unified theory (GUT).

One type of such a grand unified theory of the electromagnetic,

weak, and strong forces has been worked out in which there is only one class of

particle— leptons and quarks belong to the same family and are able to change

freely from one type to the other— and the three forces are different aspects of a

single underlying force. The unity is predicted to occur, however, only on a scale of

less than about 10“ 31m, corresponding to a typical particle energy of about

1016GeV. If two elementary particles (leptons or quarks) approach each other to

within this unification scale, the apparently fundamental distinction between them

would not exist at this level, and a quark could readily change to a lepton, or vice

versa. Baryon and lepton numbers would not be conserved. The weak, electromag

netic, and strong (color) force would blend to a force of a single strength.

What happens between the unification distance of 10-31 m and more normal

(larger) distances is referred to as symmetry breaking. As an analogy, consider an

atom in a crystal. Deep within the atom, there is much symmetry— in the innermost

regions the electron cloud is spherically symmetric (Chapter 39). Farther out, this

symmetry breaks down— the electron clouds are distributed preferentially along

the lines (bonds) joining the atoms in the crystal. In a similar way, at 10“ 31m

the force between elementary particles is theorized to be a single force— it is

symmetrical and does not single out one type of “ charge” over another. But at

larger distances, that symmetry is broken and we see three distinct forces. (In the

“ Standard Model” of electroweak interactions, Section 43-10, the symmetry breaking

between the electromagnetic and the weak interactions occurs at about 1 0 18m.)

CONCEPTUAL EXAMPLE 45-12 I Symmetry. The table in Fig. 43-18 has four

identical place settings. Four people sit down to eat. Describe the symmetry of this

table and what happens to it when someone starts the meal.

RESPONSE The table has several kinds of symmetry. It is symmetric to rotations

of 90°: that is, the table w ill look the same if everyone moved one chair to the left

or to the right. It is also north-south symmetric and east-west symmetric, so that

swaps across the table don’t affect the way the table looks. It also doesn’t matter

whether any person picks up the fork to the left of the plate or the fork to the

right. But once that first person picks up either fork, the choice is set for all the

rest at the table as well. The symmetry has been broken. The underlying symmetry

is still there— the blue glasses could still be chosen either way— but some choice FIGURE 43-18 Symmetry around

must get made and at that moment the symmetry of the diners is broken. a table. Example 43-12.

falling. Standing, it looks the same from any horizontal direction. From above, it is a

tiny circle. But when it falls to the table, it points in one particular direction— the

symmetry is broken.

Proton Decay

Since unification is thought to occur at such tiny distances and huge energies,

the theory is difficult to test experimentally. But it is not completely impossible.

One testable prediction is the idea that the proton might decay (via, for example,

p —> 7T° + e+) and violate conservation of baryon number. This could happen if

two quarks approached to within 10 31m of each other. But it is very unlikely at

normal temperature and energy, so the decay of a proton can only be an unlikely process.

In the simplest form of GUT, the theoretical estimate of the proton

mean life for the decay mode p —> 7r° + e+ is about 1031yr, and this is now

within the realm of testability/ Proton decays have still not been seen, and experi

ments put the lower lim it on the proton mean life for the above mode to be about

1033yr, somewhat greater than this prediction. This may seem a disappointment,

but on the other hand, it presents a challenge. Indeed more complex GUTs are not

affected by this result.

EXAMPLE 43-13 ESTIMATE! Proton decay. An experiment uses 3300 tons

of water waiting to see a proton decay of the type p — >• 7r + e . If the

experiment is run for 4 years without detecting a decay, estimate the lower lim it

on the proton mean life.

APPROACH As with radioactive decay, the number of decays is proportional to

the number of parent species (AT), the time interval (A t), and the decay constant

(A) which is related to the mean life r by (see Eqs. 41-4 and 41-9a):

N At

AN = - \ N A t = -

N At

T AN '

Thus for A N < 1 over the four-year trial,

r > N ( 4 yr),

where N is the number of protons in 3300 tons of water. To determine N, we note

that each molecule of H 20 contains 2 + 8 = 10 protons. So one mole of water

(18 g, 6 X 1023molecules) contains 10 X 6 X 1023 protons in 18 g of water, or

about 3 X 1026 protons per kilogram. One ton is 103kg, so the chamber contains

(3.3 X 106kg)(3 X 1026protons/kg) « 1 X 1033protons. Then our very rough esti

mate for a lower lim it on the proton mean life is r > (1033)(4 yr) « 4 X 1033yr.

FIGURE 4 3 -1 9 Time and energy

plot of the four fundamental forces,

unified at the Planck time, and how GUT and Cosmology

each condensed out. The symbol

^abu = time after the birth of the An interesting prediction of unified theories relates to cosmology (Chapter 44).

universe. Note that the typical It is thought that during the first 10-35 s after the theorized Big Bang that created the

particle energy (and average universe, the temperature was so extremely high that particles had energies

temperature of the universe) corresponding to the unification scale. Baryon number would not have been

decreases to the right, as time after conserved then, perhaps allowing an imbalance that might account for the observed

the Big Bang increases. We discuss predominance of matter (B > 0) over antimatter (B < 0) in the universe. The fact

the Big Bang in the next Chapter. that we are surrounded by matter, with no significant antimatter in sight, is considered

a problem in search of an explanation (not given by the Standard Model). See also

Grand Chapter 44. We call this the matter-antimatter problem. To understand it may require

Unification

Planck qUT still undiscovered phenomena— perhaps related to quarks or neutrinos, or the Higgs

time

boson or supersymmetry (next Section).

This last example is interesting, for it illustrates a deep connection between

investigations at either end of the size scale: theories about the tiniest objects

(elementary particles) have a strong bearing on the understanding of the universe

on a large scale. We w ill look at this more in the next Chapter.

Figure 43-19 is a rough diagram indicating how the four fundamental forces in

nature “ condensed out” (a symmetry was broken) as time went on after the Big

Energy (GeV) Bang (Chapter 44), and as the mean temperature of the universe and the typical

T(K) 1033 particle energy decreased.

*abu(s) 10~43 S

fThis is much larger than the age of the universe (« 14 X 109yr). But we don’t have to wait 1031yr to

see. Instead we can wait for one decay among 1031 protons over a year (see Eqs. 41-4 and 41-9a,

AN = \N At = N A t/ t ).

4 3 —12 Strings and Supersymmetry

We have seen that the Standard Model is unable to address important experimental

issues, and that theoreticians are attacking the problem as experimenters search for

new data, new particles, new concepts.

Even more ambitious than grand unified theories are attempts to also incorporate

gravity, and thus unify all four forces in nature into a single theory. (Such theories

are sometimes referred to misleadingly as theories of everything.) There are

consistent theories that attempt to unify all four forces called string theories,

in which each fundamental particle (Table 43-5) is imagined not as a point but as a

one-dimensional string, perhaps 10 35m long, which vibrates in a particular standing

wave pattern. (You might say each particle is a different note on a tiny stretched

string.) More sophisticated theories propose the fundamental entities as being

multidimensional branes (after 2-D membranes).

A related idea that also goes way beyond the Standard Model is supersymmetry,

which applied to strings is known as superstring theory. Supersymmetry,

developed by Bruno Zumino (1923- ) and Julius Wess (1934-2007), predicts that

interactions exist that would change fermions into bosons and vice versa, and

that each known fermion would have a supersymmetric boson partner of the

same mass. Thus, for each quark (a ferm ion), there would be a squark

(a boson) or “ supersymmetric” quark. For every lepton there would be a slepton.

Likewise, for every known boson (photons and gluons, for example), there would

be a supersymmetric fermion (photinos and gluinos). Supersymmetry predicts also

that a graviton, which transmits the gravity force, has a partner, the gravitino. Super-

symmetric particles are sometimes called “ SUSYs” for short, and are a candidate

for the “ dark matter” of the universe (discussed in Chapter 44). But why hasn’t this

“missing part” of the universe ever been detected? The best guess is that supersym

metric particles might be heavier than their conventional counterparts, perhaps too

heavy to have been produced in today’s accelerators. A search for supersymmetric

particles is already in the works for CERN’s new Large Hadron Collider.

Versions of supersymmetry predict other interesting properties, such as that space

has 11 dimensions, but 7 of them are “ coiled up” so we normally only notice the

4-D of space-time. We would like to know if and how many extra dimensions

there are, and how and why they are hidden. We hope to have some answers from

the new LHC and the future ILC (Section 43-1).

The world of elementary particles is opening new vistas. What happens in the

future is bound to be exciting.

Summary

Particle accelerators are used to accelerate charged particles, such Just as the electromagnetic force can be said to be due to

as electrons and protons, to very high energy. High-energy particles an exchange of photons, the strong nuclear force is carried by

have short wavelength and so can be used to probe the structure of massless gluons. The W and Z particles carry the weak force.

matter in great detail (very small distances). High kinetic energy also These fundamental force carriers (photon, W and Z, gluons) are

allows the creation of new particles through collisions (via E = me2). called gauge bosons.

Cyclotrons and synchrotrons use a magnetic field to keep Other particles can be classified as either leptons or hadrons.

the particles in a circular path and accelerate them at intervals Leptons participate only in gravity, the weak, and the electromagnetic

by high voltage. Linear accelerators accelerate particles along a interactions. Hadrons, which today are considered to be made up

line. Colliding beams allow higher interaction energy. of quarks, participate in all four interactions, including the strong

An antiparticle has the same mass as a particle but opposite interaction. The hadrons can be classified as mesons, with baryon

charge. Certain other properties may also be opposite: for number zero, and baryons, with nonzero baryon number.

example, the antiproton has baryon number (nucleon number) All particles, except for the photon, electron, neutrinos, and

opposite (B = - 1 ) to that for the proton (B = + 1). proton, decay with measurable mean lives varying from 10-25 s to

In all nuclear and particle reactions, the following conserva 103 s. The mean life depends on which force is predominant. Weak

tion laws hold: momentum, angular momentum, mass-energy, decays usually have mean lives greater than about 10-13 s. Electro

electric charge, baryon number, and lepton numbers. magnetic decays typically have mean lives on the order of 1 0 16 to

Certain particles have a property called strangeness, which 10-19 s. The shortest lived particles, called resonances, decay via

is conserved by the strong force but not by the weak force. The the strong interaction and live typically for only about 1 0 23 s.

properties charm, bottomness, and topness also are conserved Today’s Standard Model of elementary particles considers

by the strong force but not by the weak force. quarks as the basic building blocks of the hadrons. The six quark

Summary 1189

“ flavors” are called up, down, strange, charmed, bottom, and Grand unified theories of forces suggest that at very short

top. It is expected that there are the same number of quarks as distance (lO-31 m) and very high energy, the weak, electromag

leptons (six of each), and that quarks and leptons are the truly netic, and strong forces appear as a single force, and the

fundamental particles along with the gauge bosons (7, W, Z, fundamental difference between quarks and leptons disappears.

gluons). Quarks are said to have color, and, according to According to string theory, the fundamental particles may

quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the strong color force acts be tiny strings, 10-35m long, distinguished by their standing

between their color charges and is transmitted by gluons. wave pattern. Supersymmetry hypothesizes that each fermion (or

Electroweak theory views the weak and electromagnetic forces boson) has a corresponding boson (or fermion) partner.

as two aspects of a single underlying interaction. QCD plus the

electroweak theory are referred to as the Standard Model.

Questions

1. Give a reaction between two nucleons, similar to Eq. 43-4, 11. The A baryon has spin §> baryon number 1, and charge

that could produce a . Q = +2, +1, 0, or -l.W h y is there no charge state Q = - 2 1

2. If a proton is moving at very high speed, so that its kinetic 12. Which of the particle decays in Table 43-4 occur via the

energy is much greater than its rest energy (me2), can it then electromagnetic interaction?

decay via p —> n + 7r+?

13. Which of the particle decays in Table 43-4 occur by the

3. What would an “ antiatom,” made up of the antiparticles to

weak interaction?

the constituents of normal atoms, consist of? What might

happen if antimatter, made of such antiatoms, came in 14. Quarks have spin How do you account fo r the fact

contact with our normal world of matter? that baryons have spin \ or §, and mesons have spin 0 or 1?

4. What particle in a decay signals the electromagnetic interaction? 15. Suppose there were a kind of “ neutrinolet” that was mass

5. (a) Does the presence of a neutrino among the decay products less, had no color charge or electrical charge, and did not feel

of a particle necessarily mean that the decay occurs via the the weak force. Could you say that this particle even exists?

weak interaction? (b) Do all decays via the weak interaction 16. Is it possible for a particle to be both (a) a lepton and a

produce a neutrino? Explain. baryon? ( b ) a baryon and a hadron? (c) a meson and a

6. Why is it that a neutron decays via the weak interaction quark? (d) a hadron and a lepton? Explain.

even though the neutron and one of its decay products 17. Using the ideas of quantum chromodynamics, would it be

(proton) are strongly interacting? possible to find particles made up of two quarks and no

7. Which of the four interactions (strong, electromagnetic, weak, antiquarks? What about two quarks and two antiquarks?

gravitational) does an electron take part in? A neutrino? A proton?

18. Why can neutrons decay when they are free, but not when

8. Check that charge and baryon number are conserved in they are inside a stable nucleus?

each of the decays in Table 43-2.

19. Is the reaction e“ + p —> n + ve possible? Explain.

9. Which of the particle decays listed in Table 43-2 occur via the

electromagnetic interaction? 20. Occasionally, the A w ill decay by the following reaction:

10. Which of the particle decays listed in Table 43-2 occur by the A0 — » p+ + e“ + ve. Which of the four forces in nature is

weak interaction? responsible for this decay? How do you know?

| Problems

43 -1 Particles and Accelerators 9. (II) What magnetic field is required for the 7.0-TeV protons

1. (I) What is the total energy of a proton whose kinetic in the 4.25-km-radius Large Hadron Collider (LHC)?

energy is 4.65 GeV? 10. (II) A cyclotron with a radius of 1.0 m is to accelerate

deuterons (2H ) to an energy of 12 MeV. (fl) What is the

2. (I) Calculate the wavelength of 28-GeV electrons. required magnetic field? (b) What frequency is needed for

3. (I) What strength of magnetic field is used in a cyclotron in the voltage between the dees? (c) If the potential difference

which protons make 3.1 X 107 revolutions per second? between the dees averages 22 kV, how many revolutions w ill

4. (I) What is the time for one complete revolution for a very the particles make before exiting? ( d ) How much time does

high-energy proton in the 1.0-km-radius Fermilab accelerator? it take for one deuteron to go from start to exit? (e) Esti

5. (I) If a particles are accelerated by the cyclotron of mate how far it travels during this time.

Example 43-2, what must be the frequency of the voltage 11. (II) What is the wavelength (= minimum resolvable

applied to the dees? size) of 7.0-TeV protons?

6. (II) (a) If the cyclotron of Example 43-2 accelerated 12. (II) The 1.0-km radius Fermilab Tevatron takes about

a particles, what maximum energy could they attain? 20 seconds to bring the energies of the stored protons from

What would their speed be? ( b ) Repeat for deuterons (2H). 150 GeV to 1.0 TeV. The acceleration is done once per turn.

(c) In each case, what frequency of voltage is required? Estimate the energy given to the protons on each turn. (You

can assume that the speed of the protons is essentially c the

7. (II) Which is better for resolving details of the nucleus: whole time.)

25-MeV alpha particles or 25-MeV protons? Compare each 13. (II) Show that the energy of a particle (charge e) in a

of their wavelengths with the size of a nucleon in a nucleus. synchrotron, in the relativistic lim it {v ~ c), is given by

8. (II) What magnetic field intensity is needed at the 1.0-km- E (in eV) = Brc, where B is the magnetic field and

radius Fermilab synchrotron for 1.0-TeV protons? r is the radius of the orbit (SI units).

1190 CHAPTER 43 Elementary Particles

43 -2 to 4 3 -6 Particle Interactions, Particle Exchange 29. (II) Calculate the kinetic energy of each of the two products in

14. (I) A bout how much energy is released when a A0 decays to the decay E - — ► A0 + 77 . Assume the a ~ decays from rest.

n + 77°? (See Table 43-2.) 30. (II) Antiprotons can be produced when a proton with suffi

15. (I) How much energy is released in the decay cient energy hits a stationary proton. Even if there is enough

energy, which of the following reactions w ill not happen?

w + - y /*+ + v j

See Table 43-2. P + P P + P

16. (I) Estimate the range o f the strong force if the mediating p + p ^ p + p + p

particle were the kaon in place o f a pion. P + P - > P + P + P + P

17. (I) How much energy is required to produce a neutron- p + p — > p + e+ + e+ + p

antineutron pair? 31. ( Ill) Calculate the maximum kinetic energy o f the electron

18. (II) Determine the energy released when 2 ° decays to A0 when a muon decays from rest via /jl~ — » e_ + ve + v^.

and then to a proton. [Hint: In what direction do the two neutrinos move relative

19. (II) Two protons are heading toward each other w ith equal to the electron in order to give the electron the maximum

speeds. W hat minimum kinetic energy must each have if a kinetic energy? Both energy and momentum are conserved;

77° meson is to be created in the process? (See Table 43-2.) use relativistic formulas.]

20. (II) What minimum kinetic energy must two neutrons each 32. ( Ill) Could a 77+ meson be produced if a 110-MeV proton

have if they are traveling at the same speed toward each struck a proton at rest? What minimum kinetic energy must

other, collide, and produce a K +K “ pair in addition to the incoming proton have?

themselves? (See Table 43-2.)

21. (II) For the decay K° — > tt~ + e+ + v e , determine the 43 -7 to 43-11 Resonances, Standard Model,

maximum kinetic energy of (a) the positron, and ( b ) the tt~.

Quarks, QCD, GUT

Assume the K° is at rest. 33. (I) The mean life of the 2 ° particle is 7 X IO-20 s. What is the

22. (II) What are the wavelengths of the two photons produced uncertainty in its rest energy? Express your answer in M eV.

when a proton and antiproton at rest annihilate? 34. (I) The measured width of the if/ (3686) meson is about 300 keV.

23. (II) The A0 cannot decay by the follow ing reactions. What Estimate its mean life.

conservation laws are violated in each of the reactions? 35. (I) The measured w idth of the J /ij/ meson is 88keV. E sti

(a) A0 n + tt~ mate its mean life.

0b ) A0 p + K“ 36. (I) The B_ meson is a bu quark combination, (a) Show that

this is consistent fo r all quantum numbers. ( b ) What are the

(C ) A0 \ > 77+ + 77“

quark combinations fo r B+, B°, B°?

24. (II) For the decay A0 — ► p + tt~, calculate (a) the Q-value 37. (I) W hat is the energy w idth (or uncertainty) o f (a) r f , and

(energy released), and (b) the kinetic energy of the p and tt~, (Z>)p+? See Table 43-2.

assuming the A0 decays from rest. (Use relativistic 38. (II) W hich o f the follow ing decays are possible? For those

formulas.) that are forbidden, explain which laws are violated.

25. (II) (a) Show, by conserving momentum and energy, that it (a) H° 2 + + 77“

is impossible fo r an isolated electron to radiate only a single (b) Cl~ —> 2 ° + 77_ + v

photon, (b) W ith this result in mind, how can you defend the

(c) 2 ° — » A0 + y + y

photon exchange diagram in Fig. 43-8?

26. (II) W hat would be the wavelengths of the two photons 39. (II) What quark combinations produce (a) a H° baryon and

produced when an electron and a positron, each w ith (b) a a ~ baryon?

420 keV o f kinetic energy, annihilate in a head-on collision? 40. (II) W hat are the quark combinations that can form (a) a

neutron, ( b ) an antineutron, (c) a A0, (d) a 2°?

27. (II) In the rare decay 77+ — > e+ + v e , what is the kinetic

energy o f the positron? Assume the 77+ decays from rest. 41. (II) W hat particles do the follow ing quark combinations

produce: (a) uud, ( b ) u u s, (c) us, (d ) du, ( e ) cs?

28. (II) Which o f the following reactions and decays are

42. (II) W hat is the quark combination needed to produce a

possible? For those forbidden, explain what laws are violated.

D ° meson (Q = B = S = Q, c = +1)?

(a) 77_ + p — >• n + 17°

43. (II) The D j meson has S = c = +1, B = 0. W hat quark

(b) 77+ + p — >• n + 77° combination would produce it?

(c) 77+ + p — >• p + e+ 44. (II) Draw a possible Feynman diagram using quarks (as in

(d) p e+ + v e Fig. 43-16c) fo r the reaction 77“ + p —> 770 + n.

(e) /!+ -»• e+ + 45. (II) Draw a Feynman diagram fo r the reaction

(J) p -> n + e+ + n + Vp -> p + /x“ .

| General Problems__________

46. The mean lifetimes listed in Table 43-2 are in terms of p rop er 47. Assume there are 5.0 X 1013 protons at 1.0 TeV stored in

time, measured in a reference frame where the particle is at the 1.0-km-radius ring of the Tevatron. (a) How much

rest. I f a tau lepton is created w ith a kinetic energy of current (amperes) is carried by this beam? ( b ) How fast

950 MeV, how long would its track be as measured in the would a 1500-kg car have to move to carry the same kinetic

lab, on average, ignoring any collisions? energy as this beam?

General Problems 1191

48. ( a ) How much energy is released when an electron and a 59. A proton and an antiproton annihilate each other at rest

positron annihilate each other? (b) How much energy is and produce two pions, 77“ and 77+. W hat is the kinetic

released when a proton and an antiproton annihilate each energy o f each pion?

other? (A ll particles have K « 0.) 60. For the reaction p + p — » 3p + p, where one of the in itia l

49. Protons are injected into the 1.0-km-radius Fermilab Teva- protons is at rest, use relativistic formulas to show that the

tron w ith an energy o f 150 GeV. I f they are accelerated threshold energy is 6mp c2, equal to three times the magni

by 2.5 M V each revolution, how far do they travel and tude of the Q-value o f the reaction, where mp is the proton

approximately how long does it take fo r them to reach mass. [H in t Assume all final particles have the same

1.0 TeV? velocity.]

50. Which of the following reactions are possible, and by what 61. W hat is the total energy o f a proton whose kinetic energy

interaction could they occur? For those forbidden, explain why. is 15 GeV? What is its wavelength?

(a ) 77_ + p —> K° + p + 77° 62. A t about what kinetic energy (in eV) can the rest energy of

(b) K - + p — » A0 + 77° a proton be ignored when calculating its wavelength, if the

(c) K + + n - ► 2+ + 77° + 7 wavelength is to be w ithin 1.0% o f its true value? What are

the corresponding wavelength and speed o f the proton?

(d) K + — » 77° + 77° + 77+

(e) 77+ e+ + ve 63. Use the quark model to describe the reaction

51. Which of the following reactions are possible, and by what p + n —> 77_ + 77°.

interaction could they occur? For those forbidden, explain why. 64. Identify the missing particle in the follow ing reactions.

(a) 77“ + p K+ + 2 “ (a )p + p — » p + n + 77+ + ?

0b ) 77+ + p K+ + 2 + (b) p + ? —► n + /jl+

(c) 77“ + p —> A° + K° + 77°

65. W hat fraction of the speed o f light c is the speed o f a

(d) 77+ + p — > 2 ° + 77°

7.0-TeV proton?

(e) 77_ + p —> p + e_ + Vq

66. A particle at rest, w ith a rest energy of m e 2, decays into

52. One decay mode fo r a 77+ is 77+ —> /a+ + v ^ . W hat would two fragments w ith rest energies o f m i c 2 and m2c2. Show

be the equivalent decay fo r a tt~1 Check conservation laws. that the kinetic energy o f fragment 1 is

53. Symmetry breaking occurs in the electroweak theory at

about 10-18 m. Show that this corresponds to an energy that Kl = - ^ [ K - * h c 2)2 - f o * 2)2]-

is on the order o f the mass o f the W * .

54. Calculate the 0-value fo r each o f the reactions, Eq. 43-4,

fo r producing a pion. * Numerical/Computer

55. How many fundamental fermions are there in a water * 67. (II) In a particle physics experiment to determine the mean

molecule? lifetim e o f muons, the muons enter a scintillator and decay.

56. The mass o f a 770 can be measured by observing the reaction Students have sampled the individual lifetim es of muons

77“ + p —> 77° + n at very low incident 77“ kinetic energy decaying w ithin a tim e interval between 1 /as and 10 /as after

(assume it is zero). The neutron is observed to be emitted being stopped in the scintillator. It is assumed that the

w ith a kinetic energy of 0.60 MeV. Use conservation of muons obey the radioactive decay law R = R q where

energy and momentum to determine the 770 mass. R 0 is the unknown activity at t = 0 and R is the activity

57. (a) Show that the so-called unification distance of 10-31 m (counts//As) at tim e t. Here is their data:

in grand unified theory is equivalent to an energy of Time (/xs) 1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5 5.5 6.5

about 1016GeV. Use the uncertainty principle, and also R (t) 55 35 23 18 12 5

de Broglie’s wavelength form ula, and explain how they

Make a graph of In ( R /R 0) versus tim e t (/as), and from the

apply, (b) Calculate the temperature corresponding to

best fit o f the graph to a straight line find the mean life t.

1016 GeV.

The accepted value of the mean life of the muon is

58. Calculate the Q-value for the reaction 77“ + p — ► A0 + K°, t = 2.19703 /as + 0.00004 /as. What is the percentage error

when negative pions strike stationary protons. Estimate the o f their result from the accepted value?

minimum pion kinetic energy needed to produce this reac

tion. [H in t Assume A0 and K° move o ff w ith the same

velocity.]

Answers to Exercises

A : 1.24 X 10“ 18m = 1.24 am. D : (c); (d).

B: w 2 X 103m/0.1 m « 104. E: su.

C: (a).

This map of the entire sky (WMAP) is color-coded to represent slight temperature variations in the almost

perfectly uniform 2.7-kelvin microwave background radiation that reaches us from all directions in the sky.

This latest version (2006) is providing detailed information on the origins of our universe and its structures.

The tiny temperature variations, red slightly hotter, blue slightly cooler (on the order of 1 part in 104) are

“quantum fluctuations” that are the seeds on which galaxies and clusters of galaxies eventually grew.

To discuss the nature of the universe as we understand it today, we examine the latest theories on how

stars and galaxies form and evolve, including the role of nucleosynthesis. We briefly discuss Einstein’s

general theory of relativity, which deals with gravity and curvature of space. We take a thorough look at the

evidence for the expansion of the universe, and the

Standard Model of the universe evolving

from an initial Big Bang. Finally we

point out some unsolved

problems, including the

nature of dark matter

dark energy that

make up most of our

Astrophysics and

Cosmology

CHAPTER-OPENING QUESTIOI — Guess now! CONTENTS

U ntil recently, astronomers expected the expansion rate of the universe would be 44-1 Stars and Galaxies

decreasing. Why? 44-2 Stellar Evolution: Nucleosynthesis,

(a) Friction. and the Birth and Death of Stars

(b) The second law of thermodynamics. 44-3 Distance Measurements

(c) Gravity. 44-4 General Relativity: Gravity

(d) The electromagnetic force. and the Curvature of Space

44-5 The Expanding Universe:

n the previous Chapter, we studied the tiniest objects in the universe— the

I elementary particles. Now we leap to the grandest objects in the universe—

stars, galaxies, and clusters of galaxies. These two extreme realms, elementary

Redshift and Hubble’s Law

44-6 The Big Bang and the

Cosmic Microwave

Background

particles and the cosmos, are among the most intriguing and exciting subjects

in science. And, surprisingly, these two extreme realms are related in a fundamental 44-7 The Standard Cosmological

way, as already hinted in Chapter 43. Model: Early History of the

Universe

Use of the techniques and ideas of physics to study the heavens is often referred

44-8 Inflation: Explaining

to as astrophysics. Central to our present theoretical understanding of the universe Flatness, Uniformity, and

(or cosmos) is Einstein’s general theory o f relativity which represents our most complete Structure

understanding of gravitation. Many other aspects of physics are involved, from electro 44-9 Dark Matter and

magnetism and thermodynamics to atomic and nuclear physics as well as elementary Dark Energy

particles. General Relativity serves also as the foundation for modem cosmology, which 44-10 Large-Scale Structure of the

is the study of the universe as a whole. Cosmology deals especially with the search for Universe

a theoretical framework to understand the observed universe, its origin, and its future. 44-11 Finally

1193

The questions posed by cosmology are profound and difficult; the possible

answers stretch the imagination. They are questions like “ Has the

universe always existed, or did it have a beginning in time?” Either alternative is

difficult to imagine: time going back indefinitely into the past, or an actual

moment when the universe began (but, then, what was there before?). And what

about the size of the universe? Is it infinite in size? It is hard to imagine infinity.

Or is it finite in size? This is also hard to imagine, for if the universe is finite, it

does not make sense to ask what is beyond it, because the universe is all there is.

In the last few years, so much progress has occurred in astrophysics and

cosmology that many scientists are calling recent work a “ Golden Age” for

cosmology. Our survey w ill be qualitative, but we w ill nonetheless touch on the

major ideas. We begin with a look at what can be seen beyond the Earth.

According to the ancients, the stars, except fo r the few that seemed to move

relative to the others (the planets), were fixed on a sphere beyond the last

planet. The universe was neatly self-contained, and we on Earth were at or

near its center. But in the centuries follow ing G alileo’s first telescopic observa

tions of the night sky in 1610, our view of the universe has changed dramatically.

We no longer place ourselves at the center, and we view the universe

as vastly larger. The distances involved are so great that we specify them

in terms of the time it takes light to travel the given distance: for

example, 1 light-second = (3.0 X 108m /s)(1.0s) = 3.0 X 108m = 300,000 km;

1 light-minute = 18 X 106km; and 1 light-year (ly) is

1 ly = (2.998 X 108m/s)(3.156 X 107s/yr)

= 9.46 X 1015m « 1013km.

For specifying distances to the Sun and Moon, we usually use meters or kilometers,

but we could specify them in terms of light. The Earth-M oon distance is

384,000 km, which is 1.281ight-seconds. The Earth-Sun distance is 1.50 X 10n m,

or 150,000,000 km; this is equal to 8.3 light-minutes. Far out in our solar system,

Pluto is about 6 X 109km from the Sun, or 6 X 10“ 4ly. The nearest star to us,

other than the Sun, is Proxima Centauri, about 4.3 ly away.

On a clear moonless night, thousands of stars of varying degrees of brightness

can be seen, as well as the long cloudy stripe known as the M ilky Way (Fig. 44-1).

Galileo first observed, with his telescope, that the M ilky Way is comprised of

countless individual stars. A century and a half later (about 1750), Thomas W right

suggested that the M ilky Way was a fla t disk of stars extending to great distances

in a plane, which we call the Galaxy (Greek for “ m ilky way” ).

Way. In (a), the thin line is the trail of

an artificial Earth satellite in this long

time exposure. The dark diagonal area

is due to dust absorption of visible

light, blocking the view. In (b) the

view is toward the center of the

Galaxy; taken in summer from Arizona.

(a) (b)

Our Galaxy has a diameter of almost 100,000 light-years and a thickness of

roughly 2000 ly. It has a bulging central “ nucleus” and spiral arms (Fig. 44-2). Our

Sun, which is a star like many others, is located about halfway from the galactic center

to the edge, some 26,000 ly from the center. Our Galaxy contains roughly 100 billion

(lO11) stars. The Sun orbits the galactic center approximately once every 250 million

years, so its speed is about 200km/s relative to the center of the Galaxy. The total

mass of all the stars in our Galaxy is estimated to be about 3 X 1041kg, which is

ordinary matter. In addition, there is strong evidence that our Galaxy is surrounded

by an invisible “ halo” of “ dark matter,” which we discuss in Section 44-9.

FIGURE 44-2 Our Galaxy, as it would appear from the -100,000 ly

outside: (a) “edge view,” in the plane of the disk; (b) “top view,”

looking down on the disk. (If only we could see it like this—

from the outside!) (c) Infrared photograph of the inner reaches

of the Milky Way, showing the central bulge and disk of our

Galaxy. This very wide angle photo taken from the COBE

satellite (Section 44-6) extends over 180° of sky, and to be

viewed properly it should be wrapped in a semicircle with your

eyes at the center. The white dots are nearby stars.

(c)

our Galaxy using the orbital data above for the Sun about the center

of the Galaxy. Assume that most of the mass of the Galaxy is concentrated near

the center of the Galaxy.

APPROACH We assume that the Sun (including our solar system) has total mass ra

and moves in a circular orbit about the center of the Galaxy (total mass M ), and that

the mass M can be considered as being located at the center of the Galaxy. We

then apply Newton’s second law, F = m a , with a being the centripetal accel

eration, a = v2/r , and F being the universal law of gravitation (Chapter 6).

SOLUTION Our Sun and solar system orbit the center of the Galaxy, according to the

best measurements as mentioned above, with a speed of about v = 200 km /s at a

distance from the Galaxy center of about r = 26,000 ly. We use Newton’s second law:

ma

v2

m—

r

where M is the mass of the Galaxy and m is the mass of our Sun and solar

system. Solving this, we find

rv 2 (26,000ly )(l0 16m /ly)(2 X 105m /s)2

M ~ ~G 6.67 X 10-11 N • m2/k g 2 ~ 2 X

NOTE In terms of numbers of stars, if they are like our Sun (ra = 2.0 X IO30 kg),

there would be about (2 X 1041kg)/(2 X 1030kg) « 1011 or on the order of

100 billion stars.

In addition to stars both within and outside the M ilky Way, we can see by

telescope many faint cloudy patches in the sky which were all referred to once as

“ nebulae” (Latin for “ clouds” ). A few of these, such as those in the constellations

Andromeda and Orion, can actually be discerned with the naked eye on a clear

night. Some are star clusters (Fig. 44-3), groups of stars that are so numerous

they appear to be a cloud. Others are glowing clouds of gas or dust (Fig. 44-4),

and it is for these that we now mainly reserve the word nebula. Most fascinating

are those that belong to a third category: they often have fairly regular elliptical

shapes and seem to be a great distance beyond our Galaxy. Immanuel Kant

(about 1755) seems to have been the first to suggest that these latter might be

circular disks, but appear elliptical because we see them at an angle, and are faint

because they are so distant. A t first it was not universally accepted that these

objects were extragalactic— that is, outside our Galaxy. The very large telescopes

FIGURE 4 4 -3 This globular star

constructed in the twentieth century revealed that individual stars could be

cluster is located in the constellation

resolved w ithin these extragalactic objects and that many contain spiral arms.

Hercules.

Edwin Hubble (1889-1953) did much of this observational work in the 1920s

using the 2.5-m (100-inch) telescope* on M t. Wilson near Los Angeles, California,

FIGURE 4 4 -4 This gaseous nebula, then the world’s largest. Hubble demonstrated that these objects were indeed

found in the constellation Carina, extragalactic because of their great distances. The distance to our nearest large

is about 9000 light-years from us. galaxy/ Andromeda, is over 2 m illion light-years, a distance 20 times greater than

the diameter of our Galaxy. It seemed logical that these nebulae must be galaxies

similar to ours. (Note that it is usual to capitalize the word “ galaxy” only when it

refers to our own.) Today it is thought there are roughly 1011 galaxies in the

observable universe— that is, roughly as many galaxies as there are stars in a

galaxy. See Fig. 44-5.

Many galaxies tend to be grouped in galaxy clusters held together by their

mutual gravitational attraction. There may be anywhere from a few to many

thousands of galaxies in each cluster. Furthermore, clusters themselves seem to be

f2.5 m (= 100 inches) refers to the diameter of the curved objective mirror. The bigger the mirror,

the more light it collects (greater intensity) and the less diffraction there is (better resolution), so more

and fainter stars can be seen. See Chapters 33 and 35. Until recently, photographic films or plates were used to

take long time exposures. Now large solid-state CCD or CMOS sensors (Section 33-5) are available containing

hundreds of millions of pixels (compared to 10 million pixels in a good-quality digital camera).

*The Magellanic clouds are much closer than Andromeda, but are small and are usually considered

small satellite galaxies of our own Galaxy.

FIGURE 4 4 -5 Photographs of galaxies, (a) Spiral galaxy in the constellation Hydra, (b) Two galaxies: the

larger and more dramatic one is known as the Whirlpool galaxy, (c) An infrared image (given “false” colors)

of the same galaxies as in (b), here showing the arms of the spiral as having more substance than in the

visible light photo (b); the different colors correspond to different light intensities. Visible light is scattered

and absorbed by interstellar dust much more than infrared is, so infrared gives us a clearer image.

organized into even larger aggregates: clusters of clusters of galaxies, or

superclusters. The farthest detectable galaxies are more than 1010ly distant. TABLE 44-1 Astronomical Distances

See Table 44-1.

Approx. Distance

Object from Earth (ly)

CONCEPTUAL EXAMPLE 44-2 I Looking back in time. Astronomers often think

of their telescopes as time machines, looking back toward the origin of the universe. Moon 4 X 1CT8

How far back do they look? Sun 1.6 X 1(T5

RESPONSE The distance in light-years measures how long in years the Size of solar system

(distance to Pluto) 6 X 10“4

light has been traveling to reach us, so Table 44-1 tells us also how far back in

Nearest star

time we are looking. For example, if we saw Proxima Centauri explode into a (Proxima Centauri) 4.3

supernova today, then the event would have really occurred 4.3 years ago. The

Center of our Galaxy 2.6 X 104

most distant galaxies emitted the light we see now roughly 1010years ago.

Nearest large galaxy 2.4 X 106

What we see was how they were then, 1010yr ago, or about 109years after the

universe was born in the Big Bang. Farthest galaxies 1010

EXERCISE A Suppose we could place a huge mirror 1 light-year away from us. What would

we see in this mirror if it is facing us on Earth? When did it take place? (This might be

called a “time machine.”)

Besides the usual stars, clusters of stars, galaxies, and clusters and superclusters

of galaxies, the universe contains many other interesting objects. Among these are

stars known as re d g ia n ts , w h ite d w a r fs , n e u tro n sta rs, exploding stars called n o v a e

and s u p e r n o v a e , and b la c k h o le s whose gravity is so strong even light can not

escape them. In addition, there is electromagnetic radiation that reaches the Earth

but does not emanate from the bright pointlike objects we call stars: particularly

important is the microwave background radiation that arrives nearly uniform ly

from all directions in the universe. We w ill discuss all these phenomena.

Finally, there are a c tiv e g a la c tic n u clei (AG N), which are very luminous

pointlike sources of light in the centers of distant galaxies. The most dramatic

examples of AGN are q u a sa rs (“ quasistellar objects” or QSOs), which are so lum i

nous that the surrounding starlight of the galaxy is drowned out. Their luminosity

is thought to come from matter falling into a giant black hole at a galaxy’s center.

and the Birth and Death of Stars

The stars appear unchanging. Night after night the night sky reveals no significant

variations. Indeed, on a human time scale, the vast m ajority of stars change very

little (except for novae, supernovae, and certain variable stars). Although stars

se e m fixed in relation to each other, many move sufficiently for the motion to be

detected. Speeds of stars relative to neighboring stars can be hundreds of km/s,

but at their great distance from us, this motion is detectable only by careful

measurement. Furthermore, there is a great range of brightness among stars. The

differences in brightness are due both to differences in the rate at which stars emit

energy and to their different distances from us.

Luminosity and Brightness of Stars

A useful parameter for a star or galaxy is its intrinsic luminosity, L (or simply

luminosity), by which we mean the total power radiated in watts. Also important is

the apparent brightness, b , defined as the power crossing unit area at the Earth

perpendicular to the path of the light. Given that energy is conserved, and ignoring

any absorption in space, the total emitted power L when it reaches a distance d

from the star w ill be spread over a sphere of surface area A ird2. If d is the distance

from the star to the Earth, then L must be equal to 4 ir d 2 times b (power per unit

area at Earth). That is,

b = (44-1)

477d

SECTION 44-2 Stellar Evolution: Nucleosynthesis, and the Birth and Death of Stars 1197

EXAMPLE 44-3 Apparent brightness. Suppose a particular star has intrinsic

luminosity equal to that of our Sun, but is 10 ly away from Earth. By what factor

w ill it appear dimmer than the Sun?

APPROACH The luminosity L is the same for both stars, so the apparent bright

ness depends only on their relative distances. We use the inverse square law as

stated in Eq. 44-1 to determine the relative brightness.

SOLUTION Using the inverse square law, the star appears dimmer by a factor

(1.5 X 108km)

2 X 10“ 12.

(10 ly )2(l0 13km /ly)2

Careful study of nearby stars has shown that the luminosity for most stars

depends on the mass: the m ore massive the star , the greater its lu m in o s ity Indeed,

we might expect that more massive stars would have higher core temperature and

pressure to counterbalance the greater gravitational attraction, and thus be more

luminous. Another important parameter of a star is its surface temperature, which

can be determined from the spectrum of electromagnetic frequencies it emits

(stars are “ good” blackbodies— see Section 37-1). As we saw in Chapter 37, as the

temperature of a body increases, the spectrum shifts from predominantly lower

frequencies (and longer wavelengths, such as red) to higher frequencies (and

shorter wavelengths such as blue). Quantitatively, the relation is given by Wien’s

law (Eq. 37-1): the peak wavelength AP in the spectrum of light emitted by a

blackbody (we often approximate stars as blackbodies) is inversely proportional to

its Kelvin temperature T; that is, APT = 2.90 X 10“ 3m -K . The surface tempera

tures of stars typically range from about 3000 K (reddish) to about 50,000 K (U V).

the distances from Earth to two nearby stars can be reasonably estimated, and that

their measured apparent brightnesses suggest the two stars have about the same

luminosity, L. The spectrum of one of the stars peaks at about 700 nm (so it is

reddish). The spectrum of the other peaks at about 350 nm (bluish). Use Wien’s law

(Eq. 37-1) and the Stefan-Boltzmann equation (Section 19-10) to determine (a ) the

surface temperature of each star, and (b) how much larger one star is than the other.

APPROACH We determine the surface temperature T for each star using Wien’s

law and each star’s peak wavelength. Then, using the Stefan-Boltzmann equation

(power output or luminosity oc A T 4 where A = surface area of emitter), we can find

the surface area ratio and relative sizes of the two stars.

SOLUTION (a) Wien’s law (Eq. 37-1) states that AFT = 2.90 X 10“ 3m *K. So

the temperature of the reddish star is

2.90 X 10_3m *K

Tr = 4140K.

700 X 10“ 9m

The temperature of the bluish star w ill be double this since its peak wavelength is

half (350 nm vs. 700 nm):

Th = 8280 K.

(b) The Stefan-Boltzmann equation, Eq. 19-17, states that the power radiated

p er unit area of surface from a blackbody is proportional to the fourth power of the

Kelvin temperature, T 4. The temperature of the bluish star is double that of the

reddish star, so the bluish one must radiate (24) = 16 times as much energy per

unit area. But we are given that they have the same luminosity (the same total

power output); so the surface area of the blue star must be ^ that of the red one.

The surface area of a sphere is 47rr2, so the radius of the reddish star is

V l6 = 4 times larger than the radius of the bluish star (or 43 = 64 times the volume).

fApplies to “main-sequence” stars (see next page). The mass of a star can be determined by observing

its gravitational effects. Many stars are part of a cluster, the simplest being a binary star in which two

stars orbit around each other, allowing their masses to be determined using rotational mechanics.

1198 CHAPTER 44

1029

Red

1028 giants

Our Sun

KF

* **

1026 FIGURE 44-6 Hertzsprung-Russell

(H -R ) diagram is a logarithmic graph of

luminosity vs. surface temperature T of stars

1025 (note that T increases to the left).

1024 •*c

White dwarfs

1023

10,000 7000 5000 3500

Surface temperature T (K)

H-R Diagram

An important astronomical discovery, made around 1900, was that for most stars,

the color is related to the intrinsic luminosity and therefore to the mass. A useful

way to present this relationship is by the so-called Hertzsprung-Russell (H -R )

diagram. On the H -R diagram, the horizontal axis shows the surface temperature T

whereas the vertical axis is the luminosity L; each star is represented by a point

on the diagram, Fig. 44-6. Most stars fall along the diagonal band termed the

main sequence. Starting at the lower right we find the coolest stars, reddish in color;

they are the least luminous and therefore of low mass. Farther up toward the left we

find hotter and more luminous stars that are whitish, like our Sun. S till farther up

we find even more massive and more luminous stars, bluish in color. Stars that fall

on this diagonal band are called main-sequence stars. There are also stars that fall

outside the main sequence. Above and to the right we find extremely large stars,

with high luminosities but with low (reddish) color temperature: these are called

red giants. A t the lower left, there are a few stars of low luminosity but with high

temperature: these are the white dwarfs.

EXAMPLE 44-5 ESTIMATE"! Distance to a star using the H-R diagram and

color. Suppose that detailed study of a certain star suggests that it most likely fits

on the main sequence of an H -R diagram. Its measured apparent brightness is

b = 1.0 X 10_12W /m 2, and the peak wavelength of its spectrum is AP « 600 nm.

Estimate its distance from us.

APPROACH We find the temperature using Wien’s law, Eq. 37-1. The luminosity

is estimated for a main sequence star on the H -R diagram of Fig. 44-6, and then

the distance is found using the relation between brightness and luminosity, Eq. 44-1.

SOLUTION The star’s temperature, from Wien’s law (Eq. 37-1), is

2.90 X 10_3m *K

4800 K.

600 X 10_9m

A star on the main sequence of an H -R diagram at this temperature has intrinsic

luminosity of about L « 1 X 1026W, read o ff of Fig. 44-6. Then, from Eq. 44-1,

~ 7 T I l x io 26w

d = 3 X 1018m.

Airb 4(3.14)(l.O X 10-12 W /m 2)

Its distance from us in light-years is

3 X 1018m

d = 300 ly.

1016m /ly

brightness of 2.0 X 10-12 W /m 2. SECTION 44-2 1199

Stellar Evolution; Nucleosynthesis

Why are there different types of stars, such as red giants and white dwarfs, as well

as main-sequence stars? Were they all born this way, in the beginning? Or might

each different type represent a different age in the life cycle of a star?

Astronomers and astrophysicists today believe the latter is the case. Note,

however, that we cannot actually follow any but the tiniest part of the life cycle of

any given star since they live for ages vastly greater than ours, on the order of

millions or billions of years. Nonetheless, let us follow the process of stellar

evolution from the birth to the death of a star, as astrophysicists have theoretically

reconstructed it today.

Stars are born, it is believed, when gaseous clouds (mostly hydrogen) contract

due to the pull of gravity. A huge gas cloud might fragment into numerous

contracting masses, each mass centered in an area where the density was only

slightly greater than that at nearby points. Once such “ globules” formed, gravity

would cause each to contract in toward its center of mass. As the particles of

such a protostar accelerate inward, their kinetic energy increases. When the kinetic

energy is sufficiently high, the Coulomb repulsion between the positive charges

is not strong enough to keep the hydrogen nuclei apart, and nuclear fusion can

take place.

In a star like our Sun, the fusion of hydrogen (sometimes referred to as

“ burning” )1 occurs via the p ro to n -p ro to n cycle (Section 42-4, Eqs. 42-7), in

which four protons fuse to form a ^He nucleus with the release of 7 rays, posi

trons, and neutrinos: 4 }H — » jH e + 2 e+ + 2ve + 27. These reactions require

a temperature of about 107K, corresponding to an average kinetic energy (« kT)

of about 1 keV (Eq. 18-4). In more massive stars, the carbon cycle produces the

same net effect: four JH produce a jH e— see Section 42-4. The fusion reactions

take place primarily in the core of a star, where T may be on the order of 107to 108K.

(The surface temperature is much lower— on the order of a few thousand

kelvins.) The tremendous release of energy in these fusion reactions produces an

outward pressure sufficient to halt the inward gravitational contraction. Our

protostar, now really a young star, stabilizes on the main sequence. Exactly

where the star falls along the main sequence depends on its mass. The more

massive the star, the farther up (and to the left) it falls on the H -R diagram of

Fig. 44-6. Our Sun required perhaps 30 m illion years to reach the main sequence,

and is expected to remain there about 10 b illion years (lO10yr). Although most

stars are billions of years old, evidence is strong that stars are actually being born

at this moment. More massive stars have shorter lives, because they are hotter

and the Coulomb repulsion is more easily overcome, so they use up their fuel

faster. If our Sun remains on the main sequence for IO10years, a star ten times

more massive may reside there for only 107years.

FIGURE 4 4 - 7 A shell of “burning”

As hydrogen fuses to form helium, the helium that is formed is denser and

hydrogen (fusing to become helium)

surrounds the core where the newly

tends to accumulate in the central core where it was formed. As the core of helium

formed helium gravitates. grows, hydrogen continues to fuse in a shell around it: see Fig. 44-7. When much of

the hydrogen within the core has been consumed, the production of energy

decreases at the center and is no longer sufficient to prevent the huge gravitational

forces from once again causing the core to contract and heat up. The hydrogen in

the shell around the core then fuses even more fiercely because of this rise in

temperature, allowing the outer envelope of the star to expand and to cool. The

surface temperature, thus reduced, produces a spectrum of light that peaks at

longer wavelength (reddish).

trThe word “burn” is put in quotation marks because these high-temperature fusion reactions occur via

a nuclear process, and must not be confused with ordinary burning (of, say, paper, wood, or coal) in air,

which is a chemical reaction, occurring at the atomic level (and at a much lower temperature).

By this time the star has left the main sequence. It has become redder, and

as it has grown in size, it has become more luminous. So it w ill have moved to

the right and upward on the H -R diagram, as shown in Fig. 44-8. As it moves

upward, it enters the red giant stage. Thus, theory explains the origin of red giants

as a natural step in a star’s evolution. Our Sun, for example, has been on the

main sequence for about 4 \ billion years. It w ill probably remain there another

4 or 5 billion years. When our Sun leaves the main sequence, it is expected to

grow in diameter (as it becomes a red giant) by a factor of 100 or more, possibly

swallowing up inner planets such as Mercury.

If the star is like our Sun, or larger, further fusion can occur. As the star’s outer

envelope expands, its core continues to shrink and heat up. When the temperature

reaches about 108 K, even helium nuclei, in spite of their greater charge and hence

greater electrical repulsion, can come close enough to each other to undergo

fusion. The reactions are

|Be

12C (44-2)

Be 6'“/

with the emission of two 7 rays. These two reactions must occur in quick succes

FIGURE 44-8 Evolutionary

sion (because ®Be is very unstable), and the net effect is “track” of a star like our Sun

3 ^He - ► n6C. {Q = 7.3 MeV) represented on an H -R diagram.

This fusion of helium causes a change in the star which moves rapidly to the

“ horizontal branch” on the H -R diagram (Fig. 44-8). Further fusion reactions

are possible, with ^He fusing with l\C to form 1|0 . In more massive stars, higher Z

elements like JjjNe or ™Mg can be made. This process of creating heavier nuclei

from lighter ones (or by absorption of neutrons which tends to occur at higher Z)

is called nucleosynthesis.

The final fate of a star depends on its mass. Stars can lose mass as parts of

their outer envelope move off into space. Stars born with a mass less than about 8

(or perhaps 10 ) solar masses eventually end up with a residual mass less than

about 1.4 solar masses, which is known as the Chandrasekhar limit. For them, no

further fusion energy can be obtained. The core of such a “ low mass” star (original

mass ^ 8 -1 0 solar masses) contracts under gravity; the outer envelope expands

again and the star becomes an even larger red giant. Eventually the outer layers

escape into space, the core shrinks, the star cools, and typically follows the dashed

route shown in Fig. 44-8, descending downward, becoming a white dwarf. A white

dwarf with a residual mass equal to that of the Sun would be about the size of the Earth.

A white dwarf contracts to the point at which the electron clouds start to overlap, but

no further because, by the Pauli exclusion principle, no two electrons can be in the

same quantum state. A t this point the star is supported against further collapse by

this electron degeneracy pressure. A white dwarf continues to lose internal energy

by radiation, decreasing in temperature and becoming dimmer until it glows no

more. It has then become a cold dark chunk of extremely dense material.

Stars whose residual mass is greater than the Chandrasekhar lim it of 1.4 solar

masses (original mass greater than about 8 or 10 solar masses) are thought to

follow a quite different scenario. A star with this great a mass can contract under

gravity and heat up even further. In the range T = (2.5-5) X 109 K, nuclei as

heavy as ^Fe and ^N i can be made. But here the formation of heavy nuclei from

lighter ones, by fusion, ends. As we saw in Fig. 41-1, the average binding energy

per nucleon begins to decrease for A greater than about 60. Further fusions would

require energy, rather than release it.

Elements heavier than N i are thought to form mainly by neutron capture,

particularly in exploding stars called supernovae (singular is supernova). Large

numbers of free neutrons, resulting from nuclear reactions, are present inside these highly

evolved stars and they can readily combine with, say, a ^Fe nucleus to form (if three

are captured) ^Fe, which decays to 27C0 . The 27C0 can capture neutrons, also

becoming neutron rich and decaying by /3 to the next higher Z element, and so on to

the highest Z elements.

SECTION 44-2 Stellar Evolution: Nucleosynthesis, and the Birth and Death of Stars 1201

Yet at these extremely high temperatures, well above 109K, the kinetic energy

of the nuclei is so high that fusion of elements heavier than iron is still possible

even though the reactions require energy input. But the high-energy collisions

can also cause the breaking apart of iron and nickel nuclei into He nuclei, and

eventually into protons and neutrons:

iF e 13 £ ie + 4n

2p 2n.

These are energy-requiring (endothermic) reactions, but at such extremely high

temperature and pressure there is plenty of energy available, enough even to force

electrons and protons together to form neutrons in inverse f i decay:

+ P n + v.

As a result of these reactions, the pressure in the core drops precipitously. As the

core collapses under the huge gravitational forces, the tremendous mass becomes

essentially an enormous nucleus made up almost exclusively of neutrons. The

size of the star is no longer lim ited by the exclusion principle applied to electrons,

but rather by neutron degeneracy pressure, and the star contracts

rapidly to form an enormously dense neutron star. The core of a neutron

star contracts to the point at which all neutrons are as close together as they

are in an atomic nucleus. That is, the density of a neutron star is on the order of

1014 times greater than normal solids and liquids on Earth. A cupful of such

dense matter would weigh billions of tons. A neutron star that has a mass 1.5 times

that of our Sun would have a diameter of only about 20 km. (Compare this to a white

dwarf with 1 solar mass whose diameter would be « 104km, as already mentioned.)

FIGURE 44-9 The star indicated by The contraction of the core of a massive star would mean a great reduction in

the arrow in (a) exploded in 1987 as gravitational potential energy. Somehow this energy would have to be released.

a supernova (SN1987a), as shown in Indeed, it was suggested in the 1930s that the final core collapse to a neutron star

(b). The bright spot in (b) does not may be accompanied by a catastrophic explosion (a supernova — see previous page)

represent the physical size. Part (c) is whose tremendous energy could form virtually all elements of the Periodic Table and

a photo taken a few years later, blow away the entire outer envelope of the star (Fig. 44-9), spreading its contents into

showing shock waves moving

interstellar space. The presence of heavy elements on Earth and in our solar system

outward from where SN1987a was

suggests that our solar system formed from the debris of such a supernova explosion.

(blow-up in corner). Part (c) is

magnified relative

to (a) and (b).

If the final mass of a neutron star is less than about two or three solar masses,

its subsequent evolution is thought to resemble that of a white dwarf. If the mass

is greater than this, the star collapses under gravity, overcoming even the neutron

exclusion principle. Gravity would then be so strong that even light emitted from

the star could not escape— it would be pulled back in by the force of gravity. Since

no radiation could escape from such a star, we could not see it— it would be black.

An object may pass by it and be deflected by its gravitational field, but if it came

1202 CHAPTER 44 too close it would be swallowed up, never to escape. This is a black hole.

Novae and Supemovae

Novae (singular is nova , meaning “ new” in Latin) are faint stars that have suddenly Main-sequence

increased in brightness by as much as a factor of 104 and last for a month or two companion White

dwarf

before fading. Novae are thought to be faint white dwarfs that have pulled mass from

a nearby companion (they make up a binary system), as illustrated in Fig. 44-10. The

captured mass of hydrogen suddenly fuses into helium at a high rate for a few weeks.

Many novae (maybe all) are recurrent— they repeat their bright glow years later.

Supernovae are also brief explosive events, but release millions of times more

transfer

energy than novae, up to 1010 times more luminous than our Sun. The peak of

brightness may exceed that of the entire galaxy in which they are located, but lasts

only a few days or weeks. They slowly fade over a few months. Many supernovae FIGURE 44-10 Hypothetical

model for novae and type la

form by core collapse to a neutron star as described above. See Fig. 44-9.

supernovae, showing how a white

Type la supemovae are different. They all seem to have very nearly the same

dwarf could pull mass from its

luminosity. They are believed to be binary stars, one of which is a white dwarf that normal companion.

pulls mass from its companion, much like for a nova, Fig. 44-10. The mass is

higher, and as mass is captured and the total mass reaches the Chandrasekhar lim it

of 1.4 solar masses, it explodes as a supernova by undergoing a

“ thermonuclear runaway” — an uncontrolled chain of nuclear reactions. What is

left is a neutron star or (if the mass is great enough) a black hole.

We have talked about the vast distances of objects in the universe. But how do we

measure these distances? One basic technique employs simple geometry to

measure the parallax of a star. By parallax we mean the apparent motion of a star,

against the background of much more distant stars, due to the Earth’s motion about the

Sun. As shown in Fig. 44-11, the sighting angle of a star relative to the plane of

Earth’s orbit (angle 6) can be determined at different times of the year. Since we

know the distance d from Earth to Sun, we can reconstruct the right triangles

shown in Fig. 44-11 and can determine* the distance D to the star.

trThis is essentially the way the heights of mountains are determined, by “triangulation.” See Example 1-7.

->)(- ->(£■

^ Distant stars ^ FIGURE 44-11 (a) Simple example of

*

* \

\ /

* J ** determining the distance D to a relatively

nearby star using parallax. Horizontal

distances are greatly exaggerated: in reality (f>is

a very small angle, (b) Diagram of the sky showing

the apparent position of the “nearby” star

relative to more distant stars, at two different

times (January and July). The viewing angle in

January puts the star more to the right relative

to distant stars, whereas in July it is more to the

left (dashed circle shows January location).

Sky as

seen

from

Earth in

January

As seen

from

Earth Earth Earth in

(January) (July) July

EXAMPLE 44-6 ESTIMATE~| Distance to a star using parallax. Estimate

the distance D to a star if the angle 0 in Fig. 44-11 is measured to be 89.99994°.

APPROACH From trigonometry, tan cf> = d /D in Fig. 44-11. The Sun-Earth

distance is d = 1.5 X 108km.

SOLUTION The angle <f> = 90° - 89.99994° = 0.00006°, or about 1.0 X 10“ 6radians.

We can use tan<£ « cf) since (f) is very small. We solve for D in tan<£ = d /D .

The distance D to the star is

^ d d 1.5 X 108km „ _ „

D = ------T ~ T = ---- rrz 2— r = 1-5 X 10 km,

tan <(> <f> 1.0 X 10 6rad

or about 15 ly.

Distances to stars are often specified in terms of parallax angle (4> in

Fig. 44-11 a) given in seconds of arc: 1 second (1") is ^ of one minute (1') of arc,

3

which is ^ of a degree, so 1" = m ° f a degree. The distance is then specified in

parsecs (pc) (meaning parallax angle in seconds of arc): D = l/4> with cf) in

seconds of arc. In Example 44-6, (f> = (6 X 10_5)°(3600) = 0.22" of arc, so we would

say the star is at a distance of 1/0.22" = 4.5 pc. One parsec is given by (recall

D = d/(j>, and we set the Sun-Earth distance (Fig. 44-1 la ) as d = 1.496 X 1011m):

d 1.496 X l0 n m „_ „

1PC = r = ..... ( 1' \ / 1° \ / 27t ra d \ = 3-°86 X 10 m

1 iy

lp c = (3.086 X 1016m )^ = 3.26 ly.

9.46 X 1015 m

Parallax can be used to determine the distance to stars as far away as about

100 light-years (~ 30 parsecs) from Earth, and from an orbiting spacecraft perhaps

5 to 10 times farther. Beyond that distance, parallax angles are too small to

measure. For greater distances, more subtle techniques must be employed. We

might compare the apparent brightnesses of two stars, or two galaxies, and use the

inverse square law (apparent brightness drops o ff as the square of the distance) to

roughly estimate their relative distances. We can’t expect this technique to be very

precise because we don’t expect any two stars, or two galaxies, to have the same

intrinsic luminosity. When comparing galaxies, a perhaps better estimate assumes

the brightest stars in all galaxies (or the brightest galaxies in galaxy clusters) are

similar and have about the same intrinsic luminosity. Consequently, their apparent

brightness would be a measure of how far away they were.

Another technique makes use of the H -R diagram. Measurement of a star’s

surface temperature (from its spectrum) places it at a certain point (within 20%)

on the H -R diagram, assuming it is a main-sequence star, and then its luminosity

can be estimated o ff the vertical axis (Fig. 44-6). Its apparent brightness and

Eq. 44-1 give its approximate distance; see Example 44-5.

A better estimate comes from comparing variable stars , especially Cepheid

variables whose luminosity varies over time with a period that is found to be

related to their average luminosity. Thus, from their period and apparent brightness

we get their distance.

The largest distances are estimated by comparing the apparent brightnesses of

type la supernovae (SNIa). Type la supernovae all have a similar origin

(as described on the previous page, Fig. 44-10), and their brief explosive burst of

light is expected to be of nearly the same luminosity. They are thus sometimes

referred to as “ standard candles.”

Another important technique for estimating the distance of very distant stars

is from the “ redshift” in the line spectra of elements and compounds. The redshift

is related to the expansion of the universe, as we shall discuss in Section 44-5. It is

useful for objects farther than 107 to 108 ly away.

As we look farther and farther away, the measurement techniques are less and

less reliable, so there is more and more uncertainty in the measurements of large

distances.

44—4 General Relativity: Gravity and

the Curvature of Space

We have seen that the force of gravity plays an important role in the processes that

occur in stars. Gravity too is important for the evolution of the universe as a

whole. The reasons gravity plays a dominant role in the universe, and not one of

the other of the four forces in nature, are (1) it is long-range and (2) it is always

attractive. The strong and weak nuclear forces act over very short distances only,

on the order of the size of a nucleus; hence they do not act over astronomical

distances (they do act between nuclei and nucleons in stars to produce nuclear

reactions). The electromagnetic force, like gravity, acts over great distances. But it

can be either attractive or repulsive. And since the universe does not seem to

contain large areas of net electric charge, a large net force does not occur. But

gravity acts as an attractive force between all masses, and there are large accumu

lations in the universe of only the one “ sign” of mass (not + and - as with electric

charge). The force of gravity as Newton described it in his law of universal

gravitation was modified by Einstein. In his general theory of relativity, Einstein

developed a theory of gravity that now forms the basis of cosmological dynamics.

In the special theory o f relativity (Chapter 36), Einstein concluded that there is

no way for an observer to determine whether a given frame of reference is at rest FIGURE 44-12 In an elevator

or is moving at constant velocity in a straight line. Thus the laws of physics must be falling freely under gravity,

the same in different inertial reference frames. But what about the more general (a) a person releases a book;

(b) the released book hovers

case of motion where reference frames can be accelerating ?

next to the owner’s hand; (b) is a few

Einstein tackled the problem of accelerating reference frames in his general

moments after (a).

theory of relativity and in it also developed a theory of gravity. The mathematics of

General Relativity is complex, so our discussion w ill be mainly qualitative.

We begin with Einstein’s principle of equivalence, which states that

I

no experiment can be performed that could distinguish between a uniform

gravitational field and an equivalent uniform acceleration.

If observers sensed that they were accelerating (as in a vehicle speeding around a

sharp curve), they could not prove by any experiment that in fact they weren’t

simply experiencing the pull of a gravitational field. Conversely, we might think we

are being pulled by gravity when in fact we are undergoing an acceleration having

nothing to do with gravity.

As a thought experiment, consider a person in a freely falling elevator near

the Earth’s surface. If our observer held out a book and let go of it, what would

happen? Gravity would pull it downward toward the Earth, but at the same rate

(g = 9.8 m /s2) at which the person and elevator were falling. So the book would

hover right next to the person’s hand (Fig. 44-12). The effect is exactly the same

as if this reference frame was at rest and no forces were acting. On the other

hand, if the elevator was out in space where the gravitational field is essentially

zero, the released book would float, just as it does in Fig. 44-12. Next, if the

elevator (out in space) is accelerating upward at an acceleration of 9.8 m /s2, the

book as seen by our observer would fa ll to the floor w ith an acceleration of

9.8 m /s2, just as if it were falling due to gravity at the surface of the Earth.

According to the principle of equivalence, the observer could not determine

whether the book fe ll because the elevator was accelerating upward, or because

a gravitational field was acting downward and the elevator was at rest. The two

descriptions are equivalent.

The principle of equivalence is related to the concept that there are two types

of mass. Newton’s second law, F = ma, uses inertial mass. We might say that

inertial mass represents “ resistance” to any type of force. The second type of mass

is gravitational mass. When one object attracts another by the gravitational force

(Newton’s law of universal gravitation, F = G m 1m j r 1, Chapter 6), the strength of

the force is proportional to the product of the gravitational masses of the two objects. (b)

SECTION 44-4 General Relativity: Gravity and the Curvature of Space 1205

This is much like Coulomb’s law for the electric force between two objects

which is proportional to the product of their electric charges. The electric charge

on an object is not related to its inertial mass; so why should we expect that an

object’s gravitational mass (call it gravitational charge if you like) be related

to its inertial mass? A ll along we have assumed they were the same. Why? Because

no experiment— not even of high precision— has been able to discern any

measurable difference between inertial mass and gravitational mass. (For example,

in the absence of air resistance, all objects fa ll at the same acceleration, g, on

Earth.) This is another way to state the equivalence principle: gravitational mass

is equivalent to inertial mass.

across an elevator which is not accelerating.

(b) The light beam bends (exaggerated) in an

accelerating elevator whose speed increases in the

upward direction. Both views are as seen by an

outside observer in an inertial reference frame.

(a) (b)

FIGURE 44-14 (a) Three stars in

the sky observed from Earth, (b) If the

light from one of these stars passes The principle of equivalence can be used to show that light ought to be

very near the Sun, whose gravity deflected due to the gravitational force of a massive object. Consider another

bends the rays, the star will appear thought experiment, in which an elevator is in free space where virtually no

higher than it actually is (follow the

gravity acts. If a light beam is emitted by a flashlight attached to the side of the

ray backwards).

elevator, the beam travels straight across the elevator and makes a spot on the

opposite side if the elevator is at rest or moving at constant velocity (Fig. 44-13a).

If instead the elevator is accelerating upward, as in Fig. 44-13b, the light beam

still travels straight across in a reference frame at rest. In the upwardly acceler

ating elevator, however, the beam is observed to curve downward. Why? Because

during the time the light travels from one side of the elevator to the other, the

elevator is moving upward at a vertical speed that is increasing relative to the

light. Next we note that according to the equivalence principle, an upwardly

accelerating reference frame is equivalent to a downward gravitational field.

Hence, we can picture the curved light path in Fig. 4 4 -13b as being due to

the effect of a gravitational field. Thus, from the principle of equivalence, we

Observer expect gravity to exert a force on a beam of light and to bend it out of a straight-

on Earth (a)

line path!

That light is affected by gravity is an important prediction of Einstein’s general

theory of relativity. And it can be tested. The amount a light beam would be

deflected from a straight-line path must be small even when passing a massive

object. (For example, light near the Earth’s surface after traveling 1 km is predicted

to drop only about K T10m, which is equal to the diameter of a small atom and

not detectable.) The most massive object near us is the Sun, and it was calculated

that light from a distant star would be deflected by 1.75" of arc (tiny but detectable)

as it passed by the edge of the Sun (Fig. 44-14). However, such a measurement

could be made only during a total eclipse of the Sun, so that the Sun’s tremendous

Observer brightness would not obscure the starlight passing near its edge. An opportune

on Earth (b) eclipse occurred in 1919, and scientists journeyed to the South Atlantic to observe it.

False

image

(a) (b)

FIGURE 44-15 (a) Hubble Space Telescope photograph of the so-called “Einstein cross”, thought to represent

“gravitational lensing”: the central spot is a relatively nearby galaxy, whereas the four other spots are thought to be

images of a single quasar behind the galaxy, (b) Diagram showing how the galaxy could bend the light coming from the

quasar behind it to produce the four images. See also Fig. 44-14. [If the shape of the nearby galaxy and distant quasar

were perfect spheres, we would expect the “image” of the distant quasar to be a circular ring or halo instead of the four

separate images seen here. Such a ring is called an “Einstein ring.”]

Their photos of stars around the Sun revealed shifts in accordance with Einstein’s

prediction. Another example is gravitational lensing, as shown in Fig. 44-15.

Fermat showed that optical phenomena, including reflection, refraction, and

effects of lenses, can be derived from a simple principle: that light traveling

between two points follows the shortest path in space. Thus if gravity curves the

path of light, then gravity must be able to curve space itself. That is, space itself

can be curved , and it is gravitational mass that causes the curvature. Indeed, the

curvature of space— or rather, of four-dimensional space-time— is a basic aspect

of Einstein’s General Relativity (GR).

What is meant by curved space? To understand, recall that our normal method

of viewing the world is via Euclidean plane geometry. In Euclidean geometry, there

are many axioms and theorems we take for granted, such as that the sum of the

angles of any triangle is 180°. Non-Euclidean geometries, which involve curved

space, have also been imagined by mathematicians. It is hard enough to imagine

three-dimensional curved space, much less curved four-dimensional space-time.

So let us try to understand the idea of curved space by using two-dimensional surfaces.

Consider, for example, the two-dimensional surface of a sphere. It is clearly

curved, Fig. 44-16, at least to us who view it from the outside— from our three-

dimensional world. But how would hypothetical two-dimensional creatures

determine whether their two-dimensional space was flat (a plane) or curved? One

FIGURE 44-16 On a

way would be to measure the sum of the angles of a triangle. If the surface is a

two-dimensional curved surface,

plane, the sum of the angles is 180°, as we learn in plane geometry. But if the space the sum of the angles of a triangle

is curved, and a sufficiently large triangle is constructed, the sum of the angles w ill may not be 180°.

not be 180°. To construct a triangle on a curved surface, say the sphere of

Fig. 44-16, we must use the equivalent of a straight line: that is, the shortest

distance between two points, which is called a geodesic. On a sphere, a geodesic is

an arc of a great circle (an arc in a plane passing through the center of the sphere)

such as the Earth’s equator and the Earth’s longitude lines. Consider, for example,

the large triangle of Fig. 44-16: its sides are two longitude lines passing from the

north pole to the equator, and the third side is a section of the equator as shown.

The two longitude lines make 90° angles with the equator (look at a world globe to

see this more clearly). They make an angle with each other at the north pole, which

could be, say, 90° as shown; the sum of these angles is 90° + 90° + 90° = 270°.

This is clearly not a Euclidean space. Note, however, that if the triangle is small in

comparison to the radius of the sphere, the angles w ill add up to nearly 180°, and

the triangle (and space) w ill seem flat.

SECTION 44-4 General Relativity: Gravity and the Curvature of Space 1207

FIGURE 44—17 On a spherical surface FIGURE 44—18 Example of a

(a two-dimensional world) a circle of circumference C is two-dimensional surface with

drawn (red) about point O as the center. The radius negative curvature.

of the circle (not the sphere) is the distance r along the

surface. (Note that in our three-dimensional view, we

can tell that C = lira. Since r > a, then C < 2irr.)

Another way to test the curvature of space is to measure the radius r and

circumference C of a large circle. On a plane surface, C = 2irr. But on a two-

dimensional spherical surface, C is less than 2irr, as can be seen in Fig. 44-17. The

proportionality between C and r is less than 2ir. Such a surface is said to have

po sitive curvature. On the saddlelike surface o f Fig. 44-18, the circumference o f a

circle is greater than 2irr, and the sum of the angles of a triangle is less than 180°.

Such a surface is said to have a negative curvature.

Curvature of the Universe

What about our universe? On a large scale (not just near a large mass), what is the

overall curvature of the universe? Does it have positive curvature, negative curva

ture, or is it fla t (zero curvature)? We perceive our world as Euclidean (flat), but

we can not exclude the possibility that space could have a curvature so slight that

we don’t normally notice it. This is a crucial question in cosmology, and it can be

answered only by precise experimentation.

If the universe had a positive curvature, the universe would be closed , or finite

in volume. This would n ot mean that the stars and galaxies extended out to a certain

boundary, beyond which there is empty space. There is no boundary or edge in such

a universe. The universe is all there is. I f a particle were to move in a straight line

in a particular direction, it would eventually return to the starting point— perhaps

eons of time later.

On the other hand, if the curvature of space was zero or negative, the universe

would be open. It could just go on forever. A n open universe could be infinite', but

according to recent research, even that may not necessarily be so.

Today the evidence is very strong that the universe on a large scale is very

close to being flat. Indeed, it is so close to being fla t that we can’t te ll if it m ight

have very slightly positive or very slightly negative curvature.

Black Holes

FIGURE 44-19 Rubber-sheet analogy According to Einstein’s theory, space-time is curved near massive objects. We

for space-time curved by matter. m ight think of space as being like a thin rubber sheet: if a heavy weight is hung

from it, it curves as shown in Fig. 44-19. The weight corresponds to a huge mass

that causes space (space itself!) to curve. Thus, in Einstein’s theory1 we do not

speak of the “ force” of gravity acting on objects. Instead we say that objects and

light rays move as they do because space-time is curved. A n object starting at rest

or moving slowly near the great mass of Fig. 44-19 would follow a geodesic (the

equivalent of a straight line in plane geometry) toward that great mass.

Alexander Pope (1688-1744) wrote an epitaph for Newton:

“Nature, and Nature’s laws lay hid in night:

Weight God said, Let Newton be! and all was light.”

Sir John Squire (1884-1958), perhaps uncomfortable with Einstein’s profound thoughts, added:

“It did not last: the Devil howling ‘Ho!

1208 CHAPTER 44 Let Einstein be/’ restored the status quo.”

The extreme curvature of space-time shown in Fig. 44-19 could be produced

by a black hole. A black hole, as we mentioned in Section 44-2, is so dense that

even light cannot escape from it. To become a black hole, an object of mass M

must undergo gravitational collapse, contracting by gravitational self-attraction to

within a radius called the Schwarzschild radius:

_ 2G M

where G is the gravitational constant and c the speed of light. If an object collapses

to within this radius, it is predicted by general relativity to rapidly (« IO-5 s)

collapse to a point at r = 0, forming an infinitely dense singularity. This predic

tion is uncertain, however, because in this realm we need to combine quantum

mechanics with gravity, a unification of theories not yet achieved (Section 43-12).

| EXERCISE C What is the Schwarzschild radius for an object with 2 solar masses?

The Schwarzschild radius also represents the event horizon of a black hole. By

event horizon we mean the surface beyond which no emitted signals can ever

reach us, and thus inform us of events that happen beyond that surface. As a star collapses

toward a black hole, the light it emits is pulled harder and harder by gravity, but

we can still see it. Once the matter passes within the event horizon, the emitted

light cannot escape but is pulled back in by gravity.

A ll we can know about a black hole is its mass, its angular momentum (there

could be rotating black holes), and its electric charge. No other information, no

details of its structure or the kind of matter it was formed of, can be known

because no information can escape.

How might we observe black holes? We cannot see them because no light can

escape from them. They would be black objects against a black sky. But they do

exert a gravitational force on nearby objects. The black hole believed to be at the

center of our Galaxy (M ~ 2 X 106MSun) was discovered by examining the motion

of matter in its vicinity. Another technique is to examine stars which appear to move

as if they were one member of a binary system (two stars rotating about their common

center of mass), but without a visible companion. If the unseen star is a black hole,

it might be expected to pull o ff gaseous material from its visible companion (as in

Fig. 44-10). As this matter approached the black hole, it would be highly acceler

ated and should emit X-rays of a characteristic type before plunging inside the

event horizon. Such X-rays, plus a sufficiently high mass estimate from the

rotational motion, can provide evidence for a black hole. One of the many

candidates for a black hole is in the binary-star system Cygnus X -l. It is widely

believed that the center of most galaxies is occupied by a black hole with a mass

106 to 109 times the mass of a typical star like our Sun.

EXERCISE D A black hole has radius R. Its mass is proportional to (a) R, (b) R2, (c) R3.

Justify your answer.

Redshift and Hubble's Law

We discussed in Section 44-2 how individual stars evolve from their birth to their

death as white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes. But what about the universe

as a whole: is it static, or does it change? One of the most important scientific

discoveries of the twentieth century was that distant galaxies are racing away from

us, and that the farther they are from us, the faster they are moving away. How

astronomers arrived at this astonishing idea, and what it means for the past history

of the universe as well as its future, w ill occupy us for the remainder of the book.

SECTION 44-5 The Expanding Universe: Redshift and Hubble's Law 1209

Low redshift galaxy spectrum

z = 0.004

molecules emit and absorb light of

particular frequencies depending on

the spacing of their energy levels, as

we saw in Chapters 37 to 40. (a) The 500 600 700

(a) Wavelength (nm)

spectrum of light received from a

relatively slow-moving galaxy.

(b) Spectrum of a galaxy moving away Higher redshift galaxy spectrum

from us at a much higher speed. z = 0.104

Note how the peaks (or lines) in the

spectrum have moved to longer

wavelengths. The redshift is

Z = (^-obs — ^rest)/^-rest •

(b) Wavelength (nm)

That the universe is expanding was first put forth by Edwin Hubble in 1929.

This idea was based on distance measurements of galaxies (Section 44-3), and

determination of their velocities by the Doppler shift of spectral lines in the light

received from them (Fig. 44-20). In Chapter 16 we saw how the frequency of

sound is higher and the wavelength shorter if the source and observer move toward

each other. If the source moves away from the observer, the frequency is lower and

the wavelength longer. The Doppler effect occurs also for light, and we saw in

Section 36-12 (Eq. 36-15) that according to special relativity, the Doppler shift is given by

(44-3)

where Arest is the emitted wavelength as seen in a reference frame at rest with

respect to the source, and Aobs is the wavelength observed in a frame moving with

velocity v away from the source along the line of sight. (For relative motion

tow ard each other, v < 0 in this formula.) When a distant source emits light of a

particular wavelength, and the source is moving away from us, the wavelength

appears longer to us: the color of the light (if it is visible) is shifted toward the red

end of the visible spectrum, an effect known as a redshift. ( If the source moves

toward us, the color shifts toward the blue or shorter wavelength.)

In the spectra of stars in other galaxies, lines are observed that correspond to

lines in the known spectra of particular atoms (see Section 37-10 and Figs. 35-22

and 37-20). What Hubble found was that the lines seen in the spectra from distant

galaxies were generally redshifted, and that the amount of shift seemed to be approx

imately proportional to the distance of the galaxy from us. That is, the velocity v of

a galaxy moving away from us is proportional to its distance d from us:

H U BBLE’S LAW v = Hd. (44-4)

This is Hubble’s law, one of the most fundamental astronomical ideas. The

constant H is called the Hubble parameter.

The value of H until recently was uncertain by over 20%, and thought to be

between 50 and 80km /s/M pc. But recent measurements now put its value more

precisely at

H = 71 km /s/M pc

(that is, 71 km /s per megaparsec of distance). The current uncertainty is about 5%, or

+ 4 km /s/M pc. If we use light-years for distance, then H = 22 km /s per m illion

light-years of distance:

H = 22 km /s/M ly

1210 CHAPTER 44 with an estimated uncertainty of +1 km/s/Mly.

Redshift Origins

Galaxies very near us seem to be moving randomly relative to us: some move

towards us (blueshifted), others away from us (redshifted); their speeds are on the

order of 0.001c. But for more distant galaxies, the velocity of recession is much

greater than the velocity of local random motion, and so is dominant and Hubble’s

law (Eq. 44-4) holds very well. More distant galaxies have higher recession velocity

and a larger redshift, and we call their redshift a cosmological redshift. We interpret

this redshift today as due to the expansion o f space itself. We can think of the originally

emitted wavelength Arest as being stretched out (becoming longer) along with the

expanding space around it, as suggested in Fig. 44-21. Although Hubble thought of

the redshift as a Doppler shift, now we understand it in this sense of expanding space.

Contrast the cosmological redshift, due to the expansion of space itself, with

an ordinary D oppler redshift which is due to the relative motion of emitter and

observer in a space that can be considered fixed over the time interval of observation.

There is a third way to produce a redshift, which we mention for

completeness: a gravitational redshift. Light leaving a massive star is gaining in

gravitational potential energy (just like a stone thrown upward from Earth). So the FIGURE 44-21 Simplified model

kinetic energy of each photon, hf, must be getting smaller (to conserve energy). of a 2-dimensional universe,

A smaller frequency /means a larger (longer) wavelength A {= c / f ) , which is a redshift. imagined as a balloon. As you blow

The amount of a redshift is specified by the redshift parameter, z, defined as up the balloon (= expanding

universe), the wavelength of a wave

^•obs — ^-rest AA

z = ----- ---------- = - — ’ (44-5a) on its surface gets longer.

^rest ^rest

where Arest is a wavelength as seen by an observer at rest relative to the source, and

Aobs is the wavelength measured by a moving observer. Equation 44-5a can also be FIGURE 44-22 Hubble Ultra

written as Deep Field photograph showing

^obs i what may be among the most distant

z = --------- 1 (44-5b)

Arest galaxies from us (small red dots,

indicated by green squares), with

z ~ 5 or 6, existing when the

z + 1 = (44-5c)

universe was only about 800 million

For low speeds not close to the speed of light (v ^ 0.1c), the Doppler formula years old. The two distant galaxies in

(Eq. 44-3) can be used to show (Problem 29) that z is proportional to the speed of this photo are shown enlarged below.

the source toward or away from us:

^•obs — ^rest V r a\

z = « — [v « c] (44-6)

^rest

But redshifts are not always small, in which case the approximation of Eq. 44-6 is

not valid. Modern telescopes regularly observe galaxies with z ~ 5 (Fig. 44-22);

for large z galaxies, not even Eq. 44-3 applies because the redshift is due to the

expansion of space (cosmological redshift), not the Doppler effect.

Scale Factor

The expansion of space can be described as a simple scaling of the typical distance

between two points or objects in the universe. If two distant galaxies are a distance d0

apart at some initial time, then a time t later they w ill be separated by a greater

distance d (t). The scale factor is the same as for light, expressed in Eq. 44-5a. That is,

d { t ) — d0 AA

= z

do A

or

m

= 1 + z.

d0

Thus, for example, if a galaxy has z = 3, then the scale factor is now

(1 + 3) = 4 times larger than when the light was emitted from that galaxy. That

is, the average distance between galaxies has become 4 times larger. Thus the

factor by which the wavelength has increased since it was emitted tells us by

what factor the universe (or the typical distance between objects) has increased in size.

SECTION 44-5 The Expanding Universe: Redshift and Hubble's Law 1211

FIGURE 44-23 Expansion of the universe looks the same from any point in the universe. If you are on Earth

as shown in part (a) or you are instead at point A (which is at rest in the reference frame shown in (b)), all

other galaxies appear to be racing away from you.

What does it mean that distant galaxies are all moving away from us, and with ever

greater speed the farther they are from us? It seems to suggest some kind of explo

sive expansion that started at some very distant time in the past. And at first sight

we seem to be in the middle of it all. But we aren’t. The expansion appears the

same from any other point in the universe. To understand why, see Fig. 44-23. In

Fig. 44-23a we have the view from Earth (or from our Galaxy). The velocities of

surrounding galaxies are indicated by arrows, pointing away from us, and the

arrows are longer for galaxies more distant from us. Now, what if we were on the

galaxy labeled A in Fig. 44-23a? From Earth, galaxy A appears to be moving to

the right at a velocity, call it vA, represented by the arrow pointing to the right. If

we were on galaxy A , Earth would appear to be moving to the left at velocity — vA.

To determine the velocities of other galaxies relative to A , we vectorially add the

velocity vector, - v A, to all the velocity arrows shown in Fig. 44-23a. This yields

Fig. 44-23b, where we see clearly that the universe is expanding away from

galaxy A as well; and the velocities of galaxies receding from A are proportional to

their current distance from A. The universe looks pretty much the same from

different points.

Thus the expansion of the universe can be stated as follows: all galaxies are racing

away from each other at an average rate of about 22 km /s per m illion light-years

of distance between them. The ramifications of this idea are profound, and we

discuss them in a moment.

A basic assumption in cosmology has been that on a large scale, the universe

would look the same to observers at different places at the same time. In other

words, the universe is both isotropic (looks the same in all directions) and

homogeneous (would look the same if we were located elsewhere, say in another

galaxy). This assumption is called the cosmological principle. On a local scale, say

in our solar system or within our Galaxy, it clearly does not apply (the sky looks

different in different directions). But it has long been thought to be valid if we

look on a large enough scale, so that the average population density of galaxies

and clusters of galaxies ought to be the same in different areas of the sky. This

seems to be valid on distances greater than about 200 Mpc (700 M ly). The expan

sion of the universe (Fig. 44-23) is consistent with the cosmological principle; and

the near uniform ity of the cosmic microwave background radiation (discussed in

Section 44-6) supports it. Another way to state the cosmological principle is that

our place in the universe is not special.

The expansion of the universe, as described by Hubble’s law, strongly suggests

that galaxies must have been closer together in the past than they are now. This is,

in fact, the basis of the Big Bang theory of the origin of the universe, which

pictures the universe as a relentless expansion starting from a very hot and

compressed beginning. We discuss the Big Bang in detail shortly, but first let us see

what can be said about the age of the universe.

1212 CHAPTER 44 Astrophysics and Cosmology

One way to estimate the age of the universe uses the Hubble parameter.

W ith H « 22 km /s per 106 light-years, the time required for the galaxies to arrive

at their present separations would be approximately (starting with v = d / t and

using Hubble’s law, Eq. 44-4),

f = d = A . = JL (I0 6ly)(0.95 x 10 n km /ly) ^

v Hd H (22km/s)(3.16 X 107s/yr)

or 14 billion years. The age of the universe calculated in this way is called the

characteristic expansion time or “ Hubble age.” It is a very rough estimate and assumes

the rate of expansion of the universe was constant (which today we are quite sure

is not true). Today’s best measurements give the age of the universe as 13.7 X 109yr,

in remarkable agreement w ith the rough Hubble age estimate.

* Steady-State Model

Before discussing the Big Bang in detail, we mention one alternative to the Big

Bang— the steady-state model— which assumed that the universe is infinitely old

and on average looks the same now as it always has. (This assumed uniform ity in

time as well as space was called the perfect cosm ological principle.) According to

the steady-state model, no large-scale changes have taken place in the universe

as a whole, particularly no Big Bang. To maintain this view in the face of the

recession of galaxies away from each other, matter must be created continuously

to maintain the assumption of uniform ity. The rate of mass creation required is

very small— about one nucleon per cubic meter every 109years.

The steady-state model provided the Big Bang model with healthy competition

in the mid-twentieth century. But the discovery of the cosmic microwave background

radiation (next Section), as well as other observations of the universe, has made the

Big Bang model universally accepted.

Microwave Background

The expansion of the universe suggests that typical objects in the universe were

once much closer together than they are now. This is the basis for the idea that the

universe began about 14 billion years ago as an expansion from a state of very high

density and temperature known affectionately as the Big Bang.

The birth of the universe was not an explosion, because an explosion blows

pieces out into the surrounding space. Instead, the Big Bang was the start of an

expansion of space itself. The observable universe was very small at the start and

has been expanding ever since. The in itia l tiny universe of extremely dense matter

is not to be thought of as a concentrated mass in the midst of a much larger space

around it. The in itia l tiny but dense universe was the entire universe. There

wouldn’t have been anything else. When we say that the universe was once smaller FIGURE 44-24 Arno Penzias (left)

and Robert Wilson, and behind them

than it is now, we mean that the average separation between objects (such as

their “horn antenna.”

galaxies) was less. It is thought the universe was infinite in extent then, and it still is

(only bigger). The observable universe, however, is finite.

A major piece of evidence supporting the Big Bang is the cosmic microwave

background radiation (or CMB) whose discovery came about as follows.

In 1964, Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson pointed their radiotelescope

(a large antenna device for detecting radio waves) into the night sky (Fig. 44-24).

W ith it they detected widespread emission, and became convinced that it was

coming from outside our Galaxy. They made precise measurements at a wave

length A = 7.35 cm, in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum

(Fig. 31-12). The intensity of this radiation was found in itia lly not to vary by day

or night or time of year, nor to depend on direction. It came from all directions in

the universe with equal intensity, to a precision of better than 1%. It could only be

concluded that this radiation came from the universe as a whole.

SECTION 44-6 The Big Bang and the Cosmic Microwave Background 1213

Wavelength (cm)

10 1.0 0.1

background radiation, showing blackbody curve

and experimental measurements including at the

frequency detected by Penzias and Wilson. |

(Thanks to G. F. Smoot and D. Scott. The vertical J

bars represent the most recent experimental

uncertainty in a measurement.)

1 10 100 1000

Frequency (GHz)

FIGURE 44-26 COBE scientists They measured this cosmic microwave background radiation at A = 7.35 cm,

John Mather (left, chief scientist and and its intensity corresponds to blackbody radiation (see Section 37-1) at a

responsible for measuring the temperature of about 3 K. When radiation at other wavelengths was measured

blackbody form of the spectrum) by the COBE satellite (COsmic Background Explorer), the intensities were found

and George Smoot (chief investigator to fall on a nearly perfect blackbody curve as shown in Fig. 44-25, corresponding

for anisotropy experiment) shown to a temperature of 2.725 K (+ 0.002 K ).

here during celebrations for their

The remarkable uniform ity of the cosmic microwave background radiation

Dec. 2006 Nobel Prize, given for

was in accordance w ith the cosmological principle. But theorists fe lt that there

their discovery of the spectrum and

anisotropy of the CMB using the needed to be some small inhomogeneities, or “ anisotropies,” in the CMB that

COBE instrument. would have provided “ seeds” around which galaxy form ation could have

started. Small areas of slightly higher density, which could have contracted

under gravity to form stars and galaxies, were indeed found. These tiny inhomo

geneities in density and temperature were detected first by the COBE satellite

experiment in 1992, led by John M ather and George Smoot (Fig. 44-26).

This discovery of the anisotropy of the CMB ranks with the discovery of the

CMB itself in the history of cosmology. It was the culmination of decades of research

by pioneers such as Paul Richards and David Wilkinson. Subsequent experiments

with greater detail culminated in 2003 with the WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave

Anisotropy Probe) results. See Fig. 44-27 which presents the latest (2006) results.

The CMB provides strong evidence in support of the Big Bang, and gives us

information about conditions in the very early universe. In fact, in the late 1940s,

George Gamow and his collaborators calculated that a Big Bang origin of the

universe should have generated just such a microwave background radiation.

To understand why, let us look at what a Big Bang might have been like.

(Today we usually use the term “ Big Bang” to refer to the process , starting from

the birth of the universe through the subsequent expansion.) The temperature

must have been extremely high at the start, so high that there could not have

been any atoms in the very early stages of the universe. Instead, the universe

microwave background radiation over the entire

sky, color-coded to represent differences in

temperature from the average 2.725 K: the color

scale ranges from +200 /x,K (red) to -2 0 0 fiK

(dark blue), representing slightly hotter and

colder spots (associated with variations in

density). Results are from the WMAP satellite in

2006: the angular resolution is 0.2°. The white

lines are added to show the measured

polarization direction of the earliest light, which

gives further clues to the early universe.

would have consisted solely of radiation (photons) and a plasma of charged

electrons and other elementary particles. The universe would have been opaque—

the photons in a sense “ trapped,” traveling very short distances before being

scattered again, prim arily by electrons. Indeed, the details of the microwave

background radiation is strong evidence that matter and radiation were once in

equilibrium at a very high temperature. As the universe expanded, the energy

spread out over an increasingly larger volume and the temperature dropped.

Only when the temperature had fallen to about 3000 K, some 380,000 years later, could

nuclei and electrons combine together as atoms. W ith the disappearance of free

electrons, as they combined with nuclei to form atoms, the radiation would have been

freed— decoupled from matter, we say. The universe became transparent because

photons were now free to travel nearly unimpeded straight through the universe.

It is this radiation, from 380,000 years after the birth of the universe, that we

now see as the CMB. As the universe expanded, so too the wavelengths of the

radiation lengthened, thus redshifting to longer wavelengths that correspond to

lower temperature (recall Wien’s law, APT = constant, Section 37-1), until they

would have reached the 2.7-K background radiation we observe today.

Looking Back toward the Big Bang—Lookback Time

Figure 44-28 shows our Earth point of view, looking out in all directions back

toward the Big Bang and the brief (380,000-year-long) period when radiation was

trapped in the early plasma (yellow band). The time it takes light to reach us from an

event is called its lookback time. The “ close-up” insert in Fig. 44-28 shows a photon

scattering repeatedly inside that early plasma and then exiting the plasma in a straight

line. No matter what direction we look, our view of the very early universe is blocked

by this wall of plasma. It is like trying to look into a very thick fog or into the surface of

the Sun— we can see only as far as its surface, called the surface of last scattering,

but not into it. Wavelengths from there are redshifted by z ~ 1100. Time A t' in

Fig. 44-28 is the lookback time (not real time that goes forward).

Recall that when we view an object far away, we are seeing it as it was then,

when the light was emitted, not as it would appear today.

FIGURE 44-28 When we look out from the Earth, we look

back in time. Any other observer in the universe would see

more or less the same thing. The farther an object is from us,

the longer ago the light we see had to have left it. We cannot

see quite as far as the Big Bang; we can see only as far as the

“surface of last scattering,” which radiated the CMB. The

insert on the lower right shows the earliest 380,000 years of

the universe when it was opaque: a photon is shown

scattering many times and then (at decoupling, 380,000 yr

after the birth of the universe) becoming free to travel in a

straight line. If this photon wasn’t heading our way when

“liberated,” many others were. Galaxies are not shown, but

would be concentrated close to Earth in this diagram because

they were created relatively recently. Note: This diagram is

not a normal map. Maps show a section of the world as might

be seen all at a given time. This diagram shows space (like a

map), but each point is not at the same time. The light coming

from a point a distance r from Earth took a time At' = r/c

to reach Earth, and thus shows an event that took place long

ago, a time A£' = r/c in the past, which we call its “lookback

time.” The universe began Atb = 13.7 Gyr ago.

Figure 44-28 is a b it dangerous: it is not a picture of the universe at a given instant,

but is intended to suggest how we look out in all directions from our observation

point (the Earth, or near it). Be careful not to think that the birth of the universe

took place in a circle or a sphere surrounding us as if Fig. 44-28 were a photo

taken at a given moment. What Fig. 44-28 does show is what we can see, the

observable universe. Better yet, it shows the m ost we could see. SECTION 4 4 -6 1215

We would undoubtedly be arrogant to think that we could see the entire

universe. Indeed, theories assume that we cannot see everything, that the entire

universe is greater than the observable universe, which is a sphere of radius

r0 = ct0 centered on the observer, with t0 being the age of the universe. We can

never see further back than the time it takes light to reach us.

Consider, for example, an observer in another galaxy, very far from us, located

to the left of our observation point in Fig. 44-28. That observer would not yet have

seen light coming from the far right of the large circle in Fig. 44-28 that we see—

it w ill take some time for that light to reach her. But she w ill have already, some

time ago, seen the light coming from the left that we are seeing now. In fact, her

FIGURE 44-29 Two observers, on observable universe, superimposed on ours, is suggested by Fig. 44-29.

widely separated galaxies, have The edge of our observable universe is called the horizon. We could, in

different horizons, different principle, see as far as the horizon, but not beyond it. An observer in another

observable universes. galaxy, far from us, w ill have a different horizon.

Early History of the Universe

In the last decade or two, a convincing theory of the origin and evolution of the

universe has been developed, now called the Standard Cosmological Model, or (sometimes)

the concordance model. Part of this theory is based on recent theoretical and

experimental advances in elementary particle physics, and part from observations

of the universe including COBE and WMAP. Indeed, cosmology and elementary

particle physics have cross-fertilized to a surprising extent.

Let us go back to the earliest of times— as close as possible to the Big Bang—

and follow a Standard Model scenario of events as the universe expanded and

cooled after the Big Bang. In itia lly we talk of extremely small time intervals as

well as extremely high temperatures, far beyond anything in the universe today.

Figure 44-30 is a compressed graphical representation of the events, and it may be

helpful to consult it as we go along.

after the Big Bang, according to modern cosmology. [The time scale is mostly logarithmic

(each factor of 10 in time gets equal treatment), except at the start (there can be no Decoupling

t = 0 on a log scale), and just after t = 10-35 s (to save space). The vertical 3000k | ^ ' ^

height is a rough indication of the size of the universe, mainly to — Stars

and

suggest expansion of the universe I galaxies

Radiation era

Inflation Universe

Universe opaque

Planck

Birth of Hadron

universe 1032K era Dark^T

GUT INucleosynthesis energy |

(Planck [Now]

time) Time

The History

We begin at a time only a minuscule fraction of a second after the b irth of the

universe, 10-43 s. This time is sometimes referred to as the Planck time, which is

a value determined by the fundamental constants. It is related to the Planck length AP

which we obtained in Chapter 1 (Example 1-10) by dimensional analysis:

AP = \ j G h j ? ~ 4 X 10“ 35m. The Planck time is the time it takes light to travel the

Planck length: tF = AP/ c « (4 X 10“ 35m )/(3 X 108m /s) « 10_43s. This is an unimag

inably short time, and predictions can be only speculative. Earlier, we can say nothing

because we do not have a theory of quantum gravity which would be needed for the

1216 CHAPTER 44 incredibly high densities and temperatures during this “ Planck era.” It is thought that,

perhaps as early as IO-43 s, the four forces in nature were unified— there was only one force

(Chapter 43, Rg. 43-19). The temperature would have been about 1032K, corresponding to

randomly moving particles with an average kinetic energy K of 1019GeV (see Eq. 18-4):

(1.4 X IO-23 J /K )(l0 32K)

K « kT « ------------------ 7^7-------- - « 10 eV = 10 GeV.

1.6 X 10 J/eV

(Note that the factor § in Eq. 18-4 is usually ignored in such order of magnitude

calculations.) A t t = 10_43s, a kind of “ phase transition” is believed to have

occurred during which the gravitational force, in effect, “ condensed out” as a

separate force. This, and subsequent phase transitions, are analogous to the phase

transitions water undergoes as it cools from a gas, condenses into a liquid, and with

further cooling freezes into ice.* The symmetry of the four forces was broken, but

the strong, weak, and electromagnetic forces were still unified, and the universe

entered the grand unified era (G UT— see Chapter 43). There was no distinction

between quarks and leptons; baryon and lepton numbers were not conserved. Very

shortly thereafter, as the universe expanded considerably and the temperature had

dropped to about 1027K, there was another phase transition and the strong force

condensed out at about 10“ 35s after the Big Bang. Now the universe was filled with

a “ soup” of leptons and quarks. The quarks were initially free, but soon began to

“ condense” into more normal particles: nucleons and the other hadrons and their

antiparticles. W ith this confinement of quarks, the universe entered the hadron era.

About this time, when the universe was only 10“35s old, a strange thing may have

happened, according to theorists. A brilliant idea, proposed around 1980, suggests that

the universe underwent an incredible exponential expansion, increasing in size by a

factor of IO40 or maybe much more, in a tiny fraction of a second, perhaps 10-35 s. The

usefulness of this inflationary scenario is that it solved major problems with earlier

Big Bang models, such as explaining why the universe is flat, as well as the thermal

equilibrium to provide the nearly uniform CMB, as discussed below.

A fter the very brief inflationary period, the universe would have settled back

into its more regular expansion. The universe was now a “ soup” of leptons and

hadrons. We can think of this “ soup” as a plasma of particles and antiparticles, as

well as photons— all in roughly equal numbers— colliding with one another

frequently and exchanging energy.

By the time the universe was only about a microsecond (l0 _6s) old, it had

cooled to about 1013K, corresponding to an average kinetic energy of 1 GeV,

and the vast m ajority of hadrons disappeared. To see why, let us focus on the

most fam iliar hadrons: nucleons and their antiparticles. When the average kinetic

energy of particles was somewhat higher than 1 GeV, protons, neutrons, and their

antiparticles were continually being created out of the energies of collisions

involving photons and other particles, such as

photons —> p + p

—> n + n.

But just as quickly, particles and antiparticles would annihilate: for example

p + p — » photons or leptons.

So the processes of creation and annihilation of nucleons were in equilibrium. The

numbers of nucleons and antinucleons were high— roughly as many as there were

electrons, positrons, or photons. But as the universe expanded and cooled, and the

average kinetic energy of particles dropped below about 1 GeV, which is the

minimum energy needed in a typical collision to create nucleons and antinucleons

(about 940 MeV each), the process of nucleon creation could not continue. The

process of annihilation could continue, however, with antinucleons annihilating

nucleons, until there were almost no nucleons left. But not quite zero. Somehow

we need to explain our present world of matter (nucleons and electrons) with very

little antimatter in sight.

fIt may be interesting to note that our story of origins here bears some resemblance to ancient accounts that

mention the “void,” “formless wasteland” (or “darkness over the deep”), “abyss,” “divide the waters”

(possibly a phase transition?), not to mention the sudden appearance of light.

SECTION 44-7 1217

To explain our world of matter, we might suppose that earlier in the universe, perhaps

around IO-35 s after the Big Bang, a slight excess of quarks over antiquarks was formed.1

This would have resulted in a slight excess of nucleons over antinucleons. And it is these

“ leftover” nucleons that we are made of today. The excess of nucleons over anti

nucleons was probably about one part in 109. During the hadron era, there should have been

about as many nucleons as photons. A fter it ended, the “ leftover” nucleons thus

numbered only about one nucleon per 109photons, and this ratio has persisted to this

day. Protons, neutrons, and all other heavier particles were thus tremendously

reduced in number by about IO-6 s after the Big Bang. The lightest hadrons, the

pions, soon disappeared, about IO-4 s after the Big Bang; because they are the lightest

mass hadrons (140 MeV), they were the last hadrons to be able to be created as the

temperature (and average kinetic energy) dropped. Lighter particles, including electrons

and neutrinos, were the dominant form of matter, and the universe entered the lepton era.

By the time the first fu ll second had passed (clearly the most eventful second in

history!), the universe had cooled to about 10 billion degrees, 1010K. The average

kinetic energy was about 1 MeV. This was still sufficient energy to create electrons

and positrons and balance their annihilation reactions, since their masses correspond

to about 0.5 M eV So there were about as many e+ and e“ as there were photons.

But within a few more seconds, the temperature had dropped sufficiently so that

e+ and e” could no longer be formed. Annihilation (e+ + e_ —> photons) continued.

And, like nucleons before them, electrons and positrons all but disappeared from

the universe— except for a slight excess of electrons over positrons (later to join with

nuclei to form atoms). Thus, about t = 10 s after the Big Bang, the universe entered

the radiation era (Fig. 44-30). Its major constituents were photons and neutrinos. But the

neutrinos, partaking only in the weak force, rarely interacted. So the universe, until

then experiencing significant amounts of energy in matter and in radiation, now

became radiation-dominated: much more energy was contained in radiation than in

matter, a situation that would last more than 50,000 years.

FIGURE 44-30 (Repeated.) Compressed graphical representation of the development of the universe

after the Big Bang, according to modern cosmology.

Decoupling

3000K ^

Stars

and

galaxies

Radiation era

Inflation Universe I

Universe opaque transparent11

Planck

Birth of Hadron

1032K era Dark "

GUT j Nucleosynthesis energy

(Planck [Now]

time) Time

Meanwhile, during the next few minutes, crucial events were taking place.

Beginning about 2 or 3 minutes after the Big Bang, nuclear fusion began to occur.

The temperature had dropped to about 109K, corresponding to an average kinetic

energy K « 100 keV, where nucleons could strike each other and be able to fuse

(Section 42-4), but now cool enough so newly formed nuclei would not be imme

diately broken apart by subsequent collisions. Deuterium, helium, and very tiny

amounts of lithium nuclei were made. But the universe was cooling too quickly,

and larger nuclei were not made. A fte r only a few minutes, probably not even a

quarter of an hour after the Big Bang, the temperature dropped far enough that

nucleosynthesis stopped, not to start again for millions of years (in stars).

fWhy this could have happened is a question for which we are seeking an answer today.

1218 CHAPTER 44 Astrophysics and Cosmology

Thus, after the first quarter hour or so of the universe, matter consisted mainly of

bare nuclei of hydrogen (about 75%) and helium (about 25%)t and electrons. But

radiation (photons) continued to dominate.

Our story is almost complete. The next important event is thought to have

occurred 380,000 years later. The universe had expanded to about ^ ° f its present

scale, and the temperature had cooled to about 3000 K. The average kinetic energy

of nuclei, electrons, and photons was less than an electron volt. Since ionization ener

gies of atoms are on the order of eV, then as the temperature dropped below this

point, electrons could orbit the bare nuclei and remain there (without being ejected

by collisions), thus forming atoms. This period is often called the recombination

epoch (a misnomer since electrons had never before been combined with nuclei

to form atoms). W ith the disappearance of free electrons and the birth

of atoms, the photons— which had been continually scattering from the free

electrons— now became free to spread throughout the universe. As mentioned in the

previous Section, we say that the photons became decoupled from matter. Thus

decoupling occurred at recombination. The total energy contained in radiation had

been decreasing (lengthening in wavelength as the universe expanded); and at about

t = 56,000 yr (even before decoupling) the total energy contained in matter became

dominant over radiation. The universe was said to have become matter-dominated

(marked on Fig. 44-30). As the universe continued to expand, the electromagnetic

radiation cooled further, to 2.7 K today, forming the cosmic microwave background

radiation we detect from everywhere in the universe.

A fter the birth of atoms, then stars and galaxies could begin to form: by self

gravitation around mass concentrations (inhomogeneities). Stars began to form

about 200 m illion years after the Big Bang, galaxies after almost 109 years. The

universe continued to evolve until today, some 14 billion years after it started.

* * *

This scenario, like other scientific models, cannot be said to be “ proven.” Yet this

model is remarkably effective in explaining the evolution of the universe we live in,

and makes predictions which can be tested against the next generation of observations.

A major event, and something only discovered very recently, is that when the

universe was more than half as old as it is now (about 5 Gyr ago), its expansion

began to accelerate. This was a big surprise because it was assumed the expansion

of the universe would slow down due to gravitational attraction of all objects

towards each other. Another major recent discovery is that ordinary matter makes

up very little of the total mass-energy of the universe (« 5%). Instead, as we

discuss in Section 44-9, the major contributors to the energy density of the

universe are dark matter and dark energy. On the right in Fig. 44-30 is a narrow

vertical strip that represents the most recent 5 billion years of the universe, during

which dark energy seems to have dominated.

Uniformity, and Structure

The idea that the universe underwent a period of exponential inflation early in its life,

expanding by a factor of 1040 or more (previous Section), was first put forth by Alan

Guth in 1981. Many more sophisticated models have since been proposed. The energy

required for this wild expansion may have been released when the electroweak force

separated from the strong force (end of GUT era, Fig. 43-19). So far, the evidence for

inflation is indirect; yet it is a feature of most viable cosmological models because it is

able to provide natural explanations for several remarkable features of our universe.

trThis Standard Model prediction of a 25% primordial production of helium agrees with what we

observe today—the universe does contain about 25% He—and it is strong evidence in support of the

Standard Big Bang Model. Furthermore, the theory says that 25% He abundance is fully consistent with

there being three neutrino types, which is the number we observe. And it sets an upper limit of four to

the maximum number of possible neutrino types. This is a striking example of the exciting interface

between particle physics and cosmology.

SECTION 44-8 Inflation: Explaining Flatness, Uniformity, and Structure 1219

FIGURE 44-31 (a) Simple 2-D

model of the entire universe; the

observable universe is suggested by

the small circle centered on us (blue

dot), (b) Edge of universe is

essentially flat after the 1040-fold

expansion during inflation.

Flatness

First of all, our best measurements suggest that the universe is flat, that it has

zero curvature. As scientists, we would like some reason for this remarkable result.

To see how inflation explains flatness, let us consider a simple 2-dimensional

model of the universe (as we did earlier in Figs. 44-16 and 44-21). A circle on

the surface of this 2-dimensional universe (a sphere, Fig. 44-31) represents the

observable universe as seen by an observer at the circle’s center. A possible hypothesis is

that inflation occurred over a time interval that very roughly doubled the age of the

universe, from let us say, t = 1 X IO-35 s to t = 2 X IO-35 s. The size of the observ

able universe (r = ct) would have increased by a factor of two during inflation, while

the radius of curvature of the entire universe increased by an enormous factor of

IO40 or more. Thus the edge of our 2-D sphere representing the entire universe would

have seemed flat to a high degree of precision, Fig. 44-31b. Even if the time of inflation

was a factor of 10 or 100 (instead of 2), the expansion factor of IO40 or more

would have blotted out any possibility of observing anything but a flat universe.

CMB Uniformity

Inflation also explains why the CMB is so uniform. W ithout inflation, the tiny

universe at 10-35 s was too large for all parts of it to have been in contact so as to

reach the same temperature (inform ation cannot travel faster than c). Imagine a

universe about 1 cm in diameter at t = 10-36 s, as per original Big Bang theory. In that

10_36s, light could have traveled d = ct = (3 X 108m /s)(l0 _36s) = 10-27m, way

too small for opposite sides of a 1-cm-wide universe to have been in communication.

But if the universe had been IO40 times smaller (= 10_42m), as proposed by the

inflation model, there could have been contact and thermal equilibrium to produce

the observed nearly uniform CMB. Inflation, by making the early universe very

small, assures that all parts could have been in thermal equilibrium; and after

inflation the universe could be large enough to give us today’s observable universe.

Galaxy Seeds, Fluctuations, Magnetic Monopoles

Inflation also gives us a clue as to how the present structure of the universe

(galaxies and clusters of galaxies) came about. We saw earlier that, according to

the uncertainty principle, energy may not be conserved by an amount A E for a

time A t ~ h /A E . Forces, whether electromagnetic or other types, can undergo

such tiny quantum fluctuations according to quantum theory, but they are so tiny

they are not detectable unless magnified in some way. That is what inflation

might have done: it could have magnified those fluctuations perhaps IO40 times in

size, which would give us the density irregularities seen in the cosmic

microwave background (WMAP, Fig. 44-27). That would be very nice, because

the density variations we see in the CMB are what we believe were the seeds that

later coalesced under gravity into galaxies and galaxy clusters, including their

substructures (stars and planets), and our models fit the data extremely well.

Sometimes it is said that the quantum fluctuations occurred in the vacuum state

or vacuum energy. This could be possible because the vacuum is no longer considered

to be empty, as we discussed in Section 43-3 relative to positrons and a negative energy

sea of electrons. Indeed, the vacuum is thought to be filled with fields and particles

occupying all the possible negative energy states. Also, the virtual exchange particles

that carry the forces, as discussed in Chapter 43, could leave their brief virtual states

and actually become real as a result of the IO40 magnification of space (according

1220 CHAPTER 44 to inflation) and the very short time over which it occurred (A t = h /A E ).

Inflation helps us too with the puzzle of why magnetic monopoles have never been

observed, yet isolated magnetic poles may well have been copiously produced at the start

After inflation, they would have been so far apart that we have never stumbled on one.

Some theorists have proposed that inflation may not have occurred in the entire universe.

Perhaps only some regions of that tiny early universe became unstable (maybe it was a

quantum fluctuation) and inflated into cosmic “bubbles.” If so, we would be living in one

of the bubbles. The universe outside the bubble would be hopelessly unobservable to us.

Inflation may solve outstanding problems, but it needs to be confirmed and we

may need new physics just to understand how inflation occurred.

According to the Standard Big Bang Model, the universe is evolving and changing.

Individual stars are being created, evolving, and then dying to become white dwarfs,

neutron stars, black holes. A t the same time, the universe as a whole is expanding. One

important question is whether the universe w ill continue to expand forever. U ntil

the late 1990s, the universe was thought to be dominated by matter which interacts

by gravity, and this question was connected to the curvature of space-time

(Section 44-4). If the universe had negative curvature, the expansion of the

universe would never stop, although the rate of expansion would decrease due to

the gravitational attraction of its parts. Such a universe would be open and infinite.

If the universe is flat (no curvature), it would still be open and infinite but its

expansion would slowly approach a zero rate. Finally, if the universe had positive

curvature, it would be closed and finite; the effect of gravity would be strong

enough that the expansion would eventually stop and the universe would begin to

contract, collapsing back onto itself in a big crunch.

ICritical Density

EXERCISE E Return to the Chapter-Opening Question, page 1193, and answer it again. Try

to explain why you may have answered differently the first time.

According to the above scenario (which does not include inflation or the recently

discovered acceleration of the universe), the fate of the universe would depend on

the average mass-energy density in the universe. For an average mass density

greater than a critical value known as the critical density, estimated to be about

pc « 10-26 kg/m 3

(i.e., a few nucleons/m3 on average throughout the universe), gravity would

prevent expansion from continuing forever. Eventually (if p > pc) gravity would

pull the universe back into a big crunch and space-time would have a positive

curvature. If instead the actual density was equal to the critical density, p = pc,

the universe would be flat and open. If the actual density was less than the critical

density, p < pc, the universe would have negative curvature. See Fig. 44-32. Today

we believe the universe is very close to flat. But recent evidence suggests the

universe is expanding at an accelerating rate, as discussed below.

for the universe, depending on the density p

of ordinary matter, plus a fourth

possibility that includes dark energy. Note

that all curves have been chosen to have

the same slope (= H , the Hubble

parameter) right now. Looking back in

time, the Big Bang occurs where each

curve touches the horizontal (time) axis.

depends on model)

SECTION 44-9 Dark Matter and Dark Energy 1221

EXAMPLE 44-7 ESTIMATE~| Critical density of the universe. Use energy

conservation and escape velocity (Section 8-7) to estimate the critical density of

the universe.

APPROACH A t the critical density, pc, any given galaxy of mass m w ill just be

able to “ escape” away from our Galaxy. As we saw in Section 8-7, escape can just

occur if the total energy E of the galaxy satisfies

E = K + U = \m v 2 - G ^ ~ = 0.

R

Here R is the distance of that galaxy m from us. We approximate the total mass M that

pulls inward on m as the total mass within a sphere of radius R around us (Appendix D).

If we assume the density of galaxies is roughly constant, then M = f TrpcR 2’.

SOLUTION Substituting this M into the equation above, and setting v = H R

(Hubble’s law, Eq. 44-4), we obtain

GM

= w

or

R

We solve for pc:

_ 3 ^ 3[(22 k m /s /M ly )(l M ly/1019km )]2 3

Pc 8ttG ~ 8(3.14)(6.67 X ltT 11N • m2/kg 2) ~ 8/m '

Dark Matter

W MAP and other experiments have convinced scientists that the universe is flat

and p = pc. But this p cannot be only normal baryonic matter (atoms are 99.9%

baryons— protons and neutrons— by weight). These recent experiments put the

amount of normal baryonic matter in the universe at only about 5% of the critical

density. What is the other 95%? There is strong evidence for a significant amount

of nonluminous matter in the universe referred to as dark matter, which acts

normally under gravity, but does not absorb or radiate light. For example, observa

tions of the rotation of galaxies suggest that they rotate as if they had considerably

more mass than we can see. Recall from Chapter 6, Eq. 6-5, that for a satellite of

mass m revolving around Earth (mass M )

v2 _ mM

m — = G — z-

r r

their speed depends on galactic mass. Observations show that stars farther from the

galactic center revolve much faster than expected if there is only the pull of visible matter,

suggesting a great deal of invisible matter. Similarly, observations of the motion of

galaxies within clusters also suggest that they have considerably more mass than

can be seen. W ithout dark matter, galaxies and stars probably would not have

formed and would not exist; it would seem to hold the universe together. But what

might this nonluminous matter in the universe be? We don’t know yet. But we hope to

find out soon. It cannot be made of ordinary (baryonic) matter, so it must consist

of some other sort of elementary particle, perhaps created at a very early time.

Perhaps it is a supersymmetric particle (Section 43-12), maybe the lightest one. We

are anxiously awaiting details both from particle accelerators and the cosmos.

Dark matter makes up about 20% of the mass-energy of the universe,

according to the latest observations and models. Thus the total mass-energy is 20%

dark matter plus 5% baryons for a total of about 25%, which does not bring p up to pc.

What is the other 75%? We are not sure about that either, but we have given it a

name: “ dark energy.”

D ark Energy—Cosm ic Acceleration

In 1998, just before the turn of the millennium, cosmologists received a huge

surprise. Gravity was assumed to be the predominant force on a large scale in the

universe, and it was thought that the expansion of the universe ought to be slowing

down in time because gravity acts as an attractive force between objects. But

measurements of type la supernovae (SNIa, our best standard candles— see

Section 44-3) unexpectedly showed that very distant (high z) SNIa’s were dimmer

than expected. That is, given their great distance d as determined from their low

brightness, their speed v as determined from the measured z was less than expected

according to Hubble’s law. This result suggests that nearer galaxies are moving

away from us relatively faster than those very distant ones, meaning the expansion

of the universe in more recent epochs has sped up. This acceleration in the expan

sion of the universe (in place of the expected deceleration due to gravitational

attraction between masses) seems to have begun roughly 5 billion years ago

(5 Gyr, which would be 8 to 9 Gyr after the Big Bang).

What could be causing the universe to accelerate in its expansion, against the

attractive force of gravity? Does our understanding of gravity need to be revised?

We don’t know the answers to these questions. Many scientists say dark energy is

the biggest mystery facing physical science today. There are several speculations.

But somehow it seems to have a long-range repulsive effect on space, like a negative

gravity, causing objects to speed away from each other ever faster. Whatever it is, it

has been given the name dark energy.

One idea is a sort of quantum field given the name quintessence. Another

possibility suggests an energy latent in space itself (vacuum energy) and relates to

an aspect of General Relativity known as the cosmological constant (symbol A).

When Einstein developed his equations, he found that they offered no solutions

for a static universe. In those days (1917) it was thought the universe was static—

unchanging and everlasting. Einstein added an arbitrary constant to his equations

to provide solutions for a static universe. A decade later, when Hubble showed us

an expanding universe, Einstein discarded his cosmological constant as no longer

needed (A = 0). But today, measurements are consistent with dark energy being

due to a nonzero cosmological constant, although further measurements are

needed to see subtle differences among theories.

There is increasing evidence that the effects of some form of dark energy are

very real. Observations of the CMB, supemovae, and large-scale structure (Section 44-10)

agree well with theories and computer models when they input dark energy

as providing 75% of the mass-energy in the universe, and when the total

mass-energy density equals the critical density pc.

Today’s best estimate of how the mass-energy in the universe is distributed is FIGURE 4 4 -3 3 Portions of total

approximately (Fig. 44-33): mass-energy in the universe.

O f this 25%, about

20% is dark matter

5% is baryons (what atoms are made of); of this 5% only ^ is readily

visible matter— stars and galaxies (that is, 0.5% of the total); the other

jq of ordinary matter, which is not visible, is mainly gaseous plasma.

It is remarkable that only 0.5% of all the mass-energy in the universe is visible as

stars and galaxies.

The idea that the universe is dominated by completely unknown forms of

energy seems bizarre. Nonetheless, the ability of our present model to precisely

explain observations of the CMB anisotropy, cosmic expansion, and large-scale

structure (next Section) presents a compelling case.

FIGURE 44-34 Distribution of some

50,000 galaxies in a 2.5° slice through almost

half of the sky above the equator, as

measured by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

(SDSS). Each dot represents a galaxy. The

distance from us is obtained from the

redshift and Hubble’s law, and is given in Gly

units of 109 light-years (Gly). A t greater

distances, fewer galaxies are bright enough

to be detected, thus resulting in an apparent

thinning out of galaxies. The point 0

represents us, our observation point. Note

the “walls” and “voids” of galaxies.

0

(Our Galaxy)

Universe

The beautiful W MAP pictures of the sky (Fig. 44-27 and Chapter-Opening Photo)

show small but significant inhomogeneities in the temperature of the CMB. These

anisotropies reflect compressions and expansions in the prim ordial plasma just

before decoupling, from which stars, galaxies, and clusters of galaxies formed.

Analysis of the irregularities in the CMB using mammoth computer simulations

predict a large-scale distribution of galaxies very similar to what is seen today

(Fig. 44-34). These simulations are very successful if they contain dark energy and

dark_matter; and the dark matter needs to be cold (slow speed— think of Eq. 18-4,

\m v 2 = \k T where T is temperature), rather than “ hot” dark matter such as

neutrinos which move at or very near the speed of light. Indeed, the modern

cosmological model is called the A C D M model, where lambda (A ) stands fo r the

cosmological constant, and CDM is cold dark matter.

Cosmologists have gained substantial confidence in this cosmological model

from such a precise fit between observations and theory. They can also extract very

precise values for cosmological parameters which previously were only known

with low accuracy. The CMB is such an important cosmological observable that

every effort is being made to extract all of the information it contains. A new

generation of ground, balloon, and satellite experiments w ill observe the

CMB with greater resolution and sensitivity. They may detect interaction of

gravity waves (produced in the inflationary epoch) with the CMB and thereby provide

direct evidence for cosmic inflation, and also provide information about elementary

particle physics at energies far beyond the reach of man-made accelerators.

44—11 Finally . . .

When we look up into the night sky, we see stars; and with the best telescopes, we

see galaxies and the exotic objects we discussed earlier, including rare supernovae.

But even with our best instruments we do not see the processes going on inside

stars and supernovae that we hypothesized (and believe). We are dependent on

brilliant theorists who come up with viable theories and verifiable models.

We depend on complicated computer models whose parameters are varied until

the outputs compare favorably with our observations and analyses of W MAP and

other experiments. And we now have a surprisingly precise idea about some

aspects of our universe: it is flat, it is about 14 billion years old, it contains only 5%

“ normal” baryonic matter (for atoms), and so on.

The questions raised by cosmology are difficult and profound, and may seem

removed from everyday “ reality.” We can always say, “ the Sun is shining, it’s going

1224 CHAPTER 44 to burn on for an unimaginably long time, all is well.” Nonetheless, the questions of

cosmology are deep ones that fascinate the human intellect. One aspect that is

especially intriguing is this: calculations on the formation and evolution of the

universe have been performed that deliberately varied the values—just slightly—

of certain fundamental physical constants. The result? A universe in which life as

we know it could not exist. [For example, if the difference in mass between proton

and neutron were zero, or small (less than the mass of the electron, 0 .5 11 M eV /c2),

there would be no atoms: electrons would be captured by protons never to be

freed again.] Such results have contributed to a philosophical idea called the

A n thropic principle, which says that if the universe were even a little different than it

is, we could not be here. We physicists are trying to find out if there are some undis

covered fundamental laws that determined those conditions that allowed us to exist.

A poet might say that the universe is exquisitely tuned, almost as if to accommodate us.

Summary

The night sky contains myriads of stars including those in the expanding, its galaxies racing away from each other at speeds (v)

M ilky Way, which is a “ side view” of our Galaxy looking along proportional to the distance (d) between them:

the plane of the disk. Our Galaxy includes over 1011 stars.

v = H d, (44-4)

Beyond our Galaxy are billions of other galaxies.

Astronomical distances are measured in light-years which is known as Hubble’s law (H is the Hubble parameter).

( l ly « 1013km). The nearest star is about 4 ly away and the This expansion of the universe suggests an explosive origin, the

nearest large galaxy is 2 m illion ly away. Our Galactic disk has a Big Bang, which occurred about 13.7 billion years ago. It is not

diameter of about 100,000 ly. Distances are often specified in like an ordinary explosion, but rather an expansion of space itself.

parsecs, where 1 parsec = 3.26 ly. The cosmological principle assumes that the universe, on a

Stars are believed to begin life as collapsing masses of gas large scale, is homogeneous and isotropic.

(protostars), largely hydrogen. As they contract, they heat up Im portant evidence for the Big Bang model of the universe

(potential energy is transformed to kinetic energy). When the was the discovery of the cosmic microwave background radia

temperature reaches about 10 m illion degrees, nuclear fusion tion (CMB), which conforms to a blackbody radiation curve at a

begins and forms heavier elements (nucleosynthesis), mainly temperature of 2.725 K.

helium at first. The energy released during these reactions heats The Standard Model of the Big Bang provides a possible

the gas so its outward pressure balances the inward gravitational scenario as to how the universe developed as it expanded and

force, and the young star stabilizes as a main-sequence star. The cooled after the Big Bang. Starting at 10-43 seconds after the

tremendous luminosity of stars comes from the energy released Big Bang, according to this model, there were a series of phase

during these thermonuclear reactions. A fter billions of years, as transitions during which previously unified forces of nature

helium is collected in the core and hydrogen is used up, the core “ condensed out” one by one. The inflationary scenario assumes

contracts and heats further. The envelope expands and cools, and that during one of these phase transitions, the universe underwent

the star becomes a red giant (larger diameter, redder color). a brief but rapid exponential expansion. U ntil about 10 35 s, there

The next stage of stellar evolution depends on the mass of was no distinction between quarks and leptons. Shortly thereafter,

the star, which may have lost much of its original mass as its quarks were confined into hadrons (the hadron era). About 10 4s

outer envelope escaped into space. Stars of residual mass less after the Big Bang, the majority of hadrons disappeared, having

than about 1.4 solar masses cool further and become white combined with anti-hadrons, producing photons, leptons, and

dwarfs, eventually fading and going out altogether. Heavier stars energy, leaving mainly photons and leptons to freely move, thus

contract further due to their greater gravity: the density introducing the lepton era. By the time the universe was about 10 s

approaches nuclear density, the huge pressure forces electrons old, the electrons too had mostly disappeared, having combined

to combine with protons to form neutrons, and the star becomes with their antiparticles; the universe was radiation-dominated. A

essentially a huge nucleus of neutrons. This is a neutron star, and couple of minutes later, nucleosynthesis began, but lasted only a

the energy released from its final core collapse is believed to few minutes. It then took almost four hundred thousand years before

produce supernova explosions. If the star is very massive, it may the universe was cool enough for electrons to combine with nuclei

contract even further and form a black hole, which is so dense to form atoms (recombination). Photons, up to then continually

that no matter or light can escape from it. being scattered off of free electrons, could now move freely— they

In the general theory of relativity, the equivalence principle were decoupled from matter and the universe became trans

states that an observer cannot distinguish acceleration from a parent. The background radiation had expanded and cooled so

gravitational field. Said another way, gravitational and inertial much that its total energy became less than the energy in matter,

masses are the same. The theory predicts gravitational bending and matter dominated increasingly over radiation. Then stars

of light rays to a degree consistent with experiment. Gravity is and galaxies formed, producing a universe not much different

treated as a curvature in space and time, the curvature being than it is today— some 14 billion years later.

greater near massive objects. The universe as a whole may be Recent observations indicate that the universe is flat, that it

curved. W ith sufficient mass, the curvature of the universe would contains an as-yet unknown type of dark matter, and that it is

be positive, and the universe is closed and finite', otherwise, it dominated by a mysterious dark energy which exerts a sort of

would be open and infinite. Today we believe the universe is flat. negative gravity causing the expansion of the universe to

Distant galaxies display a redshift in their spectral lines, accelerate. The total contributions of baryonic (normal) matter,

originally interpreted as a Doppler shift. The universe seems to be dark matter, and dark energy sum up to the critical density.

Summary 1225

Questions

1. The M ilky Way was once thought to be “ murky” or “ m ilky” 14. Compare an explosion on Earth to the Big Bang. Consider

but is now considered to be made up of point sources. Explain. such questions as: Would the debris spread at a higher speed

2. A star is in equilibrium when it radiates at its surface all the for more distant particles, as in the Big Bang? Would the

energy generated in its core. What happens when it begins to debris come to rest? What type of universe would this

generate more energy than it radiates? Less energy? Explain. correspond to, open or closed?

3. Describe a red giant star. List some of its properties. 15. If nothing, not even light, escapes from a black hole, then

how can we tell if one is there?

4. Select a point on the H -R diagram. Mark several directions

away from this point. Now describe the changes that would

16. What mass w ill give a Schwarzschild radius equal to that of

the hydrogen atom in its ground state?

take place in a star moving in each of these directions.

17. The Earth’s age is often given as about 4 billion years. Find

5. Does the H -R diagram reveal anything about the core of a star?

that time on Fig. 44-30. People have lived on Earth on the

6. Why do some stars end up as white dwarfs, and others as order of a m illion years. Where is that on Fig. 44-30?

neutron stars or black holes? 18. Explain what the 2.7-K cosmic microwave background radi

7. Can we tell, by looking at the population on the H -R diagram, ation is. Where does it come from? Why is its temperature

that hotter main-sequence stars have shorter lives? Explain. now so low?

8. If you were measuring star parallaxes from the Moon 19. Why were atoms, as opposed to bare nuclei, unable to exist

instead of Earth, what corrections would you have to make? until hundreds of thousands of years after the Big Bang?

What changes would occur if you were measuring parallaxes 20. (a) Why are type la supernovae so useful for determining

from Mars? the distances of galaxies? (b) How are their distances actually

9. Cepheid variable stars change in luminosity with a typical period measured?

of several days. The period has been found to have a definite 21. Explain why the CMB radiation should not be that of a

relationship with the intrinsic luminosity of the star. How perfect blackbody. (The deviations from a blackbody spec

could these stars be used to measure the distance to galaxies? trum are slightly less than one part in 104.)

10. What is a geodesic? What is its role in General Relativity? 22. Under what circumstances would the universe eventually

collapse in on itself?

11. If it were discovered that the redshift of spectral lines of

galaxies was due to something other than expansion, how

23. When stable nuclei first formed, about 3 minutes after the

Big Bang, there were about 7 times more protons than

might our view of the universe change? Would there be

neutrons. Explain how this leads to a ratio of the mass of

conflicting evidence? Discuss.

hydrogen to the mass of helium of 3:1. This is about the

12. A ll galaxies appear to be moving away from us. Are we actual ratio observed in the universe.

therefore at the center of the universe? Explain.

24. (a) Why did astronomers expect that the expansion rate of

13. If you were located in a galaxy near the boundary of our the universe would be decreasing (decelerating) with time?

observable universe, would galaxies in the direction of the (b) How, in principle, could astronomers hope to determine

M ilky Way appear to be approaching you or receding from whether the universe used to expand faster than it does now?

you? Explain.

| Problems_________________

44-1 to 4 4 -3 Stars, Galaxies, Stellar Evolution, 8. (II) We saw earlier (Chapter 19) that the rate energy reaches

Distances the Earth from the Sun (the “ solar constant” ) is about

1. (I) The parallax angle of a star is 0.00029°. How far away is 1.3 X 103W /m 2. What is (a) the apparent brightness b of

the star? the Sun, and ( b ) the intrinsic luminosity L of the Sun?

2. (I) A star exhibits a parallax of 0.27 seconds of arc. How far 9. (II) When our Sun becomes a red giant, what w ill be its

away is it? average density if it expands out to the orbit of Mercury

(6 X 1010 m, from the Sun)?

3. (I) What is the parallax angle for a star that is 65 ly away?

How many parsecs is this?

10. (II) Estimate the angular width that our Galaxy would

subtend if observed from the nearest galaxy to us

4. (I) A star is 56 pc away. What is its parallax angle? State (Table 44-1). Compare to the angular width of the Moon

(a) in seconds of arc, and ( b ) in degrees. from Earth.

5. (I) If one star is twice as far away from us as a second star, 11. (II) Calculate the Q-values for the He burning reactions of

w ill the parallax angle of the farther star be greater or less Eq. 44-2. (The mass of the very unstable ®Be is 8.005305 u.)

than that of the nearer star? By what factor?

12. (II) When our Sun becomes a white dwarf, it is expected to

6. (II) A star is 85 pc away. How long does it take for its light be about the size of the Moon. What angular width would it

to reach us? subtend from the present distance to Earth?

7. (II) What is the relative brightness of the Sun as seen from 13. (II) Calculate the density of a white dwarf whose mass is

Jupiter, as compared to its brightness from Earth? (Jupiter equal to the Sun’s and whose radius is equal to the Earth’s.

is 5.2 times farther from the Sun than the Earth is.) How many times larger than Earth’s density is this?

14. (II) A neutron star whose mass is 1.5 solar masses has a radius 26. (II) If an absorption line of calcium is normally found at a

of about 11 km. Calculate its average density and compare wavelength of 393.4 nm in a laboratory gas, and you

to that for a white dwarf (Problem 13) and to that of nuclear measure it to be at 423.4 nm in the spectrum of a galaxy,

matter. what is the approximate distance to the galaxy?

15. ( Ill) Stars located in a certain cluster are thought to be 27. (II) What is the speed of a galaxy with z = 0.060?

about the same distance from us. Two such stars have 28. (II) What would be the redshift parameter z for a galaxy

spectra that peak at = 470 nm and A2 = 720 nm, and traveling away from us at v = 0.075 c?

the ratio of their apparent brightness is b i/b 2 = 0.091. 29. (II) Starting from Eq. 44-3, show that the Doppler shift

Estimate their relative sizes (give ratio of their diameters) in wavelength is AA/Arest « v /c (Eq. 44-6) for v « c.

using Wien’s law and the Stefan-Boltzmann equation, Eq. 19-17. [Hint: Use the binomial expansion.]

16. ( Ill) Suppose two stars of the same apparent brightness b 30. (II) Radiotelescopes are designed to observe 21-cm waves

are also believed to be the same size. The spectrum of one emitted by atomic hydrogen gas. A signal from a distant

star peaks at 750 nm whereas that of the other peaks at radio-emitting galaxy is found to have a wavelength that is

450 nm. Use Wien’s law and the Stefan-Boltzmann equation 0.10 cm longer than the normal 21-cm wavelength. Estimate

(Eq. 19-17) to estimate their relative distances from us. the distance to this galaxy.

44-4 General Relativity, Gravity and Curved Space 4 4 -6 to 4 4 -8 The Big Bang, CMB, Universe Expansion

17. (I) Show that the Schwarzschild radius for a star with mass 31. (I) Calculate the wavelength at the peak of the blackbody

equal to that of Earth is 8.9 mm. radiation distribution at 2.7 K using Wien’s law.

18. (II) What is the Schwarzschild radius for a typical galaxy 32. (II) Calculate the peak wavelength of the CMB at 1.0 s after

(like ours)? the birth of the universe. In what part of the EM spectrum is

19. (II) What is the maximum sum-of-the-angles for a triangle this radiation?

on a sphere? 33. (II) The critical density for closure of the universe is

20. (II) Calculate the escape velocity, using Newtonian pc « 10_26kg/m 3. State pc in terms of the average number

mechanics, from an object that has collapsed to its of nucleons per cubic meter.

Schwarzschild radius. 34. (II) The scale factor of the universe (average distance

21. (II) What is the apparent deflection of a light beam in an between galaxies) at any given time is believed to have

elevator (Fig. 44-13) which is 2.4 m wide if the elevator is been inversely proportional to the absolute temperature.

accelerating downward at 9.8 m/s2? Estimate the size of the universe, compared to today, at

44-5 Redshift, Hubble's Law (a) t = 106yr, (b) t = 1 s, (c) t = 10-6 s, and (d) t = 10-35 s.

22. (I) The redshift of a galaxy indicates a velocity of 35. (II) A t approximately what time had the universe

1850 km/s. How far away is it? cooled below the threshold temperature for producing

23. (I) If a galaxy is traveling away from us at 1.5% of the speed (a) kaons (M « 500 M eV /c2), (b) Y (M ~ 9500 M eV /c2),

of light, roughly how far away is it? and ( c) muons (M « 100 M eV /c2)?

24. (II) A galaxy is moving away from Earth. The “blue” hydrogen 4 4 -9 Dark Matter, Dark Energy

line at 434 nm emitted from the galaxy is measured on 36. (II) Only about 5% of the energy in the universe is composed

Earth to be 455 nm. (a) How fast is the galaxy moving? of baryonic matter, (a) Estimate the average density of

(ib) How far is it from Earth? baryonic matter in the observable universe with a radius

25. (II) Estimate the wavelength shift for the 656-nm line of 14 billion light-years that contains 1011 galaxies, each with

in the Balmer series of hydrogen emitted from a galaxy about 1011 stars like our Sun. (b) Estimate the density of dark

whose distance from us is (a) 7.0 X 106ly, (b) 7.0 X 107ly. matter in the universe.

| General Problems__________

37. The evolution of stars, as discussed in Section 44-2, can lead to 41. Suppose that three main-sequence stars could undergo the

a white dwarf, a neutron star, or even a black hole, depending three changes represented by the three arrows, A , B, and C,

on the mass, (a) Referring to Sections 44-2 and 44-4, give the in the H -R diagram of Fig. 44-35. For each case, describe

radius of (i) a white dwarf of 1 solar mass, (ii) a neutron star of the changes in temperature, intrinsic luminosity, and size.

1.5 solar masses, and (iii) a black hole of 3 solar masses,

(ib) Express these three radii as ratios ( ^ : : 7^).

38. Use conservation of angular momentum to estimate the

angular velocity of a neutron star which has collapsed to a

diameter of 16 km, from a star whose radius was equal to that

of our Sun (7 X 108m). Assume its mass is 1.5 times that of the

Sun, and that it rotated (like our Sun) about once a month.

39. By what factor does the rotational kinetic energy change

when the star in Problem 38 collapses to a neutron star?

40. Assume that the nearest stars to us have an intrinsic

luminosity about the same as the Sun’s. Their apparent

brightness, however, is about 1011 times fainter than the Sun.

From this, estimate the distance to the nearest stars. (Newton

did this calculation, although he made a numerical error of

a factor of 100.) FIGURE 44-35 Problem 41. 1227

42. A certain pulsar, believed to be a neutron star o f mass 53. The Large Hadron C ollider in Geneva, Switzerland, can

1.5 times that of the Sun, w ith diameter 16 km, is observed collide two beams o f protons at an energy o f 14 TeV. E sti

to have a rotation speed o f 1.0 rev/s. I f it loses rotational mate the tim e after the Big Bang probed by this energy.

kinetic energy at the rate of 1 part in 109 per day, which is 54. (a) Use special relativity and Newton’s law o f gravitation to

all transformed into radiation, what is the power output of show that a photon of mass m = E / c 2 just grazing the Sun

the star? w ill be deflected by an angle A 6 given by

43. The nearest large galaxy to our Galaxy is about 2 X 106ly 2G M

away. I f both galaxies have a mass o f 3 X 1041 kg, w ith what Ad =

c R

gravitational force does each galaxy attract the other?

where G is the gravitational constant, R and M are the

44. Estimate what neutrino mass (in eV /c2) would provide the radius and mass of the Sun, and c is the speed o f light.

critical density to close the universe. Assume the neutrino

( b ) Put in values and show A0 = 0.87". (General R elativity

density is, like photons, about 109 times that of nucleons, and predicts an angle twice as large, 1.74".)

that nucleons make up only (a) 2% o f the mass needed, or

(b) 5% o f the mass needed. 55. Astronomers use an apparent magnitude (m) scale to describe

apparent brightness. It uses a logarithmic scale, where a higher

45. Two stars, whose spectra peak at 660 nm and 480 nm,

number corresponds to a less bright star. (For example, the

respectively, both lie on the main sequence. Use W ien’s

Sun has magnitude -2 7 , whereas most stars have positive

law, the Stefan-Boltzmann equation, and the H -R diagram

magnitudes.) On this scale, a change in apparent magnitude by

(Fig. 44-6) to estimate the ratio o f their diameters.

+5 corresponds to a decrease in apparent brightness by a

46. (a) In order to measure distances w ith parallax at 100 parsecs, factor of 100. If Venus has an apparent magnitude of -4 .4 ,

what minimum angular resolution (in degrees) is needed?

whereas Sirius has an apparent magnitude of — 1.4, which is

(b) W hat diameter m irror or lens would be needed?

brighter? What is the ratio of the apparent brightness of these

47. What is the temperature that corresponds to 1.96-TeV co lli two objects?

sions at the Fermilab collider? To what era in cosmological

56. Estimate the radius of a white dwarf whose mass is equal to

history does this correspond? [Hint: See Fig. 44-30.]

that o f the Sun by the follow ing method, assuming there are

48. Astronomers have measured the rotation o f gas around N nucleons and \ N electrons (why §?): (a) Use Ferm i-Dirac

a possible supermassive black hole o f about 2 b illion statistics (Section 40-6) to show that the total energy o f all

solar masses at the center of a galaxy. I f the radius from the the electrons is ,

galactic center to the gas clouds is 68 light-years, estimate 3 fl h 1 /3 JV\3

the measured value o f z.

49. In the later stages of stellar evolution, a star (if massive

Ee = - \ - N

’

5 V2 7 8rae V 2 V J

enough) w ill begin fusing carbon nuclei to form , fo r [Hint: See Eqs. 40-12 and 40-13; we assume electrons fill

example, magnesium: energy levels from 0 up to the Fermi energy.] (b) The

nucleons contribute to the total energy m ainly via the grav

24-

126c + gM g + 7. itational force (note that the Fermi energy fo r nucleons is

negligible compared to that fo r electrons— why?). Use a

(a) How much energy is released in this reaction (see

gravitational form of Gauss’s law to show that the total

Appendix F)? ( b ) How much kinetic energy must each

gravitational potential energy o f a uniform sphere of

carbon nucleus have (assume equal) in a head-on collision if

radius R is

they are just to “ touch” (use Eq. 41-1) so that the strong

3 GM2

force can come into play? (c) W hat temperature does this

kinetic energy correspond to? 5 R

50. Consider the reaction by considering the potential energy of a spherical shell of

radius r due only to the mass inside it (why?) and integrate

+ ijjo -> g s i + ^He, from r = 0 to r = R. (See also Appendix D.) (c) W rite

and answer the same questions as in Problem 49. the total energy as a sum o f these two terms, and set

d E /d R = 0 to find the equilibrium radius, and evaluate it

51. Calculate the Schwarzschild radius using a semi-classical

fo r a mass equal to the Sun’s (2.0 X IO30 kg).

(Newtonian) gravitational theory, by calculating the

minimum radius R fo r a sphere o f mass M such that a 57. Determine the radius of a neutron star using the same argu

photon can escape from the surface. (General R elativity ment as in Problem 56 but fo r N neutrons only. Show that the

gives R = 2G M /c 1.) radius of a neutron star, of 1.5 solar masses, is about 11 km.

52. How large would the Sun be if its density equaled the 58. Use dim ensional analysis w ith the fundamental constants c,

critical density o f the universe, pc ~ 10_26kg/m 3? Express G , and h to estimate the value of the so-called Planck time.

your answer in light-years and compare w ith the Earth-Sun It is thought that physics as we know it can say nothing

distance and the diameter o f our Galaxy. about the universe before this time.

Answers to Exercises

A : Ourselves, 2 years ago. C: 6 km.

B: 600 ly (estimating L from Fig. 44-6 as L « 8 X 1026 W; D : (a); not the usual R 3, but R: see form ula fo r the

note that on a log scale, 6000 K is closer to 7000 K than it is Schwarzschild radius,

to 5000 K ). g.

?, N D

M a t h e m a t i c a l F o r m u la s

If ax2 + bx + c = 0

- b ± \ / b 2 - 4ac

then

2a

{ 1 ± x )n = 1 ± n x + ^ ^ x, ± < ! L ^ l ^ l x3

(x + y r = xJ 1 + l Y = xJ 1 + n l + n ( n - l ) y 2

Xj \ X 21 x2

jl. X2 x3

e* = 1 + * + - + - + -

2 3 4

ln (l + *) = x ~ Y + Y ~ T + '"

sine = e - |j - + |j - - -

- . - . - S - S - .

In general: f ( x ) = /( 0 ) + a: + f - + •••

A—4 Exponents

(an)(am) = a'I+m J_

= a-"

(a")(fc") = (a*)"

1

(a")m = a®"

Object Surface area Volume

Circle, radius r Trr1 —

Sphere, radius r 4ttt2 Iirr3

Right circular cylinder, radius r, height h 2ttr2 + 27rrh 7rr2h

Right circular cone, radius r, height h ttt2 + irr\/r2 + h2 \irr2h

A-1

A—6 Plane Geometry

parallel to line a2 , then 61 = 02. and bx _Lb2 , then d1 = 02.

4. Pythagorean theorem :

In any right triangle (one angle = 90°) of sides a, b, and c:

a2 + b2 = c2

where c is the length of the hypotenuse (opposite the 90°

FIGURE A-3 angle).

5. Similar triangles: Two triangles are said to be similar if all three of their angles

are equal (in Fig. A -4 , 61 = <f>i,d2 = 4>2, and 03 = (f>3). Similar triangles can

have different sizes and different orientations.

(a) Two triangles are similar if any two of their angles are equal. (This follows

because the third angles must also be equal since the sum of the angles of a

triangle is 180°.)

(b) The ratios of corresponding sides of two similar triangles are equal (Fig. A -4 ):

h al _ a2 _ a3

FIGURE A-4 b\ b2 b3

6. Congruent triangles: Two triangles are congruent if one can be placed precisely

on top of the other. That is, they are similar triangles and they have the same

size. Two triangles are congruent if any of the following holds:

(a) The three corresponding sides are equal.

(b) Two sides and the enclosed angle are equal (“ side-angle-side” ).

(c) Two angles and the enclosed side are equal (“ angle-side-angle” ).

A—7 Logarithms

Logarithms are defined in the following way:

if y = Ax, then x = log A y.

That is, the logarithm of a number y to the base A is that number which, as the

exponent of A , gives back the number y. For common logarithms, the base is 10, so

if y = 10*, then x = logy.

The subscript 10 on log10 is usually omitted when dealing with common logs.

Another important base is the exponential base e = 2.718 ..., a natural number.

Such logarithms are called natural logarithms and are written In. Thus,

if y = ex, then x = In y.

For any number y, the two types of logarithm are related by

ln y = 2.3026 logy.

Some simple rules for logarithms are as follows:

log (ab) = log a + log b, (i)

which is true because if a = 10” and b = 10m, then ab = 10” +m. From the

APPENDIX A

definition of logarithm, log a = n, log b = ra, and log (ab) = n + m; hence,

\og(ab) = n + m = log a + \ogb. In a similar way, we can show that

and

log a" = ra log 0 . (iii)

These three rules apply to any kind of logarithm.

If you do not have a calculator that calculates logs, you can easily use a log

table, such as the small one shown here (Table A -1 ): the number N whose log we

want is given to two digits. The first digit is in the vertical column to the left, the

second digit is in the horizontal row across the top. For example, Table A -1 tells us

that log 1.0 = 0.000, log 1.1 = 0.041, and log 4.1 = 0.613. Table A -1 does not

include the decimal point. The Table gives logs for numbers between 1.0 and 9.9.

For larger or smaller numbers, we use rule (i) above, log (ab) = log a + log b.

For example, log(380) = log(3.8 X 102) = log(3.8) + log(l02). From the Table,

log 3.8 = 0.580; and from rule (iii) above log(l02) = 21og(10) = 2, since

log (10) = 1. [This follows from the definition of the logarithm: if 10 = 101, then

1 = log(10).] Thus,

log (380) = log(3.8) + log(l02)

= 0.580 + 2

= 2.580.

Similarly,

log (0.081) = log(8.1) + log (l0 -2)

= 0.908 - 2 = -1.092.

The reverse process of finding the number N whose log is, say, 2.670, is called

“ taking the antilogarithm.” To do so, we separate our number 2.670 into two parts,

making the separation at the decimal point:

log N = 2.670 = 2 + 0.670

= log 102 + 0.670.

We now look at Table A -1 to see what number has its log equal to 0.670; none

does, so we must interpolate: we see that log 4.6 = 0.663 and log 4.7 = 0.672. So

the number we want is between 4.6 and 4.7, and closer to the latter by \ • Approxi

mately we can say that log 4.68 = 0.670. Thus

log N = 2 + 0.670

= log(l02) + log(4.68) = log(4.68 X 102),

so N = 4.68 X 102 = 468.

If the given logarithm is negative, say, -2.180, we proceed as follows:

log TV = -2.180 = -3 + 0.820

= loglO -3 + log 6.6 = log 6.6 X 10-3,

so N = 6.6 X 10 3. Notice that we added to our given logarithm the next largest

integer (3 in this case) so that we have an integer, plus a decimal number between

0 and 1.0 whose antilogarithm can be looked up in the Table.

N 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

1 000 041 079 114 146 176 204 230 255 279

2 301 322 342 362 380 398 415 431 447 462

3 477 491 505 519 531 544 556 568 580 591

4 602 613 623 633 643 653 663 672 681 690

5 699 708 716 724 732 740 748 756 763 771

6 778 785 792 799 806 813 820 826 833 839

7 845 851 857 863 869 875 881 886 892 898

8 903 908 914 919 924 929 935 940 944 949

9 954 959 964 968 973 978 982 987 991 996

SECTION A-7 Logarithms A-3

A—8 Vectors

Vector addition is covered in Sections 3-2 to 3-5.

Vector multiplication is covered in Sections 3 -3 ,7 -2 , and 11-2.

The trigonometric functions are defined as follows (see Fig. A -5 , o = side opposite,

a = side adjacent, h = hypotenuse. Values are given in Table A -2 ):

1 h

•

sin 0^ = —° CSC0 =

h sin0 o

FIGURE A-5 a 1 h

cos 0 = — sec0 =

h COS0 a

o sin 0 1 a

tan 0 = — = ------ cot 0 =

a cos 0 tan0 o

and recall that

a2 + o2 = h2 [Pythagorean theorem].

FIGURE A-6 Figure A -6 shows the signs (+ or - ) that cosine, sine, and tangent take on for

First Quadrant Second Quadrant angles 0 in the four quadrants (0° to 360°). Note that angles are measured coun

(0° to 90°) (90° to 180°) terclockwise from the x axis as shown; negative angles are measured from below

x>0 x<0 the x axis, clockwise: for example, -30 ° = +330°, and so on.

The following are some useful identities among the trigonometric functions:

sin20 + cos20 = 1

sec20 - tan20 = 1, csc20 - cot20 = 1

sin 20 = 2 sin 0 cos 0

cos 20 = cos20 - sin20 = 2cos20 1 = 1 - 2sin20

2tan0

sin 0 = y/r> 0 sin 0>O tan 20 =

cos 8 = x/r>0 cos0<O 1 - tan20

tan 6 =y/x>Q tan 0 < 0 sin (A + B = sin A cos B ± cos A sin B

cos(A + B = cos A cos B + sin A sin B

Third Quadrant Fourth Quadrant

(180° to 270°) (270° to 360°) tan A + tan B

ta n (A + B

x<0 jt>0 1 + tan A tan B

;y<0 y<0

sin (180° - 0 = sin0

cos(180° - 0 = -cos 0

1 xf \x 1 sin (90° - 0 = cos 0

\ ii v ^y 1 S. 1

cos(90° - 0 = sin0

\ \ / r \ r ' 1

y J \ y V/

s in (-0 = -s in 0

cos 0<O cos0>O ta n (-0 = -ta n 0

tan 0>O tan0<O

1 - COS0 1 + COS0 1 - cos0

2 cos 0

(A±B AT B

sin A + sin B = 2 sin — -— cos

FIGURE A-7 V 2

For any triangle (see Fig. A -7 ):

sin a _ sin /3 _ sin 7

[Law of sines]

a b c

c2 = a2 + b2 - la b cos 7. [Law of cosines]

Values of sine, cosine, tangent are given in Table A -2 .

A-4 APPENDIX A

TABLE A-2 Trigonometric Table: Numerical Values of Sin, Cos, Tan

Angle Angle Angle Angle

in in in in

Degrees Radians Sine Cosine Tangent Degrees Radians Sine Cosine Tangent

0° 0.000 0.000 1.000 0.000

1° 0.017 0.017 1.000 0.017 46° 0.803 0.719 0.695 1.036

2° 0.035 0.035 0.999 0.035 47° 0.820 0.731 0.682 1.072

3° 0.052 0.052 0.999 0.052 48° 0.838 0.743 0.669 1.111

4° 0.070 0.070 0.998 0.070 49° 0.855 0.755 0.656 1.150

5° 0.087 0.087 0.996 0.087 50° 0.873 0.766 0.643 1.192

7° 0.122 0.122 0.993 0.123 52° 0.908 0.788 0.616 1.280

8° 0.140 0.139 0.990 0.141 53° 0.925 0.799 0.602 1.327

9° 0.157 0.156 0.988 0.158 54° 0.942 0.809 0.588 1.376

10° 0.175 0.174 0.985 0.176 55° 0.960 0.819 0.574 1.428

11° 0.192 0.191 0.982 0.194 56° 0.977 0.829 0.559 1.483

12° 0.209 0.208 0.978 0.213 57° 0.995 0.839 0.545 1.540

13° 0.227 0.225 0.974 0.231 58° 1.012 0.848 0.530 1.600

14° 0.244 0.242 0.970 0.249 59° 1.030 0.857 0.515 1.664

15° 0.262 0.259 0.966 0.268 60° 1.047 0.866 0.500 1.732

16° 0.279 0.276 0.961 0.287 61° 1.065 0.875 0.485 1.804

17° 0.297 0.292 0.956 0.306 62° 1.082 0.883 0.469 1.881

18° 0.314 0.309 0.951 0.325 63° 1.100 0.891 0.454 1.963

19° 0.332 0.326 0.946 0.344 64° 1.117 0.899 0.438 2.050

20° 0.349 0.342 0.940 0.364 65° 1.134 0.906 0.423 2.145

21° 0.367 0.358 0.934 0.384 66° 1.152 0.914 0.407 2.246

22° 0.384 0.375 0.927 0.404 67° 1.169 0.921 0.391 2.356

23° 0.401 0.391 0.921 0.424 68° 1.187 0.927 0.375 2.475

24° 0.419 0.407 0.914 0.445 69° 1.204 0.934 0.358 2.605

25° 0.436 0.423 0.906 0.466 70° 1.222 0.940 0.342 2.747

26° 0.454 0.438 0.899 0.488 71° 1.239 0.946 0.326 2.904

27° 0.471 0.454 0.891 0.510 72° 1.257 0.951 0.309 3.078

28° 0.489 0.469 0.883 0.532 73° 1.274 0.956 0.292 3.271

29° 0.506 0.485 0.875 0.554 74° 1.292 0.961 0.276 3.487

30° 0.524 0.500 0.866 0.577 75° 1.309 0.966 0.259 3.732

31° 0.541 0.515 0.857 0.601 76° 1.326 0.970 0.242 4.011

32° 0.559 0.530 0.848 0.625 77° 1.344 0.974 0.225 4.331

33° 0.576 0.545 0.839 0.649 78° 1.361 0.978 0.208 4.705

34° 0.593 0.559 0.829 0.675 79° 1.379 0.982 0.191 5.145

35° 0.611 0.574 0.819 0.700 80° 1.396 0.985 0.174 5.671

36° 0.628 0.588 0.809 0.727 81° 1.414 0.988 0.156 6.314

37° 0.646 0.602 0.799 0.754 82° 1.431 0.990 0.139 7.115

38° 0.663 0.616 0.788 0.781 83° 1.449 0.993 0.122 8.144

39° 0.681 0.629 0.777 0.810 84° 1.466 0.995 0.105 9.514

40° 0.698 0.643 0.766 0.839 85° 1.484 0.996 0.087 11.43

41° 0.716 0.656 0.755 0.869 86° 1.501 0.998 0.070 14.301

42° 0.733 0.669 0.743 0.900 87° 1.518 0.999 0.052 19.081

43° 0.750 0.682 0.731 0.933 88° 1.536 0.999 0.035 28.636

44° 0.768 0.695 0.719 0.966 89° 1.553 1.000 0.017 57.290

45° 0.785 0.707 0.707 1.000 90° 1.571 1.000 0.000 oo

% N |>

B - l D e r iv a t iv e s : G e n e r a l R u le s

dx _

~dx ~

d df

— [af(x)\ = a — [a = constant]

CIJL CIJC

£ [ « * ) + * (* )] = £ + £

(* )* (* )] = f x s + f f x

iV M ] = f y% [chain rule]

— = 1 - n

f < fy\ dx

,d x /

B —2 D e r iv a t iv e s : P a r t ic u la r F u n c t io n s

4 ^ = 0 [a = constant]

dx

-^ -x n = n x "-1

dx

d .

— sin ax = a cos ax

dx

d

— cos ax = —a sin ax

dx

d 2

— tan ax = a sec ax

dx

d 1

— In ax = —

dx x

d_

dx

B —3 I n d e f in it e In t e g r a ls : G e n e r a l R u le s

\ dx = x

A -6

B—4 Indefinite Integrals: ParticularFunctions

(An arbitrary constant can be added to the right side of each equation.)

+ x

[ a dx = ax \a = constant! [---------

J (x22±

J (x ± aa2)l

: a2\ J x 2± i

m ,+ l ((x2 ± da2)l

x 2± ' y j x 2± a2

1“ sin ax dx = ——cos ax

a

1 J

.

I . 0 T x

sin2 ax dx = ^ —

| sii

2

. _

sin 2ax

4a

/ cos ax dx = —sin ax

a [ e

xe~ax dx = ------Y ^ ax + 1 )

S'

| tan ax dx = ^ ln|sec ax\

f e~ax

x2e~ax dx = ------ j- (ia2x2 + la x + l)

I —dx = In x f dx 1 ,x

—z-------7 = —tan —

J xl + ar a a

■axdx = - e ax

S' a [x2 > fl2]

J\^x ~—2a = f2 a In f— + fl

la \a - x J

I^ = ! - “ " ( f ) - - “ *“ ( ! )

n\ r oo 77

x2e~“ ‘ dx =

I,o an+1 Jo ' 16fl3

pTT r oo

JV V 4a

x ^ -^ d x =

2a2

Jo Jo

1

[ x e -^ d x = J - f°°j:2V _'“2dx

1 x2ne~a^ dx = 1 '3 '5 ' " ( 2”---- 51 J z

Jo la

2a Jo 2“ fl V fl

Sometimes a difficult integral can be simplified by carefully choosing the functions u and v in the identity:

d . , dv du

-(u v ) = u - + v -

For example Jxe~x dx can be integrated by choosing u = x and dv = e x dx in the “integration by parts” equation above:

More on Dimensional Analysis

An important use of dimensional analysis (Section 1-7) is to obtain the form of an

equation: how one quantity depends on others. To take a concrete example, let us

try to find an expression for the period T of a simple pendulum. First, we try to

figure out what T could depend on, and make a list of these variables. It might

depend on its length £, on the mass m of the bob, on the angle of swing 0, and on

the acceleration due to gravity, g. It might also depend on air resistance (we would

use the viscosity of air), the gravitational pull of the Moon, and so on; but everyday

experience suggests that the Earth’s gravity is the major force involved, so we

ignore the other possible forces. So let us assume that T is a function of £, m, 0, and

g, and that each of these factors is present to some power:

T = C£wm x6y g z .

C is a dimensionless constant, and w , x, y, and z are exponents we want to solve

for. We now write down the dimensional equation (Section 1-7) for this relationship:

[T] = [L] w[M ] x [L /T 2]z .

Because 0 has no dimensions (a radian is a length divided by a length— see

Eq. 1 0 -la ), it does not appear. We simplify and obtain

[T] = [L] w+z[M ] x [T]~2z

To have dimensional consistency, we must have

1 = —2z

0 = w + z

0 = x.

We solve these equations and find that z = = and x = 0. Thus our

desired equation must be

t = cVt/gf(e), (C -i)

where /(0 ) is some function of 0 that we cannot determine using this technique.

Nor can we determine in this way the dimensionless constant C. (To obtain C and

/ , we would have to do an analysis such as that in Chapter 14 using Newton’s laws,

which reveals that C = 2ir and / « 1 for small 0). But look what we have found,

using only dimensional consistency. We obtained the form of the expression that

relates the period of a simple pendulum to the major variables of the situation,

£ and g (see Eq. 14-12c), and saw that it does not depend on the mass m.

How did we do it? And how useful is this technique? Basically, we had to use

our intuition as to which variables were important and which were not. This is not

always easy, and often requires a lot of insight. As to usefulness, the final result in

our example could have been obtained from Newton’s laws, as in Chapter 14. But

in many physical situations, such a derivation from other laws cannot be done. In

those situations, dimensional analysis can be a powerful tool.

In the end, any expression derived by the use of dimensional analysis (or by any

other means, for that matter) must be checked against experiment. For example, in our

derivation of Eq. C -l, we can compare the periods of two pendulums of different

lengths, lx and l 2 >whose amplitudes (0) are the same. For, using Eq. C -l, we would have

Ti o /ijg m ft

t2 cV U gf(e) Vi 2

Because C and /(0 ) are the same for both pendula, they cancel out, so we can

experimentally determine if the ratio of the periods varies as the ratio of the

square roots of the lengths. This comparison to experiment checks our derivation,

at least in part; C and /(0 ) could be determined by further experiments.

A-8 APPENDIX C More on Dimensional Analysis

D Gravitational Force due to a

Spherical Mass Distribution

In Chapter 6 we stated that the gravitational force exerted by or on a uniform

sphere acts as if all the mass of the sphere were concentrated at its center, if the

other object (exerting or feeling the force) is outside the sphere. In other words,

the gravitational force that a uniform sphere exerts on a particle outside it is

ifiM

F = G— » [ra outside sphere of mass M l

r

where ra is the mass of the particle, M the mass of the sphere, and r the distance of

ra from the center of the sphere. Now we w ill derive this result. We w ill use the

concepts of infinitesim ally small quantities and integration.

First we consider a very thin, uniform spherical shell (like a thin-walled

basketball) of mass M whose thickness t is small compared to its radius R

(Fig. D - l) . The force on a particle of mass ra at a distance r from the center of the

shell can be calculated as the vector sum of the forces due to all the particles of the

shell. We imagine the shell divided up into thin (infinitesim al) circular strips so

that all points on a strip are equidistant from our particle ra. One of these circular

strips, labeled AB, is shown in Fig. D - l. It is R dd wide, t thick, and has a radius

R sin 0. The force on our particle ra due to a tiny piece of the strip at point A is

represented by the vector FA shown. The force due to a tiny piece of the strip at

point B, which is diametrically opposite A , is the force FB. We take the two pieces

at A and B to be of equal mass, so FA = FQ. The horizontal components of FA

and Fb are each equal to

Fa cos (f>

and point toward the center of the shell. The vertical components of FA and FB are

of equal magnitude and point in opposite directions, and so cancel. Since for every

point on the strip there is a corresponding point diametrically opposite (as with A

and B), we see that the net force due to the entire strip points toward the center of

the shell. Its magnitude w ill be

^ ra dM

dF = G — — cos 4>,

where dM is the mass of the entire circular strip and £ is the distance from all

points on the strip to ra, as shown. We write dM in terms of the density p; by

density we mean the mass per unit volume (Section 13-2). Hence, dM = p dV,

where d V is the volume of the strip and equals (2 ttR sin 6) ( t ) ( R dd). Then the

force dF due to the circular strip shown is

^ m p lirR h sin 0 dd

dF = G ---------- ^ ---------- cos (f>. (D -l)

gravitational force on a particle of

mass m due to a uniform spherical

shell of radius R and mass M.

A-9

FIGURE D -l (repeated)

Calculating the gravitational force

on a particle of mass m due to a

uniform spherical shell of radius R

and mass M.

To get the total force F that the entire shell exerts on the particle ra, we must

integrate over all the circular strips: that is, we integrate

m p2irR 2t sin 6 dd

dF = G — ------ j 2---------- cos<£ (D -l)

from 6 = 0° to 6 = 180°. But our expression for dF contains £ and 4>, which are

functions of 0. From Fig. D - l we can see that

£cos $ = r - R cos 6.

Furthermore, we can write the law of cosines for triangle CraA:

r2 + R 2 _ f

c o se = — IT r ------- (D" 2)

W ith these two expressions we can reduce our three variables (£, 0, <f>) to only one,

which we take to be L We do two things with Eq. D -2: (1) We put it into the equa

tion for £ cos cb above:

£' ' 2r£

and (2) we take the differential of both sides of Eq. D -2 (because sin 0 dd appears

in the expression for dF, Eq. D - l) , considering r and R to be constants when

summing over the strips:

• „ 2£ d£ . n £d£

-s in Odd = — — — or sin 6 dd = —— •

2rR rR

We insert these into Eq. D - l for dF and find

R ( r2 — R 2\

dF = G m pirt — ( 1 H-------—---- j d£.

Now we integrate to get the net force on our thin shell of radius R. To integrate

over all the strips (6 = 0° to 180°), we must go from £ = r - R to £ = r + R

(see Fig. D - l) . Thus,

R I" r2 - R 2~\l =r+R

F = G m pirt \ £ —

r2 I £ \ l =r- R

= G m pirt ^ (A R ) .

The volume V of the spherical shell is its area (4irR 2) times the thickness t. Hence

the mass M = pV = p4irR2t, and finally

p - q [ particle of mass m outside a

r2 I thin uniform spherical shell of mass M J

This result gives us the force a thin shell exerts on a particle of mass m a

distance r from the center of the shell, and outside the shell. We see that the force

is the same as that between m and a particle of mass M at the center of the

shell. In other words, for purposes of calculating the gravitational force exerted

on or by a uniform spherical shell, we can consider all its mass concentrated at

its center.

What we have derived for a shell holds also for a solid sphere, since a solid

sphere can be considered as made up of many concentric shells, from R = 0 to

R = R 0, where R0 is the radius of the solid sphere. Why? Because if each shell has

A-10 APPENDIX D

mass dM , we write for each shell, dF = G m d M /r 2, where r is the distance from

the center C to mass m and is the same for all shells. Then the total force equals

the sum or integral over dM , which gives the total mass M. Thus the result

_ mM Tparticle of mass m outside 1 _

r2 i solid sphere of mass M \

is valid for a solid sphere of mass M even if the density varies with distance from

the center. (It is not valid if the density varies w ithin each shell— that is, depends

not only on R .) Thus the gravitational force exerted on or by spherical objects,

including nearly spherical objects like the Earth, Sun, and Moon, can be consid

ered to act as if the objects were point particles.

This result, Eq. D -3 , is true only if the mass m is outside the sphere. Let us

next consider a point mass m that is located inside the spherical shell of Fig. D - l.

Here, r would be less than R, and the integration over I would be from i = R — r

to I = R + r, so

R +r

= 0.

R -r

Thus the force on any mass inside the shell would be zero. This result has partic

ular importance for the electrostatic force, which is also an inverse square law. For

the gravitational situation, we see that at points within a solid sphere, say 1000 km

below the Earth’s surface, only the mass up to that radius contributes to the net

force. The outer shells beyond the point in question contribute zero net gravitational

effect.

The results we have obtained here can also be reached using the gravitational

analog of Gauss’s law for electrostatics (Chapter 22).

N />

E Differential Form of

Maxwell's Equations

Maxwell’s equations can be written in another form that is often more convenient

than Eqs. 31-5. This material is usually covered in more advanced courses, and is

included here simply for completeness.

We quote here two theorems, without proof, that are derived in vector analysis

textbooks. The first is called Gauss’s theorem or the divergence theorem. It relates

the integral over a surface of any vector function F to a volume integral over the

volume enclosed by the surface:

J Area^4 JVolumeV

^ ~d *3 ~d

V = i — + i — + k—

dx dy dz

The quantity

^ ^ dFx dFy dFz

V F = ---- + —- + ----

dx dy dz

is called the divergence of F. The second theorem is Stokes’s theorem, and relates

a line integral around a closed path to a surface integral over any surface enclosed

by that path:

F -d l = [ f X F-dA.

-ine

Line AreaA

Ja

The quantity V X F is called the curl of F. (See Section 11-2 on the vector product.)

We now use these two theorems to obtain the differential form of Maxwell’s

equations in free space. We apply Gauss’s theorem to Eq. 31-5a (Gauss’s law):

j) E-dA = jf-E dV = — ■

Now the charge Q can be written as a volume integral over the charge density p:

Q = f p dV. Then

pdV .

Both sides contain volume integrals over the same volume, and for this to be true

over any volume, whatever its size or shape, the integrands must be equal:

f-E = —• (E-l)

e0

This is the differential form of Gauss’s law. The second of Maxwell’s equations,

<J)B-d A = 0, is treated in the same way, and we obtain

V-B = 0. (E-2)

A -12

Next, we apply Stokes’s theorem to the third of Maxwell’s equations,

(j>E-d? = j ? X E -d A =

j v X E-dA = - 1 B •dA

where we use the partial derivative, dB/dt, since B may also depend on position.

These are surface integrals over the same area, and to be true over any area, even

a very small one, we must have

- dB

V X E = - — • (E -3)

This is the third of Maxwell’s equations in differential form. Finally, to the last of

Maxwell’s equations,

j v X B dA = ix0I + |e*^A.

The conduction current I can be written in terms of the current density j , using

Eq. 25-12:

/ = Jj-rfA .

For this to be true over any area A , whatever its size or shape, the integrands on

each side of the equation must be equal:

dE

v X B - /A0j + (E-4)

space. They are summarized in Table E - l .

Integral form D ifferential form

<j)E-dA = j- V-E = —

eo

<j)B-dA = 0 V -B = 0

f dQ d *V *

i)E -di = - — - XE = -------

J dt dt

f — -* * ^ r dE

(DB- d t = n 0I + /A0e0 — — VXB = fi0] + /A0e0- —

dt

dx dy dz

% N tt

Selected Isotopes

A tom ic Mass % A bundance

Number Number A tom ic (or R adioactive H alf-life

Z E lem ent Symbol A M ass1- Decay* M ode) (if radioactive)

1 H ydrogen H 1 1.007825 99.9885%

D euterium d or D 2 2.014082 0.0115%

Tritium to r T 3 3.016049 pr 12.312 yr

2 H elium He 3 3.016029 0.000137%

4 4.002603 99.999863%

3 Lithium Li 6 6.015123 7.59%

7 7.016005 92.41%

4 Beryllium Be 7 7.016930 E C ,y 53.22 days

9 9.012182 100%

5 B oron B 10 10.012937 19.9%

11 11.009305 80.1%

6 Carbon C 11 11.011434 j6+, EC 20.370 min

12 12.000000 98.93%

13 13.003355 1.07%

14 14.003242 fr 5730 yr

7 N itrogen N 13 13.005739 jS+,E C 9.9670 min

14 14.003074 99.632%

15 15.000109 0.368%

8 O xygen O 15 15.003066 /3+, EC 122.5 min

16 15.994915 99.757%

18 17.999161 0.205%

9 Fluorine F 19 18.998403 100%

10 N eon Ne 20 19.992440 90.48%

22 21.991385 9.25%

11 Sodium Na 22 21.994436 p +, e c , y 2.6027 yr

23 22.989769 100%

24 23.990963 /r ,r 14.9574 h

12 M agnesium Mg 24 23.985042 78.99%

13 Alum inum Al 27 26.981539 100%

14 Silicon Si 28 27.976927 92.2297%

31 30.975363 y 157.3 min

15 Phosphorus P 31 30.973762 100%

32 31.973907 fr 14.284 days

trThe masses given in column (5) are those for the neutral atom, including the Z electrons.

*Chapter 41; E C = electron capture.

A -1 4

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)

Atomic Mass % Abundance

Number Number Atomic (or Radioactive Half-life

Z Element Symbol A Mass D ecay M ode) (if radioactive)

35 34.969032 pr 87.32 days

17 Chlorine Cl 35 34.968853 75.78%

37 36.965903 24.22%

18 Argon Ar 40 39.962383 99.600%

19 Potassium K 39 38.963707 93.258%

40 39.963998 0.0117%

/ r , EC, y,/3+ 1.265 X 109 yr

20 Calcium Ca 40 39.962591 96.94%

21 Scandium Sc 45 44.955912 100%

22 Titanium Ti 48 47.947946 73.72%

23 Vanadium V 51 50.943960 99.750%

24 Chromium Cr 52 51.940508 83.789%

25 Manganese Mn 55 54.938045 100%

26 Iron Fe 56 55.934938 91.75%

27 Cobalt Co 59 58.933195 100%

60 59.933817 /3~ y 5.2710 yr

28 Nickel Ni 58 57.935343 68.077%

60 59.930786 26.223%

29 Copper Cu 63 62.929598 69.17%

65 64.927790 30.83%

30 Zinc Zn 64 63.929142 48.6%

66 65.926033 27.9%

31 Gallium Ga 69 68.925574 60.108%

32 Germanium Ge 72 71.922076 27.5%

74 73.921178 36.3%

33 Arsenic As 75 74.921596 100%

34 Selenium Se 80 79.916521 49.6%

35 Bromine Br 79 78.918337 50.69%

36 Krypton Kr 84 83.911507 57.00%

37 Rubidium Rb 85 84.911790 72.17%

38 Strontium Sr 86 85.909260 9.86%

88 87.905612 82.58%

90 89.907738 r 28.80 yr

39 Yttrium Y 89 88.905848 100%

40 Zirconium Zr 90 89.904704 51.4%

41 Niobium Nb 93 92.906378 100%

42 Molybdenum Mo 98 97.905408 24.1%

43 Technetium Tc 98 97.907216 /r , y 4.2 X 106 yr

44 Ruthenium Ru 102 101.904349 31.55%

45 Rhodium Rh 103 102.905504 100%

46 Palladium Pd 106 105.903486 27.33%

47 Silver Ag 107 106.905097 51.839%

109 108.904752 48.161%

48 Cadmium Cd 114 113.903359 28.7%

49 Indium In 115 114.903878 95.71%; iQ- 4.41 X 1014 yr

50 Tin Sn 120 119.902195 32.58%

51 Antimony Sb 121 120.903816 57.21%

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)

Atomic Mass % Abundance

Number Number Atomic (or Radioactive Half-life

Z Element Symbol A Mass Decay M ode) (if radioactive)

53 Iodine I 127 126.904473 100%

131 130.906125 P~, y 8.0233 days

54 Xenon Xe 132 131.904154 26.89%

136 135.907219 8.87%; p-p~ > 8 .5 X 1021 yr

55 Cesium Cs 133 132.905452 100%

56 Barium Ba 137 136.905827 11.232%

138 137.905247 71.70%

57 Lanthanum La 139 138.906353 99.910%

58 Cerium Ce 140 139.905439 88.45%

59 Praseodymium Pr 141 140.907653 100%

60 Neodymium Nd 142 141.907723 27.2%

61 Promethium Pm 145 144.912749 EC, a 17.7 yr

62 Samarium Sm 152 151.919732 26.75%

63 Europium Eu 153 152.921230 52.19%

64 Gadolinium Gd 158 157.924104 24.84%

65 Terbium Tb 159 158.925347 100%

66 Dysprosium Dy 164 163.929175 28.2%

67 Holmium Ho 165 164.930322 100%

68 Erbium Er 166 165.930293 33.6%

69 Thulium Tm 169 168.934213 100%

70 Ytterbium Yb 174 173.938862 31.8%

71 Lutetium Lu 175 174.940772 97.41%

72 Hafnium Hf 180 179.946550 35.08%

73 Tantalum Ta 181 180.947996 99.988%

74 Tungsten (wolfram) W 184 183.950931 30.64%; a > 8 .9 X 1021 yr

75 Rhenium Re 187 186.955753 62.60%; p~ 4.35 X 1010 yr

76 Osmium Os 191 190.960930 P~,y 15.4 days

192 191.961481 40.78%

77 Iridium Ir 191 190.960594 37.3%

193 192.962926 62.7%

78 Platinum Pt 195 194.964791 33.832%

79 Gold Au 197 196.966569 100%

80 Mercury Hg 199 198.968280 16.87%

202 201.970643 29.9%

81 Thallium Tl 205 204.974428 70.476%

82 Lead Pb 206 205.974465 24.1%

207 206.975897 22.1%

208 207.976652 52.4%

210 209.984188 pr, y, a 22.23 yr

211 210.988737 pr, y 36.1 min

212 211.991898 P~,y 10.64 h

214 213.999805 p ~ ,y 26.8 min

83 Bismuth Bi 209 208.980399 100%

211 210.987269 a, y,P~ 2.14 min

84 Polonium Po 210 209.982874 a, y, EC 138.376 days

214 213.995201 a ,y 162.3 jjls

85 Astatine At 218 218.008694 a, p~ 1.4 s

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)

A tom ic Mass % A bundance

Number N um ber A tom ic (or R adioactive H alf-life

Z E lem ent Symbol A Mass D ecay M ode) (if radioactive)

87 Francium Fr 223 223.019736 p - , y, a 22.00 min

88 Radium Ra 226 226.025410 a ,7 1600 yr

89 Actinium Ac 227 227.027752 /T , y, a 21.772 yr

90 Thorium Th 228 228.028741 a ,y 698.60 days

232 232.038055 100%; a, y 1.405 X 1010 yr

91 Protactinium Pa 231 231.035884 a ,y 3.276 X 104 yr

92 Uranium U 232 232.037156 a ,y 68.9 yr

233 233.039635 a ,y 1.592 X 105 yr

235 235.043930 0.720%; a , y 7.04 X 108 yr

236 236.045568 a ,y 2.342 X 107 yr

238 238.050788 99.274%; a, 7 4.468 X 109 yr

239 239.054293 P~,y 23.46 min

93 Neptunium Np 237 237.048173 a, y 2.144 X 106 yr

239 239.052939 p ~ ,y 2.356 days

94 Plutonium Pu 239 239.052163 a ,y 24,100 yr

244 244.064204 a 8.00 X 107 yr

95 Am ericium Am 243 243.061381 a ,y 7370 yr

96 Curium Cm 247 247.070354 «, y 1.56 X 107 yr

97 Berkelium Bk 247 247.070307 a, y 1380 yr

98 Californium Cf 251 251.079587 a ,y 898 yr

99 Einsteinium Es 252 252.082980 a, EC, y 471.7 days

100 Fermium Fm 257 257.095105 a ,y 100.5 days

101 M endelevium Md 258 258.098431 a, y 51.5 days

102 N obelium No 259 259.10103 a, EC 58 min

103 Lawrencium Lr 262 262.10963 a, EC, fission ~4h

104 Rutherfordium Rf 263 263.11255 fission 10 min

105 D ubnium Db 262 262.11408 a, fission, EC 35 s

106 Seaborgium Sg 266 266.12210 a, fission ~21 s

107 Bohrium Bh 264 264.12460 a « 0.44 s

108 Hassium Hs 269 269.13406 a «10s

109 M eitnerium Mt 268 268.13870 a 21 ms

110 Darmstadtium Ds 271 271.14606 a ~ 7 0 ms

111 R oentgenium Rg 272 272.15360 a 3.8 ms

112 U ub 277 277.16394 a « 0.7 ms

Preliminary evidence (unconfirmed) has been reported for elements 113,114,115,116 and 118.

Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems

CHAPTER 1________________________ 41. (a) 3.16 X 107 s; 25. (fl) 21.2 m/s;

1. (fl) 1.4 X IO10 y; 0b) 3.16 X 1016 ns; cb) 2.00 m /s2.

(c) 3.17 X 10-8 y. 27. 17.0 m /s2.

0b) 4.4 X 1017 s.

43. 2 X 10“4 m. 29. (fl) m /s, m /s2;

3. (a) 1.156 X 10°;

45. 1 X 1011 gal/y. (fo) 22? m /s2;

0b) 2.18 X 101; 47. 9 cm /y . (c) (A + 105) m /s, 2B m /s2;

(c) 6.8 X IO-3; 49. 2 X 109 kg/y. (rf) A - 3 # r 4.

(rf) 3.2865 X 102; 51. 75 min. 31. 1.5 m /s2, 99 m.

(e) 2.19 X IO-1; 53. 4 X 105 metric tons, 1 X 108 gal. 33. 240 m /s2.

55. 1 X 103 days 35. 4.41 m /s2, 2.61 s.

(/)4 .4 4 X 102.

57. 210 yd, 190 m. 37. 45.0 m.

5. 4.6%.

59. (fl) 0.10 nm; 39. (fl) 560 m;

7. 1.00 X 105 s. (b) 47 s;

(fo) 1.0 X 105 fm;

9. 0.24 rad. (c) 1.0 X IO10 A; (c) 23 m, 21 m.

11. (a) 0.2866 m; (rf) 9.5 X 1025 A. 41. (a) 96 m;

(fo) 0.000085 V; 61. (fl) 3%, 3%; (fo) 76 m.

0b) 0.7%, 0.2%. 43. 27 m /s.

(c) 0.00076 kg;

63. 8 X 10“2 m3. 45. 117 km /h.

(rf) 0.0000000000600 s;

65. L /m , L /y, L. 47. 0.49 m /s2.

(e) 0.0000000000000225 m;

67. (a) 13.4; 49. 1.6 s.

( / ) 2,500,000,000 V. 51. (fl) 20 m;

(fo) 49.3.

13. 5'10" = 1.8 m, 165 lbs = 75.2 kg. 69. 4 X 1051 kg. (fo) 4 s.

15. (a) 1 ft2 = 0.111 yd2; 53. 1.16 s.

(fo) 1 m2 = 10.8 ft2. CHAPTER 2 55. 5.18 s.

1. 61 m. 57. (a) 25 m/s;

17. (a) 3.9 X 10-9 in.;

3. 0.65 cm /s, no. (fo)3 3 m;

(fo) 1.0 X 108 a to m s .

5. 300 m /s, 1 km every 3 sec. (c) 1.2 s;

19. (a) 1 km /h = 0.621 mi/h; (rf) 5.2 s.

7. (a) 9.26 m /s;

(fo) 1 m /s = 3.28 ft/s; 59. (a) 14 m/s;

(b) 3.1 m /s.

(c) 1 km /h = 0.278 m /s. 9. (fl) 0.3 m/s; (fo) fifth floor.

21. (a) 9.46 X 1015m; 0b) 1.2 m/s; 61. 1.3 m.

(c) 0.30 m/s; 63. 18.8 m /s, 18.1 m.

(fo) 6.31 X 104 AU;

(rf) 1.4 m /s; 65. 52 m.

(c) 7.20 A U /h .

( e) -0 .9 5 m /s. 67. 106 m.

23. ( a ) 3.80 X 1013 m 2;

11. 2.0 X 101 s. 69.

(fo) 13.4.

13. (fl) 5.4 X 103 m;

25. 6 X 105 books. (fo) 72 min.

27. 5 X 104 L. 15. (fl) 61 km/h; 71. 6.

29. ( a) 1800. ob) o. 73. 1.3 m.

31. 5 X 104 m . 17. (fl) 16 m /s; 75. (fo) 10 m;

33. 6.5 X 106 m. (fo) + 5 m /s. (c) 40 m.

19. 6.73 m /s. 77. 5.2 X 10-2 m /s2.

35. [ M /L 3].

21. 5 s. 79. 4.6 m /s to 5.4 m /s, 5.8 m /s to

37. ( a) Cannot;

23. (a) 48 s; 6.7 m /s, smaller range of velocities.

(fo) can; (fo) 90 s to 108 s; 81. (fl) 5.39 s;

(c) can. (c) 0 to 42 s, 65 s to 83 s, 90 s to 108 s; (fo) 40.3 m/s;

39. ( l X 10_5)%, 8 significant figures. (rf) 65 s to 83 s. (c) 90.9 m.

A -18

83. (a) 8.7 min; (b) -2 2 .8 , 9.85; 45. (a) (2.3i + 2.5j) m/s;

( b) 13 min. (c) 24.8,23.4° above the —x axis. (b) 5.3 m;

85. 2.3. (c) (2.3i — 10.2j)m /s.

(fl) 625 km /h, 553 km/h;

87. Stop. 47. No, 0.76 m too low; 4.5 m to

(ib) 1560 km, 1380 km.

89. 1.5 poles. 34.7 m.

91. 0.44 m /m in, 2.9 burgers/min. 9. (a) 4.2 at 315°;

51. tan-1 g t/v Q.

93. (a) Where the slopes are the same; (b) l.Oi - 5.0j or 5.1 at 280°. 53. (fl) 50.0 m;

(b) bicycle A; 11. (a) —53.7i + 1.31j or 53.7 at 1.4° (b) 6.39 s;

(c) when the two graphs cross; first

above —x axis; (c) 221 m;

crossing, B passing A; second

crossing, A passing B; (b) 53.71 - 1.3lj or 53.7 at 1.4° (d) 38.3 m /s at 25.7°.

(id) B until the slopes are equal, A below +x axis, they are 1 1

= ^ + —

55. —tan

after that; opposite. 2 tan i 2 4’

(e) same. 13. (a) —92.5i - 19.4j or 94.5 at 11.8° 57. (10.5 m /s)i, (6.5 m /s)i.

95. (c) 59. 1.41 m /s.

below —x axis;

u.u '"S 61. 23 s, 23 m.

^n (b) 1221 - 86.6j or 150 at 35.3°

D.U

/-N — 63. ( a) 11.2 m /s, 27° above the

below +x axis.

1 O ft i r horizontal;

w DX)

15. ( —2450 m )i + (3870 m)j

oH 9Z.U

0 (b) 11.2 m /s, 27° below the

^ l.U

10 + (2450 m)k, 5190 m. horizontal.

0 .0 - 17. (9.60i - 2.00tk) m /s, 65. 6.3°, west of south.

2 3

Time (s) (-2 .0 0 k ) m /s2. 67. (fl) 46 m;

19. Parabola. (b) 92 s.

21. (a) 4.0t m /s, 3.0? m/s; 69. ( a) 1.13 m/s;

(b) 3.20 m /s.

(b) 5.0t m/s;

71. 43.6° north of east.

(c) (2.0t2i + 1.5t2]) m;

73. (6 6 m )i - (35m )j - (12m )k,

( d ) vx = 8.0 m /s, vy = 6.0 m /s, 76 m, 28° south of east, 9° below the

v = 10.0 m /s, horizontal.

Time (s) r = (8.0i + 6.0j) m. 75. 131 km /h, 43.1° north of east.

97. ( b ) 6.8 m. 23. (a) (3.16i + 2.78j)cm /s; 77. 7.0 m /s.

81. 1.9 m /s, 2.7 s.

25. (a) (6.0£i - 18.0?2j) m /s,

Dv

(6.0i — 36.0?j) m /s2; 83. (fl)

(v2 - u 2Y

(b) (19i — 94j)m , (15i - 110j)m /s.

D

27. 4 1 4 m a t -6 5 .0 °. (b)

31. 18°, 72°. 87. [(1.5 m )i - (2.0£ m )i]

+ [ ( - 3 .1 m )j + (l.75r2 m)j,

? (3.5 m /s2)j, parabolic.

CHAPTER 3 <D

89. Row at an angle of 24.9° upstream

1. 286 km, 11° south of west. and run 104 m along the bank in a

total time of 862 seconds.

91. 69.9° north of east.

93. ( a) 13 m;

Horizontal distance (m)

(ft) 31° below the horizontal.

3. 10.1, -39.4°.

33. 2.26 s. 95. 5.1s.

35. 22.3 m. 97. (fl) 13 m /s, 12 m/s;

37. 39 m. (b) 33 m.

99. ( a) x = (3.03* - 0.0265) m,

41. (a) 12 s;

3.03 m/s;

(b) 62 m. (b) y = (0.158 - 0.855* + 6.09*2) m,

43. 5.5 s. 12.2 m /s2.

CHAPTER 4 51. (a) 2i

89. (a) g sin 0,

1. 77 N. g sin0

(b)

(ft) 1.2 X 102 N;

10

(c) 2.5 X 102 N;

mAg

mAg \m}

m B§ a 8-

{d) 0. I 6

raB raAraB

5. 1.3 X 106 N, 39%, 1.3 X 106N. (b)g g raA + mB 1 4-

raA + £ 2-

7. 2.1 X 102N.

8 o

9. m > 1.5 kg. raB + mc 15 30 45 60 75 90

53. g - Angle (degrees)

11. 89.8 N. mA + mB + me

13. 1.8 m / s 2, up.

55. (ra + M )gtan0.

15. Descend with a > 2.2 m /s2.

57. 1.52 m /s2, 18.3 N, 19.8 N.

17. -2800 m / s 2, 280 g ’s, 1.9 X 105N.

(raA + raB + rac)raB

19. (a) 7.5 s, 13 s, 7.5 s; 5 9 .--------. -------- g .

(ft) 12%, 0%, -12%; V ( m i - m l)

(c) 55%.

61. (a ) ( y - 1 ]g ;

21. (a) 3.1 m /s2;

(ft) 25 m/s;

(c) 78 s. (*)-v/2«jtol 1 - y l ;

23. 3.3 X 103N.

25. (a) 150 N; (c )jV iL

(ft) 14.5 m/s. 63. 6.3 N.

27. (a) 47.0 N; 65. 2.0 s, no change.

(ft) 17.0 N;

_ . . (mA sin 6 - raB)

(c ) 0. 67. (a) g — 7----- ------ r— ;

(raA + raBJ

29. (a) (b) (ft) raA sin 6 > raB

(raAdown the plane),

0 15 30 45 60 75 90

raA sin 0 < raB

Angle (degrees)

mg t mg (raAup the plane).

The graphs are all consistent with

31. (a) 1.5 m; , n mB sin 6b ~ raA sin dA

69. ( a ) ----------------- -------------------g; the results of the limiting cases.

(ft) 11.5 kN, no. raA + raB

33. (a) 31 N, 63 N; (ft) 6.8 kg, 26 N; CHAPTER 5

(ft) 35 N, 7 1 N. (c) 0.74. 1. 65 N, 0.

35. 6.3 X 103 N, 8.4 X 103N. 71. 9.9°. 3. 0.20.

37. (a) 19.0 N at 237.5°, 1.03 m /s2 at 5. 8.8 m /s2.

237.5°; 7. 1.0 X 102 N, 0.48.

73-(“>41^

(ft) 14.0 N at 51.0°, 0.758 m /s2 at 9. 0.51.

(ft) 1.4 X 102N.

51.0°.

75. (a) Mg/2; 11. 4.2 m.

39. | — t l 13. 1.2 X 103 N.

2m (6) Mg/2, Mg/2,3Mg/2, Mg.

15. (a) 0.67;

41. 4.0 X 102 m. 77. 8.7 X 102N,

(ft) 6.8 m/s;

43. 12°. 72° above the horizontal.

(c) 16 m/s.

45. (a) 9.9 N; 79. (a) 0.6 m /s2;

17. (a) 1.7 m /s2;

(ft) 260 N. (ft) 1.5 X 105N.

(ft) 4.3 X 102N;

47. (a) mEg - FT = mEa', 81. 1.76 X 104N. (c) 1.7 m /s2, 2.2 X 102N.

Ft - m c g = m c a; 83. 3.8 X 102N, 7.6 X 102N. 19. (a) 0.80 m;

(ft) 0.68 m /s2, 10,500 N. 85. 3.4 m/s. (ft) 1.3 s.

49. (a) 2.8 m; 87. (a) 23 N; 21. (a) A will pull B along;

(ft) 2.5 s. (ft) 3.8 N. (ft) B will eventually catch up to A;

(c) fxA < fxB: a = 69. ( a) 14 kg/m; 13. 21/* ~ 1.26 times larger.

[ ( ^ a + rnB) sin 6 — (/xA m A + fiB m B) cos 6 (fo) 570 N. 15. 3.46 X 108 m from the center of the

mg W/ b, .J Earth.

I {mA + m B) t + — {e mt - 1)J S

19. (fo) g decreases as r increases;

mAmB . \

Ft = g 7-------;------ t(^ b ~ M a)cos 6, 75. 10 m. (c) 9.42 m /s2 approximate,

[mA + m B) 9.43 m /s2 exact.

77. 0.46.

ixA > P b -Va = g (sin 0 - fxA cosd), 79. 102 N, 0.725. 21. 9.78 m /s2, 0.099° south of radially

aB = ^(sin 6 - ixB cos d), FT = 0. 81. Yes, 14 m /s. inward.

83. 28.3 m /s, 0.410 rev/s. 23. 7.52 X 103 m /s.

23. (a) 5.0 kg;

85. 3500 N, 1900 N. 25. 1.7 m /s2 upward.

(b) 6.7 kg.

87. 35°. 27. 7.20 X 103 s.

vo

25. (a) - tan 0; 89. 132 m. 29. (fl) 520 N;

2dg cos 0

(fo) fxs > tan 0. 91. ( a) 55 s; (fo) 520 N;

(fo) centripetal component of the (c) 690 N;

27. (fl) 0.22 s;

normal force. (d) 350 N;

(fo) 0.16 m.

29. 0.51. 93. (a) 6 = cos"1 8 ; (e) 0.

47rr/ 2 31. ( a) 59 N, toward the Moon;

31. (a) 82 N; (fo) 73.6°;

(b) 4.5 m /s2. (fo) 110 N, away from the Moon.

(c) no.

(sin0 + (jl cos 0) 33. ( a) They are executing centripetal

33. (M + m )g 95. 82°.

motion;

(cos 0 — fx sin 0) ’ 97. ( a) 16 m /s;

(fo) 9.6 X 1029 kg.

35. (a) 1.41 m /s2; (fo) 13 m /s.

(ib) 31.7 N. 99. (fl) 0.88 m /s2; 35

V t

37. V r g . (fo) 0.98 m /s2.

37. 5070 s, or 84.5 min.

39. 30 m. 101. (fl) 42.2 m/s;

39. 160 y.

41. 31 m /s. (fo) 35.6 m, 52.6 m.

41. 2 X 108 y.

43. 0.9 g ’s. 103. (fl)

43. Europa: 671 X 103 km;

45. 9.0 rev/min.

Ganymede: 1070 X 103 km;

47. ( a ) 1.9 X 103m; Callisto: 1880 X 103 km.

(b) 5.4 X 103N; 45. ( a) 180 AU;

(c) 3.8 X 103N. (fo) 360 AU;

49. 3.0 X 102 N. (c) 360/1.

51. 0.164. 4772

53. (a) 7960 N; f (s) 47. (fl) log T = | log r + § log

Gmj

(b) 588 N; slope = | ,

(c) 29.4 m /s. 4 TT

55. 6.2 m /s. ^-intercept = |lo g

Gmi

57. (fo) v = ( - 6 .0 m /s) sin (3.0 rad/s £)i (b)

+ (6.0 m /s) cos (3.0 rad/s t) j, 6.2 -i 1 1 1

a = ( - 1 8 m /s2) cos (3.0 rad/s t ) i 1.50a: -1 . 1

\y =

5.8

+ ( - 1 8 m /s2) sin(3.0rad/s£)j; ft "

<A

j.4

(c) v = 6.0 m /s, a = 18 m /s2. f (s)

59. 17 m /s < v < 32 m /s. (c) speed: -12% , position: -6.6% .

rn

J.U

61. (fl) flt = ( tt/ 2) m /s2, flc = 0; 8.,6 8.1 8.8 8. 9 9..0 9..1 9..2 9..3 9.

Log (r)

(fo) flt = ( tt/ 2) m /s2, CHAPTER 6________________________

flc = (^ 2/8 ) m /s2; slope = 1.50 as predicted,

1. 1610 N.

(c) flt = ( tt/ 2) m /s2, mj = 1.97 X 1027 kg.

3. 1.9 m /s2.

«c = (^ 2/2 ) m /s2. c 2 49. (a) 5.95 X 10-3 m /s2;

63. (a) 1.64 m/s; (fo) no, only by about 0.06%.

7. 0.91 g ’s.

(fo) 3.45 m /s. 51. 2.64 X 106 m .

9. 1.4 X 10-8 N at 45°.

65. m/b. 53. (fl) 4.38 X 107 m /s2;

2 3*o

mg ( mg\ 11. Gm l — + (fo) 2.8 X 109 N;

67. («) — + j e m<; [xl (xl + yl)3/2\

(c) 9.4 X 103 m /s.

m8 , ( ^ m8 \ _ b t 4 3^o 55. r inner = 2.0 X 104 s,

— +

(b) ~ — + U 0 + Je mt•

Jl (xl + ^ ) 3/2J '}■ outer = 7.1 X 104 s.

57. 5.4 X 1012 m, it is still in the solar 37. 3.0 X lO^J. 77. j e - ° 10k.

system, nearest to Pluto’s orbit.

59. 2.3 g ’s. 79. 86 kJ, 42°.

65. 1.21 X 106 m. 83. 2 X 107 N /m .

67. V^jeposit = 5 X 10 m , 85. 6.7°, 10°.

Tdeposit — 200 m; 87. (a) 130 N, yes («291bs);

^deposit = 4 X 10 kg. (b) 470 N, perhaps not (« 1 1 0 lbs).

69. 8.99 days. 89. (a) 1.5 X 104 J;

71. 0.44r. * (m)

(b) 18 m /s.

73. (fl) 53 N; 39. 2800 J. 93. (a) F = 10.0*;

(ft) 3.1 X 1026 kg. 41. 670 J. (b) 10.0 N/m ;

77. 1 X 10-10 m3/k g • s2. 43. \kX2 + IaX4 + \bX5. (c) 2.00 N.

79. (a) 45. 4.0 J.

30,000- 1 47 V 3 ttR F

|y = 0.999‘)x + 0.3412

20,000-

49. 72 J.

h 10,000-

51. (fl) V 3 ;

( b) l

0 10,000 20,000 30,000 Stretch (m)

r 3 (AU3) 53. - 4 .5 X 105 J.

CHAPTER 8

CHAPTER 7 1. 0.924 m.

1. 7.7 X 103 J. 3. 54 cm.

3. 1.47 X 104J. 5. (fl) 42.0 J;

5. 6000 J. 59. 8.3 X 104 N /m . ( b ) 11 J;

7. 4.5 X 105J. 61. 1400 J. (c) same as part (a), unrelated to

9. 590 J. part ( b ).

63. ( a ) 640 J;

11. (a) 1700 N; 7. (a) Yes, the expression for the work

(ft) -4 7 0 J;

(ft) -6 6 0 0 J; depends only on the endpoints;

(c) 0;

(c) 6600 J; ( b ) U(x) =

(d) 4.3 m /s. \ k x 2 — \ a x 4 — \ b x 5 + C.

(<0 0.

13. (a) 1.1 X 107 J; 65. 27 m /s.

9. P W = — L + _ ^ .

(ft) 5.0 X 107 J.

67. ( a ) \ m v 2^1 +

V' 2x2 8 m2

15. -4 9 0 J, 0,490 J. 11. 4 9 m /s.

21. 1.5i - 3.0j. (ft) \m vi, 13. 6.5 m /s.

23. ( a) 7.1; 15. (fl) 93 N /m ;

(c) \ m v 2^1 + 2 ~ j relative to

(ft) -250; (b) 22 m /s2.

(c) 2.0 X 101. Earth, \ 1n v 2 relative to train; 19. (fl) 7.47 m/s;

25. —1.4i + 2.0j. (1d) the ball moves different (b) 3.01 m.

27. 52.5°, 48.0°, 115°. distances during the throwing 21. No, D = 2d.

29. 113.4° or 301.4°. process in the two frames of

31. (fl) 130°; reference. 23. (a) ^Jvl + - ^ x l ;

(ft) negative sign says that the angle 69. ( a ) 2.04 X 105 J;

is obtuse. (b) y j x l + Y V0-

(ft) 21.0 m/s;

35. 0.11 J.

(c) 2.37 m. 25. (fl) 2.29 m /s;

71. 1710 J. (ft) 1.98 m/s;

73. (fl) 32.2 J; (c) 1.98 m/s;

(b) 554 J; (d) 0.870 N, 0.800 N, 0.800 N;

(c) -333 J; (e) 2.59 m /s, 2.31 m /s, 2.31 m /s.

(d) 0; 12 Mg

27. k = — A .

(e) 253 J. h

Stretch distance 75. 12.3 J. 29. 3.9 X 107J.

31. (a) 25 m /s; CHAPTER 9

(ft) 370 m. {b)ru=0 - © 6;

1. 5.9 X 107 N.

33. 12 m /s. (c) 3. (9.6ti - 8.9k) N.

35. 0.020.

5. 4.35 k g -m /s (j - i).

37. 0.40.

7. 1.40 X 102 kg.

39. (a) 25%;

(ft) 6.3 m /s, 5.4 m/s; 9. 2.0 X 104 kg.

(c) primarily into heat energy. 11. 4.9 X 103 m /s.

41. For a mass of 75 kg, the energy 13. -0 .9 6 6 m /s.

change is 740 J. 15. 1:2.

(d) E < 0: bound oscillatory

43. (a) 0.13 m; motion between two turning 17. l v 0i - ^oj.

(ft) 0.77; points, E > 0: unbounded; 19. (4.0i + 3.3j - 3.3k) m /s.

(c) 0.5 m /s.

(e) rF>o < 21. (a) (1161 + 58-0j) m/s;

GMEm s

45. (a) (ft) 5.02 X 105 J.

2rs ’

(*>)

GMEm s rF<0 > (^)6’ 23. (a) 2.0 k g -m /s, forward;

(ft) 5.8 X 102 N, forward.

(c) - I rF=0 = 25. 2.1 k g -m /s, to the left.

W --

47. 4-

27. 0.11 N.

49. ( a ) 6 .2 X 1 0 5 m /s ;

29. 1.5 k g-m /s.

(ft) 4 .2 X 1 0 4 m / s ,

79. 2.52 X io 4 w .

^esc at Earth orbit — ^ 2 ' yEarth orbit ■ \ 2mv

81. (a) 42 m/s; 3L (a) '

53. (a) 1 .0 7 X 1 0 4 m /s ;

(ft) 2.6 X 105 W.

(ft) 1 .1 6 X 1 0 4 m /s ;

83. (a) 28.2 m/s;

( c ) 1 .1 2 X 1 0 4 m / s .

(ft) 116 m. 33. (a) 0.98 N + (1.4 N /s)f;

GMF

55. (a) - 85. (a) V2g£; (ft) 13.3 N;

2r3 ’

(ft) 1.09 X 104 m /s. (ft) V L 2^ . (c) [(0.62 N/m 2) X

GMm 89. (a) 8.9 X 105 J; V 2 5 m - (0.070 m/s)?]

57.

12rE (ft) 5.0 X 101 W, 6.6 X 10-2 hp; + (1.4 N /s)?, 13.2 N.

59. 1.12 X 104 m /s. (c) 330 W, 0.44 hp.

35. 1.60 m /s (west), 3.20 m /s (east).

63. 510 N. 91. (a) 29°;

37. (a) 3.7 m/s;

65. 2.9 X 104W or 38 hp. (ft) 480 N;

(ft) 0.67 kg.

67. 4.2 X 103 N, opposing the velocity. (c) 690 N.

69. 510 W. 39. (a) 1.00;

93. 5800 W or 7.8 hp.

71. 2 X 106W. (ft) 0.890;

95. (a) 2.8 m;

73. (a) - 2 .0 X 102 W; (c) 0.286;

(ft) 1.5 m;

(ft) 3800 W; (d) 0.0192.

(c) 1.5 m.

(c) —120 W; 41. (a) 0.37 m;

97. 1.7 X 105 m3.

(d) 1200 W.

99. (a) 5220 m/s; (ft) —1.6 m /s, 6.4 m/s;

75. The mass oscillates between + x 0

(ft) 3190 m /s. (c) yes.

and —jc0, with a maximum speed

at x = 0. 101. (a) 1500 m;

U(x) (ft) 170 m /s. 43- w ^ ;

103. 60 m. (ft) -0 .9 6 .

(ft) 2.4 X 107 W. 47. 0.11 k g -m /s, upward.

107. (a) 2.2 X 105 J; FhJ

49. (ft) e = J y .

(ft) 22 m/s;

(c) - 1 .4 m. 51. (a) 890 m/s;

(ft) 0.999 o f initial kinetic energy

m * = • lost.

53. (a) 7.1 X 1(T2 m/s; 113. 0.2 km /s, in the original direction 43. 17.5 m /s.

(fo) - 5 .4 m /s, 4.1 m/s; of m A . 45. (fl) 14Mf2;

(c) 0, 0.13 m /s, reasonable; (fo) il M ic r,

(rf) 0.17 m /s, 0, not reasonable; CHAPTER 10_____________________ (c) perpendicular to the rod and

(e) in this case, - 4 .0 m /s, 3.1 m /s, the axis.

1. (a) ^ rad, 0.785 rad;

reasonable. 47. (a) 1.90 X 103 kg •m2;

55. 1.14 X 10_22k g-m /s, 147° from the (fo) 7.5 X 103 m -N .

(fo) y rad, 1.05 rad;

electron’s momentum, 123° from 49. (fl) R 0 ;

the neutrino’s momentum. 77

(c) — rad, 1.57 rad; (6) + w -,

57. (a) 30°;

(c) V i R o ;

(d) 277 rad, 6.283 rad;

(fo) v'A = v'B = ^ = ; (d) V K ^ i +

(e) ^ J r rad, 7.77 rad. (e) V |r 0 ;

(c)l 36

(0

59. 39.9 u. 3. 5.3 X 103 m.

(g)

63. 6.5 X 10-11 m. 5. (a) 260 rad/s;

W #H -

65. (1.2 m )i - (1.2 m)j. (fo) 46 m /s, 1.2 X 104 m /s2.

(mB - m A)

■f 2 r ~ 7. (a) 1.05 X 10”1 rad/s; 51* « = t--------------------- r ^ r g,

67, Oi + — j. (mA + mB + //-R )

77

(fo) 1.75 X 10“3 rad/s;

69. Oi + Oj + ih k . compared to

(c) 1.45 X 10“4 rad/s;

~ AR ■j _ (mB ~ mA)

71. (rf) 0.

01 + Ul~° (rnA + mB) g '

9. (fl) 464 m/s;

73. (a) 4.66 X 106 m from the center of 53. (a) 9.70 rad/s2;

(fo) 185 m/s;

the Earth. (fo) 11.6 m /s2;

(c) 328 m /s.

75. (a) 5.7 m; (c) 585 m /s2;

11. 36,000 rev/min.

(fo) 4.2 m; (rf) 4.27 X 103 N;

(c) 4.3 m.

13. (a) 1.5 X 10-4 rad/s2;

(e) 1.14°.

77. 0.41 m toward the initial position of (fo) 1.6 X 10_2m /s2,

57. (fl) 5.3 Mrl; (fo) -15% .

the 85-kg person. 6.2 X 10_4m /s2.

59. (fl) 3.9 cm from center along line

m 15. (a) - i , k;

79. v ----------— , upward, balloon also connecting the small weight and

m +M (fo) 56.2 rad/s, 38.5° from —x axis the center;

stops. towards +z axis; (fo) 0.42 kg -m2.

81. 0.93 hp. (c) 1540 rad/s2, —j. 61. ( b ) ^ M f , ^ M w 2.

83. - 7 6 m /s. 17. 28,000 rev. 63. 22,200 J.

85. Good possibility of a “scratch” shot. 19. (a) -0 .4 7 rad/s2; 65. 14,200 J.

87. 11 bounces. (fo) 190 s. 67. 1.4 m /s.

89. 1.4 m. 21. (a) 0.69 rad/s2; 69. 8.22 m /s.

91. 50%. (fo) 9.9 s. 71. 7.0 X 101 J.

M 0v o

93. (a) v 23. (a) w = 15.Or3 - 18.512; 73. (a) 8.37 m /s, 32.9 rad/sec.

dM ’

(fo) 0 = 4 5 .0 14 - 18.5r3; (b)h

Mo + ~dT t

(c) &>(2.0s) = - 4 rad/s, (c) the translational speed and

(fo) 8.2 m /s, yes.

0(2.0 s) = —5 rad. the energy relationship are

95. 112 km /h or 70 m i/h. independent o f both mass and

25. 1 .4 m -N , clockwise.

97. 21 m. radius, but the rotational speed

27. mg{l 2 — ■f'l), clockwise.

99. (a) 1.9 m /s; depends on the radius.

29. 270 N, 1700 N.

(fo) - 0 .3 m /s, 1.5 m/s; 75. - /■„)•

(c) 0.6 cm, 12 cm. 31. 1.81 kg -m2. 77. (fl) 4.06 m/s;

101. m < \ M or m < 2.33 kg. 33. (fl) 9.0 X 10_2m-N; (fo) 8.99 J;

103. (a) 8 .6 m ; (fo) 12 s. (c) 0.158.

(fo) 40 m. 35. 5 6 m -N . 79. (fl) 4.1 X 105 J;

105. 29.6 km /s. 37. (a) 0.94 kg -m2; (fo) 18%;

107. 0.38 m, 1.5 m. (fo) 2.4 X 10_2m -N . (c) 1.3 m /s2;

109. (a) 1.3 X 105 N; 39. (a) 78 rad/s2; (rf) 6%.

(fo) - 8 3 m /s2. (fo) 670 N. 81. (a) 1.6 m/s;

111. 12 kg. 41. 2.2 X 104 m -N . (fo) 0.48 m.

i i 11. ( a) 0.55 rad/s; 73. (fl) 820k g-m 2/s 2;

83- 2 ’ 2- (ft) 420 J, 240 J. (ft) 8 2 0 m-N;

85. (a) 0.84 m/s; (c) 930 W.

13. 0.48 rad/s, 0.80 rad/s.

(ft) 96%. 75. atan = —/ta s in 0 i + R a cos 0j;

15. \ a .

87. 2.0 m •N, from the arm swinging the (fl) m R 2ak;

sling. 17. (fl) 3.7 X 1016 J;

(ft) m R 2ak.

(ft) 1.9 X 1020 kg-m 2/s.

89. (a) ^ f ; 77. 0.965.

(Op Nr 19. -0 .3 2 rad/s.

79. ( a) There is zero net torque exerted

(b) 4.0; 23. 45°. about any axis through the

(c) 1.5. 27. (25i ± 14j + 19k) m -kN. skater’s center of mass;

91. ( a ) 1.7 X 108 J; 29. ( a) —7.0i - l l j + 0.5k; (b) /single axel = 2.5 rad/s,

(ft) 2.2 X 103rad/s; /triple axel = 6.5 rad/s.

(ft) 170°.

(c) 25 min. 81. (fl) 17,000 rev/s;

37. ( —551 - 45j + 49k) kg-m 2/s.

M g \ j 2 R h - h2 (ft) 4300 rev/s.

93. 39. (fl) g M + lm ) f( o 2',

R -h

A0f 3

(ft) (|M + y m )£2w. 83.

(a)"=(12^ ) * ;

95. (6)

41. (a) [(M a +

97. 5.0 X 102 m -N .

MBg

99. (fl) 1.6 m;

(ft) 1.1 m. M a + M b + —^

-Ko

101. (fl) ^ g; (d + rA cos <f)mA rA a)2 sin (f>

45. Fa =

(ft) x should be as small as possible, 2d

y should be as large as possible, {d — rAcos cf>)mA rA (o2 sin<f)

^B = *(m)

and the rider should move 2d

upward and toward the rear of m Lv L CHAPTER 12

the bicycle; 47.

g{m + M ) (rn + |M ) 1. 528 N, (1.20 X 102)° clockwise from

(c) 3.6 m /s2.

49. Aw/wq = - 8 .4 X 10“13. Fa -

/3 g i 3. 6.73 kg.

103. J - § - . ra

V 4 51. u™ = -----------' 5. (a) Fa = 1.5 X 103 N down,

M + ra

105. r = Fb = 2.0 X 103 N up;

12ra

[(0.300 m) cos0 + 0.200 m](500 N) &) (about cm) = . , (ft) Fa = 1-8 X 103 N down,

v ' V4M + 7ra

Fb = 2.6 X 103 N up.

53. 8.3 X 10-4 kg-m 2.

7. ( a) 230 N;

55. 8.0 rad/s.

(ft) 2100 N.

57. 14 rev/m in, CCW when viewed 9. - 2 .9 X 103 N, 1.5 X 104 N.

from above. 11. 3400 N, 2900 N.

59. ( a) 9.80 m /s2, along a radial line; 13. 0.28 m.

30 45 60

(ft) 9.78 m /s2, 0.0988° south from a 15. 6300 N, 6100 N.

Angle (degrees)

radial line; 17. 1600 N.

CHAPTER 11 (c) 9.77 m /s2, along a radial line. 19. 1400 N, 2100 N.

1. 3.98kg-m 2/s. 61. D ue north or due south. 21. (fl) 410 N;

3. (a) L is conserved: If I increases, co (ft) 410 N, 328 N.

63. (mra)2 — Ffr)i

must decrease; 23. 120 N.

+ (/spoke - 2mo)v)j

(ft) increased by a factor of 1.3. 25. 550 N.

5. 0.38 rev/s. + (Fn - mg) k.

7. (a) 7.1 X 1033 kg*m2/s; 65. (fl) ( —24i + 28j - 1 4 k )k g -m 2/s;

(ft) 2.7 X 1040kg-m 2/s. (ft) (16j - 8.0k) m -N .

67. (ft) 0.750.

9* («) Ww5

69. 1>[—sin(firf)i + COS(<W*)j],

( ) “ 2i r “ w;

, v Av

(:

(c) ww — ; 71. (fl) The wheel will turn to the right; (ft) ^ah = 51 N, Fa y = —9 N;

(rf)0. (ft) AL / L q = 0.19. (c) 2.4 m.

29. Ftop = 55.2 N right, 63.7 N up, 63. 29°. CHAPTER 13

^bottom = 55.2 N left, 63.7 N up. 65. 3.8. 1. 3 X 1011 kg.

31. 5.2 m /s 2. 67. 5.0 X 105 N , 3.2 m. 3. 6.7 X 102 kg.

33. 2.5 m at the top. 69. (a) 650 N; 5. 0.8547.

35. (a) 1.8 X 105 N /m 2; (b) Fa = 0 ,F b = 1300 N; 7. (a) 5510 k g /m 3;

(b) 3.5 X 10“6. (c) Fa = 160 N , F b = 1140 N; (b) 5520 k g /m 3, 0.3%.

37. (a) 1.4 X 106 N /m 2; (d) Fa = 810 N, FB = 490 N. 9. (a) 8.1 X 107 N /m 2;

(b) 6.9 X IO-6; 71. H e can walk only 0.95 m to the right (b) 2 X 105 N /m 2.

(c) 6.6 X 10_5m. of the right support, and 0.83 m to 11. 13 m.

39. 9.6 X 106 N /m 2. the left of the left support. 13. 6990 kg.

41. (a) 1.3 X 102 m -N , clockwise; 73. Fieft = 1 2 0 N ,F right = 2 1 0 N . 15. (a) 2.8 X 107 N , 1.2 X 105 N /m 2;

(b) the wall; 75. F /A = (b) 1.2 X 105 N /m 2.

(c) all three are present. 3.8 X 105 N /m 2 < tissue strength. 17. 683 k g /m 3.

43. (a) 393 N; 77. Fa = 1.7 X 104 N, 19. 3.35 X 104 N /m 2.

(b) thicker. FB = 7.7 X 103 N. 21. (a) 1.32 X 105 Pa;

45. (a) 3.7 X IO-5 m2; 79. 2.5 m. (b) 9.7 X 104 Pa.

(b) 2.7 X 10“3 m. 81. (a) 6500 m; 23. (c) 0.38ft, no.

47. 1.3 cm. (b) 6400 m. 27. 2990 k g /m 3.

49. (a) Fx = 150 kN; 29. 920 kg.

83. 570 N.

Fa = 170 kN, 23° above AC; 31. Iron or steel.

85. 45°.

(ft)F DE = FDB = FBC = 7 6 k N , 33. 1.1 X 10“2 m3.

87. (a) 2.4 w;

tension; 35. 10.5%.

FCE = 38 kN , compression; (b) 2.6 w, 32° above the horizontal.

37. (b) A bove.

FDC = FAB = 76 kN , compression; 89. (a) (4.5 X 10“6)%;

39. 3600 balloons.

*CA = 114 kN, compression. 0b) 9.0 X 10-18 m.

43. 2.8 m /s.

51. (a) 5.5 X 10-2 m2; 91. 150 N, 0.83 m.

45. 1.0 X 101 m /s.

(b) 8.6 X 10-2 m2. >o

93. (a) m g\ 1 - 77 c o t 0 ]; 47. 1.8 X 105 N /m 2.

53. Fab = Fbd = Fde = 7.5 X 104 N,

compression; 49. 1.2 X 105 N.

FBC = FCD = 7.5 X 104N, tension; (b) — - cot 6. 51. 9.7 X 104 Pa.

ro

^ ce = Fac = 3.7 X 104N , tension. 5 7 .1

95. ( b ) 46°, 51°, 11%.

3V2

55. F a b — F'JG

ja — F, compression; 97. (a )

gAl

59. (b) h = Vho ~ t

Fac ~ Fm - FCE - FHE - \ F , 3..0 x 10 8- 2 (Ai ~ Ai) J

tension; 2..5 x 10 8- (c) 92 s.

Fbc = ^ gh = F, tension; .0 x 10 8-

63. 7.9 X 10-2 P a-s.

V2 .5 X 108-

^BE = Fge = — F, tension; 65. 6.9 X 103 Pa.

I 1..0 X 108-

67. 0.10 m .

FBd = Fqd = 2 F, compression; 0..5 X 107-

0- 69. (a) Laminar;

^ d e = 0.

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1 (b) turbulent.

57. 0.249 kg, 0.194 kg, 0.0554 kg. Strain

71. 1.0 m .

h (b)

59. (a) Mg- 73. 0.012 N.

2R - h ’

75. 1.5 mm.

V h ( 2 R - h)

y = (2.02 X IO11)* - (6.52 f< 105) 79. (a) 0.75 m;

(b) 0.65 m;

61.

(c) 1.1 m.

81. 0.047 atm.

83. 0.24 N.

85. 1.0 m .

() l. 0 3.0 5..0 7..0 87. 5.3 km.

XII0“4 . ^ XI'0“4 , „ XI'0-4 „ XII0-4 „

(b) m g = 65 N , F right = 550 N, x io - XKT4 x io - X10 -4 89. (a) 88 P a/s;

Fleft = 490 N; Strain (b) 5.0 X 101 s.

(c) 11 m -N . Elastic M odulus = 2.02 X 1011 N /m 2. 91. 5 X 1018 kg.

93. (a) 8.5 m/s; 10.2 m/s. Air

93. (a) k = —-----, y-intercept = 0;

(b) 0.24 L/s; slope

^high energy = ^5^-low energy •

(c) 0.85 m/s. (fl) 430 N/m; (b) slope = 0.13 s2/kg,

i (ft) 3.7 kg. y-intercept = 0.14 s2

95. rf

vo + 2gy 309.8 m/s.

97. 170 m/s. (fl) 0.410 s, 2.44 Hz;

99. 1.2 X 104N. (b) 0.148 m;

101. 4.9 s. (c) 34.6 m /s2;

(rf) x = (0.148 m) sin(4.877r£);

CHAPTER 14

(e) 2.00 J;

1. 0.72 m. ( / ) 1.68 J. Mass (kg)

3. 1.5 Hz. 2.2 s.

5. 350 N/m. (a) -5.4°; 47r

(c) k = ------= 310 N/m,

7. 0.13 m/s, 0.12 m /s2, 1.2%. slope

(b) 8.4°;

9. (fl) 0.16 N/m; 47r2m0

(c) -13°. y-intercept =

(b) 2.8 Hz.

V 3 k /M V 2 g f(l - COS 0) . ra0 = 1.1 kg;

' 2tt ' 0.41 g. (rf) portion of spring’s mass that is

13. (fl) 2.5 m, 3.5 m; effectively oscillating.

(b) 0.25 Hz, 0.50 Hz; (fl) 0 = 0ocos(w£ + <f>), co = tJ ^ Y ’

(c) 4.0 s, 2.0 s; CHAPTER 15______________________

2.9 s.

(rf) xA = (2.5 m) sin(§7rt), 1.08s. 1. 2.7 m/s.

xB = (3.5 m) cos(7rr).

Decreased by a factor of 6. 3. (a) 1400 m/s;

15. (fl) y(t) =

(a) (-1.21 X 10_3)%; 0b) 4100 m/s;

(0.280 m) sin[(34.3 rad/s)*];

(b) 32.3 periods. (c) 5100 m/s.

(P) ^longest =

4.59 X 10-2 s + «(0.183s), (a) 0°; 5. 0.62 m.

n = 0,1,2, •••; (ft) 0, +A; 7. 4.3 N.

^shortest = (c) \ tt or 90°. 9. (fl) 78 m/s;

1.38 X 10-1 s + w(0.183s),

65. 3.1 m/s.

n = 0,1, 2, •••. ob) 8300 N.

67. 23.7.

17. (a) 1.6 s, §Hz; 11. (fl)

69. (a) 170 s;

(b) 3.3 m, -7.5 m/s;

(b) 1.3 X 10“5W; ---- Earlier

(c) -1 3 m/s, 29 m /s2. 2 cm- - - - Later

A/

(c) 1.0 X 10_3Hz on either side.

19. 0.75 s. 1cm-

21. 3.1s, 6.3 s, 9.4 s.

71. 0.11 m. 0-

23. 88.8 N/m, 17.8 m. 73. (a) 1.22 /; -1 cm-

(ft) 0.71/. -2 cm-

27. (a) 0.650 m;

75. (a) 0.41 s;

1m 2m 3m

(b) 1.18 Hz; down-4^-UP_ -«-down-*-

(c) 13.3 J; (b) 9 mm.

(rf) 11.2 J, 2.1 J. 77. 0.9922 m, 1.6 mm, 0.164 m. (b) —4 cm/s.

29. V3A 13. 18 m.

79. x = ± ± 0.866A

15. more energy M iess energy

81. Pwater g(areabottom side)-

19. (fl) 0.38 W;

83. (fl) 130 N/m;

(ft) 0.25 cm.

(b) 0.096 m.

21. (ft) 420 W.

V3x0

85. (fl) jc = ± ± 0.866xfi „ ,X t

-2.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 23. D -= A sin ^ + <f>

x (cm) (b) x = ± \ x Q. A+ r

(fl) 0.011 J; 84.5 min. 25. (fl) 41 m/s;

(b) 0.008 J; 1.25 Hz. 0ft) 6.4 X 104 m /s2;

(c) 0.5 m/s. -3000 N/m. (c) 35 m/s, 3.2 X 104m /s2.

27. (b) D = 81. (a) G: 784 Hz, 1180 Hz, B: 988 Hz,

(0.45 m) cos[2.6(x - 2.00 + 1-2]; 1480 Hz;

(d) D = (b) 1.59;

(0.45 m) cos[2.6(x + 2.00 + 1-2]. (c) 1.26;

(d) 0.630.

0.5

83. 6.3 m from the end where the first

0.25 \ 0 (A \

pulse originated.

0 \ \ ! /\\N - 1= 1s,

o\o ? /i /l.5r' 2 . i

right 61. n = 4,« = 8, and « = 12. Ai

-0.25 - t = Is, 2/1- 1’

,V v ' ]

left 63. x = ± (« + |) y m, « = 0,1, 2, •••.

\3

-0.5 87. D(x, t) =

x(m)

65. 5.2 km/s. (3.5 cm) cos(0.10-7rx - 1.57rr), with

29. D = (0.020 cm) X 67. (3.0 X IO1)0. x in cm and t in s.

69. 44°. 89. 12 min.

sin[(9.54 m-1)* - (3290rad/s)t + § tt\

93. speed = 0.50 m/s; direction

31. Yes, it is a solution. 71. (a) 0.042 m;

of motion = +x, period = 2ir s,

35. Yes, it is a solution. (b) 0.55 radians. wavelength = tt m.

73. The speed is greater in the less

37. (a) 0.84 m;

dense rod, by a factor of

(b) 0.26 N; VZ5 = 1.6.

(c) 0.59 m. 75. (a) 0.05 m;

0b) 2.25.

77. 0.69 m.

79. (a) ? = 0 s;

(b) slope = —r,

x (m)

y-mtercept = —z DL.

\ CHAPTER 16

41. (a)

j Q5 \

yo, 1. 340 m.

__n V 3. (a) 1.7 cm to 17 m;

-10 -5 0 5 (b) 2.3 X 10-5 m.

*(m)

0b) 5. (a) 0.17 m;

4.0 m3 (b) 11 m;

( } [ x - 2At)2 + 2.0 m2 (c) 0.5%.

(c) £ = 1.0 s, moving right; 7. 41 m.

(c) all kinetic energy. 9. (a) 8%;

43. 662 Hz. 15 A (b) 4%.

45. Tn = -

(1.5 s)

1,2,3,

/ \ 11. (a) 4.4 X 10-5 Pa;

0b) 4.4 X 10“3Pa.

0>

f n = n{0.67Hz), n = 1,2,3, 13. (a) 5.3 m;

------- 0-

47. / 0.50/ / 1.00 = V 2. 10 -5 0 5 (b) 675 Hz;

49. 80 Hz. *(m) (c) 3600 m/s;

53. 11. 4.0 m3 (d) 1.0 X 10-13 m.

55. (a) D2 = 4.2sin(0.84* + Alt + 2.1); (x + 2.402 + 2.0 m2’ 15. 63 dB.

(b) 8.4sin(0.84x + 2.1)cos(470- 17. (a) 109;

t = 1.0 s, moving left.

57. 315 Hz. Cb) IO12.

19. 2.9 X 10“9J.

59. (a)

0.3 A 21. 124 dB.

0.2 Dl.

1 o-1

D1 +P2 / V 23. (a) 9.4 X 10-6 W;

(b) 8.0 X 106people.

Q 0 j

-0.1 25. (a) 122dB,115dB;

-0.2

-0.3 ~D( 0 (b) no.

f (s) *(m) 27. 7 dB.

29. (a) The higher frequency wave, 2.6; 85. 51 dB. 17. (a) 5.0 X 10_5/C °;

(b) 6.8. 87. 1.07. (ib ) copper.

31. (fl) 3.2 X 10“5 m; 89. ( a) 280 m /s, 57 N; 21. (fl) 2.7 cm;

(b) 3.0 X 101 Pa. (ib) 0.19 m; (b) 0.3 cm.

33. 1.24 m. (c) 880 Hz, 1320 Hz. 23. 55 min.

35. (a) 69.2 H z, 207 H z, 346 H z, 484 Hz;

91. 3 Hz. 25. 3.0 X 107 N /m 2.

(ib) 138 H z, 277 H z, 415 H z, 553 Hz.

93. 141 H z, 422 H z, 703 H z, 984 Hz. 27. (fl) 27°C;

37. 8.6 mm to 8.6 m.

95. 22 m /s. (b) 5500 N.

39. (a) 0.18 m;

97. ( a) N o beats; 29. —459.67°F.

(b) 1.1 m;

(b) 20 Hz;

(c) 440 H z, 0.78 m. 31. 1.35 m3.

(c) no beats.

41. -3.0% . 33. 1.25 k g /m 3.

99. 55.2 kHz.

43. (a) 1.31 m; 35. 181°C.

Cb ) 3 ,4 , 5, 6. 101. 11.5 m.

37. (a) 22.8 m 3;

45. 3.65 cm, 7.09 cm, 10.3 cm, 13.4 cm, 103. 2.3 Hz.

(b) 1.88 atm.

16.3 cm, 19.0 cm. 105. 17 k m /h .

39. 1660 atm.

47. 4.3 m, open. 107. ( a) 3400 Hz;

41. 313°C.

49. 21.4 H z, 42.8 Hz. (b) 1.50 m;

51. 3430 H z, 10,300 H z, 17,200 Hz, 43. 3.49 atm.

(c) 0.10 m.

relatively sensitive frequencies. 45. —130°C.

109. (fl)

53. ± 0 .5 0 Hz. 1l.Z,

n 47. 7.0 min.

55. 346 Hz. 1l.U

n 49. Ideal = 0.588 m 3,

57. 10 b eats/s. fi 8 actual = 0.598 m3 (nonideal

n ft

^ 0.6

59. (a) 221.5 H z or 218.5 Hz; behavior).

fi A

U.4 /

( b) 1.4% increase, 1.3% decrease. 51. 2.69 X 1025 m o lecu les/m 3.

u.z0

fi

61. (a) 1470 Hz; 0.0 - / 53. 4 X 10“17 Pa.

(b) 1230 Hz. 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

x(m) 55. 300 m olecu les/cm 3.

63. (fl) 2430 H z, 2420 Hz, difference o f

57. 19 m olecules/breath.

10 Hz; (b)

(b) 4310 H z, 3370 H z, difference o f 59. (fl) 71.2 torr;

940 Hz; (b) 180°C.

(c) 34,300 H z, 4450 H z, difference 61. 223 K.

o f 29,900 Hz;

63. ( a) Low;

(d) /source moving ~ /observer moving (b) 0.025%.

^object \

=f 1 + 65. 20%.

^sound J x (m)

67. 9.9 L, not advisable.

65. (a) 1420 H z, 1170 Hz;

0b) 1520 H z, 1080 Hz; 69. (a) 1100 kg;

CHAPTER 1 7

(c) 1330 H z, 1240 Hz. (ib) 100 kg.

1. N Au = 0.548ATAg.

67. 3 Hz. 71. (fl) Lower;

3. ( a) 20°C;

69. ( a) E very 1.3 s; (b) 0.36%.

(1b) 3500°F.

(b) every 15 s. 73. 1.1 X 1044 m olecules.

5. 102.9°F.

71. 8.9 cm /s. 75. 3.34 nm.

73. (a) 93; 7. 0.08 m.

77. 13 h.

0b) 0.62°. 9. 1.6 X 10_6 m for Super Invar™,

79. (fl) 0.66 X 103 k g /m 3;

77. 19 km. 9.6 X 10-5 m for steel, steel is

60 X as much. (b) -3 % .

79. (fl) 57 H z, 69 H z, 86 H z, 110 Hz,

170 Hz. 11. 981 k g /m 3. 81. ± 0.11 C°.

81. 90 dB. 13. —69°C. 83. 3.6 m.

83. 1 1 W. 15. 3.9 cm3. 85. 3% increase.

87. 41. (a) 3.1 X 106 Pa; 15. 2.3 X 103 J/kg-C °.

3 103- (b) 3.2 X 106 Pa. 17. 54 C°.

1 1 1

i 102.5 - =(4.92 X: lO-2)* + 100

% 102- 43. (b) a = 0.365 N -m 4/m o l2, 19. 0.31 kg.

101.5- b = 4.28 X 10-5 m3/m ol. 21. (a) 5.1 X 105 J;

1

ufl 101 -

3 100.5 - 45. (a) 0.10 Pa; Cb) 1.5 X 105 J.

£ 100 h

10 20 30 40 50 (b) 3 X 107 Pa. 23. 4700 kcal.

Temperature (°C) 25. 360 m /s.

47. 2.1 X 10 7 m, stationary targets,

Slope of the line: 4.92 X 10 2 ml/°C, effective radius of rH2 + /air • 27. 1.5

relative /3: 492 X 10“6/°C , 49. (b) 4.7 X 107 s-1.

P for the liquid: 501 X 10“6/°C , A

which liquid: glycerin. 51. i .

53. 3.5 h, convection is much more c

CHAPTER 18_________________________ important than diffusion.

0.5 ■

1. (a) 5.65 X 10“21 J; 55. (b) 4 X 10_11m ol/s;

0b) 3.7 X 103J. (c) 0.6 s.

3. 1.29. 57. 260 m /s, 3.7 X 10“22atm. 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0

5. 3.5 X 10- 9m /s. V(L)

59. (a) 290 m/s;

7. (a) 4.5; 29. (a) 0;

(b) 9.5 m /s.

0b) 5.2. (b) -3 6 5 kJ.

61. 50 cm.

9. V 5 . 31. (a) 480 J;

63. Kinetic energy = 6.07 X 10-21 J,

13. ( b ) 5.6%. (b) 0;

potential energy = 5.21 X 10- 25J,

15. 1.004. (c) 480 J into gas.

yes, potential energy can be

17. (a) 493 m/s; 33. (a) 4350 J;

neglected.

(b) 28 round trips/s. (b) 4350 J;

19. Double the temperature. 65. 0.07%.

(c) 0.

21. (a) 710 m/s; 67. 1.5 X 105 K.

35. - 4 .0 X 102 K.

(b) 240 K; 69. (a) 2800 Pa;

37. 236 J.

(c) 650 m /s, 240 K, yes. (b) 650 Pa.

39. (a) 3.0 X 101J;

23. Vapor. 71. 2 X 1013 m.

(b) 68 J;

25. (a) Vapor;

73. 0.36 kg.

(b) solid. (c) - 8 4 J;

75. ( b ) 4.6 X 109 Hz,

27. 3600 Pa. (d) -1 1 4 J;

2.3 X 105 times larger.

29. 355 torr or 4.73 X 104 Pa or (e) - 1 5 J.

77. 0.21.

0.466 atm. {Vl - b) ( 1 1

41. i? T lii7--------- r + a — - — |.

31. 92° C. f a - b) V^2 V

CHAPTER 19_______________________

33. 1.99 X 105 Pa or 1.97 atm. 43. 43 C°.

35. 70 g. 1. 10.7°C.

45. 83.7 g /m ol, krypton.

37. 16.6°C. 3. (a) 1.0 X 107 J;

47. 48 C°.

39. (a) Slope = -5 .0 0 X 103K, (b) 2.9 kWh; 49. (a) 6230 J;

y intercept = 24.9. (c) $0.29 per day, no. (b) 2490 J;

Let P0 = 1 Pa in this graph:

14 5. 4.2 X 105J,1.0 X 102 kcal. (c) 8720 J.

13

~ \ y - -5000jc■+- 24.9 h 7. 6.0 X 106J. 51. 0.457 atm, -3 9 °C .

Q? 12

^ 11 9. (a) 3.3 X 105 J; 53. (a) 404 K, 195 K;

M 10

9 (b) 56 min. (b) -1 .5 9 X 104 J;

11. 6.9 min. (c) 0;

0.0022 0.0024 0.0026 0.0028 0.0030 0.0032

l/r(K-!) 13. 39.9°C. (d) -1 .5 9 X 104J.

55. (a) 89. (a) 1.9 X 105 J;

49‘ «C y'

(ft) 4.4 X 105 J;

53. 2.1 X 105J.

(c ) P (atm)

55.

(6) a -

1.0 57. (fl) 2.47 X 10“23 J/K;

(ft) - 9 .2 X 10-22 J/K;

V (m3) (c) these are many orders of

V(m3) 2.2 4.1

magnitude smaller, due to the

ob) 209 K;

91. 2200 J. relatively small number of

(c) G i—^2 = o>

microstates for the coins.

A£'i_^2 = -2 4 8 0 J, CHAPTER 20

Wi_>2 = 2480 J, 59. (a) 1.79 X 106 kWh;

1. 0.25. (ft) 9.6 X 104 kW.

02 ^ 3 = -3 7 4 0 J,

A£ 2^ 3 = -2 2 4 0 J, 3. 0.16. 61. 12 MW.

W2^ 3 = -1 4 9 0 J, 5. 0.21.

63. (a) 0.41 mol;

<23^ i = 4720 J, 7. ( b ) 0.55.

(ft) 396 K;

A E ^ = 4720 J, 9. 0.74.

(c) 810 J;

W3^ i = 0; 13. 1.4 X 1013 J/h.

(d) -7 0 0 J;

(d) Gcycle = 990 J, 15. 1400 m.

A^cycle — (e) 810 J;

17. 660°C.

Wcyde = 990 J. ( / ) 0.13;

19. (a) 4.1 X 105 Pa, 2.1 X 105 Pa;

57. (a) 5.0 X 101 W; (g) 0.24.

(ft) 34 L, 17 L;

Cb) 17 W. 65. (a) 110 kg/s;

(c) 2100 J;

59. 21 h. (ft) 9.3 X 107 gal/h.

(d) -1 5 0 0 J;

61. (a) Ceramic: 14 W, shiny: 2.0 W; 67. (a) 18km 3/days;

(e) 600 J;

(ft) ceramic: 11 C°, shiny: 1.6 C°. (ft) 120 km2.

( / ) 0.3.

63. (fl) 1.73 X 1017 W;

21. 8.55. 69. (a) 0.19;

(ft) 278 K or 5°C.

23. 5.4. (ft) 0.23.

65. 28%.

25. ( a) —4°C; 71. (a) 5.0 C°;

67. (ft) 4.8 C°/s;

(ft) 29%. (ft) 72.8 J/k g-K .

(c) 0.60 C°/cm.

27. (fl) 230 J; 73. 1700 J/K .

69. 6.4 Cal.

(ib) 390 J. 75. 57 W or 0.076 hp.

71. 4 X 1015J.

29. (a) 3.1 X 104 J;

73. 1 C°. 77. ^sterling =

(ft) 2.7 min.

75. 3.6 kg. In —r

31. 91 L.

77. 0.14 C°.

33. 0.20 J/K . , , 3 Th - T l

79. (fl) 800 W;

35. 5 X 104J/K. ^ v j + 2

(b) 5.3 g.

37. 5.49 X 1 0 - ^ . ^Sterling ^Carnot-

81. 1.1 days. s

79. (a)

83. (fl) 4.79 cm; 39. 9.3 J/K . T

(b) 41. (fl) 93 ra J/K , yes;

(ft) - 9 3 ra J/K , no; ra in kg (SI).

43. (fl) 1010 J/K;

(ft) 1020 J/K;

(c ) - 9 .0 X 102J/K.

45. ( a) Adiabatic;

(ft) ASadiabatic = 0,

V (m L)

^ ^isothermal — _ w i?ln2;

(c) Q = 4.99 J, A E = 0 , W = 4.99 J. (b) Wnet.

(c) A^environment adiabatic — 0,

85. 110°C. ^^environment isothermal = nR\vi2. 81. 16 kg.

87. 305 J. 47. (fl) A ll processes are reversible. 83. 3.61 X 10“2J/K .

CHAPTER 21 39. 1.08 X 107

79. N /C (upwards).

[3.00 - cos(13.9r)]2

1. 2.7 X IO-3 N.

81. 5 X 10“9 C.

3. 7200 N.

83. 8.0 X 10“9 C.

5. (4.9 X 10“14)%. 85. 18°.

Eb = 2.3 X 104 N /C , to the left;

9. - 5 .8 X 108 C, 0.

Ec = 5.6 X 103 N /C , to the right;

11. (a) qi = q2 = \ Q t , Ed = 3.4 X 103 N /C , to the left.

(b) qi = 0, q2 = Q t • 89. -7 .6 6 X 10-6 C, unstable.

Qy 91. (a) 9.18 X 106 N /C , down;

43. (a)

27re0( / + P)312

F2 = 0.33 N at 112°, (b) 1.63 X 10“4 C /m 2.

45. 1.8 X 106 N /C , away from the wire.

F3 = 0.26 N at 53°. 93. (a) ~^= = 7.07 cm;

8Alz V 2

15. F = 2.96 X 107 N, away from 47. vertical. (b) yes;

TTfio^ 2 + 4z2) V 4 z 2 + 2 f

center of square.

2A sin 00 ~

17. 1.0 X 1012 electrons. 49. ---------- -^ i.

ATTEnR

/ x jm d 3

51. (a)

Atteq x(x2 + £2)1/2

53.

Attsqx(x + i ) (c ) and (d)

23. 1.10 X 107 N /C up.

Q(Xi irj) % 6.0

25. (172j)N /C . 55.

Atteq(x 2 + a2)3/2 1

0 4.5 t% ----- Ring

27. 1.01 X 1014m /s2, opposite to the % ----- Point

57. (a) (-3 .5 X 1015 m /s2) i 1 3.0

field. ,g l.5

- (1.41 X 1016 m /s2) j;

29. (b) 166° counterclockwise from the & 0.0

w 10 20 30 40 50

initial direction. x (cm)

Atteq m R

61. ( b ) 2^ , gQ CHAPTER 2 2

(c ) 8.5 X 10-26m-N; (c) 0.

3 1 . ( - 4 . 7 X 1 0 11 i ) N / C

(d) 2.5 X 10“26 J. 3. (a) 0;

- ( 1 . 6 X 10n j)N /C ;

65. (a) 6 very small; (b) 0, 0, 0, 0, EoS2, —E ^ 2.

or

5. 1.63 X 10“8 C.

5.0 X 1011 N /C at 199°.

<» s # 7. (a) - 1 .1 X 105 N • m2/C;

33. E = 2.60 X 104 N /C , away from

67. (a) In the direction of the dipole. 0b) 0.

the center.

69. 3.5 X 109 C. 9. - 8 .3 X 10“7 C.

4 kQxa 71. 6.8 X 105 C, negative. 11. 4.3 X 10“5 C /m .

((xz2 - azy

2X2 ’

73. 1.0 X 107 electrons. 13. -8 .5 2 X 10“n C.

37. „ H— tan —■

2ire0 V x 2 y2 y 77. 1.6 m from Q2, 3.6 m from Qx. (b) —8.6 X 104 N /C (toward wire).

17. (a) -(1.9 X IO11 N/C-m )r; (tRq 65. (a) On inside surface of shell,

33. (fl) — —, radially outward;

(fo) -(1.1 X 108 N-m2/C )/r2 (fo) r < 0.10 m,

+ (3.0 X 1011 N/C-m )r; ft) 0; (2.1 X 104\

E = j N/C;

(c) (4.1 X 108 N*m2/C )/r2; c) same for if A = 2ttR0(t . V r2

35. a) 0; r > 0.10 m, E = 0.

(rf) yes.

67. —46N-m 2/C, -4.0 X 10-10 C.

2778o r CHAPTER 23___________________

c) 0; 1. -0.71 V.

3. 3280 V, plate B has higher

^ (f potential.

37. a) 1.9 X 107 m/s; 5. 30 m.

fo) 5.5 X 105 m/s. 7. 1.4 pC.

19. NPe r 9. 1.2 cm, 46 nC.

39.

а)w 11. (fl) 0;

M pEr3°- (fo) -29.4 V;

б) i ^ ’ (c) -29.4 V.

c) 0; 13. (a) -9.6 X 108 V;

(fo) 9.6 X 108 V.

v 3e0 4t780 15. (a) They are equal;

41. a) 0;

O

21. (a) 5.5 X 107 N /C (outward); ft)

2500-7780i?o 17. (a) 10-20 kV;

(ft) 0; pErf (fo) 30 AtC/m2.

(c) 5.5 X 105 N /C (outward). 43. a) —— away from surface.

2eo 19. (fl)

Q

23. (a) -8 .0 0 /xC;

45. a) 13 N (attractive);

(fo) +1.90 AtC. Q

fo) 0.064 J.

25. (a) 0; (ft)

47. fl) 0;

p0(d - x ) . (c) Let V0 = V at r = r0, and

(fo) — (outward, if both plates are

£o fo)--------------- 1 ; E0 = E at r = r0:

eo

positive);

p0(rf + * ).

(c) same. c) -------------1 .

eo

27. (a) 0;

Q f2

49. ------- radially outward.

4t780 ri

( » %

e0rz 51. O = § g - d A = —477GMenc.

(rfo-! + rl<r2) 53. flf3e0.

e0rz------5

(C) ----------2

55. 475 N •m2/C, 475 N •m2/C.

57. (fl) 0;

(d)tri = o-2;

Q Q

(ft) -^max

(e) ai = 0, or place Q = -Air a i r 2 77£0r\ 25778QTq

inside r i . (c) no;

29. (fl) 0; (1d) no.

, 3 _ r3 59. (a) 1.1 X 10“19 C;

G ( 1

^ 47T60 (fo) 3.5 X 1011 N/C.

rL 6e0

/?o / ^0 1

31. (fl) ru\ 17 PEr0 1

54 ~8^~ ’

23- w ^ inU ) +v,°;

(ft) <2 + 41 (b)V0;

63. (fl) 0;

( \ kq (c) no, from part (fl) V —►- 0 0 due

(c) ^ (fo) 5.65 X 105 N/C, right; to length of wire.

W 0; (c) 5.65 X 105 N/C, right; 25. (a) 29 V;

,, Kq + 0 ) (rf) -5.00 X 10“6 C/m3; (fo) -4.6 X IO”18 J.

(«)------5---- (e) +5.00 X 10“6 C/m3. 27. 0.34 J.

29. 4.2 MV. v^e e (V 3 19. (fl) 0.22 fim < x < 220 fim;

77.

31. 9.64 X 105 m /s. 2its0£ ttsq£ \ 6

™ * 2 A c-

33. (fl) 0; __e v s

1 +

(b) Ex = 0, 7TEq£ \ 6

(c) 0.01%, 10%.

E = _ 0 _______* _____ looks 79. (fl) 1.2 MV;

(b) 1.8 kg. 21. 3600 pF, yes.

51 4™„ (x2 + R 2f /2

like a dipole. 23. 1.5 fxF in series with the parallel

combination of 2.0 fiF and 3.0 {jlF,

35. ^ ( V W T 7 2 - V W T V 2).

ZEq lh, P E ( r l r2 r\ 2.8 V.

37. 29 m /s. 25. Add 11 /jlF connected in parallel.

0 , lx + l ( c ) ^ { r l - r f ) ; yes.

39. In ze0 27. Cmax = 1.94 X 10“8 F, all in

87T8o£ \ x — I ) '

parallel, Cmin = 1.8 X 10-9 F, all in

83. E = radially outward.

41. - ^ - { R 2 - 2x 2) \ / ^ T 7 2 + lirenR series.

6e0 3e0

85. (a) 23 kV;

43. 2 mm. 29. (a) fC;

45. (a) 2.6 mV; (b) Qi = Qi = \C V , Q3 = ICV ,

W ( * 2 + i?2)3’

(ft) 1.8 mV; Qt = l C V , ^ = V2 = \ V ,

(c) (2.3 X 105 N /C )i.

(c) - 1 .8 mV.

87. (a) and ( b) v3 = l v , v 4 = l v .

49. -7 .1 X 10-11 C /m 2 on jc = 0 plate,

7.1 X 10-11 C /m 2 on other plate. 31- Ql = r Cl,C' V0, q 2 = - C2 v0.

51. ( —2.5 y + 3.5yz)i L-l T L*2 '-'l '-'2

+ ( —2 y — 2.5* + 3.5*z)j 33. (fl) Ql = 23 fjLC, Q2 = Q a = 46 /xC;

+ (3.5xy)k. {b)V1 = V2 = V3 = V4 = 2.9 V;

, y. Q ( 1 (c) 5.8 V.

53. (fl)

47re0 [ y \ / f + y 7 x (cm)

35. 2.4 jjF.

89. (a) Point charge;

0 ( i

(b) i. 4

37- (a)Cl + ^ ;

55. -6 2 .5 kV. 3

(ft) 0 ! = 8.40 X 10“4 C,

57. 1.3 eV. ^ 2

S*

1 Qi Qi

j QlQ3 Qi 0 4 1 02 = 03 = 2.80 X 10“4 C.

59. ( a)

) \ rX2 ris riA 0 39. C = W 1 _ < ^ ).

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 d \ 2d J

Q1 Q 3 ! 02 04 0 3 0 4\

x (cm)

r23 '24 r34 / 41. 6.8 X 10“3 J.

0b) 1.5 X KT11 C;

( Q 1 Q2 QlQ3 0104 43. 2.0 X 103 J.

(b) 0.10

) V rl2 t"l3 ^14 J y = 0 .1 3 9 2 * - 0.03731 45. 1.70 X 10-3 J.

f 0.06

QlQs , Q 2Q 3 0204 3 R*

* 0.04

ns r13 >24

0.02

Q 2Q 5 Q 3Q 4 03 05 0.00

r35 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Rb

•* r* l/vtv-1) work done to enlarge cylinder;

04 05^

(c) x = - 3 .7 cm.

^45 7

CHAPTER 2 4 (b)B = ln f e < \

61. (fl) 1.33 keV; K ) U{ ( 3R* u

(ft) v j v v = 42.8. 1. 3.0 /jlF. In

63. 250 MeV, same order of magnitude 3. 3.1 pF. charge moved to battery.

as observed values. 5. 56 /xF.

0e A lV 02

65. 1.11 X 105 m /s, 3.5 X 105 m /s. 7. 1.1 C. 49. (fl) -

2d(d - ey

67. 0.26 M V /m . 9. 83 days.

e0A t V 02

69. 600 V. 11. 130 m2. Cb)

71. 1.5 J. 2(d - t)2

13. 7.10 X 10“4 F.

73. Yes, 2.0 pV. 15. 18 nC. 53. 2200 batteries, no.

75. 1.03 X 106 m /s. 17. 5.8 X 104 V /m . 55. 1.1 X 10“4J.

57. (a) 0.32 Atm2; 97. (a) 32 nF; 0.055 kWh, 7.9 cents/month.

(ft) 59 megabytes. (ft) 14 AtC; 0.90 kWh = 3.2 X 106 J.

(c) 7.0 mm; 24 lightbulbs.

59 . ^ { K 1 + K2).

11 kW.

^ a k lk 2 0.15 kg/s = 150mL/s.

61.

(,dt K 2 + d1K 1) 0.12 A.

(a) oo;

« 3 .( a ) ^ [ l + (A :-l)y ];

(ft) 96 a

(a) 930 V;

(6) ^

Id (ft) 3.9 A.

v W (K - 1), left. (a) 1.3 kW;

(C) 2d (ft) max = 2.6 kW, min = 0.

e0A (a) 5.1 X 10-10 m/s;

67.

(ft) 6.9 A /m 2;

« 4 CHAPTER 25 (c) 1.2 X 10-7 V/m .

69. £ air = 2.69 X 104 V/m , 1. 8.13 X 1018 electrons/s. 2.5 A /m 2, north.

iSglass = 4.64 X 103V /m , 3. 5.5 X 10-11 A. 35 m /s, delay time from stimulus to

Gfree = 0.345 pC, Qind = 0.286 ijlC. 5. (a) 28 A; action.

(ft) 8.4 X 104 C. 11 hr.

7. 1.1 X 1021 electrons/min. 1.8 m, it would generate 540 W of

9. (a) 2.0 X 101 H; heat and could start a fire.

(ft) 430 J. 0.16 S.

11. 0.47 mm. (a) $35/month;

13. 0.64. (ft) 1300 kg/year.

15. (a) Slope = 1/R, ^-intercept = 0; (a) -19% change;

71. 43 fiF.

(ft) yes, R = 1.39 ft; (ft) % change would be slightly

73. 15 V. less.

0.4

75. 840 V. 0.3 J v=. n nnn v 73. (a) 190 O;

77. 3.76 X 10“9F, 0.221m2. 0.2 (ft) 15 a

0.1 75. (a) 1500 W;

79. work done by the electric

2K 0.0 (ft)12 A.

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

field, V(V) 2:1.

(c) 1.0 X 10 6 O •m, nichrome. (a) 21 H;

81. 1.2.

17. A t 1/5.0 of its length, 2.0 ft, 8.0 0 . (ft) 2.0 X 101 s.

83. (a) 25 J;

19. 2400° C. (c) 0.17 cents.

(b) 940 kW.

21. V 2 . 36.0 m, 0.248 mm.

85. (a) Parallel;

23. 44.1°C. (a) 1200 W;

(b) 7.7 pF to 35 pF.

25. One-quarter of the original. (ft) 100 W.

87. 5.15 pF.

1.4 X 1012 protons.

<2i = 11 £iC, 02 = 13 AtC, 27. - J - ( - - -

4-7TO- \r i r2j (a) 3.1 kW;

G3 = 13/*C,Vi = 11V, 29. (a) 0.14 ti; (ft) 24 W;

V2 = 6.3 V, V3 = 5.2 V. (ft) 0.60 A; (c) 15 W;

(c) VAi = 52 mV, V^u = 33 mV. (d) 38 cents/month.

91.

2e0A 31. 0.81 W. 89. (a) $55/kWh;

93. 9 X 10-16 m, no. 33. 29 V. (ft) $280/kWh, D-cells and AA-cells

95. (a) 0.27 fiC, 15 kV/m , 5.9 nF, 35. (ft) As large as possible. are 550 X and 2800 X ,

6.0 //J; 37. (a) 0.83 A; respectively, more expensive.

(ft) 0.85 fiC, 15 kV/m , 19 nF, 19 fiJ. (ft) 140 O. 91. 1.34 X io~4a

4lp R (5R ' + 31?) 89. (a) 6.8 V, 15 pC;

93. 41. (a)

abir 8(2?' + R) ’ (fo) 48 ais.

91. 200 M ft.

95- / = 1 “ ^

« i

93. 4.5 ms.

43. 1 - 1 5 M ft.

CHAPTER 26 45. 5.0 ms.

1. (a) 5.93 V; 47. 44 s.

(fo) 5.99 V.

49. (a) / , = ! ! ■ h = h = h

3. 0.060 ft. w 1 3R 3R

7. ( a) 2.60 kft;

(fo) 270 ft.

9. C onnect nine 1.0-ft resistors in

51. (a) 8.0 V;

series with battery; then connect

(fo) 14 V;

output voltage circuit across four

(c) 8.0 V;

consecutive resistors.

(d) 4.8 fjuC. Time (ms)

11. 0.3 ft.

53. 29 fxA.

13. 450 ft, 0.024.

55. (a) Place in parallel with 0.22-m ft CHAPTER 2 7

15. Solder a 1.6-kft resistor in parallel

shunt resistor; 1. (fl) 8.5 N /m ;

with 480-ft resistor.

(fo) place in series with 45-kft (fo) 4.9 N /m .

17. 120 ft. 3. 2.6 X 10“4N.

resistor.

19. %R. 57. 100 kft. 5. ( a) South pole;

21. R = r. 59. V44 = 24 V , V27 = 15 V; (fo) 3.41 A;

23. ( a) Vieft decreases, -1 5 % , -15% . (c) 7.39 X 10“2 N.

61. 0.960 m A , 4.8 V.

9. ( —2 / r 6 o sin 0 o)j-

bright = 0; 63. 12 V.

13. 6.3 X 10“14 N , n o r t h .

(fo) /ieft decreases, 65. C onnect a 9.0-kft resistor in series

15. 1.8 T.

^middle increases, with human body and battery.

17. ( a) Downward;

67. 2.5 V, 117 V.

bright = (fo) into page;

(c) terminal voltage increases; 69. 92 kft.

(c) right.

(d) 8.5 V; R 2R 3 19. (fl) 0.031 m;

71. («) p ,

Ki (fo) 3.8 X 10-7 s.

(e) 8.6 V.

(fo) 121 ft. 23. 1.8 m.

25. (a) V\ and V2 increase, V3 and V4

73. Terminal voltage o f mercury 25. (0.78i - l.Oj + 0.1k) X 10-15 N.

decrease;

cell (3.99 V ) is closer to 4.0 V 27. .Lfinal = 2 ^initial •

(fo) I\ and I2 increase, /3 and /4 than terminal voltage o f dry cell 29. (fl) Negative;

decrease; (3.84 V ).

( P + d 2N

(c) increases; 75. 150 cells, 0.54 m2, connect in series; ( b ) q B o^—

(d) before: I x = 117 m A , I2 = 0, connect four such sets in parallel to 31. 1.3 X 108 m /s, yes.

h = h = 59 mA; total 600 cells and deliver 120 V.

33. ( a) 45°;

after: I\ = 132 m A , 77. C ounterclockwise current: —24 V , (fo) 2.3 X 10-3 m.

clockw ise current: + 4 8 V.

h = h = h = 44 m A , yes. 35. (fl) 2NIAB;

79. 10.7 V. (fo) 0.

27. 0.38 A .

83. 9.0 ft. 37. (a) 4.85 X 10_5m -N ;

29. 0.

85. (fo) 1.39 V; (fo) north.

31. (a) 29 V;

(c) 0.42 mV; 39. (fl) ( - 4 .3 k) A * m 2;

(fo) 43 V, 73 V.

(id) no current from “working” (fo) (2.6i - 2.4j) m -N ;

33. I\ = 0.68 A left, I2 = 0.33 A left. battery is needed to “pow er” (c) - 2 .8 J.

37. 0.70 A . galvanom eter. 41. 12%.

39. 0.17 A . 87. 1.0 mV, 2.0 mV, 4.0 mV, 10.0 mV. 43. 39 fiA.

45. 6 electrons. 31. (a) 55. (a) 2.7 X 10“6T;

47. (ft) 0.05 nm, about \ the size o f a 2ttR i (ft) 5.3 X 10-6 T;

typical m etal atom; Polo _ (c) no, no N ew ton ’s third-law-type

(b)

(c) 10 mV. 2ttR 5 o f relationship;

49. 0.820 T. Polo ( R 3 ~ R 2 (d) both 1.1 X 10_5N /m , yes,

2ttR \ R l - R l ) ’

53. 1.5 mm, 1.5 mm, 0.77 mm, 0.77 mm. Mo tj

(d) 0; 57. -, to the left above sheet (with

2

55. ?H, ^He.

(e) current coming toward you).

57. 2.4 T, upwards.

N fxo IR 2

61. (a)

I B d 1\

59. (, an) ------

m

1

IBd

(b) - f*kg ]t; (.R2 + x 2f 2 (R 2 + (x - R f f 2

ra

(c ) e a st. (ft) 4.5 mT.

mb(3a + b) ~11/2 (ft) 0.83 mT;

65. 33. 3.6 X 10“6T.

r\_3N IB a(a + b) J ' (c) no.

35. 0.075 mq I / R .

67. They do not enter second tube, 12° Mo 1 V 5 .

67. —--------, into the page.

69. 1.1 A , down. IM)I ( 1 1 \ 2ttcl

37* I^ + Y 2 ) ’ int° thC Page’ 69. 0.10 N, south.

71. 7.3 X 10“3 T.

73. - 6 .9 X 10“20J. Trl(Rl + R l) 71. 3*

( b ) -------- ----------, into the page. 73. (c) 1.5 A .

75. 0.083 N, northerly and 68° above

the horizontal. 75.

77. (a) Downward; 39. (a) i;

(ft) 28 mT;

(c) 0.12 T.

2ttR 2 \ \ J r 2 + jc2

CHAPTER 2 8 (c) yes.

-40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40

1. 0.37 mT, 7.4 times larger. x (cm)

Mo I ( d

41. (6 ) k.

3. 0.15 N, toward other wire. \ \ J d 2 + y2

CHAPTER 2 9

7. 0.12 mT, 82° above directly right. ^ ta n (-7 r /« )

9. 3.8 X 10“5T, 17° below the 43. ( « ) ------- -—-------- , i n t o t h e p a g e . 1. - 4 6 0 V.

2itR

horizontal to north. 3. Counterclockwise.

11. (a) (2.0 X 10_5)(25 - /) T ; V ? T / V ^ 2 + (6 - A:)2 5. 1.2 m m /s.

45. ^

(b) (2.0 X 10_5)(25 + I) T.

Air (fc - x )y 7. (a) 0.010 Wb;

15. Closer wire: 0.050 N /m , attractive, • V (q - y)2 + {b - (b) 55°;

farther wire: 0.025 N /m , repulsive. (a - > )(6 - ac) (c) 5.8 mWb.

17. 17 A , downward. 9. Counterclockwise.

V (« - W +

fi0I ( d — 2x , out o f 11. (a) Clockwise;

t(a - y)

19' 2-n \ x ( d - x ) 11 (ft) 43 mV;

page.

21. 4 6 .6 / iT . (c) 17 m A .

LLnl 13. (a) 8.1 mJ;

23. (b) - — » yes, looks like B from 47. (a) 16 A -m 2;

v ' lir y 3 (ft) 4.2 X 10“3 C°.

long straight wire. (ft) 13 m -N . 15. (a) 0.15 A;

25. 0.160 A . 49. 2.4 T. (ft) 1.4 mW.

27. (a) 5.3 mT; 17. 8.81 C.

51. (F /£)m = 6.3 X 10“4 N /m at 90°,

(ft) 3.2 mT; 19. 21 /jJ .

(F/£)n = 3.7 X 10“4 N /m at 300°,

(c) 1.8 mT. 21. 23 mV, 26 mV.

29. (a) 0.554 m; (F /£)P = 3.7 X 10-4 N /m at 240°. 23. (a) 0;

(b) 10.5 mT. 53. 170 A . (ft) 0.99 A , counterclockwise.

73. \Ba>l2. 53. 240 Hz, voltages are out of phase.

77. B(oR, radially in toward axis. 55. (fl) 0.124 A;

H0Ia2V tTd2B 2lv (fo) 5.02°;

79. (fl)

1 ' 2tTb(a + fo) ’ 16p ’ (c) 14.8 W;

(c) clockwise; (b) 16ppmg/B 2-, (d) 0.120 kV, 10.5 V.

Po I 2a4v (c) 3.7 cm /s. 57. 7.8 pF.

(d)

47T2b2(a + b)2R 59. I qVqsin ojt sin (cot + </>).

27. 1.0 m /s. CHAPTER 30 61. 130 ft, 0.91.

29. (a) 0.11 V; 1. (fl) 31.0 mH; 63. 265 Hz, 324 W.

(fo) 4.1 mA; (fo) 3.79 V. 65. (fo) 130 ft.

(c) 0.36 mN. Po Ni N2 A 2 sin 6

31. 0.39 m /s. 3. 67' T T-2 i \2 |;

£

33. ( a) Yes; 5. 12 V. L +

2 r2 - ScJ J

(fo) v0 e~B2ft/mR. 7. 0.566 H.

9. 11.3 V.

11. 46 m, 21 km, 0.70 kft

(c) L -

15. 18.9 J.

17. 1.06 X 10“3 J /m 3. 69. 37 loops.

37. 57.2 loops. Po N 2! 2 ii0N 2I 2h 71. (fl) 0.040 H;

19. In -

41. 150 V. 8t r V 477 (fo) 28 mA;

43. 13 A. Vo I 2 (c) 16 pJ.

21.

45. ( a) 2.4 kV; 1677

(fo) 190 V. 23. 3.5 time constants.

47. 50,4.8 V. 77. («)

49. ( a) Step-up; * .( f l) g f ( l

(fo) 3.5. (fo) 7.6 time constants.

51. (a) R ; 27. (fo) 6600 V. 79.

29. (1 2 V )e“f/8-2^s, 0 ,1 2 V.

31. (fl) 0.16 nF;

53. 98 kW. (fo) 62 pH .

55. (fo) Clockwise; 33. (c) (2 X 10“4)%.

(c) increase.

35. ( f l ) ^ ;

57. (a)

(b)lT .

(6) g-BVt/mR 3 7 .|l n ( |) = ( 0 .2 9 ) ~ (fo) 0,90° out of phase.

83. 2.2 kHz.

59. 10.1 mJ. 39. 3300 Hz. 85. 69 mH, 18 ft.

61. 0.6 nC. 41. 89. (a)

63. ( a) 41 kV;

(fo) 31 MW;

(c) 0.88 MW;

(d) 3.0 X 107 W.

65. ( a) Step-down;

(fo) 2.9 A;

Frequency (Hz)

(c) 0.29 A;

(d) 4.1 ft. 43. (fl) R + R'-,

67. 46 mA, left to right through (fo) R ’.

resistor. 45. (a) 2800 ft;

69. 2.3 X 1017 electrons. (fo) 660 Hz, 11 A.

71. ( a) 25 A; 47. 2190 W.

(fo) 98 V; 49. (fl) 0.40 kft;

coL —

(c) 600 W; (fo) 75 ft.

<f>= tan 1

(d) 81%. 51. 1600 Hz. R

91. (a) 7. (ft) With i? in meters, for R < i?o, 57. 4 X 1010W.

B0 = (6.3 X 10-11 T/m)/?; 59. 5 nodes, 6.1 cm.

5.7 X 10-14 T •m 61. (a) +x;

for R > Rq, B q

R

(ft) /3 = ac\

(c)

(c) —

o)2LC ’ c

(d) V\ out = V l. 63. ( d ) Both E and B rotate

Vo

93. (a) — sin cot; counterclockwise.

R

z

( b ) ^ - s in ( ( o t - |tt);

Xc

9. 3.75 V /m .

(d) B0

11. (a) -k;

fl En .

(f> = tan 1li?o>C------— I;

coL CHAPTER 32

R

(e) 13. 2.00 X 1010 Hz. 1.

o)L Mirror

17. ( a) 3.00 X 105 m;

1 far

(f) (ft) 34.1 cm;

1 + | flwC - jR- (c) no.

(oL

95. 0.14 H. 19. ( a) 261 s;

97. 54 mH, 22 H. (ft) 1260 s.

99. V 6 S / 0 = 2.4/ 0. 21. 3.4krad/s.

101. (a) 7.1 kHz, Vrms;

23. 2.77 X 107 s.

(b) 0.90.

25. 4.8 W /m 2, 42 V /m . 3. 7°.

103. (b) For / —►0 A -> 1;

for / —» co, A 0; 27. 4.50 /zJ. 7.

(c) / is in s-1: 29. 3.80 X 1026W.

31. ( a) 5 cm2, yes;

(ft) 20 m2, yes;

(c) 100 m2, no.

33. ( a) 2 X 108 ly;

9. 37.6 cm.

(ft) 2000 times larger.

11. 1.0 m.

35. 8 X 106 m /s2.

13. 2.1 cm behind front surface of ball;

log / 37. 27 m2.

virtual, upright.

105. 39. 16 cm.

15. Concave, 5.3 cm.

A 41. 3.5 nH to 5.3 nH.

— r = o .m -

17. - 6 .0 m.

< 0.6 — r = m 43. 6.25 X 10-4 V /m ;

I 0.4 19. Convex, —32.0 cm.

1.04 X 10-9 W /m 2.

0.2 21.

0 45. 3 m.

0 0.5 1 1.5 2.5 47. 1.35 s.

O)/(O0

49. 34 V /m , 0.11 juT.

3. 1.2 X 1015 V /m *s. (ft) 8.7 fiY /m , 2.9 X 10“14T.

23. - 3 .9 m. 87. A = 1.5005, B = 5740 nm2. 13. 21.3 cm, 64.7 cm.

1.56 Position A

25. (a) Convex;

1.55

(b) 20 cm behind mirror;

(c) - 9 1 cm;

1.54

1.53

1.52

§ f x

0 p'

.

V f\

(d) —1.8 m. 1.51

1.50 /

27. (b) 250 500 750 1000 1250

A (nm)

1.56 Position B

1.55

1.54

s 1.53

1.52 I

1.51 _ jC. '7A\S i1urv

y,, — ----

Ar iL 1i . jcun _

0 , N

1.50 ---------- 1---------- 1---------- 1-----------1----------

d0(m) 0.0 2.0 X 4.0 X 6.0 X 8.0 X 10.0X 12.0X \

10-6 10-6 10-6 10-6 10-6 10-6 15. (c) Real, upright; ( d) real, upright.

(c) 0.90 m; 1/A2 (nm-2)

17. 0.107 m, 2.2 m.

(d) just beyond focal point. 19. (b) 182 cm; (c) 182 cm.

31. Because the image is inverted. CHAPTER 3 3 21. 18.5 cm beyond second lens, —0.651 X .

33. (a) 2.21 X 108 m /s ; 1. (a) 23. (a) 7.14 cm beyond second lens;

(b) -0 .3 5 7 X; (c)

(b) 1.99 X 108 m /s ;

Lens A LensB

(c ) 1.97 X 108 m /s.

35. 8.33 min.

37. 3 m .

39. 35°.

41. 38.6°.

25. (a) 0.10 m to right of diverging

43. 2.6 cm.

lens; (b) -1 .0 X ;

45. 4.4 m. (c) Lens A

47. 3.2 mm.

49. 38.9°. (b) 508 mm.

53. 0.22°. 3. (a) 4.26 D, converging;

55. 0.80°. (b) -1 4 .8 cm, diverging.

57. 33.3°, diamond. 5. (a) 106 mm;

59. 82.1 cm. (b) 109 mm;

61. n > 1.5. (c) 117 mm;

63. (a) 2.3 fis; (d) an object 0.513 m away.

the size of object;

(b) 17 ns. 7. (a) Virtual, upright, magnified; Lens 1 Lens 2

65. n > 1.72.

67. 17.3 cm.

W ' Fi "

71. 0.25 m, 0.50 m. o FP P % i2

73. (a) 3.0 m, 4.4 m, 7.4 m;

(b) toward, away, toward. (b) 29 cm beyond second lens, 0.46

times the size of object.

75. 3.80 m. 29. 1.54.

77. 31 cm for real image, 15 cm for 31. 8.6 cm.

( b) converging; 33. 34 cm.

virtual image.

(c) 6.7 D. 35. //2 .8 .

d

83. 37. I s.

n - 1 9. (a) 0.02 m;

39. 41 mm.

85. The light would totally internally (b) 0.004 m. 41. +2.5 D.

reflect only if < 32.5°. 11. 50 cm. 43. 41 cm, yes.

45. (a) - 1 .3 D; CHAPTER 3 4 13. 0.15.

(ft) 37 cm. 3. 3.9 /m i. 15. d = 5 D.

47. - 2 4 .8 cm. 5. 0.2 mm. 17. 265 fringes.

49. 18.4 cm, 1.00 m. 7. 660 nm. 19. (a) 1.9 cm;

51. 6.6 cm. 9. 3.5 cm. (ft) 12 cm.

53. (fl) 13 cm; 11. Inverted, starts with central dark 21. 0.255.

(ft) 8.3 cm. line, and every place there was 1 + 2 cos 8

23. (fl) Ie = I0

55. (fl) - 2 3 4 cm; bright fringe before is now dark

(ft) 4.17X . fringe and vice versa.

25. 1.5 X 1011 m.

57. ( a) - 6 6 cm; 13. 2.7 mm.

27. 1.0 X 104 m.

(ft) 3.0 X. 15. 2.94 mm.

59. 4 cm, toward. 29. 730 lin es/m m , 88 lines/m m .

61. 2.5 cm, 91 cm. 2-77-d sin 6 31. 0.40 /am, 0.50 /m i, 0.52 /m i, 0.62 /m i.

63. - 2 6 X. 3 + 2V 2cos

21. In 33. Two full orders, plus part o f a third

65. 16 X. order.

3 + 2V 2

67. 3.7 m, 7.4 m. 35. 556 nm.

23. 634 nm.

69. -9 X .

25. ( a) 180 nm; 37. 24°.

71. 8.0 X.

(ft) 361 nm, 541 nm. 39. A2 > 600 nm overlap with

73. 1.6 cm.

27. (ft) 290 nm. A3 < 467 nm.

75. (fl) 754 X;

(b) 1.92 cm, 0.307 cm; 29. 8.68 /m i. 41. Ai = 614 nm, A2 = 899 nm.

(c) 0.312 cm. 31. 113 nm, 225 nm. 43. 7 cm, 35 cm, second order.

77. ( a) 0.85 cm; 35. 1.32.

45. (c) -3 2 ° , 0.9°.

(ft) 250 X . 37. (c) 571 nm.

47. ( a) 16,000 and 32,000;

79. 410 X , 25 X . 39. 0.191 mm.

(ft) 26 pm, 13 pm.

81. 79.4 cm, 75.5 cm. 41. 80.1 /m i.

83. 6.450 m < d0 < oo. 43. 0.3 mm. 49. 14.0°.

85. 116 mm, 232 mm. 45. (fl) 17 lm /W ; 51. No.

87. - 1 9 .0 cm. (ft) 160 lamps. 53. 45°.

89. 3.1 cm, 25 cm. 47. ( a) Constructive; 55. 61.2°.

91. (fl) 0.26 mm; (ft) destructive. 57. (fl) 35.3°;

(ft) 0.47 mm; 49. 440 nm. (ft) 63.4°.

(c) 1.3 mm;

51. W ( * f ). 59. 36.9°, smaller than both angles.

(d) 0.5 6 X, 2 .7 X.

93. 20.0 cm. 61. / = ^ s i n 2(20),45°.

53. (fl) 81.5 nm;

95. 47 m.

(ft) 0.130 /m i. 63. 28.8 /m i.

97. 2.8 X , 3.9 X , person with normal eye.

99. 1.0 X . 55. 6 = sin- 1 ^sin0i + 65. 580 nm.

101. + 3 .4 D . 67. 0.6 m.

57. 340 nm, 170 nm.

103. - 1 9 X . 69. 658 nm, 853 lin es/cm .

59. Constructive: 90°, 270°; destructive:

105. (fl) 28.6 cm; 0°, 180°; exactly switched. 71. (fl) 18 km;

(ft) 120 cm; (ft) 23", atm ospheric distortions

61. 240 nm.

(c) 15 cm. make it worse.

63. 0.20 km.

107. - 6 .2 cm.

65. 126 nm. 73. 5.79 X 105 lin es/m .

109. (a) - 1 / / , 1;

75. 36.9°.

(ft) 14 cm, yes,

CHAPTER 35________________________ 77. ( a) 60°;

y-intercept = 1.03;

0.0 1. 37.3 mrad = 2.13°. (ft) 71.6°;

-1.5

7. 4.8 cm. 83. 110 m.

-2.0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 9. 953 nm. 85. —0.17 mm.

d{(cm) 11. ( a) 63°; 87. U se 24 polarizers, each rotated

(c) / = —1/slo p e. (ft) 30°. 3.75° from previous axis.

CHAPTER 36 53. 0.32c. 2.7 X 10“19 J < E < 4.9 X 10“19 J,

1. 72.5 m. 55. 0.866c, 0.745c. 1.7 eV < E < 3.0 eV.

1 .2 5 ,1 .4 0 ,1 .6 7 ,2 .2 9 ,7 .0 9 . (fo) -2.4% . 11. 7.2 X 1014 Hz.

8.00 59. 237.04832 u. 13. 3.05 X 10-27 m.

7.00

6.00 61. 240 MeV. 15. Copper and iron.

^ 5.00

65. 230 M Hz. 17. 0.55 eV.

4.00

3.00 19. 2.66 eV.

67. {a) 1.00 X 102 km /h;

2.00

1.00 (fo) 67 Hz. 21. 3.56 eV.

0.20c 0.40c 0.60c 0.80c 1.0c

69. 75 /as. 23. ( a) 1.66 eV;

V

71. 8.0 X 10“8 s. (fo) 3.03 eV.

5. 2.42 X 108 m / s .

73. (a) 0.067c; 25. ( a) 1.66 eV;

7. 27 yr.

(fo) 0.070c. (fo) 3.03 eV.

9. (6.97 X 10“8)%.

11. (a) 0.141c; 27. 0.004, or 0.4%.

75. ( a ) tan - i \ j ~ ^ ~ 1;

(fo) 0.140c. 29. (fl) 2.43 pm;

(c) tan 1 —•

^ >u = \ v/ c 2 + v 2 .

(fo) 7.4 yr. 31. (fl) 8.8 X 10“6;

15. 0.894c. 77. (a) 0.77 m /s; (fo) 0.049.

17. Base: 0.30£, sides: 1.941. (fo) 0.21 m. 33. ( a) 229 eV;

19. 0.65c. 79. 1.022 MeV. (fo) 0.165 nm.

21. (a) (820 m, 20 m, 0); 83. (a) 4 X 109 kg/s; 35. 1.65 MeV.

(fo) (2280 m , 20 m , 0). (fo) 4 X 107 yr; 37. 212 MeV, 5.86 fm.

23. (a) 0.88c; (c) 1 X 1013 yr. 39. 1.772 MeV, 702 fm.

(fo )-0 .8 8 c . 85. 28.32 MeV. 41. 4.7 pm.

25. (a) 0.97c; 87. (a) 2.86 X 10_18k g -m /s; 43. 4.0 pm.

(fo) 0.55c. (fo) 0; 45. 1840.

27. 0.93c at 35°. (c) 3.31 10_17k g -m /s.

X 47. ( a) 1.1 X 10-24 k g -m /s;

89. 3 X 107 kg. (fo) 1.2 X 106 m /s;

29. (a) £0\ / 1 ~ ^ cosz 0;

91. 0.987c. (c) 4.2 V.

tan 0 93. 5.3 X 1021 J, 53 times as great. 51. 590 m /s.

(b)

tan - l 95. (a) 6.5 yr; 53. 20.9 pm.

- I , (fo) 2.3 ly. 55. 1.51 eV

vi 99. 57. 122 eV.

31. f t - f t = - •

1.2 59. 91.4 nm.

i

1.0 t

----- Ch tssir.al / 61. 37.0 nm.

r- 0.8 /

B is turned on first. O 0.6 ------ Relativistic f 63.

— r

*

33. N ot possible in b oy’s frame o f S ' 0.4

0.2 Continuum

reference. o

0

35. (fl) -0.5% ; 0.2c 0.4c 0.6c 0.8c 1.0c -3 .4

(fo) -20% . v -6 .0

37. 0.95c.

CHAPTER 3 7 n =2

39. 8.20 X 10“14J, 0.511 MeV. -1 3 .6

41. 900 kg. 1. (fl) 10.6 fxm, far infrared; I?

43. 1.00 M e V /c 2, or 1.78 X 10“30kg. (fo) 829 nm, infrared; s

45. 9.0 X 1013 J, 9.2 X 109 kg. (c) 0.69 mm, microwave;

47. 0.866c. (d) 1.06 mm, microwave.

49. 1670 MeV, 2440 M eV /c. 3. 5.4 X 10“20J, 0.34 eV.

51. 0.470c. 5. (fo) 6.62 X 10“34 J-s. -54.4 -n = 1

67. Yes: v = 7 X 10“3 c;

+ = [ ( - 1 ) ™ ^ c o s ( 2 f ),

1 /7 = 0.99997. (b)

69. 97.23 nm, 102.6 nm, 121.5 nm,

486.2 nm, 656.3 nm, 1875 nm.

71. Yes.

73. 3.28 X 1015 Hz.

75. 5.3 X 1026 photons/s.

77. 6.2 X 1018 photons/s.

79. 0.244 MeV for both. 1/A (/^m-1)

81. 28 fm. (c ) 1.2 X 10-6 V • m, -2 .3 1 V ;

83. 4.4 X 10“40, yes. (d) 2.31 eV;

85. 2.25 V. (e) 6.63 X 10-34 J •s.

87. 9.0 N.

89. 1.2 nm. CHAPTER 38_______________________

91. (a)

1. 2.8 X 10“7 m.

0

3. 5.3 X 10“n m.

5. 4500 m /s.

7. 1.0 X 10“14.

9. A*electron ^ 1.4 X 10“3 m,

A-^baseball — 9.3 X 10 m,

"A AAA

-6 .4 eV

0)

a -8

-6 .8 eV

-9 .0 eV

^ eleclron = 1.5 X 1029.

A^baseball

11. 1.3 X 10-54 kg.

WAAAAA

13. (a) 10-7 eV;

37. 0.020 nm.

-1 2

-11.5 eV (b) 1/108;

39. 17 eV.

(c) 100 nm, 10-6 nm.

41. (a) 6.1%;

(ft) Ground state, 0.4 eV, 2.2 eV, 19. (a) A sin[(2.6 X 109 m_1)x]

2.5 eV, 2.6 eV, 4.7 eV, 5.1 eV. (ft) 93.9%.

+ B cos[(2.6 X 109 m_1)x];

43. (a) 12% decrease;

„ 2.84 X 10165J (ft) A sin[(4.7 X lO ^ n T ^ x ]

93. (a) En — ’ (b) 6.2% decrease.

+ 5 cos[(4.7 X 1012 m_1)x],

rn = n \ 5 1 1 X 10-129 m); 45. (a) 32 MeV;

21. 1.8 X 106 m /s.

(ft) no, because n « 1068 so An = 1 (ft) 57 fm;

23. (a) 46 nm;

is negligible compared to n. (c) 1.4 X 107 m /s, 8.6 X 1020Hz,

(ft) 0.20 nm.

95. 1.0 X 10“8 N. 7 X 109 yr.

25. Ap Ax « h, which is consistent with

47. 14 MeV.

the uncertainty principle.

97. (a) (ft) 1.34 X 10“43s; 49. 25 nm.

27. #i = l: 0.094 eV,

(l.O nm_1/2) sin[(l.6 nm_1)x]; 51. Ax = #i (the Bohr radius).

(c) ( d ) 4.05 X 10_35m.

n = 2: 0.38 eV, 53. 0.23 MeV, 3.3 X 106 m /s.

99. (a) 6.0 X 10-3 m/s; (l.O nm-ly/2) sin[(3.1 nm_1)x]; 55. 27% decrease.

(ft) 1.2 X 10“7 K. n = 3: 0.85 eV, 57.

101. (a) (l.O nm_1/2) sin[(4.7 nm_1)x];

0.34t2 j

n = 4: 1.5 eV, •#

.330CIK (l.O nm_1/2) sin[(6.3 nm_1)x]. 0.32I2 — *

W A /

29. (a) 940 MeV; \%

© 3 / 0.30f2 —

/ /2700 (ft) 0.51 MeV;

2 2

E-h / /

(c) 0.51 MeV. 0.28£2 r i | | | | | | | | |

d 1 > 0 4 8 12 16 20

^ 0 n

31. (a) 4.0 X 10“19eV;

0 400 800 1200 1600 2000

A (nm) (ft) 2 X 108; 59. (a) A<£ > 0 so </> ^ 0 exactly;

(,b) 4.8 times more intense. (c ) 1.4 X 10“10eV. (ft) 4 s.

61. (a) 29. (a) (1,0,0, - 1), (1,0,0, +\), CHAPTER 40

1.0 - - (2, 0, 0, -\), (2, 0, 0, +g, 1. 5.1 eV.

•

>,0.8- (2 ,1 ,-1 ,-1 ), (2 ,1 ,-1 ,+ 1); 3. 4.7 eV.

g 0.6- • Transmission T

| 0.4-

V • Reflection R

(ft) (1,0,0,- |) , (1,0,0,+i), 5. 1.28 eV.

(2, 0, 0 ,- |) , (2,0,0,+|), 9. (a) 18.59 u;

£ 0.2- • ••

-• (ft) 8.00 u;

(2,1,- 1 , - |) , (2 ,1 ,-1 ,+ 1),

r--n t- -I (c) 0.9801 u.

4 6 10 (2 ,1,0,-i), (2,1,0,+1),

11. 1.10 X 10-10m.

( 2 ,l ,l,- i ) ,( 2 ,l ,l,+ |) ,

13. (a) 1.5 X 10“2eV, 0.082 mm;

(ft) 10%: £ /t/0 = 0.146; (3, 0, 0, - \ ) , (3,0, 0, +i),

20%: E/U0 = 0.294; (ft) 3.0 X 10“2eV, 0.041mm;

(3 ,1 ,- 1 , - |) .

50%: E/U0 = 0.787; (c) 4.6 X 10-2 eV, 0.027 mm.

80%: £ /t/0 = 1.56. 31. n = 3,£ = 2.

15. (a) 6.86 u;

33. (a) ls22s22p63s23p63d84s2;

CHAPTER 39______________________ (ft) 1850 N/m, kCo/kn2 = 3.4.

(ft) 1j 22s22p63523p63rf104s24p64rf105j1; 17. 2.36 X 10“10m.

1. 0,1, 2,3,4,5,6. (c) ls22s22/763s23 /3 rf104s24/?64rf10-

19. rniXi = m2x2.

3. 18 states, (3,0,0, - \), (3, 0, 0, + §), 4 /145525/?65rf106,s26p65f36dlls2.

21. 0.2826 nm.

( 3 ,1 ,- 1 ,- i ) , (3 ,1 ,-1 ,+ i), 35. 5.75 X 10“13m, 115 keV.

23. 0.34 nm.

(3 ,1 ,0 ,-i), (3,1,0,+ i), 39. 0.0383 nm, 1 nm.

25. (ft) -6.9 eV;

(3 ,1 ,1 ,- I ) , (3 ,1 ,1 ,+ 1), 41. 0.194 nm. (c) -11 eV;

(3,2, - 2 , - 1 ) , (3,2, - 2 ,+ |) , 43. Chromium. (rf) -2.8%.

( 3 , 2 , - l , - i ) , ( 3 , 2 , - l , + |) , 47. 2.9 X 10“4eV. 27. 9.0 X 1020.

(3,2, 0, -§), (3,2, 0, +!), 49. (a) 0.38 mm; (ft) 0.19 mm. 29. (a) 6.96 eV;

( 3 ,2 ,l,- i) ,( 3 ,2 ,l,+ i) , 51. (a) | ’ I ; (ft) I ’ I ; (c) | ’ §; (ft) 6.89 eV.

(3,2, 2, - \ ) , (3,2, 2, + |). 31. 1.6%.

5. n > 6; ra£ = -5 , -4 , -3 , -2 , -1 , 3 33. 3.2 eV, 1.1 X 106m/s.

0,1, 2, 3, 4, 5; ms = -§> + §• 53. (a) 0.4 T; h2N 2

7. (fl) 7; 39. (a)

(ft) 0.5 T. 32mf2’

(ft) -0.278 eV; 55. 4.7 X 10-4 rad; (a) 180 m; h2 (N + 1)

(c) 4.72 X 10-34 J-s, 4; (ft) 1.8 X 105 m. (b)

8mi2 ’

(rf) -4 , -3 , -2 ,- 1 ,0 ,1 ,2 , 3, 4. 57. 634 nm.

11. n > l, I = 6, mf = 2. 59. 3.7 X 104K.

61. (a) 1.56; 43. 1.09 /mi.

13. (a)- 1

(ft) 1.36 X 10-10 m. 45. (fl) 2N\

63. (a) ls22s22p63s23p63d54s2; (ft) 6N;

(ft) ls22s22 /3 s 23 /3 d 104s24 / ; (c) 6N;

(c) l ^ ^ p ^ ^ p ^ r f ^ s ^ p ^ r f ^ 2. (rf) 2N{2£ + 1).

65. (a) 2.5 X 1074; 47. 4 X 106.

(ft) 5.1 X 1074. 49. 1.8 eV.

67. 5.24r0. 51. 8.6 mA.

69. (a) 45°, 90°, 135°; 53. (fl) 1.7 mA; (ft) 3.4 mA.

(ft) 35.3°, 65.9°, 90°, 114.1°, 144.7°; 55. (fl) 35 mA; (ft) 70 mA.

(c) 30°, 54.7°, 73.2°, 90°, 106.8°, 57. 3700 Cl.

125.3°, 150°; 59. 0.21 mA.

(rf) 5.71°, 0.0573°, yes. 61. JB + Jc = / E.

71. (b)K = - \ U . 63. (fl) 3.1 X 104 K;

73. (a) Forbidden; (ft) allowed; (ft) 930 K.

(c) forbidden; (rf) forbidden; 65.

(e) allowed. U

75. 4, beryllium.

77. (a) 3 X 10“171, 1 X 10“202; 1.4eV\

(ft) 1 X 10“8, 6 X 10-10; __L A

(c) 7 X 1015, 4 X 1014; 1.6eV

(rf) 4 X 1022photons/s, 1

(c) 13.1r0. 7 X 1023 photons/s. r0

A-44 Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems

67. (a) 0.9801 u; 13. 550 MeV. 85. ( a) 1.6%;

(fo) 482 N /m , k HCi / k H2 = 0.8 15. 7.94 MeV. (fo) 0.66%.

71. Yes, 1.09 /m i. 17. iiN a: 8.11 M eV /nucleon; 87. 1.3 X 1021 yr.

73. 1100 J /m ol. f}Na: 8.06 M eV /n u cleon . 89. 8.33 X 1016 nuclei,

75. 5.50 eV. 19. (b) Yes, binding energy is positive.

77. 3 X 1025. 21. 0.782 MeV.

79. 6.47 X 10-4 eV. 23. 2.6 X 10“12m.

81. 1.1 eV. 25. (fl) J8“;

83. ( a) 0.094 eV; (fo) 0.63 nm. (b) 24N a -► g M g + (3~ + v,

5.52 M eV.

85. ( a) 150 V < F < 486 V;

27. (fl) 2ijTh; (fo) 234.04367 u.

(fo) 3.16 k n < 2?load < 00 • t( s)

29. 0.078 MeV. 600 s.

87. (fl)

31. (fl) iiS;

1.00- CHAPTER 4 2

(fo) 31.97207 u.

33. 0.862 MeV. 1* 13AI, /3 , ifSi.

T= 500K 35. 0.9612 MeV, 0.9612 MeV, 0 ,0 . 3. Yes, because Q = 4.807 M eV.

37. 5.31 MeV. 5. 5.701 M eV released.

39. (a) 1.5 X 10-10 yr-1 ; 7. ( a) Yes;

2.00 (fo) 6.0 h. (fo) 20.8 MeV.

41. 0.16. 9. 4.730 MeV.

43. 0.015625. 11. n + 14N —» U6C + p, 0.626 M eV .

45. 6.9 X 1019 nuclei. 13. (a) The H e has picked up a neutron

47. (a) 3.59 X 1012 decays/s; from the C;

(c ) 9.51 X 107 decays/s. (c) 1.856 MeV, exotherm ic.

2.00 17. 0.671 MeV.

51. 2.30 X 1 0 -n g.

53. 4.3 m in. 19. + R 2f .

21. 10 cm.

55. 2.98 X 10“2g.

23. 173.3 MeV.

57. 35.4 d.

25. 6 X 1018 fissions/s.

59. 2i R a , 2i A c , 2ig T h ,2^ R a ,2igRn;

239oTh,

,jTh, 229il

39lP a ,2g A c , 2i 7o T h,2i R a . 27. 0.34 g.

31. 25 collisions.

63. 2.3 X 104 yr.

2.00 33. 0.11.

65. 41 yr.

35. 3000 eV.

69. 6.647i/2 .

39. (fl) 5.98 X 1023 M eV /g ,

71. (fo) 98.2%.

4.83 X 1023 M eV /g ,

73. 1 MeV. 2.10 X 1024 M eV /g;

75. ( a) ^ylr; (fo) 5.13 X 1023 M eV /g; Eq. 42-9a

(b) gives about 17% more energy per

gram, 42-9b gives about 6% less,

and 42-9c gives about 4X more.

1.00 2.00 41. 0.35 g.

E/Ef

43. 6100 k g /h .

45. 2.46 X 109 J, 50 tim es m ore than

gasoline.

CHAPTER 41

47. (fo) 26.73 MeV;

1. 0.149 u. (c ) The higher excited state.

(c) 1.943 MeV, 2.218 MeV,

3. 0.85%. 77. 550 M eV , 2.5 X 1012J. 7.551 MeV, 7.296 MeV,

5. 3727 M e V /c 2. 79. 2.243 MeV. 2.752 MeV, 4.966 MeV;

7. (fo) 180 m; (c) 2.58 X 10“10m. 81. (fl) 2.4 X 105 yr; (d) larger Coulom b repulsion to

9. 30 MeV. (fo) no significant change, maximum overcome.

11. 6 X 1026 nucleons, no, mass o f all age is on the order o f 105 yr. 49. 4.0 Gy.

nucleons is approxim ately the same. 83. 5.49 X 10“4. 51. 220 rad.

53. 280 counts/s. 27. 69.3 MeV. 65. v/c = 1 - (9.0 X 109).

55. 1.6 days. 29. K ao = 8.6 MeV, K n- = 57.4 MeV. 67.

57. (a) xg X e + pr + v\ 31. 52.3 MeV. 5.0 t

(c) 8 X 10-12 kg. 35. 7.5 X 10“21 s.

59. 8.3 X 10“7 G y/d. 37. (a) 700 eV;

61. ( a) 2gPo; (b) 70 MeV.

(b) radioactive, alpha and beta 39. (a) uss; 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0

decay, 3.1 min; * 0 s)

(b) dss.

2.3 fi s,3.1%.

(c) chemically reactive; 41. (a) Proton;

(d) 9.1 X 106 Bq, 4.0 X 104Bq. (b) 2 CHAPTER 4 4

63. 7.041 m, radio wave. (c) K- 1. 3.1 ly.

65. (fl) 126C; (d) Tr 3. 0.050", 20 pc.

(b) 5.701 MeV. ie) D 5 5. Less than, a factor of 2.

67. 1.0043:1. 43. cs. 7. 0.037.

69. 6.5 X 10-2 rem/yr. 45. 9. 2 X 10-3 kg/m 3.

71. 4.4 m.

11. -0 .0 9 2 MeV, 7.366 MeV.

73. (a) 920 kg;

13. 1.83 X 109 kg/m 3, 3.33 X 105 times.

(b) 3 X 106 Ci.

15. Dx/D 2 = 0.15.

75. ( a) 3.7 X 1026W;

19. 540°.

(b) 3.5 X 1038 protons/s;

21. 3.1 X 10-16 m.

(c) 1.1 X 10n yr.

23. 200 Mly.

77. 8 X 1012J.

25. (fl) 656 nm;

79. ( a) 3700 decays/s;

(b) 659 nm.

(b) 4.8 X 10_4Sv/yr, yes (13% of 47. (fl) 0.38 A;

27. 0.0589 c.

the background rate). (b) 1.0 X 102 m /s.

31. 1.1 X 10“3 m.

81. 121A MeV. 49. 2.1 X 109 m, 7.1 s.

33. 6 nucleons/m 3.

83. 79 yr. 51. (fl) Possible, strong interaction;

35. (a) 10“5 s;

85. 2mCi. (b) possible, strong interaction;

(b) 10“7 s;

(c) possible, strong interaction;

(c) 10“4 s.

CHAPTER 43______________________ (d) not possible, charge is not

37. (a) 6380 km, 20 km, 8.85 km;

1. 5.59 GeV. conserved;

(b) 700:2:1.

3. 2.0 T. (e) possible, weak interaction.

5. 13 MHz. 55. 64. 39. 8 X 1 0 9.

7. Alpha particles, 57. ( b) 1029K. 41. A: Temperature increases,

A-a ~ ^nucleon? ~ 2rfnucle0n • 59. 798.7 MeV, 798.7 MeV. luminosity stays the same,

and size decreases;

9. 5.5 T. 61. 16 GeV, 7.8 X 10“17m.

B: Temperature stays the same,

11. 1.8 X 10“19m. 63. Some possibilities:

and luminosity and size decrease;

15. 33.9 MeV. ir- TT~ C: Temperature decreases,

17. 1879.2 MeV. ud uu uu ud and luminosity and size increase.

19. 67.5 MeV.

43. 2 X 1028N.

21. ( a) 178.5 MeV;

45. ^480/^660 = 1-7.

(b) 128.6 MeV. uud ddu udu udd

47. 2 X 1016 K, hadron era.

23. ( a) Charge, strangeness; p n p n

49. (a) 13.93 MeV;

(b) energy; or [see Example 43-9b] (b) 4.7 MeV;

(c) baryon number, strangeness, Tj-0 ,,-0 7r- (c) 5.5 X 1010 K.

spin.

51. R min = G M /c2.

25. (b) The photon exists for such a

53. ~ 10-15 s.

short time that the uncertainty

principle allows energy to not 55. Venus, Z>yenus/fosirius — 16.

be conserved during the h2

57.

exchange. Aml/3 GMl/3 V4tt2

Index

Note: The abbreviation defn means the Active solar heating, 550 polarizing, 943^14

page cited gives the definition of the Activity, 1118 radian measure of, 249

term; fn means the reference is in a and half-life, 1120 of reflection, 410,838

footnote; pr means it is found in a source, 1147 of refraction, 415,850

Problem or Q uestion;/f means “also the Addition of vectors, 52-58 solid, 7 fn, 915 fn

following pages.” Addition of velocities: Angstrom (A ) (unit), 17 pr, 852 fn

classical, 71-74 Angular acceleration, 251-56,258-63

relativistic, 970-71 constant, 255

A (atomic mass number), 1105 Adhesion, 360 Angular displacement, 250,381

Aberration: Adiabatic lapse rate, 525 pr Angular frequency, 373

chromatic, 889 fn, 892,932 Adiabatic processes, 508,514-15 Angular magnification, 886

of lenses, 891-92,929,931 ADP, 1076-77 Angular momentum, 285-89,291-300,1003

spherical, 843,857,891,892,932 AFM, 1039 in atoms, 1004,1046-49,1057-60

Absolute pressure, 345 AGN, 1197 conservation, law of, 285-89,297-98,

Absolute space, 953,957 Air bags, 31 1117

Absolute temperature scale, 457, Air cleaner, electrostatic, 645 pr directional nature of, 288-89,291 f f

464,469-70 Air columns, vibrations of, 434-36 nuclear, 1107

Absolute time, 953 Air conditioners, 537-38 of a particle, 291-92

Absolute zero, 464,549 Air parcel, 525 pr quantized in atoms, 1046-47

Absorbed dose, 1148 Air pollution, 551 quantized in molecules, 1080-81

Absorption lines, 936,1002,1081,1084-85 Air resistance, 34-35,129-30 relation between torque and, 292-97

Absorption spectra, 936,1002,1084 Airplane wing, 356-57 total, 1059

Absorption wavelength, 1008 Airy disk, 929 and uncertainty principle, 1023

Abundances, natural, 1105 Alkali metals, 1054 vector, 288,291

A c circuits, 664-65,677 fn, 790-803 Allowed transitions, 1048-49,1080-81, Angular position, 249,1023

A c generator, 766-67 1083,1084 Angular quantities, 249 f f

A c motor, 720 Alpha decay, 1111-14,1117 vector nature, 254

Accelerating reference frames, 85,88, and tunneling, 1038,1113 Angular velocity, 250-55

155-56,300-2 Alpha particle (or ray), 1038,1111-14 of precession, 299-300

Acceleration, 24-42,60-62 Alternating current (ac), 664-65,677 fn, Anisotropy of CMB, 1214,1220

angular, 251-56,258-63 796-803 Annihilation (e_e+, particle-antiparticle),

average, 24-26 Alternators, 768 996,1175,1217

centripetal, 120 f f AM radio, 830 Anode, 620

constant, 28-29,62 Amino acids, 1079 Antenna, 812,817,824,831,909

constant angular, 255 Ammeter, 695-97,721 Anthropic principle, 1225

Coriolis, 301-2 digital, 695,697 Anticodon, 1079

cosmic, 1223 Amorphous solids, 1085 Antilogarithm, A-3

in g ’s, 37 Ampere, Andre, 654,737 Antimatter, 1175,1188,1190 p r (see also

due to gravity, 34-39,87 fn, 92,143-45 Ampere (A ) (unit), 654,736 Antiparticle)

instantaneous, 27-28,60-61 operational definition of, 736 Antineutrino, 1115—16,1179

of the Moon, 121,140 A m pere’s law, 737-43,813-17 Antineutron, 1175

motion at constant, 28-39,62-71 Amplifiers, 1097 Antinodes, 412,433,434,435

radial, 1 20//, 128 Amplitude, 371,397,404 Antiparticle, 1116,1174-76,1179 (see also

related to force, 86-88 intensity related to, 430 Antimatter)

tangential, 128-29,251-52 pressure, 427 Antiproton, 1164,1174-75

uniform, 28-39,62-71 of vibration, 371 Antiquark, 1179,1183

variable, 39-43 of wave, 371,397,402,404,426,430,1019 Apparent brightness, 1197-98

Accelerators, particle, 1165-71 Amplitude modulation (AM ), 830 Apparent magnitude, 1228 pr

Accelerometer, 100 Analog information, 775 Apparent weight, 148-49,350

Acceptor level, 1094 Analog meters, 695-97,721 Apparent weightlessness, 148-49

Accommodation of eye, 883 Analyzer (of polarized light), 941 Approximations, 9-12

Accuracy, 3-5 Anderson, Carl, 1174 Arago, F., 922

precision vs., 5 Andromeda, 1196 Arches, 327-28

Achromatic doublet, 892 Aneroid barometer, 347 Archimedes, 349-50

Achromatic lens, 892 Aneroid gauge, 347 Archimedes’ principle, 348-52

Actinides, 1054 Angle, 7 fn, 249 and geology, 351

Action at a distance, 154,568 attack, 356 Area, 9, A -l, inside back cover

Action potential, 670 Brewster’s, 943,949 pr under a curve or graph, 169-71

Action-reaction (N ewton’s third law), critical, 854 Arecibo, 931

89-91 of dip, 709 Aristotle, 2,84

Activation energy, 481,1075,1077 of incidence, 410,415,838,850 Armature, 720,766

Active galactic nuclei (A G N ), 1197 phase, 373,405,800 Arteriosclerosis, 359

Index A -47

Artificial radioactivity, 1111 Average position, 1034 Bell, Alexander Graham, 428

A S A number, 879 fn Average speed, 20,480-82 Bernoulli, Daniel, 354

Associative property, 54 Average velocity, 20-22,60 Bernoulli’s equation, 354-58

Asteroids, 159 pr, 162 pr, 210 pr, Average velocity vector, 60 Bernoulli’s principle, 354-57

247 pr, 308 pr Avogadro, A m edeo, 468 Beta decay, 1111,1114-16,1117,1121,1185

Astigmatism, 884,892,892 fn Avogadro’s hypothesis, 468 inverse, 1202

Astronomical telescope, 888-89 Avogadro’s number, 468-69 Beta particle (or ray), 1111,1114 (see also

Astrophysics, 1193-1225 Axial vector, 254 fn Electron)

Asymptotic freedom, 1185 Axis, instantaneous, 268 Betatron, 782 pr

ATLAS, 1170 Axis of rotation (defn), 249 Bethe, Hans, 1143

Atmosphere, scattering of light by, 945 Axis of lens, 867 Biasing and bias voltage, 1095,1097

Atmosphere (atm) (unit), 345 Axon, 669-70 Bicycle, 181 pr, 281 pr, 283 pr, 289,295,

Atmospheric pressure, 344-48 309 pr

decrease with altitude, 344 Big Bang theory, 1188,1193,1212-25

A tom trap, 1013 pr, 1016 pr Back, forces in, 337 pr Big crunch, 1220,1221

Atomic bomb, 1141,1144 Back emf, 768-69 Bimetallic-strip thermometer, 457

Atomic emission spectra, 936,1002 Background radiation, cosmic Binary system, 1203,1209

Atomic force microscope (AFM ), 1039 microwave, 1193,1213-15,1219, Binding energy:

Atomic mass, 455,1024-27 1220,1224 in atoms, 1006

Atomic mass number, 1105 Bainbridge-type mass spectrometer, 724 in molecules, 211 pr, 1073,1075,1077

Atomic mass unit, 7,455 Balance, human, 318 of nuclei, 1108-9

unified, 1106 Balance a car wheel, 296 in solids, 1086

Atomic number, 1052,1054-56,1105 Ballistic galvanometer, 783 pr total, 985 pr, 1108

Atomic spectra, 1001-3,1006-8 Ballistic pendulum, 226 Binding energy per nucleon (defn), 1108

Atom ic structure: Balloons: Binoculars, 855,889

Bohr model of, 1003-9,1017,1044-46 helium, 467 Binomial expansion, A -l, inside back

of complex atoms, 1052-54 hot air, 454 cover

early models of, 1000-1 Balmer, J. J., 1002 Biological damage by radiation, 1146-47

of hydrogen atoms, 1045-51 Balmer formula, 1002,1007 Biological evolution, and entropy, 545

nuclear model of, 1001 Balmer series, 1002,1007-8 Biot, Jean Baptiste, 743

planetary model of, 1001 Band gap, 1091-92 Biot-Savart law, 7 4 3 ^ 5

quantum mechanics of, 1044-65 Band spectra, 1080,1084-85 B ismuth-strontium-calcium-copper oxide

shells and subshells in, 1053-54 Band theory of solids, 1090-92 (BSCCO), 669

Atomic theory of matter, 455-56,559 and doped semiconductors, 1094 Bits, 775

Atomic weight, 455 fh Banking of curves, 126-27 Blackbody, 988

Atoms, 455-56,468-69,476-82,486-90, Bar (unit), 345 Blackbody radiation, 987-88,1198,1214

1000-10 Bar codes, 1063 Black holes, 156,160 pr, 161 pr, 1197,

angular momentum in, 1004,1046-49, Barn (bn) (unit), 1136 1202,1203,1208-9,1221,1228 pr

1057-60 Barometer, 347 Blood flow, 353,357,359,361,366 pr,

binding energy in, 1006 Barrel distortion, 892 453 pr

Bohr model of, 1003-9 Barrier, Coulomb, 1038,1113,1200 Blood-flow measurement,

as cloud, 1045 Barrier penetration, 1036-39,1113 electromagnetic, 453 pr, 765

complex, 1052-54 Barrier tunneling, 1036-39,1113 Blue sky, 945

crystal lattice of, 1085 Baryon, 1179-80,1183,1184,1222 Blueshift, 1211

and de Broglie’s hypothesis, 1009-10 and quark theory, 1183,1184 Body fat, 368 pr

distance between, 456 Baryon number, 1175,1179-80,1182-83, Bohr, Niels, 997,1 0 0 3 ^ , 1009,1017,

electric charge in, 561 1187,1217 1024-25,1115

energy levels in, 1003-9,1046-47, conservation of, 1175 Bohr magneton, 1057,1107

1052-53,1055 Base, nucleotide, 581,1078 Bohr model of atom, 1003-9,1017,

hydrogen,1002-10,1045-51 Base, of transistor, 1097 1044-45,1046

ionization energy in, 1006-8 Base bias voltage, 1097 Bohr radius, 1005,1044,1045,1049-50

neutral, 1106 Base quantities, 7 Bohr theory, 1017,1044-45,1046

probability distributions in, 1045, Base semiconductor, 1097 Boiling, 485 (see also Phase, changes of)

1049-51 Base units (defn), 7 Boiling point, 457,485,503

quantum mechanics of, 1044-65 Baseball, 82 pr, 163,303 pr, 310 pr, 357, Boltzmann, Ludwig, 546

shells and subshells in, 1053-54 1023 Boltzmann constant, 468,547

vector model of, 1069 pr Baseball curve, and Bernoulli’s principle, Boltzmann distribution, 1061

(see also Atom ic structure; Kinetic 357 Boltzmann factor, 1061,1088

theory) Basketball, 82 pr, 105 pr Bomb:

ATP, 1076-77 Battery, 609,652-53,655,658,678 atomic, 1141,1144

Attack angle, 356 automobile, charging, 678 fn, 686-87 fission, 1141

Attractive forces, 1074-75,1171 chargers, inductive, 780 pr fusion, 1144

A tw ood’s machine, 99,279 pr, 295 Beam splitter, 914 hydrogen, 1144

Audible range, 425 Beams, 322,323-26 Bond (defn), 1072-73

Aurora borealis, 717 Beat frequency, 438-39 covalent, 1072-73,1074,1085,1086

Autofocusing camera, 426 Beats, 438-39 dipole-dipole, 1077

Autoradiography, 1152 Becquerel, Henri, 1110 dipole-induced dipole, 1077

Average acceleration, 24-26 Becquerel (Bq) (unit), 1147 hydrogen,1077-80

Average acceleration vector, 60 Bel (unit), 428 ionic, 1073,1075,1085,1086

A -48 Index

Bond (icontinued) Cable television, 832 Cell (biological):

metallic, 1086 Calculator errors, 4 energy in, 1077

molecular, 1071-74 Calculator LCD display, 944 radiation taken up by, 1147

partially ionic and covalent, 1074 Caloric, 497 Cell (electric), 653,678

in solids, 1085-86 Calories (unit), 497 Cell phone, 771,812,824,832

strong, 1072-74,1077-78,1085-86 relation to joule, 497 Celsius temperature scale, 457-58

van der Waals, 1077-80,1086 Calorimeter, 501,1124,1125 Center of buoyancy, 364 pr

weak, 1077-80,1086 Calorimetry, 500-5 Center of gravity (CG), 232

Bond energy, 1072-73,1077 Camera, digital and film, 878-82 Center of mass (CM), 230-36

Bond length, 1077,1099 pr autofocusing, 426 and angular momentum, 293

Bonding: gamma, 1152 and moment of inertia, 259,264,

in molecules, 1071-74 Camera flash unit, 636 268-71

in solids, 1085-86 Cancer, 1147,1150-51,1166 and sport, 192,193

Born, Max, 1017,1019 Candela (cd) (unit), 915 and statics, 313

Bose, Satyendranath, 1053 Cantilever, 315 and translational motion, 234-36,

Bose-Einstein statistics, 1087 fn Capacitance, 629-42 268-9

Bosons, 1053, 1087/w, 1178,1179, of axon, 670 Centi- (prefix), 7

1183-86 Capacitance bridge, 646 pr Centigrade scale, 457-58

Bottomness and bottom quark, 1119 fn, Capacitive reactance, 798-99 Centiliter (cL) (unit), 7

1182-83 Capacitor discharge, 690-91 Centimeter (cm) (unit), 7

Bound charge, 641 Capacitor microphone, 699 pr Centipoise (cP) (unit), 358

Bound state, 1035 Capacitors, 628-42,1098 Centrifugal (pseudo) force, 123,300

Boundary conditions, 1030,1035 charging of, 813-15 Centrifugal pump, 361

Bow wave, 443-44 in circuits, 633-35,687-92, Centrifugation, 122

Box, rigid, 1030-34 798-99 Centripetal acceleration, 120 f f

Boyle, Robert, 464 energy stored in, 636-38 Centripetal force, 122-24

B oyle’s law, 464,477 as filters, 798-99 Cepheid variables, 1204,1226 pr

Bragg, W. H., 939 reactance of, 798-99 CERN, 1168,1169,1186

Bragg, W.L., 939,1017 with R or L, 687-92,793 f f Cgs system o f units, 7

Bragg equation, 939 in series and parallel, 633-35 Chadwick, James, 1105,1162 pr

Bragg peak, 1151 uses of, 799 Chain reaction, 1137-39,1141

Bragg scattering of X-rays, 1065 Capacity, 629-42,670 Chamberlain, Owen, 1175

Brahe, Tycho, 149 Capillaries, 353,360 Chandrasekhar limit, 1201

Brake, hydraulic, 346 Capillarity, 359-60 Change of phase (or state), 482-86,

Braking a car, 32,174,272-73 Capture, electron, 1116 502-5

LED lights to signal, 1096 Car: Characteristic expansion time, 1213

Branes, 1189 battery charging, 686-7 Characteristic X-rays, 1055

Brayton cycle, 557 pr brake lights, 1096 Charge, 506 f f (see Electric charge)

Breakdown voltage, 612 power needs, 203 Charge, free and bound, 641

Break-even (fusion), 1145 stopping of, 32,174,272-73 Charge density, 596

Breaking point, 319 Carbon (CNO) cycle, 1143,1161 pr Charge-coupled device (CCD), 878

Breaking the sound barrier, 444 Carbon dating, 1104,1122-24 Charging a battery, 678 fn, 686-87

Breath, molecules in, 469 Carnot, N. L. Sadi, 533 Charging by induction, 562-63

Breeder reactor, 1140 Carnot cycle, 533 Charles, Jacques, 464

Bremsstrahlung, 1056 Carnot efficiency, 534 Charles’s law, 464

Brewster, D., 943,949 pr and second law of thermodynamics, Charm, 1179 fn, 1182-84

Brewster’s angle and law, 943, 534-35 Charmed quark, 1182

949 pr Carnot engine, 533-35 Chemical bonds, 1072-80

Bridge circuit, 704 pr Carnot’s theorem, 535 Chemical lasers, 1063

Bridge-type full-wave rectifier, Carrier frequency, 830 Chemical reactions, rate of, 481

1099 pr Carrier of force, 1171-73,1185 Chemical shift, 1157

Bridges, 324-27,335 pr, 386 Caruso, Enrico, 386 Chernobyl, 1139

Brightness, apparent, 1197-98 Cassegrainian focus, 889 Chimney, and Bernoulli effect, 357

British engineering system of units, 7 CAT scan, 1153-54,1156 Chip, computer, 16 pr, 1071,1094,1098

Broglie, Louis de, 997,1009 Catalysts, 1077 Cholesterol, 359

Bronchoscope, 856 Cathedrals, 327 Chord, 23,250

Brown, Robert, 455 Cathode, 620 Chromatic aberration, 889 fn, 892,932

Brownian motion, 455 Cathode ray tube (CRT), 620-21,723, Chromatography, 490

Brunelleschi, Filippo, 328 831 Chromodynamics, quantum (Q CD),

Brushes, 720,766 Cathode rays, 620,721-22 {see also 1173,1184-87

BSCCO, 669 Electron) Circle of confusion, 880,881

Btu (unit), 497 Causal laws, 152 Circuit, digital, 1097

Bubble chamber, 1125,1174 Causality, 152 Circuit, electric (see Electric circuits)

Bulk modulus, 319,321 Cavendish, Henry, 141,144 Circuit breaker, 662-63,694,747,776

Buoyancy, 348-52 CCD, 878 Circular apertures, 929-31

center of, 364 pr CD player, 1063 Circular motion, 119-29

Buoyant force, 348-49 CDs, 44 pr, 45 pr, 920 pr, 935,1063 nonuniform, 128-29

Burglar alarms, 992 CDM m odel o f universe, 1224 uniform, 119-25

Burning (= fusion), 1200 fn C DM A cell phone, 832 Circulating pump, 361

Index A -49

Classical physics ( defn), 2,952,1018 Compass, magnetic, 707-8,709 Confinement:

Clausius, R. J. E., 529,539 Complementarity, principle of, 997 in fusion, 1145-46

Clausius equation of state, 487 Complementary metal oxide of quarks, 1185,1217

Clausius statement of second law of semiconductor (CMOS), 647 pr, Conical pendulum, 125

thermodynamics, 529,537 878 Conservation of energy, 183 f f 189-201,

Closed system {defn), 500 Complete circuit, 654 506-7,1026,1112,1115,1117,1176

Closed tube, 434 Completely inelastic collisions, 225 in collisions, 222-25

Cloud, electron, 1045,1051,1072-74 Complex atoms, 1052-56 Conservation laws, 163,190

Cloud chamber, 1125 Complex quantities, 1019 fn, 1025 fn, of angular momentum, 285-89,297-98

Cloud color, 945 1028 apparent violation of, in beta decay,

Clusters, of galaxies, 1196,1220,1224 Complex wave, 408,436 1115

of stars, 1196 Components of vector, 55-59 of baryon number, 1175,1187,1217

CM, 230-36 (see Center of mass) Composite particles, 1178,1179,1183 and collisions, 217-19,222-29

CMB, 1193,1213-15,1219,1220,1224 Composite wave, 408,436 of electric charge, 560,1117,1175

CMB anisotropy, 1214,1220,1224 Composition resistors, 657 in elementary particle interactions,

CMB uniformity, 1220 Compound lenses, 892 1172,1175-76

CMOS, 647 pr, 878 Compound microscope, 890-91 of energy, 189-201,506-7,1026,1112,

CNO cycle, 1143,1161 pr Compound nucleus, 1136-37 1115,1117,1176

CO molecule, 1082 Compounds, 455 fn of lepton number, 1175-76,1187,1217

Coal, energy in, vs. uranium, 1140 Compression (longitudinal wave), 398,401 of mechanical energy, 189-95

Coating of lenses, optical, 913-14 Compressive stress, 321 of momentum, 217-29,1175-76

Coaxial cable, 740,789,825 Compton, A . H., 994,1017,1138 in nuclear and particle physics, 1117,

COBE, 1214 Compton effect, 994-95,996,1146 1175

Coefficient: Compton shift, 994 in nuclear processes, 1115

of kinetic friction, 113-14 derivation of, 995 of nucleon number, 1117,1175-76,1180

of linear expansion, 459-63 Compton wavelength, 994 of strangeness, 1181

of performance (COP), 537,538 Computed tomography (CT), 1153-54, Conservative field, 775

of restitution, 243 pr 1156 Conservative forces, 184-85

of static friction, 113-14 Computer: Conserved quantity, 163,190

of viscosity, 358 and digital information, 775 Constant acceleration, 28-29,62

of volume expansion, 460,461 disks, 775 Constant angular acceleration, 255

Coherence, 906 hard drive, 253,775 Constant, normalization, 1032

Coherent light, 906,1061,1064 keyboard, 631 Constants, values of: inside front cover

Cohesion, 360 memory, 644 pr Constant-volume gas thermometer, 458

Coil (see Inductor) monitor, 621,943 Constructive interference, 410-11,437,

Cold dark matter (CDM ) model of printers, 582-83 904 # 9 1 3 ,1 0 7 2

universe, 1224 Computer chips, 16 pr, 1071,1094,1098 Contact force, 84,92,95

Collector (of transistor), 1097 Computer-assisted tomography (CAT), Contact lens, 885

Collider D etector at Fermilab (CDF), 1153-54,1156 Continental drift, 351

1125 Computerized axial tomography (CAT), Continuity, equation of, 353

Colliding beams, 1169-71 1153-54,1156 Continuous laser, 1063

Collimated beam, 1152/h , 1153 Concave mirror, 842,846-48,889 Continuous spectrum, 935,988

Collimated gamma-ray detector, 1152 Concentration gradient, 489,516 fn Continuous wave, 397

Collision: Concordance model, 1216 Control rods, 1139

completely inelastic, 225 Concrete, prestressed and reinforced, Convection, 517

conservation of energy and momentum 323 Conventional current (defn), 655

in, 217-19,222-29 Condensation, 484 Conventions, sign (geometric optics),

elastic, 222-25 Condensed-matter physics, 1085-98 845-46,849,871

and impulse, 220-21 Condenser microphone, 699 pr Converging lens, 866 f f

inelastic, 222,225-27,238 Condition, boundary, 1030,1035 Conversion factors, 8, inside front cover

nuclear, 225,228-29 Conductance, 675 pr Converting units, 8-9

Colloids, 340 Conduction: Convex mirror, 842,848^-9

Colonoscope, 856 charging by, 562-63 Conveyor belt, 236-37,244 pr

Color: electrical, 561,651-97 Coordinate axes, 19

in digital camera, 878 of heat, 515-17,525 pr Copenhagen interpretation of quantum

of light related to frequency and in nervous system, 669-70 mechanics, 1024

wavelength, 852-4,903,906,912 Conduction band, 1091-92 Copier, electrostatic, 569,582-83

of quarks, 1184-85 Conduction current (defn), 816 Cord, tension in, 97

of star, 988,1199 Conduction electrons, 561 Core, of reactor, 1139

Color charge, 1184-85 Conductivity: Coriolis acceleration, 301-2

Color force, 1185-86,1187 electrical, 659,668 Coriolis force, 301

Color-corrected lens, 892 thermal, 515 Cornea, 883

Coma, 892 Conductors: Corona discharge, 612,645 pr

Common logarithms, A -2-A -3 charge of, 1094 Corrective lenses, 883-85

Commutative property, 53,167,290 electric, 561,577,654 f f Correspondence principle, 980,1009,

Commutator, 720 heat, 516 1018

Compact disc (C D) player, 1063 quantum theory of, 1091-92 Cosmic acceleration, 1223

Compact disc (or disk), 44 pr, 45 pr, 920 pr, Cones, 882 Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE),

935,1063 Configuration, electron, 1053-54 1214

A -50 Index

Cosmic microwave background radiation Dark energy, 1175,1219,1221-23 Detergents and surface tension, 360

(CMB), 1193,1213-15,1219,1220, Dark matter, 1189,1219,1221-23 Determinism, 152,1024-25

1224 Dating, geological, 1123-24 Deuterium, 1105,1132,1138,1142-45

anisotropy of, 1214,1220,1224 Dating, radioactive, 1122-24 Deuterium-tritium fusion (d -t), 1144-45

uniformity of, 1214,1220 Daughter nucleus (defn), 1111 Deuteron, 1132

Cosmic rays, 1165 Davisson, C. J., 998 D ew point, 486

Cosmological constant, 1223,1224 dB (unit), 428-31 Diagrams:

Cosmological model, 1216-19,1224 D c (defn), 664 Feynman, 1172,1185

Cosmological principle, 1212 D c circuits, 677-97 force, 95

perfect, 1213 D c generator, 767,768 free-body, 95-96,102

Cosmological redshift, 1211 D c motor, 720 H -R , 1199,1204

Cosmology, 1188,1193-1225 de Broglie, Louis, 997,1009,1017,1018 phase, 483

Coulomb, Charles, 563 de Broglie wavelength, 997-98,1009-10, phasor, 800,907,925,937

Coulomb (C) (unit), 564,737 1019,1025,1165-66 potential, energy, 1074-77

operational definition of, 737 applied to atoms, 1009-10 PT,483

Coulomb barrier, 1038,1113,1200 D ebye (unit), 617 PV, 482-83,487,507

Coulomb potential (defn), 613 D ebye equation, 527 pr, 558 pr ray, 844,849,871

Coulomb’s law, 563-67,593-94,600,817, Decay, 1110 for solving problems, 30,58,64,96,

1076 alpha, 1038,1111-14,1117 102,125,166,198,229,261,314,571,

vector form of, 567 beta, 1111,1114-16,1117,1121,1185,1202 849,871

Counter emf, 768-70 of elementary particles, 1175-86 Diamagnetism, 749-50

Counter torque, 769 exponential, 688-90,791,1118-19 Diamond, 855

Counters, 1124-25 gamma, 1111,1116-17 Dielectric constant, 638

Covalent bond, 1072-73,1074,1085,1086 proton, 1179,1187-88 Dielectric strength, 638

Creativity in science, 2-3 radioactive, 1110-26 Dielectrics, 6 3 8 ^ 0

Credit card swipe, 776 rate of, 1118-20 molecular description of, 640-42

Crick, F , 939 types of radioactive, 1111,1117 D iesel engine, 508,527 pr, 553 pr

Critical angle, 854 Decay constant, 1117-18 Differential cross section, 1136

Critical damping, 383 Decay series, 1121-22 Differential equation (defn), 372

Critical density, of universe, 1221-22 Deceleration, 26 Diffraction, 901,921-39,1062

Critical mass, 1138^11 Decibels (dB) (unit), 428-31 by circular opening, 929-30

Critical point, 483 Declination, magnetic, 709 as distinguished from interference,

Critical reaction, 1138-41 Decommissioning nuclear power plant, 929

Critical temperature, 483,668 1140 in double-slit experiment, 927-29

Cross product, vector, 289-91 D ecoupled photons, 1215,1219 of electrons, 998-9

Cross section, 1135-37 D ee, 1166-67 Fraunhofer, 922 fn

Crossed Polaroids, 941-42 D efects of the eye, 883-85,892 Fresnel, 922 fh

CRT, 620-21,723,831 Defibrillator, heart, 638,692 fn of light, 901,921-39

Crystal lattice, 456,1085 Definite integrals, 41, A-7 as limit to resolution, 929-33

Crystallography, 939 Degeneracy: by single slit, 922-27

CT scan, 1153-54,1156 electron, 1201 X-ray, 938-39

Curie, Marie, 1017,1110 neutron, 1202 o f water waves, 416

Curie, Pierre, 750,1110 Degradation of energy, 545-46 Diffraction factor, 928

Curie (Ci) (unit), 1147 Degrees of freedom, 512-13 Diffraction grating, 933-35

Curie temperature, 746,750 Dehumidifier, 558 pr resolving power of, 937-38

Curie’s law, 750 D el operator, 618 fn, A-12 Diffraction limit of lens resolution,

Curl, A-12 Delayed neutrons, 1139 929-30

Current, electric (see Electric current) D elta particle, 1181 Diffraction patterns, 922

Current, induced, 758-76,785 f f Demagnetization, 749 of circular opening, 929

Current density, 666-68 Demodulator, 831 of single slit, 922-27

Current gain, 1097 Dendrites, 669 X-ray, 938-39

Current sensitivity, 695 Density, 3 4 0 ^ 1 Diffraction spot or disk, 929-30

Curvature of field, 892 charge, 596 Diffuse reflection, 839

Curvature of space, 155-56,1207-9, and floating, 351 Diffusion, 489-90

1220-22 probability, 1019,1028,1031,1036, Fick’s law of, 489

Curvature of universe (space-time), 1045,1048-49,1051,1072 Diffusion constant, 489

1207-9,1220-21 Density of occupied states, 1088 Diffusion equation, 489

Curves, banking of, 126-27 Density of states, 1087-90 Diffusion time, 490

Cutoff wavelength, 1055-56 Density of universe, 1221-22 Digital ammeter, 695,697

Cycle (defn), 371 Depth of field, 880 Digital artifact, 878

Cyclotron, 731 pr, 1166-67 Derivatives, 22-23,27, A-6, inside back Digital camera, 878-82

Cyclotron frequency, 715,1167 cover Digital circuits, 1097

Cygnus X -l, 1209 partial, 189,406 Digital information, 775

Derived quantities, 7 Digital video disk (D V D ) players, 1063

Destructive interference, 410,437,904, Digital voltmeter, 695,697

DAC, 706 pr 913,914,1072 Digital zoom, 882

Damage, done by radiation, 1146-47 D etection of radiation, 1124-26,1149 Digital-to-analog converter (DAC),

Damping and damped harmonic motion, Detectors, of particles and radiation, 706 pr

382-85 1124-26 Dilation, time, 960-64,970

Index A-51

Dimensional analysis, 12-13,16 pr, 134 pr, Doppler, J. C., 439 fn Einstein cross, 1207

135 pr, 418 pr, 1015 pr, 1228 pr, A-8 Doppler effect: Einstein ring, 1207

Dimensions, 12-13 for light, 443,978-80,1210 EKG, 609,621

Diodes, 1038,1095-96,1125 for sound, 439-43 Elapsed time, 20-21

forward-biased, 1095 Doppler flow meter, 442,453 pr Elastic collisions, 222-25

junction, 1097 Dose, 1147-50 Elastic cross section, 1135

lasers, semiconductor, 1063 effective, 1148 Elastic limit, 319

light-emitting (LED), 1096 Dosimetry, 1147-50 Elastic moduli, 319

photo-, 992,1096 D ot (scalar) product, 167-68 and speed of sound waves, 400

reverse-biased, 1095 Double-slit experiment (electrons), 1018, Elastic potential energy, 188 f f

semiconductor, 1094-96 1019-20 Elastic region, 319

tunnel, 1038 Double-slit experiment (light), 903-6 Elastic scattering, 1135

zener, 1095 intensity in pattern, 906-9,927-29 Elasticity, 318-22

Diopter (D ) (unit), 868 Down quark, 1182 El Capitan, 77 pr, 363 pr

Dip, angle of, 709 Drag force, 129-30,356,368 pr Electric battery, 609,652-53,655,658,

D ipole antenna, 817-18 DRA M , 644 pr, 647 pr 678

D ipole layer, 669 Drift velocity, 666-68,723,724 Electric car, 675 pr

D ipole-dipole bonds, 1077 Dry cell, 653 Electric cell, 653,678

D ipole-induced dipole bonds, 1077 Dry ice, 483 Electric charge, 560 f f

D ipoles and dipole moments: d -t (deuterium-tritium) fusion, in atom, 561

of atoms, 1057-60 1144-45 bound and free, 641

electric, 576,579-80,617,641 Duality, wave-particle, 997-9,1009-10 conservation of, 560,1117,1175

magnetic, 718-19,745 Dulong and Petit value, 513 continuous charge distributions, 572-75

of nuclei, 1107 Dust, interstellar, 1196 and Coulomb’s law, 563-67

Dirac, P. A . M., 1017,1047,1087 fn, 1174 D VD player, 1063 of electron, 564

Dirac equation, 1174 Dwarfs, white, 1197,1199,1201-2 elementary, 564

Direct current (dc), 664 (see also Electric D ye lasers, 1063 free, 641

current) Dynamic lift, 356-57 induced, 562-63,641

Discharge, capacitor, 690-91 Dynamic random access memory motion of, in electric field, 578-79

Discharge, corona, 612,645 pr (D R A M ), 644 pr, 647 pr motion of, in magnetic field, 714-17

Discharge tube, 1002 Dynamics, 19,84 f f point (defn), 565

Discovery in science, 722 fluid, 352-61 quantization of, 564

Disintegration, 1110 hydro-, 352 test, 568

Disintegration energy (defn), 1112 of rotational motion, 258 f f types of, 560

Disorder and order, 544-45 of uniform circular motion, 122-25 Electric circuits, 654-5,662-5,677-97,

Dispersion, 409,853 Dynamo, 766-68 790-803

Displacement, 20-21,371,380,404 D yne (unit), 87 ac, 664-5,677 fn, 796-803

angular, 250,381 Dynodes, 1124 complete, 654

resultant, 52-53 containing capacitors, 633-35,687-92,

vector, 20,52-54,59-60 798 f f

in vibrational motion, 371 Ear: dc, 677-97

of wave, 404 ff, 1019 discomfort, altitude, 367 pr digital, 1097

Displacement current, 816 response of, 431 impedance matching of, 802-3

Dissipative forces, 196-98 Earth: induced, 758-76,785 f f

energy conservation with, 197-99 as concentric shells, 142-43, A -9-A -11 integrated, 1098

Dissociation energy, 1073 estimating radius of, 11,15 pr and Kirchhoff’s rules, 683-86

Distance: as inertial frame, 85,137 pr, 145-46 L C , 793-96

astronomical, 1194,1197,1199,1203-4 magnetic field and magnetic poles of, L R ; 790-92

image, 840,845,857,870-71 709 LRC, 795-803

object, 840,845,857,870-71 mass, radius, etc.: inside front cover open, 654

relativity of, 964-70 mass determination, 144 parallel, 633,663,680

Distortion, by lenses, 892 precession of axis, 303 pr RC, 687-92

Distribution, probability: rocks and earliest life, 1124 rectifier, 1096

in atoms, 1019,1028,1031,1036,1045, Earthquake waves, 401,402,403,416 resonant, 802

1048-49,1051 Eccentricity, 150 series, 634,679

in molecules, 1072 ECG, 609,621 time constants of, 688,791

Distributive property, 167,290 Echolocation, 400 Electric conductivity, 659,668

Diver, 286 Eddy currents (electric), 770 in nervous system, 669-70

Divergence, A-12 Eddy currents (fluids), 352 Electric current, 651,654-58,662-69,

Divergence theorem, A-12 Edison, Thomas, 620 683 f f

Diverging lens, 867 f f Effective cross section, 1135 alternating (ac), 664-65,677 fn,

D N A , 581-82,936,939,1077-80,1147, Effective dose, 1148 796-803

1152 Effective values, 664-65 conduction (defn), 816

Domains, magnetic, 746 Efficiency, 203,531,534 conventional, 655

Domes, 328 Carnot, 534 density, 666-68

D onor level, 1094 and Otto cycle, 536 direct (dc) (defn), 664

D oor opener, automatic, 992 Einstein, Albert, 155,455,513,952,954, displacement, 816

Doorbell, 747 957-58,961,969,989,1017,1141, eddy, 770

Doping of semiconductors, 1093 f f 1205-8,1223 hazards of, 692-94

A -52 Index

Electric current (continued) Electricity, 559-836 Electrostatics, 560-642

induced, 759 hazards of, 692-94 Electroweak force, 155,559 fn, 1186-88

leakage, 694 Electricity, static, 559 f f Electroweak theory, 1186-88

magnetic force on, 710-19 Electrocardiogram (ECG, EKG), 609,621 Elementary charge, 564

microscopic view of, 666-68 Electrochemical series, 652 Elementary particle physics, 1164-89

and Ohm’s law, 655-58 Electrode, 653 Elementary particles, 1164-89

peak, 664 Electrolyte, 653 Elements, 455 fn, 1053-54

produced by magnetic field, 759-60 Electromagnet, 747 in compound lenses, 892

produces magnetic field, 710-13,746 Electromagnetic energy, 1168 origin of in universe, 1201-2

rms, 664-65 Electromagnetic force, 155,717,1118, Periodic Table of, 1053-54, inside back

(see also Electric circuits) 1171-73,1178-79,1186-88,1205 cover

Electric dipole, 576,579-80,617,641 Electromagnetic induction, 758 f f production of, 1201-2

Electric energy, 607-9,619-20,636-38, Electromagnetic oscillations, 793-96, transmutation of, 1111,1132-35

660-62 802 transuranic, 1134

stored in capacitor, 636-38 Electromagnetic pumping, 726 pr Elevator and counterweight, 99

stored in electric field, 637-38 Electromagnetic spectrum, 823,852-54 Ellipse, 150

Electric energy resources, 550 Electromagnetic (EM) waves, 817-32 EM waves, 817-32 (see also Light)

Electric field, 568-83,591-600,610-12, (see also Light) Emf, 678-79,758-66,767,768

617-19,775 Electrometer, 563 back, 768-69

calculation of, 568-75,595-600,610-11, Electromotive force (emf), 678-79, counter, 768-69

617-19 758-67,768 (see also Emf) of generator, 766-69

and conductors, 577,655 fn Electron: Hall, 723-24

continuous charge distributions, as beta particle, 1111,1114 induced, 758-69,789

572-75 as cathode rays, 620,721 motional, 765-66

in dielectric, 63 9 ^ 0 charge on, 564,722-23 and photons, 1172

of and by dipole, 579-80 cloud, 1045,1051,1072-74 RC circuit with, 689

in EM wave, 817-18 conduction, 561 series and parallel, 686-87

energy stored in, 637-38 defined, 999 sources of, 678,758-68

and Gauss’s law, 591-600 discovery of, 721-23 Emission spectra, 987-88,1001-3,1005-8

inside a wire, 668 in double-slit experiment, 1019-20 atomic, 936,1002

motion of charged particle in, 578-79 as elementary particle, 1175-76 Emission tomography, 1156

produced by changing magnetic field, free, 561,1029,1086,1092 Emissivity, 518

759-60,773-75 mass of, 723,1107 Emitter (transistor), 1097

produces magnetic field, 813-16 measurement of charge on, 723 Emulsion, photographic, 1125

relation to electric potential, 610-12, measurement of e/m, 722-23 Endoergic reaction (defn), 1133

617-19 momentum of, 972 Endoscopes, 856

Electric field lines, 575-76,616 motion of, in electric field, 578-79 Endothermic reaction (defn), 1133

Electric flux, 592-93,814 in pair production, 996 Energy, 163,172-76,183-200,222-29,

Electric force, 559,563-67,717 path in magnetic field, 715 265-69,505-7,607 f f

Coulomb’s law for, 563-67 photoelectron, 992 activation, 481,1075,1077

and ionization, 1146 speed of, 666-68 and ATP, 1076-77

in molecular biology, 581-82,1077-80 spin, 746 binding, 985 pr, 1006,1073,1075,1077,

Electric generator, 766-68 wave nature, 1020 1108-9

Electric hazards, 692-94 wavelength of, 998 bond, 1072-73,1077

Electric motor, 720 Electron capture, 1116 conservation of, 189-201,506-7,1026,

counter emf in, 768-69 Electron cloud, 1045,1051,1072-74 1112,1115,1117,1176

Electric plug, 693-94 Electron configuration, 1053-54 dark, 1165,1175,1219,1222,1223

Electric potential, 607-18 Electron degeneracy, 1201 degradation of, 545-46

of dipole, 617 Electron diffraction, 998-99 disintegration, 1112

due to point charges, 612-15 Electron gun, 621 dissociation, 1073

equipotential surfaces, 616-17 Electron lepton number, 1176,1179,1183 electric, 607-9,619-20,636-38,660-63

relation to electric field, 610-12, Electron microscope, 987,1000,1021, in EM waves, 817,818,826-27,1168

617-19 1038-39,1043 pr equipartition of, 512-13

(see also Potential difference) Electron neutrino, 1178,1179 Fermi, 1087-89,1092

Electric potential energy, 607-10,619-20, Electron sharing, 1072 and first law of thermodynamics,

636-38 Electron spin, 746,1047,1058-60,1072 505-7

Electric power, 660-63 Electron volt (eV) (unit), 619-20,1107 geothermal, 550

in ac circuits, 665,790,792,797,798, Electrons, sea of, 1174 gravitational potential, 186-88,191,

801,802,803 Electronic circuits, 1095-98 194-95,199-201

generation, 766-68 Electronic devices, 1093-98 internal, 196,498-99

in household circuits, 662-63 Electronic pacemakers, 692,787 ionic cohesive, 1086

and impedance matching, 802-3 Electroscope, 562-63,652 fn ionization, 1006,1008

transmission of, 770-73 Electrostatic air cleaner, 645 pr kinetic, 172-73,265-69,974-6

Electric quadrupole, 589 pr Electrostatic copier, 569,582-83 and mass, 974-78

Electric shielding, 577,740 Electrostatic force, 563-67,581-82,1077 mechanical, 189-95

Electric shock, 692-94 defined, 565 molecular kinetic, 478-79

Electric stove burner, 660 potential energy for, 607-8 nuclear, 530 fn, 550,1131-59

Electric vehicle, 675 pr Electrostatic potential energy, 619-20 nucleotide, 1078

Electrical grounding, 562,655 Electrostatic unit (esu), 564 fn photon, 989-93

Index A -53

Energy ( continued ) second condition for, 313 Fahrenheit temperature scale, 457-58

potential, 186-89,607-10,619-20, stable, 204-5,317 Falling objects, 34-39

636-38 (see also Electric potential; static, 311-24 Fallout, radioactive, 1141

Potential energy) thermal, 459 False-color image, 1154

quantization of, 989,1003-9,1031 unstable, 205,317 Fan-beam scanner, 1153-54

reaction (defn), 1133 Equilibrium distance, 1077,1099 pr Far field, 818

relation to work, 172-76,186,197-99, Equilibrium position (vibrational Far point of eye, 883

265-67,978 motion), 370 Farad (F) (unit of capacitance), 629

relativistic, 974-8 Equilibrium state, 463 Faraday, Michael, 154,568,758-60

rest, 974-76,1023 Equipartition of energy, 512-13 Faraday cage, 577

rotational, 265-67 and ff, 499,1080-82, Equipotential lines, 616-17 Faraday’s law of induction, 760-61,

1084-85 Equipotential surface, 616-17 773-74,817

in simple harmonic motion, 377-78 Equivalence, principle of, 155-56,1205-6 Farsightedness, 883,884

solar, 550 Erg (unit), 164 Femtometer (fm) (unit), 1106

thermal, 196,498 Escape velocity, 201,1222 Fermat’s principle, 864 pr

threshold, 1134,1163 pr Escher drawing, 206 pr Fermi, Enrico, 12,997,1018,1053,1087 fn,

total binding, 985 pr Estimated uncertainty, 3 1115,1134,1138,1180-81

transformation of, 196,201 Estimating, 9-12 Fermi (fm) (unit), 1106

translational kinetic, 172-74 Eta (particle), 1179 Fermi-Dirac probability function, 1088,

unavailability of, 545-46 Ether, 954-57 1092

and uncertainty principle, 1022-23,1036 Euclidean space, 1207-8 Fermi-Dirac statistics, 1087-90

units of, 164,173,256 European Center for Nuclear Research Fermi energy, 1087-90,1092

vacuum, 1223 (CERN), 1168,1169,1186 Fermi factor, 1088

vibrational, 377-78,499,1082-85 Evaporation, 484 Fermi gas, 1087

zero-point, 1031,1036-37,1042 pr, 1083 and latent heat, 505 Fermi level, 1087-90

Energy bands, 1090-92 Event, 958 f f Fermi speed, 1089

Energy conservation, law of, 189-201, Event horizon, 1209 Fermi temperature, 1102 pr

506-7,1026,1112,1115,1117,1176 Everest, Mt., 6 ,8,144,161 pr, 364 pr, 485 Fermilab, 1164,1168,1169

Energy density: Evolution: Fermions, 1053, 1087,1184

in electric field, 638,639 and entropy, 545 Ferromagnetism and ferromagnetic

in magnetic field, 790,826 stellar, 1200-3 materials, 708,746-49

Energy gap, 1091-92 Exact differential, 506 fh Feynman, R., 1172

Energy levels: Exchange particles (carriers of force), Feynman diagram, 1172,1185

in atoms, 1003-9,1046-48 1171-73 Fiber optics, 855-56

for fluorescence, 1060 Excited state: Fick’s law of diffusion, 489

for lasers, 1061-64 of atom, 996,1005 f f Fictitious (inertial) forces, 300-1

in molecules, 1080-85 of nucleon, 1181 Field, 154

nuclear, 1116-17 of nucleus, 1116-17 conservative and nonconservative, 775

in solids, 1090-91 Exclusion principle, 1052-53,1072,1087, electric, 568-83,591-600,610-12,

in square well, 1031 1089,1184,1201,1202 617-19,775 (see also Electric field)

Energy states, in atoms, 1003-9 Exoergic reaction (defn), 1133 in elementary particles, 1171

Energy transfer, heat as, 497 Exothermic reaction (defn), 1133 gravitational, 154,156,576,1205-9

Engine: Expansion: Higgs, 1186

diesel, 508,527 pr, 553 pr free, 510-11,542,548 magnetic, 707-17,733-50 (see also

internal combustion, 530-32,535-36 linear and volume, 318-21 Magnetic field)

power, 202-3 thermal, 459-62 vector, 575

steam, 530 of universe, 1209-13,1221-23 Film badge, 1125

Enriched uranium, 1138 Expansions, mathematical, A-1 Film speed, 879 fn

Entire universe, 1216 Expansions, in waves, 398 Filter circuit, 799,810 pr, 811 pr

Entropy, 539-48 Exponential curves, 688-90,791,1118-19 Fine structure, 1017,1044,1047,1060

and biological evolution, 545 Exponential decay, 688-90,791,1118-19 Fine structure constant, 1060

as order to disorder, 544-45 Exponents, A-1, inside back cover Finite potential well, 1035-36

and second law of thermodynamics, Exposure time, 879 First law of motion, 84-85

541—48 Extension cord, 663 First law of thermodynamics, 505-7

as a state variable, 540 External force, 218,234 applications, 507-11

statistical interpretation, 546-48 Extragalactic (defn), 1196 extended, 507

and tim e’s arrow, 544 Extraterrestrials, possible communication Fission, 550

Enzymes, 1077 with, 834 pr nuclear, 1136-41

Equally tempered chromatic scale, 431 Eye: Fission bomb, 1141

Equation of continuity, 353 aberrations of, 892 Fission fragments, 1136—40

Equation of motion, 372 accommodation, 883 Fitzgerald, G. F., 957

Equation of state, 463 defects of, 883-85,892 Flasher unit, 691

Clausius, 487 far and near points of, 883 Flashlight, 659

ideal gas, 466 lens of, 883 Flatness, 1220

van der Waals, 486-87 normal (defn), 883 Flavor (of elementary particles), 1177,

Equilibrium (defn), 204-5,311,312-13,317 resolution of, 930,932-33 1184

first condition for, 312 structure and function of, 882-85 Flavor oscillation, 1177

force in, 312-13 Eyeglass lenses, 883-85 Flip coil, 783 pr

neutral, 205,317 Eyepiece, 888 Floating, 351

A -54 Index

Flow: in N ewton’s laws, 83-102,215,218, of vibration, 371,382,412

of fluids, 352-61 234-35 of wave, 397

laminar, 352 nonconservative, 185 Frequency modulation (FM), 830,

meter, Doppler, 442,453 pr normal, 92-94 831 fn

streamline, 352 nuclear, 155,212 pr, 1110,1115, Fresnel,A .,922

in tubes, 353-55,357,358-59 1171-89,1205 Fresnel diffraction, 922 fn

turbulent, 352,357 pseudoforce, 300-1 Friction, 85,113—19

Flow rate, 353 relation of momentum to, 215-16,218, coefficients of, 113-14

Fluid dynamics, 352-61 220-21,235,236,972,974 force of, 85-87,113-19

Fluids, 339-61 (see also Flow of fluids; repulsive, 1074-75,1171 helping us to walk, 90

Gases; Liquids; Pressure) resistive, 129-30 kinetic, 113 f f

Fluorescence, 1060 restoring, 170,370 rolling, 113,273-74

Fluorescent lightbulb, 1060 short-range, 1110,1205 static, 114,270

ballast, 773 strong nuclear, 155,1110, 1134 fh, Fringe shift, 956

Flux: 1171-89,1205 Fringes, interference, 904-6,956,1065

electric, 592-93,814 types of, in nature, 155,559 fn, 1173, Frisch, Otto, 1136

magnetic, 760 ff, 773-75,816,820 1188 /-stop (defn), 879

Flying buttresses, 327 units of, 87 Fulcrum, 313

Flywheel, 266,281 pr van der Waals, 1077-80,1086 Full-scale current sensitivity, 695

FM radio, 830-31,831 fn velocity-dependent, 129-30 Full-wave rectifier, 1096,1099 pr

/-number, 879 viscous, 358-59 Fundamental constants: inside front cover

Focal length: weak nuclear, 155,1110,1115,1173-89, Fundamental frequency, 413,432,433-35

of lens, 867-68,875,876-77,882,883 1205 Fundamental particles, 1178-79,1183,1186

of spherical mirror, 8 4 2 ^ 3 ,8 4 8 (see also Electric force; Magnetic force) Fuse, 662-63

Focal plane, 867 Force diagrams, 95 Fusion, nuclear, 1141-46

Focal point, 842-43,848,867-68,883 Force pumps, 348,361 in stars, 1142-44,1200-1

Focus, 843 Forced oscillations, 385-87 Fusion bomb, 1144

Focusing, of camera, 879-80 Forward biased diode, 1095 Fusion reactor, 1144^16

Football kicks, 66,69 Fossil-fuel power plants, 550

Foot-candle (defn), 915 fn Foucault, J., 902

Foot-pounds (unit), 164 Four-dimensional space-time, 967,1207 g-factor, 1058

Forbidden energy gap, 1091 Fourier analysis, 436 Galaxies, 1194-97,1209-12,1219,1220,

Forbidden transitions, 1049,1061 fn, Fourier integral, 408 1222-24

1083 fn, 1084 Fourier’s theorem, 408 black hole at center of, 160 pr, 161 pr,

Force, 83-102,155,184-85,215,234-35, Fovea, 882 1197,1209

1173,1188 Fracture, 322-23 clusters of, 1196,1220,1224

addition of, 95,143 Frame of reference, 19,85,300-2,952 f f mass of, 1195

attractive, 1074—75,1171 accelerating, 85,88,155-56,300-2 origin of, 1220,1224

buoyant, 348-49 inertial, 8 5 ,8 8 ,3 0 0 , 952 f f redshift of, 1210-11

centrifugal (pseudo), 123,300 noninertial, 85,88,156,300-2,952 superclusters of, 1196-97

centripetal, 122-24 rotating, 300-2 Galilean telescope, 887,887 fn, 889

color, 1185-86,1187 transformations between, 968-71 Galilean transformation, 968-69

conservative, 184-85 Franklin, Benjamin, 560,600 Galilean-Newtonian relativity, 952-54,

contact, 84,92,95 Franklin, Rosalind, 939 968-69

Coriolis, 301 Fraunhofer diffraction, 922 fn Galileo, 2 ,1 8 ,3 4 ,5 1 ,6 2 ,8 4 -8 5 ,3 46,348,

definition of, 87 Free-body diagrams, 95-96,102 380,457,825,839,887,887 fn, 952,

diagram, 95 Free charge, 641 968,1194

dissipative, 196-98 Free-electron theory of metals, 1086-90 Galvani, Luigi, 652

drag, 129-30,356,368 pr Free electrons, 561,1029,1086,1092 Galvanometer, 695-96,721,783 pr

electromagnetic, 155,717,1118, Free expansion, 510-11,542,548 Gamma camera, 1152

1171-73,1178-79,1186-88,1205 Free fall, 34-39,148 Gamma decay, 1111,1116-17

electrostatic, 563-67,581-82,1077 Free particle, and Schrodinger equation, Gamma particle, 1111,1116-17,1146,

electroweak, 155,559 fn, 1188 1025-29 1171

in equilibrium, 312-13 Freezing (see Phase, changes of) Gamma ray, 1111,1116-17,1146,1171

exerted by inanimate object, 90 Freezing point, 457 fn, 503 Gamow, George, 951,1214

external, 218,234 Frequency, 121,253,371,397 Gas constant, 466

fictitious, 300-1 angular, 373 Gas laws, 463-65

of friction, 85-87,113-19 of audible sound, 425,431 Gas lasers, 1063

of gravity, 84,92-94,140-156,1173, beat, 438-39 Gas vs. vapor, 483

1188,1189,1193,1202,1205-9,1221, of circular motion, 121 Gas-discharge tube, 1002

1223 collision, 494 pr Gases, 340,463-90

impulsive, 221 cyclotron, 1167 adiabatic expansion of, 514-15

inertial, 300-1 fundamental, 413,432,433-35 Fermi, 1087

long-range, 1110,1205 infrasonic, 426 ideal, 465-70,476 f f

magnetic, 707,710-19 of light, 823,853,854 kinetic theory of, 476-90

measurement of, 84 natural, 374,385,412 molar specific heats for, 511-12

in muscles and joints, 278 pr, 315,330 pr, resonant, 385,412-13 real, 482-87

331 pr, 332 pr, 336 pr, 337 pr of rotation, 253 Gate, 1097

net, 85-88,95 f f ultrasonic, 426,445 Gauge bosons, 1165,1178-79,1183-85

Index A -55

Gauge pressure, 345 Gravitational lensing, 1206-7 Heart, 361

Gauge theory, 1186 Gravitational mass, 155-56,1205-6 defibrillator, 638,648 pr, 692

Gauges, pressure, 347 Gravitational potential, 609,617 pacemaker, 692,787

Gauss, K. F., 591 Gravitational potential energy, 186-88, Heartbeats, number of, 12

Gauss (G) (unit), 712 199-201 Heat, 196,496-528

Gauss’s law, 591-600 and escape velocity, 201 calorimetry, 500-5

for magnetism, 816,817 Gravitational redshift, 1211 compared to work, 505

Gauss’s theorem, A-12 Gravitational slingshot effect, 246 pr conduction, 515-17

Gay-Lussac, Joseph, 464 Gravitino, 1189 convection, 517

Gay-Lussac’s law, 464,468,469 Graviton, 1173,1189 distinguished from internal energy and

Geiger counter, 627 pr, 1124 Gravity, 3 4 -3 9 ,9 2 ,1 3 9 # 1173,1188, temperature, 498

Gell-Mann, M., 1182 1193.1202.1223 as energy transfer, 497

General motion, 230,267-74,292-93 acceleration of, 34-39,87 fn, 92, in first law of thermodynamics, 505-7

General theory of relativity, 155-56,1193, 143-45 of fusion, 502

1205-7 center of, 232 latent, 502-5

Generator: and curvature of space, 1205-9 mechanical equivalent of, 497

ac, 766-67 effect on light, 1206-7,1209 radiation, 517-20

dc, 767,768 force of, 84,92-94,140-56,1173, of vaporization, 502

electric, 766-68 1188,1189,1193,1202,1205-9, Heat capacity, 522 pr (see also Specific heat)

emf of, 766-69 1221.1223 Heat conduction to skin, 525 pr

Van de Graaff, 607 ,621 pr free fall under, 34-39,148 Heat death, 546

Genetic code, 1079 specific, 341 Heat engine, 529,530-32,1139

Geodesic, 1207 Gravity anomalies, 144 Carnot, 533-35

Geological dating, 1123-24 Gravity waves, 1224 efficiency of, 531-32

Geometric optics, 838-91 Gray (Gy) (unit), 1148 internal combustion, 530-31,532

Geometry, A-2 Greek alphabet: inside front cover operating temperatures, 530

Geosynchronous satellite, 147 Grimaldi, F., 901,906 steam, 530-31

Geothermal energy, 550 Ground fault, 776 temperature difference, 531

Germanium, 1093 Ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI), Heat of fusion, 502

Germer, L. H., 998 694,776 Heat of vaporization, 502

GFCI, 694,776 Ground state, of atom, 1005 Heat pump, 536,538-39

Giants, red, 1197,1199,1201 Ground wire, 693,694 Heat reservoir, 508

Glaser, D. A ., 1125 Grounding, electrical, 562,655 Heat transfer, 515-20

Glashow, S., 1186 Groves, Leslie, 1141 conduction, 515-17

Glasses, eye, 883-85 GSM, 832 convection, 517

Global positioning satellite (GPS), 16 pr, GUT, 155,1187-88 radiation, 517-20

160 pr, 964 Guth, A ., 1219 Heating element, 665

Global System for Mobile Gyration, radius of, 279 pr Heavy elements, 1201-2

Communication (GSM), 832 Gyromagnetic ratio, 1058 Heavy water, 1138

Global warming, 551 Gyroscope, 299-300 Heisenberg, W., 987,1017,1018

Glueballs, 1185 /h Heisenberg uncertainty principle,

Gluino, 1189 1020-23,1036,1072

Gluons, 1165,1173,1178,1179,1183, /j-bar (h), 1022,1048 and particle resonance, 1181

1184-86 Hadron era, 1217-18 and tunneling, 1113

Golf putt, 48 pr Hadrons, 1179,1182-85,1217 Helicopter drop, 51,70

GPS, 16 pr, 160 pr, 964 Hahn, Otto, 1136 Helium, 1052,1108,1111,1133,1142

Gradient: Hair dryer, 665 la n d 11,483

concentration, 489,516 fn Hale telescope, 889 balloons, 467

of electric potential, 618 Half-life, 1119-21 primordial production of, 1218,1219 fn

pressure, 359,516 fn Half-wave rectification, 1096 and stellar evolution, 1200-1

temperature, 516 Hall, E. H., 723 H elium -neon laser, 1062

velocity, 358 Hall effect, Hall emf, Hall field, Hall Helmholtz coils, 756 pr

Gradient operator (del), 618 fn probe, 723-24,1094 Henry, Joseph, 758

Gram (g) (unit), 7,87 Hall voltage, 1094 Henry (H) (unit), 786

Grand unified era, 1217 H ailey’s comet, 160 pr Hertz, Heinrich, 823

Grand unified theories (G UT), 155, Halogens, 1054 Hertz (Hz) (unit of frequency), 253,371

1187-88 Hard drive, 253 Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, 1199,

Graphical analysis, 40-43 Harmonic motion: 1204

Grating, 933-38 damped, 382-85 Higgs boson, 1186

Gravitation, universal law of, 139-43, forced, 386 Higgs field, 1186

199-201,564,1205 simple, 372-79 High-energy accelerators, 1165-71

Gravitational collapse, 1209 Harmonic oscillator, 372-79,1036, High-energy physics, 1165-89

Gravitational constant (G ), 141 1042 High-pass filter, 799,811 pr

Gravitational field, 154,156,576,1205-9 Harmonic wave, 405 Highway curves, banked and unbanked,

Gravitational force, 84,92-94,140-43 Harmonics, 413,432-35 126-27

and ff, 155,1118,1173,1188,1193, Hazards, electric, 692-94 Hiroshima, 1141

1202,1205-9,1223 Headlights, 609,661,677 H oles (in semiconductors), 1091-94,1097

due to spherical mass distribution, Hearing, 424-44 (see Sound) Hologram and holography, 1064-65

142-43, A -9-A -11 threshold of, 431 Hom ogeneous (universe), 1212

A -56 Index

H ooke, Robert, 318,910 fn as tiny diffraction pattern, 929-30 Instantaneous velocity, 22-24,60

H ooke’s law, 170,188,318,370 ultrasound, 445-46 Instantaneous velocity vector, 60

Horizon, 1216 virtual, 840,870 Insulators:

event, 1209 Image artifact, 878 electrical, 561,658,1091-92

Horizontal (defn), 92 fn Image distance, 840,845,857,870-71 thermal, 516,1091-92

Horizontal range (defn), 68 Imaging, medical, 445-46,1107,1152-59 Integrals, 3 9 ^ 3 ,1 6 9 -7 0 , A-6, A-7, A-12,

Horsepower, 202-3 Imbalance, rotational, 296-97 A-13, inside back cover

H ot air balloons, 454 Impedance, 798,800-3 definite, A-7

H ot wire, 693,694 Impedance matching, 802-3 Fourier, 408

Household circuits, 662-63 Impulse, 220-21 indefinite, A-6, A-7

H -R diagram, 1199,1204 Impulsive forces, 221 line, 169

HST (see Hubble Space Telescope) Inanimate object, force exerted by, 90 surface, A-13

Hubble, Edwin, 979,1196,1210 Inch (in.) (unit), 6 volume, A-12

Hubble age, 1213 Incidence, angle of, 410,415,838,850 Integrated circuits, 1098

Hubble parameter, 1210,1213 Incident waves, 410,4151 Integration by parts, 1034,1050, A-6, A-7

Hubble Space Telescope (HST), 930,1207, Inclines, motion on, 101 Intensity, 402-3,427 f f

1211 Incoherent source of light, 906 in interference and diffraction

Hubble Ultra D eep Field, 1211 Indefinite integrals, A -6-A -7 patterns, 906-9,924-28

Hubble’s constant, 1210 Indeterminacy principle, 1021 (see of light, 915,1019

Hubble’s law, 1210,1213,1223 Uncertainty principle) of Poynting vector, 827

Humidity, 485-86 Index of refraction, 850 of sound, 427-31

Huygens, G , 901 dependence on wavelength Interference, 410-11,437-8,903-14

Huygens’ principle, 901-3 (dispersion), 853 constructive, 410-11,437,904,913,914,

Hydraulic brake, 346 in Snell’s law, 851 1072

Hydraulic lift, 346 Induced current, 758-76,785 f f destructive, 410,437,904,913,914,1072

Hydraulic press, 364 pr Induced electric charge, 562-63,641 as distinguished from diffraction, 929

Hydrodynamics, 352 Induced emf, 758-66,789 of electrons, 1019-20,1072

Hydroelectric power, 550 counter, 768-69 of light waves, 903-14,928-29

Hydrogen atom: in electric generator, 766-68 of sound waves, 437-39

Bohr theory of, 1003-9 in transformer, 770-73 by thin films, 909-14

magnetic moment of, 719 Inductance, 786-89 of water waves, 411

populations in, 1070 pr in ac circuits, 790-803 wave-phenomenon, 903

quantum mechanics of, 1045-51 of coaxial cable, 789 of waves on a string, 410

spectrum of, 936,1002-3 mutual, 786-87 Interference factor, 928

Hydrogen bomb, 1141,1144 self-,788-89 Interference fringes, 904-6,956,1065

Hydrogen bond, 581,1077,1079 Induction: Interference pattern:

Hydrogen isotopes, 1105 charging by, 562-63 double-slit, 903-9,1019-20

Hydrogen molecule, 1072-75,1080,1083 electromagnetic, 758 f f including diffraction, 927-29

Hydrogen-like atoms, 1004 fn, 1008,1010 Faraday’s law of, 760-61,773-74,817 multiple slit, 933-36

Hydrometer, 351 Induction stove, 762 Interferometers, 914,954-57

Hyperopia, 883 Inductive battery charger, 780 pr Intermodulation distortion, 408 fn

Hysteresis, 748-49 Inductive reactance, 797 Internal combustion engine, 530-31,532

hysteresis loop, 748 Inductor, 788,1098 Internal conversion, 1117

in circuits, 790-803 Internal energy, 196,498-99

energy stored in, 790 distinguished from heat and

Ice skater, 284,286,309 pr reactance of, 797 temperature, 498

Ideal gas, 46 5 -7 0 ,4 7 6 .# 1089 Inelastic collisions, 222,225-29 of an ideal gas, 498-99

kinetic theory of, 476-90,1089 Inelastic scattering, 1135 Internal reflection, total, 421 pr, 854-56

Ideal gas law, 465-66,482 Inertia, 85 Internal resistance, 678-79

internal energy of, 498-99 moment of, 258-60 International Linear Collider (ILC),

in terms of molecules, 468-69 Inertial confinement, 1145,1146 1170

Ideal gas temperature scale, 469-70,534 Inertial forces, 300-1 International Thermonuclear

Identical (electrons), 1053 Inertial mass, 155,1205-6 Experimental Reactor (ITER), 1131,

Ignition: Inertial reference frame, 85,88,137 pr, 1146

automobile, 609,772 300,952 f f Interpolation, A-3

fusion, 1145 Earth as, 85,137 pr, 145-46 Interstellar dust, 1196

ILC, 1170 equivalence of all, 952-53,957 Intrinsic luminosity, 1197,1204

Illuminance, 915 transformations between, 968-71 Intrinsic semiconductor, 1091,1093

Image: Infinitely deep square well potential, Invariant quantity, 977

CAT scan, 1153-54,1156 1030-34 Inverse square law, 140/f, 403,429,563-4

false-color, 1154 Inflationary scenario, 1217,1219-21 Inverted population, 1062-63

formed by lens, 867 f f Infrared (IR) radiation, 823-24,852,936 Ion (defn), 561

formed by plane mirror, 838-41 Infrasonic waves, 426 Ionic bonds, 1073,1075,1085,1086

formed by spherical mirror, 842-49,889 Initial conditions, 373 Ionic cohesive energy, 1086

MRI, 1107,1158-59 Inkjet printer, 583 Ionization energy, 1006,1008

NMR, 1107,1156-59 In-phase waves, 411,904,910-14,933 Ionizing radiation (defn), 1146

PET and SPECT, 1156 Instantaneous acceleration, 27-28,60-61 IR radiation, 823-24,852,936

real, 840,844,869 Instantaneous acceleration vector, 60 Irreversible process, 533

seeing, 847,848,869 Instantaneous axis, 268 Iris, 882

Index A -57

ISO number, 879 fn molecular, relation to temperature, combination of, 874-75

Isobaric processes, 508 478-79,498-99,512-13 compound, 892

Isochoric processes, 508 of photon, 993 contact, 885

Isolated system, 218,500 relativistic, 974-78 converging, 866 f f

Isomer, 1117 rotational, 265-69 corrective, 883-85

Isotherm, 507 translational, 172-73 cylindrical, 884

Isothermal processes, 507-8 Kinetic friction, 113 f f diverging, 8 6 7 //

Isotopes, 725,1105-6,1110-11 coefficient of, 113 of eye, 883

mean life of, 1119 fn, 1129 pr Kinetic theory, 455,476-90 eyeglass, 883-85

in medicine, 1151-52 basic postulates, 477 eyepiece, 888

table of, A -14-A -17 boiling, 485 focal length of, 867,868,875,877

Isotropic (universe), 1212 diffusion, 489-90 magnetic, 1000

Isovolumetric (isochoric) process, 508 evaporation, 484 magnification of, 871

ITER, 1131,1146 ideal gas, 476-82 negative, 871

Iterative technique, 1155 kinetic energy near absolute zero, 480 normal, 882

of latent heat, 505 objective, 888,889,890

mean free path, 487-88 ocular, 890

J (total angular momentum), 1059 molecular speeds, distribution of, positive, 871

J/iff particle, 1023,1183 480-82 power of (diopters), 868

Jars and lids, 461,465 of real gases, 482-84 resolution of, 881,929-32

Jeans, J., 988 van der Waals equation of state, spherical, 858

Jets (particle), 1164 486-87 telephoto, 882

Jeweler’s loupe, 887 Kirchhoff, G. R., 683 thin (defn), 867

Joints, 324 Kirchhoff’s rules, 683-86,816 fn wide-angle, 882,892

method of, 325 junction rule, 684 f f zoom, 882

Joule, James Prescott, 497 loop rule, 684 f f Lens aberrations, 891-92,929,931

Joule (j) (unit), 164,173,256,619,620,661 Lens elements, 892

relation to calorie, 497 Lensmaker’s equation, 876-77

Joyce, James, 1182 fn Ladder, forces on, 317,338 pr Lenz’s law, 761-64

Jump start, 687 Lagrange, Joseph-Louis, 153 Lepton era, 1216,1218

Junction diode, 1097 Lagrange Point, 153 Lepton number, 1175-77,1179-80,1182,

Junction rule, Kirchhoff’s, 684 f f Lambda (particle), 1179,1181 1187

Junction transistor, 1097 Laminar flow, 352 Leptons, 1165,1171,1175-76,1178,1179,

Jupiter, moons of, 150,151,158 pr, Land, Edwin, 940 1182-83,1185-87,1189,1217

159-60,825,887 Lanthanides, 1054 Level:

Large Hadron Collider (LHC), 1168-70, acceptor, 1094

1189 donor, 1094

K-capture, 1116 Laser printer, 583 energy (see Energy levels)

K lines, 1056 Lasers, 1061-64 Fermi, 1087-90

K particle (kaon), 1179,1181 chemical, 1063 loudness, 431

Kant, Immanuel, 1196 gas, 1063 sound, 428-30

Kaon, 1179,1181 helium -neon, 1062 Level range formula, 68-69

Karate blow, 221 surgery, 1064 Lever, 177 pr, 313

Keck telescope, 889 Latent heats, 502-5 Lever arm, 256

Kelvin (K) (unit), 464 Lateral magnification, 845-46,871 LHC, 1168-70,1189

Kelvin temperature scale, 464,548-49 Lattice structure, 456,1085,1093,1097 Lids and jars, 461,465

Kelvin-Planck statement of the second Laue, Max von, 939 Lifetime, 1179 (see also Mean life)

law of thermodynamics, 532,535 Law (defn), 3 (see proper name) Lift, dynamic, 356-57

Kepler, Johannes, 149-50,887 fn Lawrence, E. O., 1166 Light, 823,825-6,837-946

Keplerian telescope, 887 fn, 888 Lawson, J. D., 1145 coherent sources of, 906

Kepler’s laws, 149-53,298 Lawson criterion, 1145 color of, and wavelength, 852-54,903,

Keyboard, computer, 631 L C circuit, 793-96 906,912

Kilo- (prefix), 7 LC oscillation, 793-96 dispersion of, 853

Kilocalorie (kcal) (unit), 497 LCD, 831,878^1,943-44 Doppler shift for, 443,978-80,1210

Kilogram (kg) (unit), 6,86,87 Leakage current, 694 as electromagnetic wave, 823-26

Kilometer (km) (unit), 7 LED, 1096 frequencies of, 823,853,854

Kilowatt-hour (kWh) (unit), 661 Length: gravitational deflection of, 1206-7,

Kinematics, 18^ 3 ,5 1 -7 4 ,2 4 8 -5 5 focal, 842-43,848,867-68,875,876-77, 1209

for rotational motion, 248-55 882,883 incoherent sources of, 906

translational motion, 18-43,51-74 Planck, 13,1216 infrared (IR), 823,824,852,936,948 pr

for uniform circular motion, 119-22 proper, 965 intensity of, 915,1019

vector kinematics, 59-74 relativity of, 964-70 monochromatic (defn), 903

Kinetic energy, 1 7 2 -7 5 ,1 8 9 # 265-69, standard of, 6,914 as particles, 902,989-97

974-76 Length contraction, 964-67,970 photon (particle) theory of, 989-97

of CM, 268-69 Lens, 866-92 polarized, 940-43,949 pr

in collisions, 222-23,225-26 achromatic, 892 ray model of, 838 ff, 867 f f

and electric potential energy, 608 axis of, 867 scattering, 945

of gas atoms and molecules, 478-79, coating of, 913-14 from sky, 945

498-99,512-13 color-corrected, 892 spectrometer, 935-36

A -58 Index

Light (icontinued) L R circuit, 790-92 Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),

speed of, 6,822,825-26,850,902,953, L R C circuit, 795-96,799-801 1107,1158-59

957,975 Lumen (lm) (unit), 915 Magnetic susceptibility (defn), 749

total internal reflection of, 1038 Luminosity (stars and galaxies), 1197, Magnetic tape and disks, 775

ultraviolet (U V ), 823,824,852 1204 Magnetism, 707-90

unpolarized (defn), 940 Luminous flux, 915 Magnetization vector, 750

velocity of, 6,822,825-26,850,902,953, Luminous intensity, 915 Magnification:

951,915 Lyman series, 1002-3,1006,1007,1054 angular, 886

visible, 823,852-54 lateral, 8 45^ 6,871

wave, tunneling of, 1038 of lens, 871

wave theory of, 900-45 Mach, E., 443 fn of lens combination, 874-75

wavelengths of, 823,852-54,903,906, Mach number, 443 of magnifying glass, 885-87

912 Macroscopic description o f a system, 454, of microscope, 890-91,932,933,1000

wave-particle duality of, 997 456 of mirror, 845

white, 852-53 Macroscopic properties, 454,456 sign conventions for, 845-46,849,871

(see also Diffraction; Intensity; Macrostate of system, 546-47 of telescope, 888,931

Interference; Reflection; Refraction) Madelung constant, 1085-86 useful, 932-33,1000

Light meter (photographic), 992 Magellanic clouds, 1196 fn Magnifier, simple, 866,885-87

Light pipe, 855 Magnet, 707-9,746-47 Magnifying glass, 866,885-87

Light rays, 838 # 8 6 7 # domains of, 746 Magnifying mirror, 848

Lightbulb, 651,653,656,657,660,704 pr, electro-, 747 Magnifying power, 886 (see also

773,915,991 permanent, 746 Magnification)

fluorescent, 1060 superconducting, 747 total, 888

Light-emitting diode (LED), 1096 Magnetic bottle, 1145 Magnitude, apparent, o f star, 1228 pr

Light-gathering power, 889 Magnetic circuit breakers, 747 Magnitude of vector, 52

Lightning, 425,662 Magnetic confinement, 1145 Main sequence (stars), 1199-1201

Lightning rod, 612 Magnetic damping, 778 pr Majorana, Ettore, 1177 fn

Light-year (ly) (unit), 15 pr, 1194 Magnetic declination, 709 Majorana particles, 1177

Linac, 1169 Magnetic deflection coils, 621 Manhattan Project, 1141

Line integral, 169 Magnetic dipoles and magnetic dipole Manometer, 346

Line spectrum, 935-36,1002 # 1017 moments, 718-19,745,1057-59 Marconi, Guglielmo, 829

Line voltage, 665 Magnetic domains, 746 Mars, 150,151

Linear accelerator, 1169 Magnetic field, 707-17,733-50 Mass, 6,86-88,155

Linear expansion (thermal), 459-61 of circular loop, 744-45 atomic, 455,1024-27

coefficient of, 459-60 definition of, 708 center of, 230-33

Linear momentum, 214-35 determination of, 712-13,738-45 critical, 1138-41

Linear waves, 402 direction of, 708,710,716 of electron, 723,1107

Linearly polarized light, 940 # of Earth, 709 of Galaxy, 1195

Lines of force, 575-76,708 energy stored in, 790 gravitational vs. inertial, 155,1205-6

Liquefaction, 463-66,476,482 hysteresis, 748-49 and luminosity, 1198

Liquid crystal, 340,48 3 ,9 4 3 ^ 4 induces emf, 759-73 molecular, 455,465

Liquid crystal display (LCD), SIS fit, motion of charged particle in, 714-17 of neutrinos, 1177-78

943-44 produced by changing electric field, nuclear, 1106-7

Liquid scintillators, 1125 813-16 of photon, 993

Liquid-drop model, 625 pr, 1136-37 produced by electric current, 710, precise definition of, 88

Liquid-in-glass thermometer, 457 7 4 1-42, 143-46 (see also Am pere’s reduced, 1081

Liquids, 340 # 455-56 (see also Phase, law) in relativity theory, 974

changes of) produces electric field and current, rest, 974

Lloyd’s mirror, 919 pr 773-75 standard of, 6-7

Logarithms, A -2-A -3, inside back cover of solenoid, 741-42 table of, 7

Log table, A-3 sources of, 733-51 units of, 6-7 ,8 7

Longitudinal waves, 398 # of straight wire, 711-12,734-35 variable, systems of, 236-38

and earthquakes, 401 of toroid, 742 Mass excess (defn), 1129 pr

velocity of, 400-1 uniform, 709 Mass number, 1105

(see also Sound waves) Magnetic field lines, 708 Mass spectrometer (spectrograph),

Long-range force, 1110,1205 Magnetic flux, 760 # 773-75,816,820 724-25

Lookback time, 1197,1215 Magnetic force, 707,710-19 Mass-energy, distribution in universe,

Loop rule, Kirchhoff’s, 684 # on electric current, 710-14,718-19 1221-23

Lorentz, H. A ., 957,1017 on moving electric charges, 714-17 M ass-energy transformation, 974-78

Lorentz equation, 717 Magnetic induction, 710 (see also Mathematical expansions, A -l

Lorentz transformation, 969-71 Magnetic field) Mathematical signs and symbols: inside

Los Alamos laboratory, 1141 Magnetic lens, 1000 front cover

Loudness, 425,427,429 (see also Intensity) Magnetic moment, 718-19,745 Mather, John, 1214

Loudness control, 431 Magnetic monopole, 708,1221 Matter:

Loudness level, 431 Magnetic permeability, 734,748 anti-, 1175,1188,1190 pr

Loudspeakers, 375,428-29,720-21,799 Magnetic poles, 707-9 dark, 1165,1189,1219,1222,1223

concert time delay, 452 pr of Earth, 709 passage of radiation through, 1146-47

Loupe, jeweler’s, 887 Magnetic quantum number, 1046-47, states of, 340,455-56

Low-pass filter, 799,811 pr 1057 wave nature of, 997-99,1009-10

Index A -59

Matter waves, 997-99,1009-10,1019 f f Microscope, 890-91,931-33 Moment of inertia, 258-60

Matter-antimatter problem, 1188 atomic force, 1039 determining, 263-65,382

Matter-dominated universe, 1218,1219 compound, 890-91 parallel-axis theorem, 264-65

Maxwell distribution of molecular electron, 987,1000,1021,1038-39, perpendicular-axis theorem, 265

speeds, 480-82,547,1145 1043 pr Momentum, 214-38

Maxwell, James Clerk, 480,813,817, magnification of, 890-91,932,933,1000 angular, 285-89,291-300,1003

819-20,822,823,953-54 resolving power of, 932 center of mass (CM), 230-33

Maxwell’s equations, 813,817,819-22, scanning tunneling electron (STM), in collisions, 217-29

911 fn, 951,953,954,958,969 1038-39,1043 pr conservation of angular, 285-87,

differential form of, A -12-A -13 useful magnification, 932-33, lOOOar 297-98

in free space, A-13 Microscopic description of a system, 454, conservation of linear, 217-20,222-29,

Maxwell’s preferred reference frame, 4 5 6 ,4 7 6 # 235,1175-76

953-54 Microscopic properties, 454,456,476 f f linear, 214-38

Mean free path, 487-88 Microstate of a system, 546 of photon, 993

Mean life, 1119, 1129 pr, 1179 Microwave background radiation, relation of force to, 215-16,218,

of proton, 1188 cosmic, 1193,1213-15,1219,1220, 220-21,235,236,972,974

Measurements, 3-5 1224 relativistic, 971-73,977,978

of astronomical distances, 1194,1199, Microwaves, 824,1213-14 uncertainty in measurement of, 1021

1203-4 Milliampere (m A) (unit), 654 Monochromatic aberration, 892

of charge on electron, 723 Millikan, R. A ., 723,991 Monochromatic light (defn), 903

electromagnetic, o f blood flow, 453 pr, Millikan oil-drop experiment, 723 Moon, 1194

765 Millimeter (mm) (unit), 7 centripetal acceleration of, 121,140

of e/m, 722-23 Milky Way, 1194-95 force on, 140,142

of force, 84 Mirage, 903 work on, 167

precision of, 3-5,1020-22 Mirror equation, 845-49 Morley, E.W., 954-57

of pressure, 346-48 Mirrors, 839-49 Morse Potential, 1102 pr

of radiation, 1147-50 aberrations of, 889 fn, 891-92 Moseley, H. G. J., 1055

of speed of light, 825-26 concave, 842-49,889 M oseley plot, 1055

uncertainty in, 3-5,1020-23 convex, 8 4 2 ,8 48 ^ 9 Motion, 18-300,951-80

Mechanical advantage, 100,313,346 focal length of, 842-43,848 of charged particle in electric field,

Mechanical energy, 189-95 Lloyd’s, 919 pr 578-79

Mechanical equivalent of heat, 497 plane, 838-42 circular, 119-29

Mechanical oscillations, 369 used in telescope, 889 at constant acceleration, 28-39,

Mechanical waves, 395-416 Missing orders, 948 pr 62-71

Mechanics, 18-445 (see also Motion) Mr Tompkins in Wonderland (Gamow), damped, 382-85

definition, 19 951,982 description of (kinematics), 18-43,

Mediate, of forces, 1172 MKS (meter-kilogram-second) system 51-74

Medical imaging, 445-46,1107,1152-59 (defri),l in free fall, 34-39,148

Meitner, Lise, 1018,1136 mm-Hg (unit), 346 harmonic, 372-77,382-85

Melting point, 503-5 (see also Phase, Models, 2-3 on inclines, 101

changes of) Moderator, 1138-39 Kepler’s laws of planetary, 149-53,298

Mendeleev, Dmitri, 1053 Modern physics (defn), 2,952 linear, 18-43

Mercury barometer, 347 Modulation: N ew ton’s laws of, 8 4 -9 1 ,9 5 -9 6 ,1 1 2 #

Mercury-in-glass thermometer, 457-58 amplitude, 830 215,218,234,235,259-63,292-93,

Meson exchange, 1172-73 frequency, 830,831 fn 972,1018,1024,1025

Meson lifetime, 1023 Moduli of elasticity, 319,400 nonuniform circular, 128-29

Mesons, 1172,1173,1175-76,1178-79, Molar specific heat, 511-13 oscillatory, 369 f f

1180,1181,1183-84,1185 Mole (mol) (unit), 465 periodic (defn), 370

Messenger R NA (m -RNA), 1079-80 volume of, for ideal gas, 465 projectile, 51,62-71

Metal detector, 770 Molecular biology, electric force in, rectilinear, 18-43

Metallic bond, 1086 581-82,1077-80 and reference frames, 19

Metals: Molecular kinetic energy, 478-79,498-99, relative, 71-74,951-80

alkali, 1054 512-13 rolling, 267-73

free-electron theory of, 1086-90 Molecular mass, 455,465 rotational, 248-302

Metastable state, 1061,1117 Molecular rotation, 1080-81,1083-85 simple harmonic (SHM), 372-77

Meter (m) (unit), 6 Molecular spectra, 1080-85 translational, 18-239

Meters, electric, 695-97,721 Molecular speeds, 480-82 uniform circular, 119-25

correction for resistance of, 697 Molecular vibration, 1082-85 uniformly accelerated, 28-39

Metric (SI) multipliers: inside front cover Molecular weight, 455 fn at variable acceleration, 39-43

Metric (SI) system, 7 Molecules, 455,468-69,476-82,486-90, vibrational, 369 f f

Mho (unit), 675 pr 1071-85 of waves, 395-416

Michelson, A . A , 826,914,954-57 bonding in, 1071-74 M otion sensor, 448 pr

Michelson interferometer, 914,954-57 polar, 561,579,1074 Motional emf, 765-66

Michelson-M orley experiment, 954-57 potential energy diagrams for, Motor:

Microampere (A ) (unit), 654 1074-77 ac, 720

Micrometer, 10—11 spectra of, 1080-85 electric, 720

Microphones: weak bonds between, 1077-80 back emf in, 768-69

capacitor, 699 pr Moment arm, 256 Mountaineering, 106 pr, 110 pr, 137 pr,

magnetic, 775 Moment of a force about an axis, 256 182 pr

A -60 Index

Mt. Everest, 6,8,144,161 pr, 364 pr, 485 Newton (N) (unit), 87 Nucleon number, conservation of, 1117,

MP3 player, 677 Newtonian focus, 889 1175-76

MRI, 1107,1158-59 Newtonian mechanics, 83-156 Nucleosynthesis, 1200-1,1218

m-RNA, 1079-80 N ewton’s first law of motion, 84-85 Nucleotide bases, 581,1078

Mu meson (see Muon) N ewton’s law of universal gravitation, Nucleus, 1 1 0 5 #

Multimeter, 696 139,140-43,199-201,564,1205 compound, 1136-37

Multiplication factor, 1138-39 N ewton’s laws of motion, 84-91,95-96, daughter and parent (defn), 1111

Multiplication of vectors, 55,167-68, 112 # 215,218,234-35,259-63, half-lives of, 1117-21

289-91 292-93,972,1018,1024,1025 liquid-drop model of, 625 pr

Muon, 1164,1175-76,1178,1179 N ewton’s rings, 910-11 masses of, 1105-7

Muon lepton number, 1176-79,1183 N ewton’s second law, 86-88,90,95-96, radioactive decay of unstable, 1110-24

Muon neutrino, 1178,1179 215,218,234-35,953,972 size of, 1106

Muscles and joints, forces in, 278 pr, 315, for rotation, 259-63,292-93 structure and properties of, 1105-7

330 pr, 331 pr, 332 pr, 336 pr, 337 pr for a system of particles, 234-35, Nuclide (defn), 1105

Musical instruments, 413,422 pr, 424, 292-93 Null result, 954,957,969

431-36 N ewton’s synthesis, 152 Numerical integration, 40-43

Musical scale, 431 N ewton’s third law of motion, 89-91

Mutation, 1147 NMR, 1107,1156-59

Mutual inductance, 786-87 Noble gases, 1054,1086 Object distance, 840,845,857,870-71

Myopia, 883 Nodes, 412,433,434,435 Objective lens, 888,889,890,932

Nonconductors, 561,638-42,658 Observable universe, 1215-16

Nonconservative field, 775 Observations, 2,952

«-type semiconductor, 1093-96 Nonconservative forces, 185 and uncertainty, 1021

Nagasaki, 1141 Non-Euclidean space, 1207-8 Occhialini, G., 1173

Natural abundances, 1105 Noninductive winding, 788 Occupied states, density of, 1088

Natural frequency, 374,385,412 (see also Noninertial reference frames, 85,88,156, Oersted, H. C., 710

Resonant frequency) 300-2 Off-axis astigmatism, 892

Natural logarithms, A-2 Nonlinear device, 1096 Ohm, G. S., 655

Natural radioactive background, 1114,1148 Nonohmic device, 656 Ohm (fl) (unit), 656

Natural radioactivity, 1111 Nonreflecting glass, 913-14 Ohmmeter, 696,721

Nd:YAG laser, 1063 Nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, 1026, Ohm’s law, 655-58,668,680,685

Near field, 818 1028 Oil-drop experiment, 723

Near point, of eye, 883 Nonuniform circular motion, 128-29 Omega (particle), 1179

Nearsightedness, 883,884-85 Normal eye (defn), 883 One-dimensional Schrodinger equation,

Nebulae, 1196 Normal force, 92-94 1025-37

Negative, photographic, 878 fn Normal lens, 882 One-dimensional wave equation, 407

Negative curvature, 1208,1221 Normalization condition, 1026-27, Onnes, H. K., 668

Negative electric charge (defn), 560,655 1029 fn, 1031-34 Open circuit, 654

Negative lens, 871 Normalization constant, 1032 Open system, 500

N eon tubes, 1044 North pole, Earth, 709 Open tube, 434

Neptune, 150,152 North pole, of magnet, 708 Open-tube manometer, 346^17

Neptunium, 1134 Nova, 1197,1203 Operating temperatures, heat engines, 530

Nerve pulse, 669-70,715 npn transistors, 1097 Operational definitions, 7,737

Nervous system, electrical conduction in, n-type semiconductor, 1093-96 Oppenheimer, J. Robert, 1141

669-70 Nuclear angular momentum, 1107 Optical coating, 913-14

N et force, 85-88,95 / / Nuclear binding energy, 1108-9 Optical illusion, 851,903

N et resistance, 679 Nuclear collision, 225,227-29 Optical instruments, 878-92,914,929-38

Neuron, 669 Nuclear decay, 976 Optical pumping, 1062

Neutral atom, 1106 Nuclear energy, 530 fn, 550,1131-59 Optical sound track, 992

Neutral equilibrium, 205,317 Nuclear fission, 1136-41 Optical tweezers, 105 pr, 829

Neutral wire, 694 Nuclear forces, 155,212 pr, 1110,1115, Optical zoom, 882

Neutrino flavor oscillation, 1177 1171-89,1205 Optics:

Neutrinos, 1114-16,1165,1175-79,1218 Nuclear fusion, 1141-46,1200-1 fiber, 855-56

mass of, 1177-78,1179 Nuclear magnetic moments, 1107 geometric, 838-91

types of, 1175-78 Nuclear magnetic resonance (NM R), physical, 900-45

Neutron, 561,1105,1165,1179 1107,1156-59 Orbital angular momentum, in atoms,

delayed, 1139 Nuclear magneton, 1107 1046^ 7,1059-60

in nuclear reactions, 1136-42 Nuclear masses, 1105 and f f Orbital quantum number, 1046

role in fission, 1 1 3 6 # Nuclear medicine, 1150-52 Order and disorder, 544-45

thermal, 1136 Nuclear physics, 1104-64 Order of interference or diffraction

Neutron activation analysis, 1163 pr Nuclear power, 1139-41 pattern, 904-6,933-34,936,939,948 pr

Neutron cross section, 1136 Nuclear power plants, 767,1139^40 Order-of-magnitude estimate, 9-12,102

Neutron degeneracy, 1202 Nuclear radius, 1106 Organ pipe, 435

Neutron number, 1105 Nuclear reactions, 1132-38 Orion, 1196

Neutron physics, 1134 Nuclear reactors, 1 1 3 8 ^ 1 ,1 1 4 4 ^ 6 Oscillations, 369-89

Neutron star, 287,1100 pr, 1197,1202 Nuclear spin, 1107 of air columns, 434-6

Newton, Isaac, 18,85-86,89,139-40,155, Nuclear structure, 1105-7 damped harmonic motion, 382-85

568,889 fn, 902,910 fn, 952,1205, Nuclear weapons testing, 1141 displacement, 371

1208 fn Nucleon, 1105,1165,1186,1217-18 forced,385-87

Index A-61

Oscillations (continued) Peaks, tallest, 8 mediation of (force), 1172

mechanical, 369 Pendulum: momentum of, 993

of molecules, 512-13 ballistic, 226 virtual, 1172

of physical pendulum, 381-82 conical, 125 Photon exchange, 1171-73

simple harmonic motion (SHM), physical, 381-82 Photon interactions, 996

372-77 simple, 13,195,379-81 Photon theory of light, 989-97

as source of waves, 397 torsion, 382 Photosynthesis, 993

of a spring, 370-71 Pendulum clock, 380 Photovoltaic (solar) cells, 550

on strings, 412-14,431-33 Penetration, barrier, 1036-39,1113 Physical pendulum, 381-82

of torsion pendulum, 382 Penzias, Arno, 1213-14 Physics:

Oscillator, simple harmonic, 372-79, Percent uncertainty, 3 -4, 5 classical (defn), 2,952

1036,1042 and significant figures, 5 modern (defn), 2 , 952

Oscilloscope, 620,621 Perfect cosmological principle, 1213 Pi meson, 1172-73,1179,1180,1183-85

Osteoporosis, diagnosis of, 995 Performance, coefficient of (COP), 537, Piano tuner, 12

Otto cycle, 535-36 538 Pick-up nuclear reaction, 1160 pr

Out-of-phase waves, 411,904,914,933 Perfume atomizer, 356 Pin, structural, 323

Overdamped system, 383 Period, 121,253,371,397 Pincushion distortion, 892

Overexposure, 879 of circular motion, 121 Pion (see Pi meson)

Overtones, 413,432,433 of pendulums, 13,380, A-8 Pipe, light, 855

of planets, 150-51 Pipe, vibrating air columns in, 431 f f

of rotation, 253-54 Pitch of a sound, 425

/7-type semiconductor, 1093-96 of vibration, 371 Pixel, 878,881,943-4,1154

Pacemaker, heart, 692,787 of wave, 397 Planck, Max, 989,1017

Packet, wave, 1029 Periodic motion, 370 f f Planck length, 13,1216

Packing of atoms, 1085 Periodic Table, 1053-54,1105 fn, inside Planck time, 16 pr, 1015 pr, 1188,1216

Page thickness, 10-11 back cover Planck’s constant, 989,1022

Pair production, 996 Periodic wave, 397 Planck’s quantum hypothesis,

Pantheon, dome of, 328 Permeability, magnetic, 734,748 988-89

Parabola, 51,71,326 Permittivity, 565,639 Plane:

Parabolic mirror, 843 Perpendicular-axis theorem, 265 focal, 867

Parallax, 1203-4 Personal digital assistant (PD A), 647 p r mirror, 838-42

Parallel-axis theorem, 264-65 Perturbations, 152 polarization of light by, 940-44

Parallel circuits, 633,663,680 PET, 1156 Plane geometry, A-2

Parallel emf, 686-87 Phase: Plane waves, 410,818,819,1028-29

Parallelogram method of adding vectors, in ac circuit, 796-802 Plane-polarized light, 940

54 changes of, 482-83,502-5 Planetary motion, 149-53,298

Paramagnetism, 749-50 of matter, 340,456 Planets, 149-53,158 pr, 247 pr,

Paraxial rays (defn), 843 of waves, 404,411,904,910-14,933 309 pr

Parent nucleus (defn), 1111 Phase angle, 373,405,800 Plasma, 340,1131,1145

Parsec (pc) (unit), 1204 Phase constant, 1028/rc, 1030 Plasma globe, 810 pr

Partial derivatives, 189,406 Phase diagram, 483 Plastic region, 319

Partial ionic character, 1074 Phase shift, 911,913,914 Plate tectonics, 351

Partial pressure, 485-86 Phase transitions, 482-83,502-5 Plum-pudding model of atom, 1001

Partially polarized, 945 Phase velocity, 404 Pluto, 150,152,1194

Particle (defn), 19 Phasor diagram: Plutonium, 1134,1138,1140,1141

Particle accelerators, 1165-71 ac circuits, 800 PM tube, 1124-25

Particle classification, 1178-80 interference and diffraction of light, pn junction, 1094-96

Particle detectors, 1096,1124-25,1164, 907,925,937 pn junction diode, 1094-96,1125

1170 Phon (unit), 431 pn junction laser, 1063

Particle exchange, 1171-73,1185 Phosphor, 1124 pnp transistor, 1097

Particle interactions, 1175 f f Phosphorescence, 1061 Point:

Particle physics, 1164-89 Photino, 1189 boiling, 457,485,503

Particle resonance, 1180-81 Photocathode, 1124 breaking, 319

Particles, elementary, 1164-89 Photocell, 626 pr, 990 critical, 483

Particle-antiparticle pair, 1175 Photocell circuit, 990,992 dew, 486

Particulate pollution, 15 pr Photoconductivity, 582 far, 883

Pascal, Blaise, 341,346,363 pr Photocopier, 569,582-83 focal, 842-43,848,867-68,883

Pascal (Pa) (unit of pressure), 341 Photodiode, 992,1096 freezing, 457 fn, 503

Pascal’s principle, 346 Photoelectric effect, 989-92,996,1146 Lagrange, 153

Paschen series, 1003,1006,1007 Photographic emulsion, 1125 melting, 503-5

Passive solar heating, 550 Photographic film, 878,879 near, 883

Pauli, Wolfgang, 1017,1018,1052,1115 Photomultiplier (PM) tube, 1124-25 sublimation, 483

Pauli exclusion principle, 1052-53,1072, Photon, 989-97,1019,1053,1165,1171-72, triple, 469,483

1087,1089,1184,1201,1202 1175,1178-79,1183,1217-19 turning, 204

PDA, 647 pr absorption of, 1060-61 Point charge (defn), 565

Peak current, 664 decoupled (early universe), 1215,1219 potential, 612-15

Peak voltage, 664 and emf, 1172 Point particle, 19,96

Peak widths, of diffraction grating, energy of, 993 Point rule, Kirchhoff’s, 816 f f

937-38 mass of, 993 Poise (P) (unit), 358

A -62 Index

Poiseuille, J. L., 358 Precipitator, 645 pr Projectile, horizontal range of, 68-69

Poiseuille’s equation, 358-59 Precision, 5 Projectile motion, 51,62,71

Poisson, Simeon, 922 Presbyopia, 883 kinematic equations for (table), 64

Polar molecules, 561,579,641,1073-74 Prescriptive laws, 3 parabolic, 71

Polarization of light, 9 4 0 ^ 4 ,9 4 9 pr Pressure, 341-45 Proper length, 965

by absorption, 940-42 absolute, 345 Proper time, 962,1191 pr

plane, 940-44 atmospheric, 344-48 Proportional limit, 318-19

by reflection, 942-43 in fluids, 341-45 Proteins:

of skylight, 945 in a gas, 345,463-65,478,482-87 shape of, 1080

Polarizer, 941-44 gauge, 345 synthesis of, 1079-80

Polarizing angle, 943 h ead ,343 Proton, 1 1 0 5 # 1132,1141-43,1151,1164,

Polaroid, 94 0 ^ 2 hydraulic, 346 1165,1179

Pole vault, 183,192-93 measurement of, 346-48 decay of, 1179,1187-88

Poles, magnetic, 707-9 partial, 485 mean life of, 1188

of Earth, 709 and Pascal’s principle, 346 Proton-antiproton collision, 1164

Pollution, 549-50 radiation, 828-29 Proton centers, 1151

Poloidal field, 1145 units for and conversions, 341,345,347 Proton decay, 1179,1187-88

Pool depth, apparent, 852 vapor, 484-85,491 Proton-proton collision, 228-29

Pope, Alexander, 1208 fn Pressure amplitude, 427,430-31 Proton-proton cycle, 1142-43,1200

Population, inverted, 1062-63 Pressure cooker, 485,493 pr Proton therapy, 1151

Position, 19 Pressure gauges, 347 Protostar, 1200

angular, 249,1023 Pressure gradient, 359 Proxima Centauri, 1194

average, 1035 Pressure head, 343 Pseudoforce, 300-1

uncertainty in, 1021-23 Pressure waves, 401,426 f f Pseudovector, 254 fn

Position vector, 59-60,62 Prestressed concrete, 323 Psi (in Schrodinger equation, defn),

Positive curvature, 1208,1221 Primary coil, 770 1025-27

Positive electric charge (defn), 560 Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory /7-type semiconductor, 1093-96

Positive holes, 1093 (PPPL), 1146 P T diagram, 483

Positive lens, 871 Principal axis, 843 Pulley, 99-100

Positron, 996,1116,1156,1165,1174-75 Principal quantum number, 1 0 0 4 # Pulse, wave, 396

Positron emission tomography (PET), 1156 1046^ 8 Pulsed laser, 1063

Post-and-beam construction, 321 Principia (Newton), 85,139 Pulse-echo technique, 445^ 6 ,1 1 58

Potential (see Electric potential) Principle, 3 (see proper name) Pumps, 348,361

Potential difference, electric, 608 f f (see Principle of correspondence, 980,1009, centrifugal, 361

also Electric potential; Voltage) 1018 heat, 538-39

Potential energy, 186-89 and f f Principle of complementarity, 997 Pupil, 882

diagrams, 204-5,1074-77 Principle of equipartition of energy, P V diagrams, 482-83,487,507

elastic, 188,193,194,377-78 512-13 P waves, 401,403,416

electric, 607-10,619-20,636-38 Principle of equivalence, 155-56, Pythagorean theorem, A-2, A-4

gravitational, 186-88,199-201 1205-6

in metal crystal, 1090 Principle of superposition, 407-9,436,

for molecules, 1074-77,1082,1085-86 565,569 QCD, 1173,1184-87

for nucleus, 1038,1113 Printers, inkjet and laser, 583 QED, 1172

related to force, 188-89 Prism, 852-53 QF, 1148

in Schrodinger equation 1027,1028, Prism binoculars, 855,889 QSOs, 1197

1030-36 Probability: Quadratic equation, 36

for square well and barriers, 1030-36 and entropy, 546-48 Quadratic formula, 38, A-1, inside back

Potential well, 1030-36 in kinetic theory, 476-82 cover

Potentiometer, 705 pr in nuclear decay, 1117 Quadrupole, electric, 589 pr

Pound (lb) (unit), 87 in quantum mechanics, 1019,1020, Quality factor (QF) of radiation, 1148

Powell, C. E, 1173 1024-25,1033,1045,1049-51, Quality factor (Q-value) of a resonant

Power, 201-3,660-65,801 1072-74 system, 387,392 pr, 810 pr

rating of an engine, 202-3 Probability density (probability Quality of sound, 436

Power, magnifying, 886 distribution): Quantities, base and derived, 7

total, 888 in atoms, 1019,1028,1031,1036,1045, Quantization:

(see also Electric power) 1048^ 9,1051 of angular momentum, 1004,1046-47

Power factor (ac circuit), 801 in molecules, 1072-74 of electric charge, 564

Power generation, 549-50,766-67 Probability function, Fermi-Dirac, 1088, of energy, 989,1003-9,1031

Power of a lens, 868 1092 Quantum chromodynamics (Q CD ), 1173,

Power plants: Problem-solving strategies, 30,58,64,96, 1184-87

fossil-fuel, 550 102,125,166,198,229,261,314,504, Quantum condition, Bohr’s, 1004,1010

nuclear, 767,1139-40 551,571,685,716,740,763,849,871, Quantum electrodynamics (Q ED ),

Power reactor, 1139 913 1172

Power transmission, 770-73 Processes: Quantum fluctuations, 1220

Powers of ten, 5 isobaric, 508 Quantum hypothesis, Planck’s, 988-89

Poynting, J. H., 826 fn isochoric, 508 Quantum mechanics, 1017-98

Poynting vector, 826-27 isothermal, 507-8 of atoms, 1044-65

Precession, 299-300 isovolumetric, 508 Copenhagen interpretation of, 1024

of Earth, 303 pr reversible and irreversible (defn), 533 of molecules and solids, 1071-98

Index A -63

Quantum numbers, 989,1004-5,1031, Radiation therapy, 1150-51 Receivers, radio and television,

1046-49,1052-53,1080-85 Radio, 829-32 830-31

principal, 1 0 0 4 # Radio waves, 823-24,931 Recoil, 220

Quantum (quanta) of energy, 989 Radioactive background, natural, 1114, Recombination epoch, 1219

Quantum theory, 952,987-1010,1017-98 1148 Rectifiers, 1096,1099 pr

of atoms, 1003-10,1044-65 Radioactive dating, 1122-24 Recurrent novae, 1203

of blackbody radiation, 987-88 Radioactive decay, 1110-26 Red giants, 1197,1199,1201

of light, 987-97 Radioactive decay constant, 1117-18 Redshift, 443,979,1204,1210-11,1215

of specific heat, 513 Radioactive decay law, 1118,1119 Redshift parameter, 1211

Quarks, 564 fn, 1107,1165,1171-73,1179, Radioactive decay series, 1121-22 Reduced mass, 1081

1182-85,1217-18 Radioactive fallout, 1141 Reference frames, 1 9 ,8 5 ,3 0 0 -2 ,9 5 2 #

confinement, 1185,1217 Radioactive tracers, 1151-52 accelerating, 85,88,155-56,300-2

Quartz oscillator, 450 pr Radioactive waste, 1139^ 1 inertial, 8 5 ,8 8 ,3 0 0 ,9 5 2 #

Quasars (quasi-stellar objects, QSOs), Radioactivity, 1104-26 noninertial, 8 5,88,156,300-2,952

1197,1207 (Fig.) artificial (defn), 1111 rotating, 300-2

Quasistatic process (defn), 508 natural (defn), 1111 transformations between, 968-71

Quintessence, 1223 Radiofrequency (RF) signal, 830,1157-58 Reflecting telescope, 889

Q-value (disintegration energy), 1112 Radioisotope (defn), 1111 Reflection:

Q-value (quality factor) of a resonant Radionuclide (defn), 1111,1147 angle of, 410,838

system, 387,392 pr, 810 pr Radiotelescope, 931 diffuse, 839

Q-value (reaction energy), 1133 Radius, of nuclei, 1106 law of, 409-10,838

Radius of curvature (defn), 129 and lens coating, 913

Radius of Earth estimate, 11,15 pr of light, 837,838-42

Rad (unit), 1148 Radius of gyration, 279 pr phase changes during, 909-14

Rad equivalent man (rem), 1148 Radon, 1111,1148,1150 polarization by, 942-43

Radar, 446 fn, 823 Rainbow, 853 specular, 839

Radial acceleration, 1 2 0 # 128 RAM (random access memory), 629, from thin films, 909-14

Radial probability distribution, 1049-51 644 pr total internal, 421 pr, 854-56

Radian (rad), measure for angles, Raman effect, 1016 of waves on a cord, 409

249-50 Ramp vs. stair analogy, 989 Reflection coefficient, 1037,1043 pr

Radiant flux, 915 Random access memory (R AM ), 629, Reflection grating, 933

Radiation, electromagnetic: 644 pr Reflectors, 865 pr

blackbody, 987-88,1198,1214 Range of projectile, 68-69 Refracting telescope, 888

cosmic microwave background, 1193, Rapid estimating, 9-12 Refraction, 415-16,850-92,902-3

1213-15,1219,1220,1224 Rapid transit system, 49 pr angle of, 415,850

emissivity of, 518 Rare-earth solid-state lasers, 1063 of earthquake waves, 416

gamma, 1111,1116-17,1146 Rarefactions, in waves, 398 index of, 850

infrared (IR), 823-24,852,936 Rate of nuclear decay, 1117-21 law of, 415,851,902-3

microwave, 823-24 Ray, 410,838 # 8 6 7 # of light, 850-52,902-3

seasons and, 519 paraxial (defn), 843 and Snell’s law, 850-52

solar constant and, 519 Ray diagram, 844,849,871 at spherical surface, 856-58

synchrotron, 1168 Ray model of light, 838 # 867 f f by thin lenses, 867-70

thermal, 517-20 Ray tracing, 838 # 867 f f of water waves, 415

ultraviolet (U V ), 823-24,852 Rayleigh, Lord, 930,988 Refrigerators, 536-38

X-ray, 8 2 3 ^ , 938-39,950 pr, 1056 (see Rayleigh criterion, 930 coefficient of performance (COP) of,

also X-rays) Rayleigh-Jeans theory, 988 537

Radiation, nuclear: RBE, 1148 Regelation, 491 pr

activity of, 1118,1120,1147 R C circuit, 687-92 Reinforced concrete, 323

alpha, 1111-14,1117 Reactance, 788,797,798 Relative biological effectiveness (RBE),

beta, 1111,1114-16,1117,1202 capacitive, 798-99 1148

damage by, 1146-47 inductive, 797 Relative humidity, 485

detection of, 1124-26,1149 (see also Impedance) Relative motion, 71-74,951-80

dosimetry for, 1147-50 Reaction energy, 1133 Relative permeability, 749

gamma, 1111,1116-17,1146 Reaction time, 791 Relative velocity, 71-74,959 # 968 #

human exposure to, 1148-50 Reactions: Relativistic addition of velocities, 970-71

ionizing (defn), 1146 chain, 1137-39,1141 Relativistic energy, 974-78

measurement of, 1147-50 chemical, rate of, 481 Relativistic mass, 974

medical uses of, 1150-52 endoergic, 1133 Relativistic momentum, 971-73,977

types of, 1111,1117 endothermic, 1133 derivation of, 972-73

Radiation biology, 1150-52 exoergic, 1133 Relativity, Galilean-Newtonian, 952-54,

Radiation damage, 1146-47 exothermic, 1133 968-69

Radiation-dominated universe, nuclear, 1132-38 Relativity, general theory of, 155-56,

1218-19 slow-neutron, 1133 1193,1205-7

Radiation dosimetry, 1147-50 subcritical, 1139,1141 Relativity, special theory of, 951-80,1205

Radiation era, 1218-19 supercritical, 1139,1141 constancy of speed of light, 957

Radiation field, 818 Reactors, nuclear, 1138^ 1,1144-46 four-dimensional space-time, 967

Radiation film badge, 1149 Read/W rite head, 775 impact of, 980

Radiation pressure, 828-29 Real image, 840,844,869 and length, 964-67

Radiation sickness, 1149 Rearview mirror, curved, 849 and Lorentz transformation, 968-71

A -64 Index

Relativity, special theory of (continued) Rifle recoil, 220 Satellites, 139,146-49

and mass, 974 Right-hand rule, 254,710,711,714,716, geosynchronous, 147

mass-energy relation in, 974-78 735,763 global positioning, 16 pr, 160 pr, 964

postulates of, 957-58 Rigid box, particle in, 1030-34 Saturated vapor pressure, 484

simultaneity in, 958-59 Rigid object (defn), 249 Saturation (magnetic), 748

and time, 959-64,967 rotational motion of, 248-74,294-97 Savart, Felix, 743

Relativity principle, 952-53,957 f f translational motion of, 234-36, Sawtooth oscillator, 691,706 pr

Relay, 751 pr 268-70 Sawtooth voltage, 691

Rem (unit), 1148 Ripple voltage, 1096,1103 pr Scalar (defn), 52

Repulsive forces, 1074-75,1171 Rms (root-mean-square): Scalar components, 55

Research reactor, 1139 current, 664-65 Scalar (dot) product, 167-68

Resistance and resistors, 656-58,661,796 sp eed ,479-82 Scalar quantities, 52

in ac circuit, 796 f f voltage, 664-65 Scale, musical, 431

with capacitor, 687-92,795-802 R NA, 1079-80 Scale factor of universe, 1211

color code, 657 Rock climbing, 106 pr, 110 pr, 137 pr, Scanner, fan-beam, 1153-54

and electric currents, 651 f f 182 pr Scanning electron microscope (SEM),

with inductor, 790-92,795-802 Rocket propulsion, 83,90,219,238 987,1000

internal, in battery, 678-79 Rocks, dating oldest Earth, 1124 Scanning tunneling electron microscope

in L R C circuit, 795-803 Roemer, Ole, 825 (STM), 1038-39,1043 pr

of meter, 697 R oentgen (R) (unit), 1148 Scattering:

net, 679 Roentgen, W. C., 938 elastic, 1135

in series and parallel, 679-83 Roller coaster, 191,198 of light, 945

shunt, 695 Rolling friction, 113,273-74 of X-rays, Bragg, 1065

and superconductivity, 668-69 Rolling motion, 267-73 Schrodinger, Erwin, 987,1017,1018

Resistance thermometer, 660 instantaneous axis of, 268 Schrodinger equation, 1025-36,1045-46,

Resistive force, 129-30 total kinetic energy, 268 1082,1090

Resistivity, 658-60 without slipping, 267-71 Schwarzschild radius, 1209,1228 pr

temperature coefficient of, 659-60 Root-mean-square (rms) current, Scientific notation, 5

Resistor, 657 664-65 Scintigram, 1152

shunt, 695 Root-mean-square (rms) speed, 479-82 Scintillation counter, 1124

wire-wound, 657 Root-mean-square (rms) voltage, Scintillator, 1124,1125,1152

Resolution: 664-65 Scuba diving, 473 pr, 475 pr, 495 pr,

of diffraction grating, 937-39 Rotating reference frames, 300-2 521 pr

of electron microscope, 1000 Rotation, 248-302 SDSS, 1224

of eye, 930,932-33 axis of (defn), 249 Sea of electrons, 1174

of high-energy accelerators, 1165-66 frequency of (defn), 253 Search coil, 783 pr

of lens, 881,929-32 of rigid body, 248-74,294-97 Seasons, 519

of light microscope, 932-33 Rotational angular momentum quantum Second (s) (unit), 6

limits of, 929-32 number, 1080-81,1084-85 Second law of motion, 86-88,90,95-96,

and pixels, 881 Rotational imbalance, 296-97 215,218,234-35,953,972

of telescope, 931 Rotational inertia, 258,259-60 (see also for rotation, 259-63,292-93

of vectors, 55-58 M oment of inertia) for a system of particles, 234-35,

Resolving power, 932,938 Rotational kinetic energy, 265-67 292-93

Resonance, 385-87 molecular, 499,512-13 Second law of thermodynamics, 529-48

in ac circuit, 802 Rotational motion, 248-302 and Carnot efficiency, 534-35

elementary particle, 1180-81 Rotational plus translational motion, Clausius statement of, 529,537

nuclear magnetic, 1107,1156-59 267-68 and efficiency, 531-32

Resonant frequency, 385,412-13,432-35, Rotational transitions, 1080-81 and entropy, 5 39^ 8 ,5 5 1

802 Rotational work, 266 general statement of, 543,544,548

Resonant oscillation, 385-86 Rotor, 720,768 heat engine, 529,530-32

Resonant peak, width of, 387 Rough calculations, 9-12 and irreversible processes, 533

Rest energy, 974-76,1023 Rubidium-strontium dating, 1128 pr Kelvin-Planck statement of, 532,535

Rest mass, 974 Ruby laser, 1062 refrigerators, air conditioners, and heat

Resting potential, 669-70 Runway, 29 pumps, 536-39

Restitution, coefficient of, 243 pr Russell, Bertrand, 999 reversible processes, 533

Restoring force, 170,370 Rutherford, Ernest, 1001,1106,1111, and statistical interpretation of

Resultant displacement, 52-53 1132,1163 pr entropy, 546-48

Resultant vector, 52-54,57-58 Rutherford’s model of the atom, 1001 and time’s arrow, 544

Retentivity (magnetic), 749 R-y alue, 517 Secondary coil, 770

Retina, 882 Rydberg constant, 1002,1007 Seesaw, 314

Reverse-biased diode, 1095 Rydberg states, 1070 pr Segre, Emilio, 1175

Reversible cycle, 533-35,540 Seismograph, 776

Reversible process, 533 Selection rules, 1048^9,1080,1083,

Revolutions per second (rev/s), 253 S wave, 401 1084

Reynold’s number, 366 pr SAE, viscosity numbers, 358 fn Self-inductance, 788-89

RF signal, 830,1157-58 Safety factor, 322 Self-sustaining chain reaction, 1138^1

Rho (particle), 1179 Sailboats, and Bernoulli’s principle, 357 SEM, 987,1000

Ribosome, 1079 Salam ,A., 1186 Semiconductor detector, 1125

Richards, R, 1214 Satellite dish, 831 Semiconductor diode lasers, 1063

Index A -65

Semiconductor diodes, 1094-96 SLAC, 1169 tone color of, 436

Semiconductor doping, 1093-94 Slepton, 1189 ultrasonic, 425,445-46

Semiconductors, 561,658,1091-98 Slingshot effect, gravitational, 246 pr Sound barrier, 444

intrinsic, 1091,1093 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), 1224 Sound level, 428-31

n and p types, 1093-96 Slope, o f a curve, 23 Sound spectrum, 436

resistivity of, 658 Slow-neutron reaction, 1133 Sound track, optical, 992

silicon wafer, 1125 SLR camera, 882 Sound waves, 424-46 (see also Sound)

Sensitivity, full-scale current, 695 Slug (unit), 87 Sounding board, 433

Sensitivity of meters, 696,697 Smoke detector, 1114 Sounding box, 433

Separation of variables, 1027 Smoot, George, 1214 Soundings, 444

Series circuit, 634,679 Snell, W., 851 Source activity, 1147

Series emf, 686-87 Snell’s law, 851-52,856,876,902 Source of emf, 678,758-68

Shear modulus, 319,321 SNIa (type la) supernovae, 1203,1204,1223 South pole, Earth, 709

Shear stress, 321 SN1987a, 1177,1202 South pole, o f magnet, 708

Shells, atomic, 1053 Snowboarder, 51,133 pr Space:

Shielded cable, 740,789,825 Soap bubble, 900,909,912-13 absolute, 953,957

Shielding, electrical, 577,740 Soaps, 360 curvature of, 155-56,1207-9,1220-22

SHM, see Simple harmonic motion Sodium chloride, bonding in, 1073, Euclidean and non-Euclidean, 1207-8

SHO, see Simple harmonic oscillator 1075-76,1085 relativity of, 964-70

Shock absorbers, 369,371,383 Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Space-time (4-D), 967

Shock waves, 443-44 (SOHO) satellite, 153 curvature of, 1207-9,1220-21

Short circuit, 663 Solar (photovoltaic) cell, 550 Space-time interval, 967

Short-range forces, 1110,1205 Solar absorption spectrum, 936,1002 Space quantization, 1047

Shunt resistor, 695 Solar cell, 1096 Space shuttle, 139

Shutter speed, 879,881 Solar constant, 519 Space station, 131 pr, 149

SI (Systeme International) units, 7 Solar energy, 550 Space travel, 963

SI derived units: inside front cover Solar neutrino problem, 1177 Spark plug, 785

Siemens (S) (unit), 675 pr Solar pressure, 828 Speaker wires, 659

Sievert (Sv) (unit), 1148 Solar sail, 829 Special theory of relativity, 951-80,1205

Sigma (particle), 1179 Solenoid, 733,741 ^ 2 ,7 4 7 ,7 4 8 -4 9 , (see also Relativity, special theory of)

Sign conventions (geometric optics), 788-89 Specific gravity, 341,351

845-46,849,871 Solid angle, 7 fn, 915 fn Specific heat, 499-500

Significant figures, 4-5 Solid-state lighting, 1096 for gases, 511-13

percent uncertainty vs., 5 Solid-state physics, 1085-98 for solids, 513

Silicon, 1 0 9 1 # Solids, 318 ff, 340,455-56,1085-93 (see SPECT, 1156

Silicon wafer semiconductor, 1125 also Phase, changes of) Spectrometer:

Simple harmonic motion (SHM), 372-79 amorphous, 1085 light, 935-36

applied to pendulums, 379-82 band theory of, 1090-92 mass, 724-25

related to uniform circular motion, bonding in, 1085-86 Spectroscope and spectroscopy, 935-36,

379 energy levels in, 1090-92 948 pr

sinusoidal nature of, 372 specific heats for, 513 Spectroscopic notation, 1059

Simple harmonic oscillator (SHO), Solvay Conference, 1017 Spectrum, 934

372-79,1036,1042 pr Sonar, 444-45 absorption, 936,1002,1084

acceleration of, 374 Sonic boom, 444 atomic emission, 936,1001-3,1006-8

energy in, 377-78,1042 pr Sonogram, 445 band, 1080,1084-85

molecular vibration as, 1082-83 Sound, 424-46 continuous, 935,988

velocity and acceleration of, 374 audible range of, 425 electromagnetic, 823,852-54

Simple machines: and beats, 438-39 emitted by hot object, 987-88

lever, 177 pr, 313 dBs of, 428-31 line, 9 3 5 -3 6 ,1 0 0 2 # 1017

pulley, 99-100 Doppler effect of, 439-43 molecular, 1080-85

Simple magnifier, 885-87 ear’s response to, 431 visible light, 852-54

Simple pendulum, 13,195,379-81 infrasonic, 426 X-ray, 1054-56

with damping, 384 intensity of, 427-31 Specular reflection, 839

Simultaneity, 958-60 interference of, 437-39 Speed, 20

Single-lens reflex (SLR) camera, 882 level of, 428-31 average, 20,480-82

Single photon emission computed loudness of, 425,427,429 of EM waves, 821-22,825

tomography (SPECT), 1156 loudness level of, 431 Fermi, 1089

Single photon emission tomography mathematical representation of wave, instantaneous, 22

(SPET), 1156 426-27 of light (see separate entry below)

Single-slit diffraction, 922-27 pitch of, 425 molecular, 480-82

Singularity, 1209 pressure amplitude of, 427,430-31 most probable, 480-82

Sinusoidal curve, 372 # quality of, 436 rms (root-mean-square), 479,480,482

Sinusoidal traveling wave, 404-6 shock waves of, 443-44 of sound (see separate entry on next page)

Siphon, 362 pr, 368 pr and sonic boom, 444 (see also Velocity)

Skater, 284,286,309 pr sound level of, 428-31 Speed of light, 6,822,825-26,850,902,

Skidding car, 126-27 sources of, 431-36 953,957,975

Skier, 112,117,149,183,211 pr speed of, 425-26,824 constancy of, 957

Sky color, 945 supersonic, 426,443-44 measurement of, 825-26

Sky diver, 77 pr, 105 pr, 138 pr timbre of, 436 as ultimate speed, 974

A -66 Index

Speed of sound, 425-26 H -R diagram, 1199,1201,1204 Strength of materials, 319,322

infrasonic, 426 magnitude of, 1228 pr Stress, 320-21

supersonic, 426,443-44 neutron, 287,1100 pr, 1197,1202 compressive, 321

SPET, 1156 quasars, 1197,1207 (Fig.) shear, 321

Spherical aberration, 843,891,892,929, red giants, 1197,1199,1201 tensile, 320-21

932 size of, 520 thermal, 463

Spherical lens, 858 source o f energy of, 1142-43,1200-2 String theories, 1189

Spherical mirrors, image formed by, Sun (see Sun) Stringed instruments, 413,432-33

842-49,889,892 supernovae, 1177-78,1197,1201-4 Strings, vibrating, 412-15,431-33

Spherical shells, Earth, 142-43, temperature of, 1198 Stripping nuclear reaction, 1160 pr

A -9-A -11 types of, 1197 a n d # Strong bonds, 1072-74,1077-78,

Spherical wave, 403,410 variable, 1204 1085-86

Spiderman, 179 pr white dwarfs, 1197,1199,1201,1228 pr Strong nuclear force, 155,1110,1134 fn,

Spin: State: 1171-89,1205

boson, 1184 bound, 1035 and elementary particles, 1171-89

down, 1047,1156-57 changes of, 482-83,502-5 Strongly interacting particles (defn),

electron, 746,1047,1058-60,1072 energy, in atoms, 1003-9 1179

fermion, 1184 equation of, 463 Structure:

nuclear, 1107 for an ideal gas, 466,468 fine, 1017,1044,1047,1060

up, 1047,1156-57 van der Waals, 486-87 of universe, 1219-20

Spin angular momentum, 1047 of matter, 340,456 Struts, 324

Spin quantum number, 1047 metastable, 1061,1117 Subcritical reactions, 1139,1141

Spin-echo technique, 1158 as physical condition of system, 454, Sublimation, 483

Spin-orbit interaction, 1047,1060 463 Sublimation point, 483

Spinning top, 299-300 of a system, 454 Subshells, atomic, 1053,1054

Spiral galaxy, 1196 State variable, 455,506,539,540 Subtraction of vectors, 54-55

Splitting of atomic energy levels, 1090, Static electricity, 559-642 Suction, 348

1156-57 Static equilibrium, 311-24 Sun, 1142^3,1195,1197-1201

Spring: Static friction, 114,270 energy source of, 1142-43,1200

potential energy of, 188,193-94,377-78 coefficient of, 113-14 mass determination, 152

vibration of, 370 f f Statics, 311-28 surface temperature of, 988

Spring constant, 170,370 Stationary states in atom, 1003-10 Sunglasses, polarized, 941,942

Spring equation, 170,370 Statistics: Sunsets, 945

Spring stiffness constant, 170,370 Bose-Einstein, 1087 fn Supercluster, 1196-97

Spyglass, 889 and entropy, 546-48 Superconducting magnets, 747

Square wave, 409 Fermi-Dirac, 1087-90 Superconductivity, 668-69

Square well potential, infinitely deep, Stator, 768 Supercritical reactions, 1139,1141

1030-34 Steady-state model of universe, 1213 Superdome (New Orleans, LA), 328

Squark, 1189 Steam engine, 528,530-31 Superfluidity, 483

Stability, of particles, 1180-81 Steam power plants, 1140 Supernovae, 1177-78,1197,1201^

Stable equilibrium, 204-5,317 Stefan-Boltzmann constant, 518 as source of elements on Earth, 1201,

Stable nucleus, 1110 Stefan-Boltzmann law (or equation), 518, 1202

Standard candle, 1204 1198 type la, 1203,1204,1223

Standard conditions (STP), 466 Stellar evolution, 1200-3 Superposition, principle of, 407,408-9,

Standard length, 6,914 Stellar fusion, 1142-44 436,565,569,1141 pr

Standard mass, 6 Step-down transformer, 771 Supersaturated air, 486

Standard Model: Step-up transformer, 771 Supersonic speed, 426,443

cosmological, 1216-19 Stereo, 689,831 fn Superstring theory, 1189

elementary particles, 1165,1184-86 Sterilization, 1151 Supersymmetry, 1189

Standard of time, 6 Stern-Gerlach experiment, 1058-59 Surface area formulas, A -1, inside back

Standard temperature and pressure Stimulated emission, 1061-64 cover

(STP), 466 Stirling cycle, 557 pr Surface charge density, 641

Standards and units, 6-7 STM, 1038-39,1043 pr Surface of last scattering, 1215

Standing waves, 412-15 Stokes’s theorem, A -12-A -13 Surface tension, 359-60

fundamental frequency of, 413 Stopping a car, 32,174,272-73 Surface waves, 402,410

mathematical representation of, 414-15 Stopping potential, 990 Surfactants, 360

natural frequencies of, 412 Stopping voltage, 990 Surge protector, 792

resonant frequencies of, 412-13 Storage rings, 1169 Surgery, laser, 1064

and sources of sound, 431-35 Stove, induction, 762 Suspension bridge, 326

Stanford Linear Accelerator Center STP, 466 SUSYs, 1189

(SLAC), 1169 Strain, 320-21 SUV rollover, 308 pr

Star clusters, 1196 Strain gauge, 673 S wave, 401

Stars: 1142-43,1194-1204 and f f Strange quark, 1182 Symmetry, 10,37,140,228,233,296,313,

black holes, 156,160 pr, 161 pr, 1197, Strange particles, 1181,1182 323,325,563 fn, 565,571,572,573,

1202,1203,1208-9,1221,1228 pr Strangeness, 1179 fn, 1181-82 579,580,593,595,596,597,598,600,

clusters of, 1196 conservation of, 1181 635,637,713,738,739,740,742,743,

color of, 988,1199 Strassman, Fritz, 1136 744,774,813,815,819,847,877,907,

distance to, 1 2 0 3 ^ Streamline (defn), 352 972,997,1187,1189,1217

evolution of, 1200-3 Streamline flow, 352 Symmetry breaking, 1187,1217

Index A -67

Synapse, 669 Terminal velocity, 35 fn, 129-30 TIA, 357

Synchrocyclotron, 1167 Terminal voltage, 678-79 Tidal wave, 397

Synchrotron, 1168 Terrestrial telescope, 889 Timbre, 436

Synchrotron radiation, 1168 Tesla (T) (unit), 712 Time:

Systeme International (SI), 7, inside front Test charge, 568 absolute, 953

cover Testing, of ideas/theories, 2 characteristic expansion, 1213

Systems, 98,454,500 Tevatron, 1168,1169 lookback, 1215

closed, 500 TFTR, 1145 Planck, 16 pr, 1015 pr, 1188,1216

isolated, 218,500 Theories (general), 3 proper, 962,1191 pr

o p en ,500 Theories of everything, 1189 relativity of, 958-64,967,968-71

as set of objects, 98,454 Thermal conductivity, 515 standard of, 6

of units, 7 Thermal contact, 459 Time constant, 688,791,1119

of variable mass, 236-38 Thermal energy, 196,498 Time dilation, 960-64,970

distinguished from heat and Time intervals, 6,21

temperature, 498 Time-dependent Schrodinger equation,

Tacoma Narrows Bridge, 386 transformation of electric to, 660 1027-28

Tail-to-tip method of adding vectors, (see also Internal energy) Time-independent Schrodinger equation,

53-54 Thermal equilibrium, 459 1025-27

Tangential acceleration, 128-29,251-52 Thermal expansion, 459-62 Time’s arrow, 544

Tape recorder, 749,775 anomalous behavior of water below Tire pressure, 468

Tau lepton, 1176,1178,1179,1183 4°C, 462 Tire pressure gauge, 347

Tau lepton number, 1176-77,1179,1183 coefficients of, 460 Tokamak, 1145-46

Tau neutrino, 1178,1179 linear expansion, 459-61 Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR),

Technetium-99,1152 volume expansion, 461-62 1145

Telephone, cell, 771,812,824,832 Thermal neutron, 1136 Tomography, 1153-56

Telephoto lens, 882 Thermal pollution, 549-50 Tone color, 436

Telescope(s), 887-89,930-31 Thermal radiation, 519 Toner, 583

Arecibo, 931 Thermal resistance, 517 Top, spinning, 299-300

astronomical, 888-89 Thermal stress, 463 Top quark, 1164,1182

Galilean, 887,887 fn, 889 Thermionic emission, 620 Topness, 1183

Hale, 889 Thermistor, 660 Topographic map, 617

Hubble Space (HST), 930,1207,1211 Thermodynamic probability, 547 Toroid, 742,748

Keck, 889 Thermodynamic temperature scale, 5 48^ 9 Toroidal field, 1145

Keplerian, 887 fn, 888 Thermodynamics, 455,496-520,528-51 Torque, 256-60 and # 290 #

magnification of, 888 first law of, 505-7 counter, 769

reflecting, 889 second law of, 529-48 on current loop, 718-19

refracting, 888 third law of, 539 fn, 5 4 8 ^ 9 vector, 290

resolution of, 930-31 zeroth law of, 459 Torr (unit), 3 4 6 ^ 7

space, 930,1207,1211 Thermography, 519 Torricelli, Evangelista, 346,347-48,356

terrestrial, 889 Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) Torricelli’s theorem, 356

Television, 621,830-32,94 3 ^ 4 badge, 1149 Torsion balance, 563

Temperature, 456-59,464,469,548-59 Thermometers, 457-58 Torsion pendulum, 382

absolute, 464,469-70,548-59 bimetallic-strip, 457 Total angular momentum, 1059

Celsius (or centigrade), 457-58 constant-volume gas, 458-59 Total binding energy, 985 pr, 1108

critical, 483 liquid-in-glass, 457 Total cross section, 1135

Curie, 746,750 mercury-in-glass thermometer, 457-58 Total internal reflection, 854-56,1038

distinguished from heat and internal resistance, 660 Total magnifying power, 888

energy, 498 Thermonuclear devices, 1144 Total reaction cross reaction, 1135

Fahrenheit, 457-58 Thermonuclear runaway, 1203 Townsend, J. S., 723

Fermi, 1102 pr Thermos bottle, 521 pr Tracers, 1151-52

human body, 458,505 Thermostat, 471 pr Traffic light, LED, 1096

ideal gas scale, 469-70,534 Thin lens equation, 870-73 Transfer-RNA (t-RNA), 1079-80

Kelvin, 464,469-70,548 ^ 9 Thin lenses, 867-77 a n d # Transformation of energy, 196,201

molecular interpretation of, 476-80 Thin-film interference, 909-14 Transformations:

operating (of heat engine), 530 Third law of motion, 89-91 Galilean, 968-69

relation to molecular kinetic energy, Third law of thermodynamics, 539 fn, Lorentz, 969-71

478-79,498-99,512-13 548-49 Transformer, 770-73,787

relation to molecular velocities, 476-82 Thomson, G. P., 998 Transformer equation, 771

scales of, 457-58,464,469-70,534 Thomson, J. J., 722-23,998,999 Transient ischemic attack (TIA ), 357

of star, 1198 Thought experiment, 958 a n d # Transistors, 1094,1097-98

transition, 668 definition, 958 Transition elements, 1054

Temperature coefficient of resistivity, Three Mile Island, 1139 Transition temperature, 668

658,659-60 Three-dimensional waves, 402-3 Transitions, atoms and molecules, allowed

Tennis serve, 81 pr, 216,220 Three-phase ac, 803 and forbidden, 1048-49,1061 fn,

Tensile strength, 322 Three-way lightbulb, 704 pr 1080-81,1083,1084

Tensile stress, 320-21 Threshold energy, 1134,1163 pr Translational kinetic energy, 172-73

Tension (stress), 320-21 Threshold of hearing, 431 Translational motion, 18-239

Tension in flexible cord, 97 Threshold of pain, 431 and center of mass (CM), 234-36,

Terminal, of battery, 653,655 Thrust, 237 268-69

A -68 Index

Transmission coefficient, 1037,1143 pr Unified atomic mass units (u), 7,455, Vaporization, latent heat of, 502,503,

Transmission electron microscope, 1000 1106,1107 505

Transmission grating, 933 # Unified theories, grand (G UT), 155, Variable acceleration, 39-43

Transmission lines, 772-73,825 1187-88 Variable mass systems, 236-38

Transmission of electricity, 772-73 Uniform circular motion, 119-25 Variable stars, 1204

Transmutation of elements, 1111,1132-35 dynamics of, 122-25 Vector cross product, 289-90

Transuranic elements, 1134 kinematics of, 119-22 Vector displacement, 20,52-54,59-60

Transverse waves, 398 f f Uniformly accelerated motion, 28 ff, Vector field, 575

EM waves, 819 62# Vector form of Coulomb’s law, 567

and earthquakes, 401 Uniformly accelerated rotational motion, Vector kinematics, 59-74

velocity of, 399 255 Vector model (atoms), 1069 pr, 1070 pr

Traveling sinusoidal wave, mathematical Unit conversion, 8-9, inside front cover Vector product, 289-90

representation of, 404-6 Unit vectors, 59 Vector sum, 52-58,95,143,217

Triangle, on a curved surface, 1207 Units of measurement, 6 Vectors, 2 0,52-62,167-68,289-90

Triangulation, 11,1203 fn converting, 8-9, inside front cover addition of, 52-58

Trigonometric functions and identities, prefixes, 7 angular momentum, 288,291

56,57, A -4-A -5, inside back cover in problem solving, 9,30,102 average acceleration, 60

Trigonometric table, A-5 Units and standards, 6-7 components of, 55-59

Triple point, 469,483 Universal gas constant, 466 cross product, 289-90

Tritium, 1105,1129 pr, 1144-45 Universal law of gravitation, 1 39,140^ 3, instantaneous acceleration, 60

Tritium dating, 1129 pr 199-201,564,1205 instantaneous velocity, 60

t-RNA, 1079-80 Universe: kinematics, 59-74

Trough, 397 age of, 1188 fn, 1213 magnetization, 750

Trusses, 324-27 Big Bang theory of, 1188, 1212 f f multiplication of, 55,167-68,289-90

Tsunami, 397 CDM model of, 1224 multiplication, by a scalar, 55

Tubes: critical density of, 1221-22 parrallelogram method of adding,

flow in, 353-55,357,358-59 curvature of, 1207-8,1220-21 54

vibrating column of air in, 431 f f entire, 1216 position, 59-60,62

Tunnel diode, 1038 expanding, 1209-13,1221-23 Poynting, 826-27

Tunneling: finite or infinite, 1194,1208-9,1213, pseudo-, 254 fn

of light wave, 1038 1221 resolution of, 55-58

through a barrier, 1036-39,1113 future of, 1221-23 resultant, 52-54,57-58

Tlirbine, 549,767 homogeneous, 1212 scalar (dot) product, 167-68

Turbulent flow, 352,357 inflationary scenario of, 1217,1219-21 subtraction of, 54-55

Turn signal, automobile, 691 isotropic, 1212 sum, 52-58,95,143

Turning points, 204 matter-dominated, 1219-21 tail-to-tip method of adding, 53-54

Twin paradox, 963 observable, 1215-16 torque, 290

Two-dimensional waves, 402 origin of elements in, 1201-2 unit, 59

Tycho Brahe, 149 radiation-dominated, 1218-19 vector (cross) product, 289-90

Type la supernovae (SNIa), 1203,1204, Standard M odel of, 1216-19 Velocity, 20-24,60

1223 steady-state model of, 1213 addition of, 71-74,970-71

Tyrolean traverse, 106 pr, 338 pr Unobservable (universe), 1221 angular, 250-55

Unpolarized light (defit), 941 average, 20-22,60

Unstable equilibrium, 205,317 drift, 666-68,723,724

UA1 detector, 1173 Unstable nucleus, 1 1 1 0 # escape, 201,1222

Ultimate speed, 974 Up quark, 1182 of EM waves, 819-22

Ultimate strength, 319,322 Uranium: gradient, 358

Ultracapacitors, 644 pr in dating, 1121-24 instantaneous, 22-24,60

Ultracentrifuge, 122 enriched, 1138 of light, 6,822,825-26,850,902,953,

Ultrasonic frequencies, 426,445 fission of, 1136-41 957,975

Ultrasonic waves, 426,442,445-46 in reactors, 1136-41 molecular, and relation to

Ultrasound, 445 Uranus, 150,152 temperature, 479-82

Ultrasound imaging, 445-46 Useful magnification, 932-33 phase, 404-5

Ultraviolet (U V ) light, 823,824,852 U V light, 823,824,852 relative, 71-74

Unavailability of energy, 545-46 relativistic addition of, 970-71

Uncertainty (in measurements), 3-5, rms (root-mean-square velocity),

1020-23 Vacuum energy, 1223 479-82

estimated, 3 Vacuum pump, 361 of sound, 425

percent, 3 -4, 5 Vacuum state, 1174-75,1220 supersonic, 426,443

Uncertainty principle, 1020-23,1036, Valence, 1054 terminal, 35 fn, 129-30

1072 Valence band, 1091-92 of waves, 397,399-401

and particle resonance, 1181 Van de Graaff generator, 607,627 pr Velocity selector, 717

and tunneling, 1113 van der Waals, J. D., 486 Velocity-dependent forces, 129-30

Underdamped system, 383 van der Waals bonds and forces, 1077-80, Ventricular fibrillation, 638,692

Underexposure, 879 1086 Venturi meter, 357

Underwater vision, 885 van der Waals equation of state, 486-87 Venturi tube, 357

Unification distance, 1192 pr van der Waals gas, 487 Venus, 150,158 pr, 887

Unification scale, 1187 Vapor (defn), 483 (see also Gases) Vertical (defn), 92 fh

Unified (basis of forces), 1186 Vapor pressure, 484-85 Vibrating strings, 412-15,431-33

Index A -69

Vibration, 369-86 saturated vapor pressure, 484 square, 409

of air columns, 434-36 specific gravity of, 341,351 standing, 412-15,431-35

forced, 385-87 thermal expansion of, 462 on a string, 412-15,431-33

molecular, 499,512-13,1082-85 triple point of, 469,483 surface, 402,410

as source of waves, 397 Watson, J., 939 three-dimensional, 402-3

of spring, 370 f f Watt, James, 202 fn tidal, 397

on strings, 412-14,431-3 Watt (W) (unit), 202,661 transmission of, 409

(see also Oscillations) Wave(s), 395-416,817 ff, 823 ff, transverse, 398 ff, 399,401,819,940

Vibrational energy, 377-78 900-45 traveling, 404-6

molecular, 499,513,1082-85 amplitude of, 371,397,402,404,426, two-dimensional, 402

Vibrational quantum number, 1083 430,1019 and tunneling, 1038

Vibrational transition, 1082-85 bow, 443-44 types of, 398-99 (see also Light)

Virtual image, 840,870 complex, 408,436 ultrasonic, 426,442,445-46

Virtual particles, 1172 composite, 408,436 velocity of, 397,399-401,819-22

Virtual photon, 1172 compression, 398,401 water, 395 f f

Viscosity, 352,353 fn, 358-59 continuous (defn), 397 (see also Light)

coefficient of, 358 diffraction of, 416,901,921-39 Wave displacement, 404 ff, 1019

Viscous force, 358-59 dispersion, 409,853 Wave equation, 406-8,822

Visible light, wavelengths of, 823,852-54 displacement of, 404 f f Schrodinger, 1025-36,1045-46,1082,

Visible spectrum, 852-54 earthquake, 401,402,403,416 1090

Volt (V) (unit), 608 electromagnetic, 817-32 (see also Wave front, 410,901

Volt-Ohm-Meter/Volt-Ohm- Light) Wave function, 1018-20,1025-39

Milliammeter (VOM ), 696 energy in, 402-3 for H atom, 1045,1046,1049-51,1072

Volta, Alessandro, 608,629,652 expansions in, 398 for square well, 1030-36

Voltage, 607,608 ff, 653 ff, 678 f f frequency, 397 Wave intensity, 402-3,427-31,826-27,

base bias, 1097 front, 410,901 906-9,924-29

bias, 1095 function, 1018-20,1025-37,1045, Wave motion (see Wave(s); Light;

breakdown, 612 1049-51 Sound)

electric field related to, 610-11, gravity, 1224 Wave nature of electron, 1020

617-19 harmonic (defn), 405 Wave nature of matter, 997-99,

Hall, 1094 incident, 410,415 1009-10

hazards of, 692-94 infrasonic, 426 Wave number (defn), 404

measuring, 695-97 in-phase, 411 Wave packet, 1029

p eak ,664 intensity, 402-3,427-31,826-27 Wave theory of light, 900-45

ripple, 1096 interference of, 410-11,437-38, Wave velocity, 397,399-401,819-22

rms, 664 903-14 (see also Light; Sound)

terminal, 678-79 light, 821-26,900-45,1038 (see also Wave interference phenomenon, 903

(see also Electric potential) Light) W ave-particle duality:

Voltage drop, 684 (see Voltage) linear, 402 of light, 997

Voltage gain (defn), 1097 longitudinal (defn), 398 of matter, 997-99,1009-10,1018-22

Voltaic battery, 652 mathematical representation of, 404-6, Wavelength:

Voltmeter, 695-97,721 426-27 absorption, 1008

digital, 695,697 of matter, 9 9 7 -9 9 ,1 0 0 9 -1 0 ,1 0 1 9 // Compton, 994

Volume change under pressure, 321 mechanical, 395-416 cutoff, 1055-56

Volume expansion (thermal), 460, motion of, 395-416 de Broglie, 997-98,1009-10,1019,

461-62 number, 404 1025,1165-66

coefficient of, 461 one-dimensional, 402-3 definition, 397

Volume formulas, A -l, inside back cover out-of-phase, 411 depending on index of refraction, 853,

Volume holograms, 1065 P, 401,403,416 902

Volume rate of flow, 353 packet, 1029 as limit to resolution, 932,1165-66

VOM, 696 period of, 397 of material particles, 997-9,1009-10

von Laue, Max, 939 periodic (defn), 397 Weak bonds, 1077-80,1086

phase of, 404,411 Weak charge, 1185

plane, 410,818,819,1028-29 Weak nuclear force, 155,1110,1115,

W± particles, 1173,1178-80,1183, power, 402 1173-89,1205

1185 pressure, 401,426 f f Weather, 302,525 pr

Walking, 90 pulse, 396 Weber (Wb) (unit), 760

Water: radio, 823-24,931 Weight, 84,86,92-94,143

anomalous behavior below 4°C, 462 rarefactions in, 398 as a force, 86,92

cohesion of, 360 reflection of, 409-10 force of gravity, 84,92-94,143

density of, 340-41,351 refraction of, 415-16 mass compared to, 86,92

dipole moment of, 617 S, 401 Weightlessness, 148-49

and electric shock, 693 shock, 443-44 Weinberg, S., 1186

expansion of, 462 sinusoidal traveling, 404-6 Well, finite potential, 1035-36

heavy, 1138 sound, 424-46,824 Well, infinite potential, 1030-34

latent heats of, 503 source of, oscillations as, 397 Wess, J., 1189

molecule, 1074,1075 speed of (see Speed of light; Speed of W heatstone bridge, 704 pr

polar nature of, 561,579,617,1074 sound) W heel balancing, 296

properties of: inside front cover spherical, 403,410 Whirlpool galaxy, 1196

A -70 Index

White dwarfs, 1197,1199,1201,1228 pr done by a varying force, 168-71 YBCO superconductor, 668

White light, 852-53 in first law of thermodynamics, Yerkes Observatory, 888

White-light holograms, 1065 505-7 Young, Thomas, 903,906

Whole-body dose, 1149 from heat engines, 530 f f Young’s double-slit experiment, 903-9,

Wide-angle lens, 882,892 and power, 201 927-29,1019-20

Width, of resonance, 1181 relation to energy, 172-74,186-89,197, Young’s modulus, 319

Wien, W., 988 201,266 Yo-Yo, 271,281 pr

W ien’s displacement law, 988,1198 rotational, 266 Yttrium, barium, copper, oxygen

W ien’s radiation theory, 988 units of, 164 superconductor (YBCO), 668

Wilkinson, D., 1214 Work function, 990-91,1090 Yukawa, Hideki, 1171-73

Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe Work-energy principle, 172-73,176,266, Yukawa particle, 1171-73

(W MAP), 1193,1214 974,978

Wilson, Robert, 1168 fn, 1213-14 energy conservation vs., 197

Wind instruments, 433-36 general derivation of, 176 Z (atomic number), 1052,1054-56,

Wind power, 550 as reformulation of N ewton’s laws, 1105

Windings, 720 173 Z° particle, 1042 pr, 1173,1178-80,1183,

Windshield wipers, 691 Working substance (defn), 530 1185

Wing of an airplane, lift on, 356-57 Wright, Thomas, 1194 Z-particle decay, 1173

Wire, ground, 693,694 Zeeman effect, 731 pr, 1047,1057,1059

Wire drift chamber, 1125,1164 Zener diode, 1095

Wireless communication, 812,829-32 Xerox (see Photocopier) Zero, absolute, temperature of, 464,

Wire-wound resistors, 657 Xi (particle), 1179 549

WMAP, 1193,1214 X-rays, 823,824,938-39,1054-56,1117, Zero-point energy, 1031,1036-37,

Work, 163-76,199,266,497,505-10 1153-54 1042 pr, 1083

to bring positive charges together, and atomic number, 1054-56 Zeroth law of thermodynamics, 459

613 characteristic, 1055 Zoom, digital, 882

compared to heat, 505 in electromagnetic spectrum, 823 Zoom lens, 882

defined, 164,169,505 f f spectra, 1054-56 Zumino, B., 1189

done by a constant force, 164-66 X-ray crystallography, 939 Zweig, G., 1182

done by a gas, 508 f f X-ray diffraction, 938-39

done by a spring force, 170-71 X-ray scattering, 994-95

Index A-71

Photo Credits

Cover photos top left clockwise NASA/John F. Kennedy Space Center; Mahaux Photography/Getty Images, Inc-Im age Bank;

The Microwave Sky: NASA/W M AP Science Team; Giuseppe Molesini, Istituto Nazionale di Ottica Florence CO-1 © Reuters/Corbis

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Tab le o f Contents Photos p. iii le ft © Reuters/Corbis; rig h t A gence Zoom/Getty Images p. iv le ft Ben Margot/AP Wide World

Photos; rig h t Kai Pfaffenbach/Reuters Limited p. v Jerry Driendl/Taxi/Getty Images p. v i le ft Richard Price/Photographer’s

Choice/Getty Images; rig h t Frank Herholdt/Stone/Getty Images p. v iii Richard Megna/Fundamental Photographs, NYC

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p. x © Richard Cummins/Corbis p. x i le ft Fermilab/Science Photo Library/Photo Researchers, Inc.; rig h t The Microwave Sky:

NASA/W M AP Science Team p. x v ii Douglas C. Giancoli

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