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Journal of Coastal Development ISSN : 1410-5217

Volume 12 Number 1 : 1-12

MARINE BIODISCOVERY RESEARCH IN INDONESIA :


CHALLENGES AND REWARDS

Ekowati Chasanah
Research Centre for Marine and Fisheries Product Processing and Biotechnology,
Jl. KS Tubun, Petamburan VI, Jakarta 10260, Indonesia

Received : June, 02, 2008 ; Accepted : August,27,2008

ABSTRACT

Marine biodiscovery or bioprospecting activity is a search for marine products derived from marine
biodiversity that can be developed for various industrial needs. Including in this activity is the process
of identifying chemical compounds made by biological organisms which is often called natural product
discovery. Indonesia, well known as a mega-diversity country, is one of the world hot sport of marine
biodiversity. The richness of biodiversity is claimed as mirror of the richness of the chemical
compounds, therefore, Indonesian waters might be rewarded with variety of chemical compounds
thought to be an endless source of novel drugs and drug leads for pharmaceutical use. Up to 2007, at
least 77 new compounds from 14 sponges and 19 new compounds from non-sponge organisms with
pharmacological potential have been identified from Indonesian waters. To make this richness
potentials becoming real in economic value, many factors should be considered. The bioactive is
produced in small quantity, and the lengthy process from discovery step of a novel compound to the
preclinical and clinical trials step is usually becoming a problem. Mari culture might be one among
methods that can be developed in Indonesia to overcome the degradation hazard of marine resources.
Conducive environment for investments, and improvement of technology on marine bioactive production
through mariculture are factors to be improved to initiate and develop a sustainable biotechnology
industries in Indonesia.

Keywords : marine biodiscovery, Indonesia, pharmacological potential

Correspondence : Phone : +62-21-53650158; +62-21-53650157; email : ekowati_ch@yahoo.com

INTRODUCTION

Humans have been taking advantage of “Drug from the sea” started to boom
marine chemical compounds present in after the 1967-symposium in Rhode Island
marine organisms for various needs such as University (Fusetani, 2000). Marine natural
food sources and disease remedies since products, especially secondary metabolite
ancient times. For Indonesian people, compounds, are thought to be an endless
chemical compounds present in marine as source of novel drugs and drug leads for
well as the terrestrial organisms have pharmaceutical use. Richness of the
popularly been used as “jamu”, a traditional chemical compounds in marine environment
medicine, through indigenous knowledge generally positively correlated with the
passed from one generation to generation richness of biodiversity in the environment
since hundreds of years ago.
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Indonesia is one of the ten countries related Indonesian research institutions as


with the richest biodiversity, and is often well as universities. Beginning in 1990,
known as a mega-diversity country marine natural product research activities
(Anonymous, 2003). In more than 20 years, have been started by Indonesian researchers.
Indonesia has become a target for bioactive However, due to some limitations in
marine natural product chemistry research, research resources, the progress is not
and numbers of novel compounds and significant especially in the form of
scientific papers have been published as international scientific papers, patent and
cited in the following section. The commercial products. Mostly, biodiscovery
uniqueness and richness of biological research activities done in Indonesia is
diversity of Asia and Australia and the superficial (i.e preliminary screening
transitional zone of the two continents is towards various biological activities), and
present in Indonesia. This is supported by more depth activities are usually done in
the geological history and topology of foreign country laboratories. Therefore, the
Indonesia which is located in the products of invention of advance step such
biodiversity path of the Asian continent as structure of novel compounds, including
(Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan) and Australia patent of their product and process are
(Papua) and in the transitional zone of the usually under the properties of foreign-
Wallace (Sulawesi, Maluku and Nusa researchers.
Tenggara Islands). More than 75% of World marine natural products
Indonesia’s area is marine with 81,000 km chemistry research, in more than 20 years,
of shoreline, the second largest after Canada. has resulted many novel compounds, and
This marine biodiversity is considered under some of them have been in the preclinical
explored and not fully studied (Anonymous, test for further commercialization, while
2003; de Voogd, 2005). Therefore, some others are already commercialized
Indonesian marine biodiversity has become (Faulkner, 2000). More than 2,700 research
a target of world and domestic biodiscovery, papers concerning sponges, the most
especially marine natural products chemistry secondary metabolite-rich compounds
research. among marine organism, have been
This review will cover natural published up to year 2000 (Fusateni, 2000).
products chemistry research using There are approximately 850 species of
Indonesian biota, both by Indonesian as well sponge are believed to be present in
as foreign scientists. Organisms, both micro Indonesia (de Voogd & van Soest, 2002),
and macro, used in these studies are from and up to 2007, at least 77 new compounds
the entire Indonesian marine area, and from 14 sponges and 19 new compounds
almost all marine. Sponge, gorgonian and from non-sponge organisms (soft coral, sea
soft coral attracted more attention and more pen, octocoral and ascidians) with
studied as being well known as rich sources pharmacological potential that will be
of novel secondary metabolites. described below.

Sponges
BIODISCOVERY RESEARCH IN The distribution, ecological study as well as
INDONESIA sponges bioactivity (based on its brine
shrimp, Artemia salina, lethality assay) of
Spermonde archipelago, Sulawesi were
Marine biodiscovery research, including
studied by de Voogd (2005). From the
natural products chemistry, in Indonesia has
study, nine (9) sponges were considered
been actively conducted by several marine-
potential to be developed. The sponge
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Acanthodendrilla sp. collected from Badi 1999). Further investigation on that sponge
Island, Makasar, was investigated by revealed that three (3) new cyclic peptides,
William et al. (2004), identifying barangamide B, C and D have been isolated
meroterpenoid MAPKAP (MK2) inhibitor. along with four (4) new depsipeptides.
Mapkap kinase-2 has important role in the Immunomodulatory test of these compounds
regulation of TNF-α production, meaning showed that barangamide A exhibited no
that the compound represents a potential immunosuppressive activity up to
therapeutic agent to treat inflammatory concentration of 100 µg/mL, while all
diseases. Boneratamides A-C, new theonellapeptolides showed mild activity
sesquiterpenoids, were isolated from sponge (Roy et al., 2000).
Axinyssa aplysinoides from the same Study on sponge Ianthella basta from
surrounding Makasar waters (Williams Manado Bay resulted in two (2) more
et al. 2004), while a new acyclic bastadins, i.e. bastadin 16 and bastadin 17.
diketotriterpenoid has been isolated from Bastadin compounds are well known as
Hyrtios erectus sponges, from the inner reef predominantly macrocyclic sponge
of Ujung Pandang. This new compound was metabolite compounds (Park et al., 1994).
biologically inactive, however, the crude Bobzin et al. (2000) used dereplication
extract of the sponge had significant techniques to identify aaptamine from the
antimitotic activity (Williams et al., 1999). sponge Aaptos sp. which was harvested
From the sponge Stylissa carteri, harvested from Manado, northern Sulawesi, while
from the waters in the same area, new Park et al. (1995) studied sponge Lufariella
alkaloids latonduines A and B were isolated sp. from the same waters and isolated three
by Linington et al. (2003), while two (3) metabolites, i.e. aaptamine, germacrene
(2) new bromopyrrole alkaloids, i.e. alcohol and hexacyclic terpene. The
debromostevensine and debromohymenin metabolites showed in vitro activity against
were isolated from the same sponge species the KB cancer cell line. From the North
collected from Ambon and Sulawesi waters Sulawesi sponge Theonella cf. swinhoei,
(Eder et al., 1999). Chemical study of the bitungolides A-F have been isolated. The
sponge Leucetta chagosensis from South bitungolides were claimed as a new class of
Sulawesi waters found five (5) new Theonella metabolites that are capable of
imidazole alkaloids, namely naamine F, inhibiting dual-specificity phosphatase VHR
naamine G, kealiinine A, kealiinine B and (Sirirath et al., 2002). A study on a sponge
kealiinine C (Hassan et al., 2004). Naamine from Knife cape, Manado Bay, resulted in
G showed antifungal activity against seven (7) manzamine type alkaloid
Cladosporium herbarum and mild compounds, i.e. two (2) β-carbolines and
cytotoxicity against mouse lymphoma and five (5) nucleosides. Among them, five (5)
human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cell lines. new compounds were identified as 32,33-
Crude extract of Phyllospongia sp. from dihydro-31-hydroxymanzamine A, 32,33-
Makasar’s surrounding waters showed dihydro-6 -dihydroxymanzamine A-35-one,
cytotoxicity, and seven (7) new scalarane des-N-methylxestomanzamine A, 32,33-
class sesterterpenes have been isolated. All dihydro-6,31-dihydroxymanzamine A and
scalaranes isolated exhibited 30-95% 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronorharman-1-one. Most
inhibition of KB cells at a concentration of manzamines were active against
10 µg/mL (Roy et al., 2002). From sponge Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Rv),
Theonella swinhoei, harvested at malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and
Baranglompo Island, barangamide A, a Leishmania donovani (Rao et al., 2003). In
cyclic undecapeptide possessing three N- 1995, an unsymmetrical manzamine dimmer
methylated amino acids, and three β- called kauluamine, was isolated from sponge
alanines, have been isolated (Roy et al., Prianos sp. harvested from Manado Bay
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(Ohtani et al., 1995), while Makaluvamine HT-29 and MEL-28 cancer cell lines with
G was isolated from the sponge IC50 values of 1µg/mL.
Histodermella sp. The compound exhibited Marine sponges harvested from waters
significant in vitro cytotoxicity to several surrounding Jakarta showed antimicrobial
tumor cell lines and moderate inhibition of activity as well as cytotoxicity. The
topoisomerase I, DNA, RNA and protein compounds isolated from the sponge
synthesis (Carney et al., 1993). Xestospongia were 4 novel alkaloids of the
From West Sumatra waters, four (4) aaptamine class as well as known
new polybrominated diphenyl ether aaptamine, isoaaptamine, demethyl (oxy)
congeners along with 3 known derivatives aaptamine and its dymethylketal (Calcul et
have been isolated from sponge of Dysidea al., 2003). Their antimicrobial activity
herbacea Keller (Handayani et al, 1997). towards S. aureus (gram +), E. coli and V.
The new polybrominated compounds were angillarum (gram -), and the fungus C.
active against a brine shrimp, and all the tropicalis as well as cytotoxicity against
compounds isolated were positive against human buccal carcinoma KB was
gram positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and investigated. The results showed aaptamine
the phytopathogenic fungus C. 1 and isoaaptamine 2 exhibited antifungal
cucumerinum. activity, while significant cytotoxicity
A sponge Acanthodendrilla sp. from against KB cells was detected in aaptamine
Kundingarengke Island was investigated by 1, isoaaptamine2 and demethyl (oxy)
Elkhayat et al. (2004), and 5 new aaptamine 3. Bisdemethylaaptamine, a
luffariellolide-related sesterterpenes namely proposed biosynthetic precursor of
acantholides A-E, in addition to known aaptamine and bisdemethylaaptamine-9-O-
luffrariellolide and its 25-O-methyl and 25- sulfate, has been isolated from the sponge
O-ethyl derivatives, have been isolated. The Aaptos sp. from near Bunaken Island,
luffariellolide, its 25-O-methyl derivative Manado. This was the first report of a
and acantholide E exhibited cytotoxic sulfated aaptamine of bisdemethylaaptamine
activity against the mouse lymphoma -9-O-sulfate (Herlt et al., 2004). Meanwhile,
L5187Y cell line. Acantholide B, the reddish brown, branching sponge
luffariellolide and its 25-O-methyl Echinochalina sp. collected from Derawan
derivative were active against Escherichia Island, contained upenamide. This
coli, Candida albicans and the pathogenic compound was a new class of macrocyclic
fungus Cladosporium herbarum. Twelve marine alkaloid having both
new sesterterpenes, honulactones A-L have spirooxaquinolizidinone and hemiaminal
been isolated from a lipophilic extract of the ring systems (Jimenez et al., 2000). Two
sponge Stresichordaia aliena, family compounds of of 3,6-epidioxy fatty acid,
Thorectidae, and further investigation led to monadic acids A and B have been isolated
the isolation of 6 new compounds of 20, 24- from an undescribed species of sponge
bishomoscalaran sesterterpenes, namely Plakortis sp. These new structural types of
honu’enone, phyllofolactones H-K and fatty acids possess both 4-alkyl and 6-
phyllofenone C. The sponge was harvested methoxy substituent (Ichiba et al., 1995).
from Turtle Bay, Sangkali, Eastern
Indonesia waters (Jimenez et al., 2000). Non Sponge (Soft corals, Seapen,
Additionally, from the dichloromethane/2- Octacorals, Marine algae)
propanol extract of the same organism, 12
new 20,24-bishomoscalaranes, namely From West Sumatera, two new oxygenated
honulactones A-L were isolated (Jiminez et sesquiterpenes, i.e. hydroxycolorenone and
al., 2000). Honulactones A, B, C and D methoxycolorenone have been isolated from
showed cytotoxicity against P-388, A-549,
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soft coral Nephthea chabrolii (Handayani et compounds have been isolated from the
al, 1997). Hydroxycolorenone showed Indonesian ascidian Lissoclinum cf. badium.
insecticidal activity against neonate larvae The new compounds have polysulfur
of the polyphagus pest insect Spodoptera aromatic amine, and were able to inhibit the
littoralis. human promyelocytic leukemia cell line
The gorgonian Briareum sp. from HL-60. The effect of 7 compounds on IL-8
Togian Island, near South Sulawesi, was production in PMA-stimulated HL-60 cells
studied by Rodriguez et al. (1998). revealed the relation of their structures to the
They isolated 2 new briarane stecholide IL-8 production activity, the inhibition of
diterpenes, namely 2,9 - diacetyl – 2 - cell proliferation and the survival of HL-60
debutyrylstecholide H and 13- cells (Oda et al., 2000).
dehydroxystecholide J, with the first A new secosterol compound, along
reported cytotoxic activity of the stecholide. with pachyclavulariaenone B, was isolated
New briarane diterpenes have been reported from octacoral Pachyclavularia violacea
to be isolated from Indonesian sea pen (Anta et al., 2002), from Togian Island.
Veretillum malayense, designated as Marine red alga (Rhodophyta)
malayenolides A-D. Instead of containing Ceratodictyon spongiosum and its symbiotic
acetate and alkanoat groups, this four new sponge Sigmadocia symbiotica harvested
diterpenes contains benzoate and senecioate from Biaro Island, have been investigated
substituent. This compounds showed for their chemical substances. Two isomers
toxicity to brine shrimp with LC50s of <2- of a new and bioactive thiazole-containing
100 ug/mL (Fu et al., 1999). Soft coral cyclic heptapeptide, namely cis,cis-
Xenia sp. from Togian Island waters ceratospongamide and trans, trans-
produced 2 new xeniolides, i.e. xeniolide –F ceratospongamide have been isolated (Tan
and 9-hydroxyxeniolide-F (Anta et al., et al., 2000). The last compound was
2002). All the compounds isolated showed capable of inhibiting the expression of a
an IC50 > 1 µg/mL against mouse (P-388) human-sPLA2 promoter-based reporter by
and human (A-549, HT-29, MEL-28) tumor 90%, while the first one did not show
cell lines. The soft coral Lobophytum sp. activity.
collected from a reef wall of Mayu Island,
Molluca sea, was studied by Morris et al. Activity of Indonesian Research
(1998), and a secosterol with a gorgosterol Institution on Marine Biodiscovery
side chain and unusual oxygenation pattern
on the A and B rings has been isolated. The A group of scientists from Diponegoro
compound, having A and B rings with University, Indonesia, have studied 10
hydroxyl group at C-3 and C-7 and an marine organisms (sponges, gorgonians and
epoxide ring at C-5 – C-6, was found active soft corals) from Flores waters, and 5
against human ovarian tumor and human organisms from Jepara, Central Java waters.
leukemia cell lines. The research found that all crude extracts
New tetracyclic pyridoacridine were active on the L-1210 mouse
alkaloids have been claimed to be isolated lymphocytic leukemia cell line, giving the
from Ujung Pandang waters of ascidian activity value of < 10 mg/L. The most active
Eusynstyela latericius (Cropp et al., 1998). compound from gorgonian Isis hippuris was
Four compounds, namely styelsamines A-D, identified as gorgosterol derivative (Trianto
exhibited mild cytotoxicity against the et al., 2006).
human colon tumor cell line HCT-116 with The research group of Sam Ratulangi
IC50 values of 33, 89, 2.6 and 1.6 µM, University, Manado have investigated
respectively. Three new compounds, sponges, soft corals and algae for
lissoclibadins, together with 4 known
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antibacteria, bio-insecticides, antifeedant based on traditional knowledge with various


and other bioactive compounds. Results target screens, i.e. antimicrobial,
showed that extracts of sponges bioinsecticide, anticancer, antioxidant,
Hymanicidon sp., Placortis nigra, Theonella biopigment, enzymes and their inhibitors,
sp., and Placortis nigra, Ianthella sp., and UV protection etc. Antimicrobial
soft corals of Sinularia gravis and compounds were extracted from Caulerpa
Sarcophyton cinereu had antibacterial racemosa, Sesuvium postulacastrum,
activity, while those from Petrosia Xylocarpus granatum, Ulva lactuca. and sea
nigricans, Placospongia melobesioides, cucumber Stichopus sp. Antioxidants were
Rhabdastrella cf globostellata, Stylissa cf do tained from sea stars Astropecten sp.,
carteri, Placospongia melobesiodes, Pemphis sp., and Discodoris sp., while
Theonella sp., Placospongia melobesioides steroid compounds was detected from
were active against Aedes aegypti larvae. Discodoris sp., and Eunice sp.
Extracts of Placospongia melobesioides, Research Center for Marine and
Acervochalina confusa, Petrosia nigricans Fisheries Product Processing and
and Petrosia contignata possesed analgesic Biotechnology, Research of Marine
activity. Extracts of sponges of Cinachyra Fisheries Agency has been doing marine
sp., Theonella sp., Xestospongia sp., bioprospecting research focusing in both
Halichondria, Hoplochalina and primary and secondary metabolites from
Perissinella and soft corals Sinularia marine sources for food and non food use.
ramosa, S. capillosa, S. procera, S. Enzymes and secondary metabolite
compressa, S. gravis, Sarcopyton compounds from seaweed, invertebrates,
crassocaule, S. Cinereum and Nephtea sp. fishery-industrial waste, marine derived
had the capability of preventing cell microbes have become subjects of the
development of sea urchin embryos. natural product discovery research. Extracts
Antifeedant activity has been detected in of sponges and soft corals from Binuangen
extracts of soft corals of Sinularia (West Java), Seribu Island, Yogyakarta,
ovispiculata, S. granosa, S.inexplicita, Karimunjawa, Mataram, South Bali, South
Sarcophyton cinereum and extracts of alga Sulawesi (Bonarote and Wakatobi) were
Dunaliella sp., Halymenia durvillaei, investigated for the active compounds
Laurencia papillosa, Padina australis, against brine shrimp, human cancer cell
Liagora sp., Kappaphycus alvarezii, line, antimicrobes and antiangiogenesis.
Kappaphycus striatum and Turbinaria Active compounds have been identified
decurrens (Mantiri, 2005). as hymeniasidine, stevensine, and
Gadjahmada University scientists dibromocantharelline, aaptamine and its
screened seaweed, sponge and soft coral isomer isoaaptamine, trigonelline
extracts harvested from surrounding and homarine, stelliferin riboside,
Yogyakarta waters and Bali against sarcophytoxide, stelletamine, etc, and
pathogenic bacteria and fungal, i.e. confirmation of other chemical structure is
methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and in progress. Work in progress is on marine
vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA). A enzyme and secondary metabolites
compound identified as Jaspamide has been discovery using metagenomic approach as
isolated from Stylissa flabelliformis well as cultivable approach from bacteria
(Setyowati et al., 2003; 2004; 2005). The and fungi derived from the sponges.
compound exhibited cytotoxicity against
myeloma cells with an LC50 of 0.08 g/mL,
and active inhibiting Candida albicans.
Bogor Agricultural Institute (IPB)
scientists did marine biodiscovery research
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called marine factor. Mariculture is


CHALLENGES AND considered one among methods that can be
PRECAUTIONARY EFFORT developed in such Indonesia country. An
assessment of mariculture for 6 potential
From the papers reviewed, marine sponges, i.e. Aaptos suberitoides,
biodiscovery research is strongly needed to Amphimedon paraviridis, Callyspongia
gain revenue from the marine resources. (Euplacella) biru, Hyrtios reticulates, Ircina
Marine biodiscovery, the first gate of marine ramosa and Pseudoceratina purpurea has
biotechnology, offers not only potential been conducted in Spermonde archipelago,
benefit in economics through the South Sulawesi (de Voogd, 2005). The study
development of biotechnology industries but resulted Callyspongia (E.) blue sponge as
also by generating employment. Marine promising candidate due to the high survival
bioactive compounds can be developed as rate and significant growth of this species.
drugs, industrial enzymes, herbicides, Further trial development of mariculture of
cosmetics etc. as their terrestrial Callyspongia (E.) blue showed that survival,
counterparts do. It was reported that global growth rates and yield of amphitoxin, the
pharmaceutical sales were reported to be active metabolites from this organism, were
worth US$550 billion in 2004, and about relatively high (de Voogd, 2005).
half of these are made or inspired from Since marine biodiscovery research
natural products isolated from nature and its development to biotechnology
(Anonymous, 2005). Biodiscovery research industry is very high risk and expensive,
is the frontier activity before developing collaboration between research institutions
biotechnology industries, and numbers of and industries is obviously needed along
benefits can be obtained from this activity, with government support for this activity.
such as gaining understanding of marine Local cosmetics and traditional medicine
biota and other marine natural industries have used some marine organisms
environmental systems. However, as with and plants extracts along with terrestrial
other countries’ experience, there is a long plants. Participation of local industries in a
way and an expensive cost required to jump biodiscovery-terrestrial plant has initiated,
from bioprospecting/biodiscovery research however, their role in marine biodiscovery is
into the commercial step of the target very limited.
compounds found. It was reported that only A marine-biotechnological industry in
1 compound could be obtained out of 4000- Indonesia has not been developed yet. The
10,000 compounds examined, costing about government and business companies along
$ US 1 billion per new drug (Battershill et with researchers have to side by side to
al, 2005). develop marine-based biotechnology
To bring the active compounds to industries using local materials. Minimizing
pharmacies, it needs lengthy process from imported products such as nutraceuticals,
discovery step of a novel compounds to the enzymes etc. by producing the products in
preclinical and clinical trials. Supply of raw Indonesia will save Indonesian currency.
material is a big problem, because direct Favorable environment and government
extraction of the compound from marine support for investment should encourage
organisms is almost certainly unsustainable. the industry to grow. Intellectual property
Concentration of the bioactive is often right and law enforcement system in
extremely low, chemical synthesis of the Indonesia is another hindrance of foreign
compound may be difficult and costly due to investment involving high technology such
its structural complexity, and biosynthesis is as marine biotechnology industries, and the
frequently induced by a combination of so system should be improved.

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To strengthen sustainable marine essential in biodiscovery activities. The


biodiscovery research activities, the government has updated regulation on how
Department of Marine Affairs and Fisheries Indonesian organisms can be accessed by
of “Indonesia through Research Agency for foreign researcher, i.e. Government
Marine and Fisheries Research and Regulation (PP) no. 41, 2006 by Ministry of
Directorate of Marine, Coastal and Small Science and Technology. Collection
Islands has initiated founding a scientific protocols of the genetic resources as well as
forum called “Indonesian Marine Bio- protocols on benefit sharing by using the
pharmaceutical” in July 2005. The resources should be made to follow up the
networking among research institutions, regulation. In the past, lack of the regulation
universities, government and industries is led to unmanageability of sample access
expected to speed up marine biodiscovery especially from the marine environment,
activities by sharing the research resources including allowable quantity and sample
among the member and encouraging depository. Numbers of Indonesian marine
industries to use the technology developed organisms have been deposited at foreign
by the researcher. Through this networking, institutes, such as the Netherlands and
bargaining position in international research Hawaii museums or foreign universities.
collaborations or other activities could be Lack of the protocols led to excessive
improved, obtaining better benefit sharing sampling of marine organisms, sometimes in
without sacrificing the marine resource. This excessive size, to be taken from their
Forum will have a significant role in helping inhabitances. Furthermore, due to limited
the government in setting up the sampling equipments for biodiscovery activity in
protocols and other technical matters Indonesia, the research is mostly done in
regarding sustainable marine biodiscovery foreign countries without proper benefit
activities. sharing guided by government.
The Government of Indonesia through
the Indonesian Ministry of Science and
Technology, gave attention to this
bioprospecting/biodiscovery activity by CONCLUDING REMARKS
developing and building the Bio-island
project. The aims of the project include Global commercial interest in marine
creating a special economic zone for biodiscovery is increasing. Being mega-
biotechnology activity, both research and its biodiversity blessed, Indonesia has an
commercialization, in Rempang Island by opportunity to develop marine biodiscovery
2007 (Anonymous, 2003), with focused program, and biotechnology industry for
activity on biotechnology of agriculture and their people’s prosperity. However, a lot of
food, pharmacology, marine and fisheries, homework is needed to be done to make
and industries & environment. Along with biodiscovery activity in Indonesia is in
Bio-island, a center of bio prospecting Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
activities will be built and called Bio park in corridor. The government support and
Serpong, West Java. The center, complete encouragement to research institutions and
with microbe and other biodiversity biotechnological industries to induce
collections as well as a gene bank, will be biodiscovery activities in a sustainable
posted as a place for interaction between manner are needed. This include developing
industries and bio-prospecting researchers. regulation on the access including
However, with unknown reason, the project establishing an efficient and sustainable
is stuck without progress. collection of biodiversity, introducing
Regulation related with marine benefit sharing, providing support to the
organism access and its law enforcement is research center and stimulating biodiscovery
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research by improving research resources. the ocean depths.Biologist 52 (2) :107-


These actions are definitely in urgent need 114
otherwise the blessing of marine mega-
biodiversity is lost to foreign prosperity. Bobzin, SC., Yang S. and Kasten TP. 2000.
LC-NMR: a new tool to expedite the
dereplication and identification of
natural products. J. Industrial Microb
ACKNOWLEDGMENT Biotechnol (25): 342-345
This study is supported by AUSAID through Calcul L., Longeon A., Mourabit AA.,
PSLP-Indonesia project ROU 37118. Thank Guyot M. and Bourguet-Kondracki
you to Dr. Anthony D. Wright and Prof. Ris. ML. 2003. Novel alkaloids of the
Dr. Endang Sri Heruwati for reviewing the aaptamine class from an Indonesian
manuscript. marine sponge of the genus
Xestospongia. Tetrahedron 59 : 6539-
6544
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65 : 419-425.

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