Sei sulla pagina 1di 39

Promoting specialty textile and fabrics: Marketing products from the art of weaving

Jamdani and Jute diversified products (JDP) of Bangladesh in Canada

Submitted by
Nawshad Ali Khan
CEO, JOYA and Subarno Rekha
620, Shahin Bagh, Lane-6
Tejgaon, Daka-1215

Dr. Rafat Alam


Assistant Professor and Discipline Coordinator
MacEwan University, Edmonton, Alberta
Alamr2@macewan.ca
(corresponding author)

Submitted to
Trade Facilitation of Office Canada (TFO Canada) and International Development
Research Center (IDRC)

September, 2016

 
Abstract
Increased free trade and market-based policies have opened the door for export-oriented growth
for developing countries. ‘But the development of trade relationships with new export markets is
complex and needs more than a general privatization and liberalization policy (Keegan, 1995)’,
especially for the specialty textile products that are produced by small firms in the cottage industry
which overwhelmingly employ rural, low-income and female workers. Many domestic and
international market obstacles make it difficult for these unique products to be exported.

This paper looks into the cases of two specialty textile products from Bangladesh - Jamdani and
Jute diversified products (JDP) and investigates the export problems perceived by the sectors.
The paper finds that JDP is export ready and well supported by government policies and
institutions. The sector also has enough export experiences in European Union (EU) and North
American markets. However, the sector faces fierce competition domestically and from Indian
and Chinese firms. The sector also lacks in product design and has some weaknesses in quality.
A vertical network is necessary to exchange information and cooperate in quality control, design
and product development among the local trade association, government supporting institutions,
local firms and designers, and foreign buyers and designers. Compared to the JDP sector, the
Jamdani sector is not enough ready for export. As a high quality, niche cultural product – it lacks
the market access to western countries. There is high potential of the Jamdani sector to develop
new designs and unique products to match the taste of western consumers. But the sector will
need significant financial, human resource, and marketing help from government institutions.

The paper finds that horizontal networks among the weavers to meet foreign demand, as well as
vertical networks among weavers and local and foreign buyers and designers, will both be
necessary to make the Jamdani sector successful in exporting to western markets. Both the
Jamdani and JDP sectors will need low cost and easier access to financial resources and export-
related human resource development. Government financial institutions and export promotion
bureaus can take the lead in these areas. Jamdani and JDP sectors also need to establish brand
image by highlighting their rich traditional and cultural value, eco-friendliness and social
development aspect of reducing rural poverty and empowerment of women. Increased use of web
marketing has to be a key to this branding. The Jamdani and JDP sectors can also be mixed with
local tourism to create a unique cultural experience for tourists that will promote both the sectors
as well as tourism. The main conclusion of this paper is that besides domestic policy and
institutional supports, the development of horizontal and vertical network trade relationships is a
necessary condition for accessing new export markets by specialty textile sector firms from

i
Bangladesh. The Artisan Hub and roadshow projects of TFO Canada and other innovative
marketing and promotional projects that can be initiated by bilateral and international
organizations like TFO Canada, Global Affairs Canada and IDRC (International Development
Research Centre) can provide support in these areas.

ii
Table of contents


Abstract .......................................................................................................................................................... i
Table of contents...........................................................................................................................................iii
List of tables ................................................................................................................................................. iv
List of acronyms ............................................................................................................................................ v
1. Introduction............................................................................................................................................ 1
1.1 Methodologies and objectives ....................................................................................................... 2
2. Bangladesh’s textile industry................................................................................................................. 3
2.1 Specialty textile industry in Bangladesh ........................................................................................ 3
2.2 Jamdani sector overview............................................................................................................... 5
2.3 Jute diversified product (JDP) sector overview ............................................................................. 7
2.4 SWOT analysis............................................................................................................................ 10
3. Business case and entry to Canadian market .................................................................................... 14
3.1 Results from the Jamdani sector................................................................................................. 14
3.2 Results from Jute Diversified Product (JDP) sector .................................................................... 17
3.3 Policy recommendations and strategies for entry into Canadian market ................................... 20
4. Summary of business strategy ............................................................................................................ 23
References .................................................................................................................................................. 25
Appendix 1: List of Jamdani entrepreneurs ................................................................................................ 26
Appendix 2: List of JDP entrepreneurs ....................................................................................................... 28
Appendix 3: Survey of potential exporters .................................................................................................. 31
 

iii
List of tables
Table 1: Specialty textile products of Bangladesh with place of production 5

Table 2: List of jute diversified products 9

Table 3: Constraints for export of JDPs 9

Table 4: Importance of factors affecting the Jamdani sector 15

Table 5: Importance of factors affecting the JDP sector 20

Table 6: Business strategy for textiles’ exporters 24

iv
List of acronyms
BRAC Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee

EU European Union

IDRC International Development Research Centre

JDP Jute diversified product

JDPC Jute Diversification Promotion Center

LDC Least developed countries

NGO Non-governmental organization

R&D Research and development

TFO Trade Facilitation Office Canada

v
1. Introduction
Literature shows that ‘concerned consumers’ are ready to pay more for the social responsibility
features of specialty products, aimed at supporting the development and inclusion of marginalized
producers from least developed countries (LDCs) in global markets (Becchetti, Leonardo and
Camillo Rosati, Furio (2007). Bangladesh can offer two such products to Canada and other
countries. The first one is the textile product made from the “Traditional art of Jamdani Weaving”
recognized by UNESCO as the “Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.” The second one is the
product made of high quality organic Jute fabrics, which is an effective alternative to harmful
synthetic fabrics. Both of these products are organic and eco-friendly and produced by the cottage
industry in Bangladesh.

Jamdani is produced from cotton or raw silk, while jute fabric is produced from a vegetable fiber
known as jute. Raw materials for both items are available in Bangladesh. Cottage industry refers
to the traditional artisanship of the rural people of Bangladesh, who produce various household
items with locally available raw materials and unique artistic skill and creativity inherited from past
generations. It is a method of production where the members of the family learn the know-how
and the process of production from the skilled older member of the family from their early life.
They work in a cluster for their specific production. This makes a positive effect on the production
by minimizing the cost and ensuring keen supervision on each step of production. Cottage
industry in Bangladesh is playing a vital role in developing the national and the rural economy.
The appeal of buying from a cottage industry manufacturer is that the consumer can receive a
unique, one-of-a-kind, hand-made product that isn't mass produced. Many consumers also
appreciate the individual creative aspect of home-based products and services and feel that the
majority of these cottage industry services produce a higher quality product than one that is mass
produced.

Jamdani weaving and jute crafts and textile are two of the most precious cottage industries of
Bangladesh. Small weaving businesses in these sectors can produce a world class product for
local and international markets. But many domestic and international market failures and
distortions make it difficult for these unique products to be exported. This report will look into these
obstacles, as well as the opportunities and strengths of the sectors, and suggest measures to
overcome the barriers for export.

1
1.1 Methodologies and objectives
The report used the following methods to achieve the desired study objectives.

Provide a brief overview of the specialty textile/ fabrics sector: Sections 2, 3 and 4 provides
a brief overview of the sectors. These sections were written based on academic, industry, non-
government and government literature.

Provide export profile of small producers: Using a primary survey, exporter profiles were
collected for 13 JDP companies, 18 Jamdani companies and 7 other specialty textile companies
(3 silk, 3 Nakshi Katha and 1 Comilla Batik). The exporter profile survey was provided by TFO
Canada. The profile was used to select 13 companies for a visit by a Canadian buyer to collect
samples and bring those to Canada for a roadshow.

Provide a detailed business case strategy for entry into Canada: Surveys were conducted to
collect data on the characteristics and composition and factors that affect Jamdani and JDP
sectors. The sample size for the Jamdani sector was 37 and JDP sector was 34. Seven expert
and stakeholder interviews were conducted to identify the opportunities and obstacles of both the
sectors. The analysis of the quantitative survey data and qualitative interview data are used to
write the SWOT analysis, business case and strategies.

Provide a series of recommendations: Using the results of survey, expert opinion and literature
review, the authors provided policy recommendations and actions for producers, local authorities,
and Canadian partners in order to promote entry into Canada.

2
2. Bangladesh’s textile industry

2.1 Specialty textile industry in Bangladesh


The specialty textile industry of Bangladesh incorporates mostly the significant handloom industry
present in the country which has been producing fine quality clothes for over centuries. History
and archeological discovery suggest that Bengal was famous in the distant past for its textile
production. Many fabrics of Bengal were noted for their fineness of texture, beauty of design,
intricacy of weave, lightness of weight, and durability. Textile of many varieties made the principal
item of export of Bengal during the Mughal rule. The dominant status of textiles in export began
to decline when Britain began to manufacture fabrics soon after the Industrial Revolution. Britain
imposed heavy duties on Bengal textiles, thus raising its prices in Britain. On the other hand, at
the same time Britain was exporting textiles to the Bengal market duty free. Bengal textiles thus
lost the world market (Islam, Md. Khairul and Hossain, Md. Elias (2012). During the British rule,
though the export market shrunk, movements for wearing domestic handloom products and rural
demand for homemade cloth helped the handloom industry survive.

After independence, the Bangladesh Government set up a new Handloom Board in 1978, which
took over the development of the handloom industry from the Small and Cottage Industries
Corporation. Since its formation, the Handloom Board has taken some policy measures to
develop the industry. Handloom is considered as a priority sector for development because of
some of its characteristics such as labor intensity, female employment, product demand and
profitability (Bangladesh Cotton and Textile Convention, 2006). As the Bangladesh Handloom
Board (2010) states: “Currently, Handloom sector in Bangladesh consists of more than 0.183
million handloom units with 0.505 million handlooms and about 1 million handloom weavers of
which about 50% are female workers. A manpower of about one million weavers, dyers, hand
spinners, embroiderers and allied artisans have been using their creative skills into more than
0.30 million active looms to produce around 687 million meters of fabrics annually. Production of
these handloom fabrics is diffused in numerous production centers all over the country which are
linked up by a network of primary, secondary and central markets.”

Among the different types of looms - Benarosi looms are concentrated in Mirpur area, Dhaka. Zari
work called brocade is also famous in Mirpur. Jamdani looms are specially operated in Rupgang
(Taraboo) area of Narayangang District and Kamer, while waist loom is found in the Hill Tracts of
Chittagong. The Tribals of the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Borguna and Sylhet produce colourful tribal

3
textile products. The vast majority of Bangladeshi handlooms are engaged in weaving cotton and
blended fabrics, although handloom cloth of silk earned a good reputation. Famous areas for silk
weaving are Rajshahi, Tangail and Nobabgonj. Rajshahi produces mainly silk sarees. Tangail
also produces silk saree named Tangail Muslin. The weavers of Comilla produce Khadi. It is a
material that involves the spinning of cotton manually by hand into yarns for the production of
handwoven cotton weaves. Nakshi kantha, a type of embroidered quilt, is another centuries-old
Bengali art tradition of Bangladesh. The basic material used is thread and old cloth. Kanthas are
made throughout Bangladesh, but the greater Mymensingh, Rajshahi, Faridpur and Jessore
areas are most famous for this craft.
 

4
Table 1: Specialty textile products of Bangladesh with place of production
Sl. Name of the Products Place of Production
i. Jamdani Rupgonj and Sonargaon of Narayangonj
district.
ii. Benarasi Mirpur of Dhaka, Iswardi of Pabna district and
Gangachara of Rangpur district.
iii. Tangail Sharee (Cotton sharee, Half Silk, Tangail Sadar, Delduar and Kalihati, Nagorpur,
Soft Silk, Cotton Jamdani, Gas-mercerised Basail of Tangail District.
twisted cotton sharee, Dangoo sharee,
Balucherri)
iv. Handloom Cotton share Shahjadpur, Belkuchi and Sadar of Sirajgonj
district, Narsingdi and Pabna districts.
v. Silk share Sadar and Shibgonj of Chapai Nawabgonj and
Rajshahi district.
vi. Check Fabrics Belkuchi of Sirajgonj district.
vii. Rakhine Special Wear (Wooling Shirting, Taltoli of Borguna district, Kalapara, Rangabali
Woolen Bed Sheet, ladies chadar, of Patuakhali district and Cox’s Bazar district.
Bag,Lungi and Thami for tribal ladies)
viii. Tribal Fashion Wear (Thami for tribal ladies, Rangamati, Khagrachari & Bandarban Hill
Khati (Orna), Ladies Chadar & Lungi. districts.

ix. Minipuri Fashion Garments (Monipuri Sylhet and Moulivibazar districts.


Sharee, Punek for ladies like lungi, Lungi,
Un-stitched cloth (three pieces),
Innachi(Orna) & Vanity Bag
Source: Bangladesh Handloom Board

2.2 Jamdani sector overview


Among all the different specialty textiles described above, Jamdani is one of the oldest. The
craftsmanship of famous Muslin of Dhaka has partially survived in the art of weaving Jamdani
sarees and fabrics. Muslin was a brand name of pre-colonial Bengal textile (present Bangladesh)
especially of Dhaka (present capital of Bangladesh) origin. It was handspun and hand processed
by young women which attained worldwide fame as Dhaka Muslin. Bangladesh’s fine white
muslin’s were known since antiquity until the 12th century. The artisans of Dhaka Muslin weavers
used to produce as many as thirty-six varieties of textiles. Muslin today is the historical heritage
of Bangladesh and is no longer in process of weaving. Jamdani originated from the Muslin.
Jamdani is a vividly patterned, sheer cotton fabric, traditionally woven on a handloom by
craftspeople and apprentices around Dhaka (Sonargaon, Rupganj and Shiddirganj of the district
of Narayanganj). Jamdani textiles combine intricacy of design with muted or vibrant colours, and
the finished garments are gorgeous. The patterns are generally geometric and designs can
contain items such as flowers, plants, and living species like fish. The range and varieties of
Jamdani are quite extensive and numerous, but there seems to be three basic layouts: jaal, the

5
most intricate, is an all-over design covering the entire ground, terchi denotes floral or geometric
diagonal, and buti is a combination of individual floral motifs and springs scattered across the
fabric (Ghuznavi, Sayyada R., 2006 and Gillow, John and Barnard, Nicholas, 2008). Jamdani is
a time-consuming and skill-intensive form of weaving because of the richness of its motifs, which
are created directly on the loom using the discontinuous weft cut technique. It takes about two to
three months to finish one Jamdani saree. Weaving is surviving today due to the fabric’s popularity
for making sarees, the principal dress of Bengali women at home and abroad. The Jamdani saree
is a symbol of identity, dignity and self-recognition and provides wearers with a sense of cultural
identity and social cohesion. The weavers develop an occupational identity and take great pride
in their heritage; they enjoy social recognition and are highly respected for their skills. A few
master weavers are recognized as bearers of the traditional Jamdani motifs and weaving
techniques, and transmit the knowledge and skills to disciples. However, Jamdani weaving is
principally transmitted by parents to children in home workshops. Weavers – together with
spinners, dyers, loom-dressers and practitioners of a number of other supporting crafts – form a
closely knit community with a strong sense of unity, identity and continuity. It is part of
Bangladesh’s cottage Industries and is eco-friendly, and its creativity is intangible. In December
2013, UNESCO gave recognition to the traditional art of Jamdani Weaving as the intangible
heritage of the people of Bangladesh.

According to the Bangladesh Handloom Board, the handloom sector in Bangladesh consists of
more than 183 thousand handloom units with 505 thousand handlooms and about 1 million
handloom weavers. Among them, a smaller group is Jamdani weavers. The Bangladesh Small
and Cottage Industries Corporation (BSCIC) has set up a Jamdani Industrial City and a research
center at Noapara in Narayanganj for safeguarding the art of weaving and for the further
development of the ‘Jamdani sector’. The sector is mainly comprised of independent, networked
artisans and private entrepreneurs. A few large non-governmental organizations (NGOs) like
Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) also operate in the sector through their
production units run for AARONG.

Jamdani has survived hundreds of years of competition from mass produced textiles. There is
strong local and regional demand for Jamdani that has helped the sector to flourish. The value
addition of the product is high and it can provide substantial income to the artisans – a significant
number of whom are female. Growth of the sector can positively contribute to saving tradition,
heritage, and cultural values; to increasing social inclusion; to reducing poverty; to empowering
women; and to enhancing tourism. So far, local and regional demand has helped the sector, but

6
Jamdani has the potential to attract multicultural consumers around the world. Jamdani can move
beyond the production of sarees only. Jamdani weaving can be done in cotton, silk or mixed
cotton-silk. The textile can be used for clothing and clothing accessories. New and innovative
products such as home decorations, bags, artwork, and cushion covers can be produced using
Jamdani. It can be marketed as a comfortable, skin-friendly, non-allergic synthetic textile that is
also socially responsible. This sector has started initiatives to export their products to western
markets, but the pace of growth is slow as the sector faces many obstacles and limited access to
the international market. This project may help them to bridge the gap between the producers and
the international market, which would be very inspiring for the Jamdani art of weaving.

2.3 Jute diversified product (JDP) sector overview


Jute manufacturing sector is one of the oldest traditional manufacturing sectors of Bangladesh,
which emerged in erstwhile East Pakistan in the early 1950s. During the 1960s and 1970s, major
share of the manufacturing output and employment was accounted for by this sector. Exports of
jute and jute goods were the two most important sources of foreign exchange of Pakistan during
the 1960s. However, both share and importance of jute and jute good manufacturing, export and
overall foreign exchange earnings have gradually declined over time. ‘The present share of Jute
in total exports 2.73% (in 2013-2014). But in the past, jute had glorious position with 90% of export
share in 1972-73 (Export Promotion Bureau, 2015).

Bangladesh holds the 2nd position as a Jute producer in the world with the average production of
Jute 1.08 m ton/Year (Bangladesh Jute Mills Corporation report). More than 85% of world
production of Jute is cultivated in the Ganges Delta & having the major portion of it; Bangladesh
became one of the largest producer of Raw Jute or Jute Fiber in the world. With the decline in
traditional jute products, new niche products are coming up based on jute fiber. ‘Fabrics made of
jute fibers are carbon-dioxide neutral and naturally decomposable. These properties are also why
jute can be used in high performance technical textiles. Jute, as a natural fiber, has many inherent
advantages like lustier, high tensile strength, low extensibility, moderate heat and fire resistance
and long staple lengths. It is a biodegradable and eco-friendly. It has many advantages over
synthetics and protects the environment and maintains the ecological balance. Diversified jute
products are becoming more and more valuable to the consumer today. Supported by several
technological developments today jute can be used to replace expensive fibers and scare forest
materials (Vries, Johan de, 2007). ‘Among these are espadrilles, floor coverings, home textiles,
high performance technical textiles, Geotextiles, composites, and more. Jute has many

7
advantages as a home textile, either replacing cotton or blending with it. It is a strong, durable,
color-absorbing and light-fast fiber. Its ultraviolet protection, sound and heat insulation, low
thermal conduction and anti-static properties make it a wise choice in home décor.’ (Vries, Johan
de, 2007).

‘With the developed market (EU, Australia, Japan, US, Middle East and North Africa) becoming
more sensitive to environment friendly products - with emphasis on bio-degradability, recyclability
and carbon emissions (several EU countries including France, Belgium, Italy, UK either banning
or limiting usage of plastic bag), JDPs have made it into the limelight. Not only opportunities exist
as a substitute for the current synthetic alternatives, but also with consumers becoming more
environmentally conscious, JDPs can ascend to a “Life Style” product. Some middle-eastern
markets have opened up which will further increase demand for jute products. Bangladesh
already enjoys duty and quota free access to major developed economies and will need to cash
in to further expand their pie.

Over the last decade, demand for jute products in international market has propelled for these
factors. With availability of quality raw jute, Bangladesh sits at an advantageous position to tap
into the growing market for Jute Diversified Product (JDP). According to recent Jute Diversification
Promotion Center (JDPC) research, there are approximately 400 JDP producers in Bangladesh
which mainly operate on sub-contract basis for the export market. JDPC research further
estimates total turnover of JDP sector at BDT 1,540 M as of 2011-12, with export contributing
BDT 1,232 million. The growth trend is encouraging with total market projected to expand by 20%
over the next three years. In total, JDP constitute about 5% of all jute export earnings. Export-
oriented JDP enterprises have the experience of both the direct and indirect export. Overall, JDP
has overwhelming growth prospects and potential for higher value addition compared to export of
raw jute.’(Light Castle Partner Ltd, 2014).

‘JDP value chain has several key players adding significant value to the end products. JDP mills
wield significant control over the market due to their size and financial muscle. Mills normally
prefer exporting semi-processed jute for reaping benefits of export incentives, rather than selling
to local JDPs. Likewise, local JDPs are unable to secure competitive pricing which subsequently
hamper their international standing. JDP normally export to international markets either directly
or through buying houses. Currently, JDP SMEs face severe dearth of supply of raw materials as

8
many mills are unwilling to supply at low volume. Government needs to intervene to establish a
raw material bank for supporting procurement of raw materials.’ (Light Castle Partner Ltd, 2014).

JDP sector has a mix of different kinds of producers – private small entrepreneurs focused on
local and international market, small NGO’s focused on social development and large NGO’s (e.g.
BRAC) focused on domestic and international markets. But in all three types, the predominant
workforce is rural poor women. Like Jamdani, selling JDPs can play a major role in reducing
poverty rates among rural and female populations in Bangladesh. Increasing worldwide interests
matched with trade can lift the sector significantly in the future. There are already established
trade links in this sector. Entrepreneurs are marketing the products with their own brand names
and participating in international trade fairs.

Table 2: List of jute diversified products


Fiber Pulp, paper & paper products, jute composites, wood/plastic substitutes, nonwoven
based products, wipes, medicare textiles, absorbents, insulation & bonding materials, cellulose
products and its derivatives, micro crystalline cellulose, high-tech fibers, panels, floor tiles, etc.
Fine yarn, bleached yarn, dyed yarn, de-haired yarn, polished yarn, woollenized yarn,
Yarn
blended yarn, other treated yarn, fire retardant/proof yarn, corded yarn, hammock, shikkas,
based
shoes, shoe uppers and soles, sandals, doormats, belts, tape, lace, braids, braided rugs,
products
door and window screens, sweaters, cardigans, jackets, mufflers, caps, carrying kits, etc.
Light fabric, striped fabric, checked fabric, dyed fabric, bleached fabric, treated fabric,
laminated fabric, printed fabric, suitcases, briefcases, gift and jewelry boxes, pots, purses,
Fabric
bags, folders and files, beach products, denim, apparel, home textiles, furnishing fabric,
based
scrim cloth, quilts, ventian blinds, canvas, tarpaulin, carpet, blankets, different kinds of mats,
products
satranji, geotextiles, brattice, linoleum backing cloth, floor covers, different kinds of bags,
travel kits, sacks, toys, decorative products, berets, nursery pots etc.
Source: Value chain assessment for the jute sector in Bangladesh in Vries, 2007

Table 3: Constraints for export of JDPs


 Quality issues
 Instability of pricing and delivery of raw jute
 Lack of support and poor implementation of policies and strategies from
government bodies
Main  Weak image of the industry
constraints
 Lack of research and development (R&D) facilities
for JDP
 Competition from other countries, including India
exports
 Non-availability of export market information
 Lack of producers’ export experience
 High costs of participating in trade fairs

Source: Value chain assessment for the jute sector in Bangladesh in Vries, 2007

9
2.4 SWOT analysis
SWOT analysis for the Jamdani sector
Following is an evaluation of the potential strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats
(SWOT) of the Jamdani sector.

Strengths
 Strong cultural heritage and traditions to draw upon for developing unique designs and
enhancing product differentiation.
 With the growth of tourism in Bangladesh, increased sales in local tourist markets will
enhance the reputation and promotion of Bangladeshi products around the world.
 Availability of natural raw materials, and unemployed and underemployed women interested
in training and production.
 Growing international interest in handicraft products, particularly handmade items by local
women using local natural products who are paid fair wages.
 Low capital investment to get started, few barriers for market entry, and high ratio of value
added to the local economy per unit of investment capital.
 Existing strong network of weavers serving the domestic and south Asian market.

Weaknesses
 Shortage of next generation apprentices to learn weaving, spinning, dyeing, and product
design skills, thus requiring expensive training.
 Most products produced to date have been supply rather than demand driven. There is lack
of information on tastes and preferences of western buyers that restricts market access of
potential products.
 Companies have little or no experience in exporting. Thus they require substantial training
and technical assistance in business and marketing skills.
 Narrow product range and lack of new and innovative designs and/or products suitable for
overseas markets.
 Absence of properly equipped design centres is responsible for some of the drawbacks in
production, design, innovation and adaptation, combined to the lack of experts’ involvement
such as textile engineers, fashion designers, etc.
 Lack of co-ordination between government bodies and private players.

10
 The industry is still confined to rural areas and small cities which contributes to transportation
problems.
 Lack of financial support and incentives for Jamdani producers and exporters.

Opportunities
 Jamdani has the potential to attract multicultural consumers around the world. Jamdani can
move beyond the production of sarees only. Jamdani weaving can be done in cotton, silk or
mixed cotton-silk. The textile can be used for clothing and clothing accessories. New and
innovative products like home decoration crafts, curtain, bags, art work, pillow and cushion
covers etc. can be produced using Jamdani. It can be marketed as a comfortable, skin-
friendly, non-allergic synthetic textile that is socially responsible and eco-friendly.
 There is a growing interest in many of the western countries including Canada for high
quality handmade products using local natural resources produced under fair-trade labour
standards. Jamdani producers can take advantage of that.
 This niche market is not being adequately supplied by any groups or organizations at the
current time within Bangladesh. It provides an opportunity for Bangladeshi artisans to earn a
decent wage while not competing in markets dominated by low cost products from countries
paying poverty level wages.
 Jamdani producers should benefit from an increasing volume of domestic and international
tourists.
 E-commerce and Internet may be promising as distribution channels to market and sell the
Jamdani products.

Threats
 If existing Bangladeshi Jamdani companies become financially viable, it will likely encourage
others to try and work in the sector.
 The sector can at least partially protect their market niche by developing strong brand and
protect it through international copyright laws.
 Hand-crafted products have to compete on price, design and adaptability with modern
machine made products, which make it hard for traditional products to be competitive in
international markets.
 Artificial automated product produced by competing countries, such as Indian ‘Uadhaya
Jamdani’ or Chinese embroidery machine products are competitors. Sometimes, these
competing countries are enjoying better terms of trade.
 Some competing countries are offering better technological support for R&D.

11
SWOT analysis for the JDP Sector
Following is an evaluation of the potential strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats
(SWOT) of the JDP sector.

Strengths
 Higher profit margins for JDPs than for traditional jute goods
 Market share of JDPs offer room for expansion compared to other (traditional) jute products
 Quality of jute fibers is among the best in the world
 A high share of people are familiar with the processing of jute
 Labour costs are amongst the lowest in the world
 Government’s strong interest to revive the jute sector
 Increasing worldwide interest for environment friendly jute products

Weaknesses
 Lack of information from government bodies
 Lack of R&D facilities and product development
 Instability of pricing and delivery of raw jute
 Lack of support from government bodies, as well as poor implementation of policies and
strategies
 Lack of development of the domestic market for JDPs
 Quality issues
 Lack of export experience for small JDP producers

Opportunities
 Increasing international interest in environmental friendly products from developing countries
 Increasing market for gift items from developing countries
 Marketing JDPs as eco-friendly, socially responsible alternatives for synthetic products
 Because of low wages, Bangladesh can be competitive with other less developed countries
 The history and experiences in the jute sector
 The quality and supply of raw jute in Bangladesh

Threats
 Competition from India, which has more experience with JDPs and a greater product range
and depth

12
 Competition from other similar eco-friendly gift items from other developing countries which
have more support from their government
 The constant competition of natural jute fiber and products with other artificial fibers and
products
 Fierce domestic competition and fear of copyright infringements in design

13
3. Business case and entry to Canadian market
3.1 Results from the Jamdani sector
A sample of 37 companies from the Jamdani sector were surveyed. They are located in greater
Dhaka – in Rupgonj, Narayangonj, Sonargaon, Tarabo and Gazipur. The companies mainly serve
the domestic market. The surveyed Jamdani producers have been in business for an average 30
years which shows that the sector is well established. Though many of the surveyed producers
have their own factories, more than half do not have their own showroom. Many of the producers
are suppliers to larger companies. Irrespective of size, most producers use a network of weavers
to meet the demand. The family based weavers are located in greater Dhaka, Tangail, Manikgonj,
Munshigonj, Jamalpur and Kushtia. Though Jamdani have been around for a long time, there is
not much export from the sector. Exports are mainly for south Asian countries and south Asian
consumers in Europe and North America. They have neither explored nor penetrated into the
western mainstream markets. The government also never considered Jamdani as a prospective
exporting good and it did not receive enough government support like other sectors in
Bangladesh.

As mentioned earlier, Jamdani is eco-friendly and has huge positive social impacts in
communities. The majority of the workers in our surveyed companies are women. The weavers
are located in rural areas and are usually low income households. Increased export would
therefore directly empower female workers and reduce rural poverty. The surveyed companies
produce the following products: Jamdani sharee, gents wear, kids wear, household items (hand
embroidery), jewelry, salwar kamiz, tops, skirt, ties, gown, frock, Halloween dress, cushion cover,
maxi, other ladies wear, curtain, yardage, household item, décor materials, lamp shade, wall mat,
show pieces etc. There is limited export experience of few firms to India, USA, Canada, UK,
Greece, France and Germany.

The survey categorized different types of issues and factors that may have impact on the Jamdani
sector. The respondents identified the importance of each factor on a scale of 1 to 5 – where ‘1’
was ‘not important at all’ and ‘5’ was ‘extremely important’. The majority of the factors that were
identified as highly important (a mean score of above 3.5) were domestic in nature. As identified
earlier - Jamdani as a sector is not much export oriented though the sector has enormous potential
to serve niche markets in the western world. Domestic policies and incentives will be needed to
transform Jamdani into successful export goods. Financial obstacles (high cost of capital, strict
credit requirements, high interest rates, inability to self-finance export), training and learning
weaknesses (lack of HR in export, lack of knowledge about export procedures), lack of

14
government export support (lack of government assistance to pass export barriers, lack of export
promotion) were identified as the most important factors affecting the sector.

Table 4: Importance of factors affecting the Jamdani sector


Low importance Medium importance High importance
(Mean below 2) (Mean from 2.1-3.5) (Mean above 3.5)
 Language issues  Lack of information about  High cost of capital
(problem to foreign contacts  Strict credit requirements from
communicate)  Lack of pricing knowledge banks
 Quality concerns  Lack of knowledge of  High interest rates
 Lack of quality raw buyers’ expectations  Inability to self-finance export
materials  Lack of export experience  High freight costs to foreign
 Strong competition  Lack of skills to adapt markets
from foreign producers products for export  Size prohibits export
 Can’t meet importers  Political instability  Lack of HR in export
product quality  Strong competition from  Lack of knowledge about foreign
standards domestic producers market opportunities
 Red tape in public  High-value of domestic  Lack of knowledge about foreign
institutions currency market and business culture
 Insufficient foreign demand
 Lack of knowledge about export
procedures and practices
 Lack of government assistance
in passing barriers
 Lack of export promotion
program from government
 Lack of export promotion from
international organizations

Source: Authors’ analysis following data collection

The sector has a long history of serving the domestic market and can rely on an extensive weaver
network to meet an increasing export demand. It is reflected in the survey as the identification of
product quality, the inability to meet foreign demand or expectations, and raw material quality are
identified as least important factors.

International factors are identified as very important by the survey respondents. Lack of
knowledge about foreign market opportunities and business culture, insufficient foreign demand
and lack of promotion from international organizations are identified as most important
international obstacles for the sector. Bi-lateral and international organizations like TFO-Canada
or Global Affairs Canada can provide support in these areas. Aid and support in these areas can
create long-lasting, sustainable and socially responsible trade promotion for countries like
Bangladesh. Most of these high important factors were also identified as ‘very difficult to solve’ by
the survey respondents. There is unique possibilities and capabilities in the Jamdani sector if
proper support and initiatives are provided domestically and internationally.

15
Besides the surveys, a small number of expert and stakeholder interviews were completed for
both sectors. The experts and stakeholders identified few more obstacles and opportunities. A
group of weavers re-iterated the niche market status of Jamdani even at the domestic market.
Jamdani sarees are labour and time intensive product and the demand is exclusive – not for
regular use. Despite steady demand in the domestic market, it is not high enough. Because
income is low with long hours of work, the sector is not attracting new weavers and off-springs
are leaving the profession. It is getting harder to find local apprentice workers and weavers and
often they must be found from other regions which is driving the training cost higher. Raw material
prices are also increasing. The experts confirmed that export can significantly help in the revival
of the sector.

The following statement from Jacques Nadeau, the Canadian entrepreneur sent by TFO Canada
to visit Bangladeshi producers, highlights some of the weaknesses and possibilities for the
Jamdani sector: “Jamdani draws its name from the fact that the fabric is always offered in
traditional patterns. The patterns I have seen will not automatically raise the interest of Canadian
buyers or interior designers. Also, the making of Jamdani fabric is a costly operation which
requires a high retail price thus making products as high end products. The making of one single
Jamdani Sari (six yard fabric) requires 6 weeks to 3 months. Consequently, the development and
marketing of new products can only be achieved if unique and exclusive products are offered to
foreign markets.”

The following statement from a local company shows the possibilities and optimism for the sector:
“Jamdani is a beautiful traditional product. Jamdani fabrics with thin and soft cotton or silk can be
used for making any type of products following modern Canadian demand. Design, color and
texture of Jamdani products suitable for the Canadian market needs to be developed. Research
on developing such products in our region is ongoing and we have also joined that diversification
effort.”

Both of the above statement identify the need for product and design development as a key to
export Jamdani products. Other experts also identified the high potential of Jamdani as an
exporting good. Jamdani raw material, machineries, technology, design and skills are local owned
and the capacity and capability to meet export demand is already present. According to these
experts, Bangladesh just needs to market the uniqueness, exclusivity, eco-friendliness and social
responsibility of Jamdani in a better way. It will sell well in niche markets of the western world.
Government can help to promote export through trade shows, funding, training and marketing.

16
The sector also needs help for design development that may be provided by importing countries.
They can help to create a network of designers, entrepreneurs, and weavers to play with the
thousands of available Jamdani designs to fit the western markets and consumption patterns.

Pro-active measures are needed both locally and internationally to increase visibility of Jamdani
textile products in the western markets. Proposals like the following stated by the visiting
Canadian entrepreneur are examples of pro-active measures.

“We tested the ground with one weaver ……..as to whether he would be interested to develop
new lines of muslin fabric and derived products enhanced with market-adapted patterns. The
Weaving Factory is willing to develop new products as long as it does not technically change its
way of making fabric. Therefore, I suggest to launch a pilot project with a strong involvement of a
Canadian designer developing a few promising silk made products. A market test would thereafter
be conducted to demonstrate if the approach is sustainable. A parallel avenue to explore would
be to get some producers becoming Fair Trade certified which would then automatically establish
a high value for their lines of products. This avenue may be difficult though considering conditions
under which Jamdani fabric is often produced.”

3.2 Results from Jute Diversified Product (JDP) sector


A sample of 34 companies were surveyed from the JDP sector. The surveyed companies are
mainly located in greater Dhaka. The JDP sector is significantly different from the Jamdani sector
in terms of export readiness and government policy support. The companies currently mainly
serves the domestic market, but are striving to become export oriented. The surveyed JDP
companies are relatively new companies. On average, the companies have been in business for
about 13 years. Many of the surveyed companies also sell other handicrafts products. 31 out of
the 34 companies have their own factories, but more than half do not have their own showroom.
The factory is also the showroom for these companies and they supply other handicraft
companies. Besides greater Dhaka, factories are located in Jhinaidah, Goplagonj, Rangpur,
Khulna, Tangail and Moulovibazar. Irrespective of size, most producers (68%) use a network of
rural craftsmen to meet the demand. The family based craftsmen are located in greater Dhaka,
Tangail, Manikgonj, Munshigonj, Jamalpur, Sylhet, Chittagong, Gaibandha, Rangpur and
Panchogar. The availability of the raw material expanded the locations of JDP factories and
craftsmen all over the country. Jute was the main export product of Bangladesh in Pakistan in the

17
post-independence era but started to lose its market in the 1980s. Recent Bangladeshi
governments have been trying to revive the sector since then.

More diversified products are an avenue for the revival of the sector, which explains why JDP is
a high priority sector for the government. Financial and other incentives and policy supports have
attracted many new entrepreneurs in this sector. Though Jute products have been around for a
long time, jute diversified products are relatively new. Ongoing incentives and support are also
geared towards export. This has made this sector more export ready. 65% of the surveyed
companies have export experience and 30% has more than 60% of revenue generated through
export. The surveyed companies have exported to EU, United-States, Japan, Australia, Thailand,
United Kingdom, Sweden, Bahrain, Italy, Malaysia, Canada, Singapore, Germany, Spain,
Switzerland, India, Ireland, China, South Korea, Poland, Lithuania, Netherlands, United Arab
Emirates, Greece, France and Denmark. They also produce and export a wide range of unique
and innovative products. It includes curtain, table cloth, runner, place mat, cushion cover, coaster,
laundry basket, jute bag, laptop bag, ladies bag, shopping bag, wine bag, rice bag, lunch bag,
beach bag, nursery bag, purse, coin purse, fruit basket, curtain, office folders, room slipper, show
pieces, wall mat, pot hanger, doll, tissue box cover, photo frame, flower vase, jewelry box, watch
box, shoe hanger, lamp shade, mail organizer, pen pot, note book cover, file folder, wallet, tab
holder, jute rugs, pet house, punjabi, kurta, fotua, muffler, scarf, shawl, hat, jute tape , burlap
ribbon, dyed burlap roll, wire edge burlap ribbon, Christmas sacks, draw string bags, jute tapestry,
jute hammock, key ring, pouches, apron, tea towel, lamp shade, juton yardage (jute-cotton blend).

Like the Jamdani sector, JDP is eco-friendly and has huge positive social impacts in communities.
The majority of the workers in our surveyed companies are women. The craftsmen and factories
are located all over Bangladesh and in rural areas. The craftsmen and workers are usually low
income workers. Increased exports would directly empower female workers and help to reduce
rural poverty.

Compared to the Jamdani sector, the JDP sector identified fewer obstacles that are highly
important. The majority of the factors that were identified as highly important (a mean score of
above 3.5) were domestic financial obstacles (high cost of capital, strict credit requirements, high
interest rates, inability to self-finance export, high freight cost). Jute as the umbrella sector has a
long history of export and so JDP as a sub-sector can draw strength from the experience of Jute
sector. JDP has a larger craftsmen network to meet increased demand from export. As mentioned
earlier, the sector is way more export ready and it is reflected in the survey by the identification of

18
product quality, inability to meet foreign demand or expectations, raw material quality as least
important factors affecting the sector. The only international factor identified as very important by
the survey respondents is the lack of promotion from international organizations. In spite of
greater export readiness, the sector has not yet fully penetrated the western markets. It is why bi-
lateral and international organizations like TFO-Canada or Global Affairs Canada can provide
support in the area of export promotion. Like Jamdani, export promotion support for JDP sector
can also create long-lasting, sustainable and socially responsible trade promotion for countries
like Bangladesh. All of these high important factors were also identified as ‘very difficult to solve’
by the survey respondents.

Jacques Nadeau, the visiting Canadian Entrepreneur, stated high optimism for the JDP sector. It
is reflected in his statement below.

“I come out of meetings with producers with a high level of optimism as far as the potential for
export of jute-made products is concerned. First of all, jute is a grass growing in huge volume in
Bangladesh. From an economic structural point of view, it is being processed in so many ways
that the potential for export becomes tremendous. Grass can be processed in raw yarns for the
making of burlap being largely exported to Europe and North America as well as very fine yarns
leading, in combination with cotton to the making of women and men garments. In between, we
find the whole spectrum of yarns being processed in different ways for the making, among other
things, of fashion products such as bags of all kinds, shoes, etc. Besides, at least one producer
keeps developing exclusive yarns such as the wax yarn, unique to Bangladesh, leading to making
even more fashionable jute products that we will showcase in Canada as part of the TFO Canada
project. Consequently, the presence of many producers offers an enormous potential of export
for the country.

Most of the producers making handmade products told me they essentially rely on designs of
foreign buyers to develop new collections. It can be seen as a strength to rely on foreign buyers
to make products suitable to specific markets. However, it could also be a weakness if producers
are not capable to develop their own lines of products to differentiate themselves from the
competition. In the future, local designers should work closely with producers to develop unique
lines of products for export markets. This would alleviate the pressure coming from the Chinese
and Indian competition.”

19
The experts and stakeholder interviews also identified other obstacles and opportunities for the
sector. The experts appreciated the government training support, fiscal incentive for JDP as an
agro product, and financial incentives. As JDP export can add more value to jute, product
diversification is a priority in the government five year plan.

Table 5: Importance of factors affecting the JDP sector


Low importance Medium importance High importance
(Mean below 2) (Mean from 2.1-3.5) (Mean above 3.5)
 Language issues (problem  Lack of knowledge about  High cost of capital
to communicate) foreign market opportunities  Strict credit requirements
 Product quality concerns  Lack of information about from banks
 Lack of knowledge about foreign contacts  High interest rates
buyers’ expectations  Lack of pricing knowledge  Inability to self-finance
 Lack of skills to adapt  Lack of HR in export export
products for export  Lack of export experience  High freight costs to
 Can’t meet importers  Lack of knowledge about foreign markets
product quality standards foreign market and business  Lack of export promotion
 Size prohibits export culture from international
 Lack of knowledge about  Lack of quality raw materials organizations
export procedures and  Strong competition from
practices domestic producers
 Red tape in public  Strong competition from
institutions foreign producers
 Political instability  Insufficient foreign demand
 Lack of government
assistance in passing barriers
 Lack of export promotion
program from government
 High-value of domestic
currency

Source: Authors’ analysis following data collection

Stakeholders also identified the need for a one stop service center for JDP sector. An integrated
service center for jute products may decrease export cost significantly. The sector is ready for
export, as production capacity is there. Quality and skill wise, JDP sector is ready for export. The
worldwide increase of demand for eco-friendly products will help in the revival of both jute and
jute based products. According to these experts, Bangladesh just needs to market the exclusivity,
eco-friendliness and social responsibility of JDP in a better way.

3.3 Policy recommendations and strategies for entry into Canadian market
Following are some policies and strategies to facilitate entry into the Canadian market. The
strategies and recommendations are for entrepreneurs, weavers, Bangladeshi domestic
institutions and international buyers.

20
 Both the Jamdani and JDP sectors will need an easier access to financial resources.
Government financial institutions could take the lead.
 The Jamdani sector is not as export ready as the JDP sector. For both sectors, export
training will be needed. The export promotion bureau could take the lead.
 Both Jamdani and JDP sectors already have rich traditional and cultural values and are
eco-friendly products that benefit rural poor and women. Jamdani is a non-allergic, healthy
textile. One of its greatest characteristic is flexibility and adaptability according to the
customer’s choice. JDP is a green alternative to many synthetic products in the western
world. The customer should be made aware of these qualities.
 The Jamdani sector mainly serves domestic and south Asian consumers. To serve
western economies, the fabrics need to match the western life style. Domestic and
international designers could create a network with local weavers and entrepreneurs to
design new products.
 Export market entry will not be successful if horizontal and vertical business networks are
not established (Tesfom, Goitom, 2006). Both the Jamdani and JDP sectors have the
capability to create strong horizontal networks among artisans and fulfil demand
requirements. But vertical networks among artisans, suppliers and buyers are missing.
Both domestic institutions and international institutions as well as buyers should play a
pro-active role to strengthen vertical networks to expand trade.
 There is insufficient international market information about specialty textile products. The
artisans are unaware of the market demand for new designs because of the lack of
customer feedback. This hampers their creativity and innovation. Increased networking
and sharing of information is needed.
 There is insufficient advertisement of the Jamdani products. It needs continuous
promotion and advertising campaigns to have an effective impact on customers.
 A stronger brand image for the two sectors will be needed. There needs to be more
innovative products, which can be supplied to niche markets within the country and
abroad.
 There is a lack of quality standardization. A procedure is needed to check quality
standards of the products (durability, shrinking, etc.) so that the customer is reassured.
 Given their limited production capacity, exporting entrepreneurs should therefore form
groups to take bulk orders and ensure timely delivery to international buyers (Vries, Johan
de, 2007).

21
 India and Thailand, among others, have achieved great success in promoting their textiles
worldwide. They have done so by establishing institutions for design and technical
support, matched by well documented publications and promotional exhibitions. The
Export Promotion Bureau needs to work closely with the commercial wings of Bangladesh
diplomatic missions to promote Jamdani and JDP products to the world markets (Vries,
Johan de, 2007).
 A multitude of approaches need to be used for marketing the products. These include but
are not limited to use of foreign agents, participation in trade shows, web-based
promotions, frequent advertisements etc.
 Some producers are hesitant to set up a website listing their products, since other
producers could copy their designs. But websites are a powerful tool to reach customers
(Vries, Johan de, 2007).
 Most producers currently follow a buyer driven production model which hampers growth.
The products become too westernized and lose cultural and traditional characteristics. A
mix of buyer driven and independent local seller/designer driven production process will
work better.
 Canadian prominent designers can work with local artisans and designers to re-design
and develop products to bring into Canadian market.
 There are many fashion designers in Bangladesh, but very few ‘other’ product designers.
Export promotion should include promotion of product designers too.
 Both sectors face competition from Indian producers. Bangladesh need to protect the
intellectual property rights for Jamdani and promote it internationally. For the JDP sector,
Bangladesh government institutions need to match the R&D, marketing and export
promotional support received by the Indian producers.
 Both Jamdani and JDP sectors are composed of mainly SME producers. Rather than
competing with each other, these SMEs should increase collaboration to increase their
reach to international markets.
 Middlemen in the specialty textile sector absorbs 80% to 90% of the profit. If external
markets can be brought to the source, transport costs for rural artisans would be reduced
and the risk of local producers being exploited by ‘middlemen’ would be avoided (Pereira,
Taryn, et al., 2006).

22
4. Summary of business strategy
The table below summarizes the suggested business strategy for Bangladeshi producers of
Jamdani and JDP textiles. The successful implementation of the listed recommendations will help
to protect the natural environment and valuable cultural heritage of Jamdani and JPD products. It
will also support the empowerment of women and eventually help to reduce poverty in rural
Bangladesh.

Table 6: Business strategy for textiles’ exporters


Action Plan Business strategy
 Facilitate the entry of specialty textiles to the Canadian niche market.
 Introduce the rich cultural heritage and expertise of artisans and their
Objective craftsmanship to Canadian consumers.
 Introduce eco-friendly and organic products to Canadian consumers.
 Create a long lasting good business relationship between Bangladeshi
exporters and Canadian consumers.
 Empower rural women, youth and cluster based families.
 Generate employment for the different ethnic groups of Bangladesh in their
handicraft production process.
 Contribute to a sustainable income generation for the cottage industry and
alleviate poverty.
Export high quality handmade and specialty textiles for fashion wear, home-
Mission
décor, handcrafts gift items produced by Bangladeshi artisans.
Exporting to Canada will contribute to a growth in hand weaving and jute sector.
This will promote the role of women in production process in rural area. This
Vision
project will generate revenues for artisan families and empower rural women. It
will also greatly contribute to the economic development of both countries.
Nature of Export specialty textiles and jute fabric products to importers/buyers or agents in
business Canada with assistance from TFO Canada.
Type of business Product manufacturing and exporting through L/C (letter of credit).
Focused sectors Clothing and home textile/home décor produced in handloom and by handicrafts.
 Customized size and weight
 High tearing strength
 Strong and neat stitching
 Colour fastness
Features  Perfectly weaved
 Exactly stitched
 High quality control
 Eco-friendly
 Promotes social justice by empowering women and reducing rural poverty
Out of Jamdani weaving textile:
 Jamdani weaving fabrics
Products  Jamdai stole
 Jamdani Scarf
 Summer wear

23
Action Plan Business strategy
 Jamdani Curtain
 Home-decor
 Table- decor
 Home crafts etc.

Jute fabric products:


Curtain, table cloth, runner, place mat, cushion cover, coaster, laundry basket, jute
bag, laptop bag, ladies bag, shopping bag, wine bag, rice bag, lunch bag, beach
bag, nursery bag, purse, coin purse, fruit basket, curtain, office folders, room
slipper, show pieces, wall mat, pot hanger, doll, tissue box cover, photo frame,
flower vase, jewelry box, watch box, shoe hanger, lamp shade, mail organizer, pen
pot, note book cover, file folder, wallet, tab holder, jute rugs, pet house, punjabi,
kurta, fotua, muffler, scarf, shawl, hat, jute tape , burlap ribbon, dyed burlap roll,
wire edge burlap ribbon, Christmas sacks, draw string bags, jute tapestry, jute
hammock, key ring, pouches, apron, tea towel, lamp shade, juton yardage (jute-
cotton blend)
 The rich cultural and heritage story of the products need to be better
marketed, along with the eco-friendliness and socio-economic development
impact of the products.
 SMEs should use different marketing approaches (foreign agents,
participation in trade shows, web-based promotions, frequent advertisements
etc.)
 Bangladesh government institutions should play a proactive role in financing,
Proposed training, supporting R&D and product development and in helping the
recommendations promotion of the products.
 SMEs in both sectors need to strengthen horizontal network among
themselves with increased co-operation for product development, export
market quantity, quality and design development.
 Bangladeshi sectoral associations, producers, designers and artisans need
to build a strong vertical network with Canadian institutions (e.g. TFO
Canada) and buyers to create regular buying orders, R&D and design
development.
Source: Authors’ analysis following data collection  

24
References
Akter, Rahima (2015). Jute Goods Export to Australia: An Analysis of Market Potentials for
Bangladeshi Jute products, International Journal of Management and Business Studies, Vol. 5,
Issue 2.

Becchetti, Leonardo and Camillo Rosati, Furio (2007). Global Social Preferences and the
Demand for Socially Responsible Products: Empirical Evidence from a Pilot Study on Fair Trade
Consumers; the World Economy, Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Export Promotion Bureau (2015). Country wise Export Statistics, Bangladesh

Keegan (1995). W.J., Global Marketing Management, 5th edition, Prentice Hall, U.S.A

Ghuznavi, Sayyada R. (2006). Jamdani: The Legend and the Legacy, National Crafts Council of
Bangaldesh publication.
 
Gillow, John and Barnard, Nicholas (2008). Indian Textiles, London: Thames & Hudson Limited,
2008

Islam, Md. Khairul and Hossain, Md. Elias (2012). An analysis of present scenario of handloom
weaving industry in Bangladesh, Rabindra Journal, Volume 3, Number 1.

Light Castle Partner Ltd. (2014). Bangladesh Market Snapshot – Jute Diversified Products

Nadh, Rayapati Raveendra; P.Venkata Rao and B.M.HarshaVardhan (2013). Handloom market:
need for market assessment, problems & marketing strategy; International Journal of Emerging
Research in Management &Technology; Volume-2, Issue-5.

Pereira, Taryn, et al. (2006). Trade in reed-based craft products in rural villages in the Eastern
Cape, South Africa, Development Southern Africa Vol. 23, No. 4.

Syeda Mushda Ali (2014); Museum and research center for the traditional textiles of Bangladesh;
Unpublished undergraduate seminar paper, Brac University.

Tesfom, Goitom, et al. (2006). Solving Export Marketing Problems of Small and Medium-Sized
Firms from Developing Countries Journal of African Business, Vol. 7(1/2)

Tushar Kumar Paul (2010). Textile Handicrafts and its Prospect in Bangladesh; Unpublished
undergraduate seminar paper; Dhaka University of Engineering and Technology, Gazipur.

Vries, Johan de, (2007). Export of jute products from Bangladesh to Europe: Analysis of market
potential and development of interventions for GTZ-PROGRESS, Unpublished graduate research
paper; University of Twente, Netherkangs.

25
Appendix 1: List of Jamdani entrepreneurs
SL # Name Enterprise /Company
Kanishka
1 Mrs. Fauzia Amin House # 20, Road # 7, Mirpur road Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1205
E-mail: kashnikabd@hotmail.com / Mobile: 01713016243
Nipun Crafts
2 Mr. Ashrafur Rahman 17/1/C/1, Tolarbagh, Mirpur 1, Dhaka,
E-mail: nipunltd@yahoo.com / ph# 01711563332
Shilleikon
3 Ranjana Robin 137/E, Jahanar Garden, green road, 1205
E-mail: shilleikon@gmail.com / ph# 01711465019
Shahina Jamdani
4 Mr. Lal Miah Dakshin Rupshi, Rupgonj, Narayangonj
Mobile: 01748041118
Khondokar Jmdani
5 Khokon khondokar Sadimpur, Sonargaon
Narayangonj, ph#01720011959
Mahima Jamdani
6 Akkel Ali Dakshin Rupshi, Rupgonj
Narayangonj, ph# 01756209837
Sufia Jamdani Weaving Factory
Vill. South Rupshi, P.O. Rupshi Bazar
7 Md. Rafiqul Islam
P.S. Rupganj, Dist. Narayanganj
Mobile:01715362710
Abi Jamdani, Vill. South Rupshi, P.O.
8 Mr. Nahidul Rasel
Rupshi Bazar P.S. Rupganj, Dist. Narayanganj
Designer Line
House No-460, Road-8,East
9 Mrs. Hosne Ara Begum DOHS, Baridhara, Dhaka-1212
Phone: 8849283/8849282 / Mob: 01711-525516
E-mail: hosneara@gononet.com
Din Jamdany And Co
27 Dilkusha, 8th floor
10 Mr. Idris Ali Room-901, Dhaka-1000
Phone: 9550866/01711970087 /Mob: 01552 430237
E-mail: dinjamdany@yaho.com
Weaving Factory
Bargaon, Kazi para
11 Mr. Ali Hossain
Union: Sadipur; P/O: Borabo,
P/S: Sonargaon, Narayangonj.
Bibi Productions
12 Mr. Haider Alim 12-13 Motijheen C/A, Dhaka-1000
Email:bibiproductions@gmail.com
Shailpik Craft
13 Nahida Sharmin E-2, First floor, Mirpur Road, Dhanmondi, Dhaka
Mob:01715026982 / Email:ahmedna@dhaka.net
Anjan1`s, Khan Villa
14 Md. Shaheen Ahmed 34. B, Malibagh Chowdhury para, Dhaka-1219,
Mob:01711520985 / Email: shaheen.ahmmed@yahoo.com
Peyara-Jamdani Weaving Factory
Vill-South Rupshi
15 Md. Siddiqur Rahman
P.O.Rupshi,P.S.Rupgonj, Dist.Narayangonj.
Phone: 01715784684/01199-096588
16 Mrs Peyara Begam Rukshana Jamdani Weaving Factory

26
SL # Name Enterprise /Company
South Rupsi,P.S Rupganj
Dist: Narayanganj
Phone: 01199-096588/01715986424
Mak Textile Mills Ltd.
Anandi Madhabdi,Narsingdi
17 Mr.Tapan Kumar Paul
Phone:01757324144/ 01714026019
E-mail : maktex.fab@gmail.com
Weaving Factory
18 Md. Younus Ali Bargaon, Kazi para Union: Sadipur; P/O: Borabo,
P/S: Sonargaon Narayangonj.
Muslim Jamdani Factory
Vill: Noapara. P.O.Tarabo
19 Md. Khorshed Alam
P.S. Rupganj, DIST. Narayanganj
Phone: 0189-130150/01818225959
Weaving Factory
Bargaon, Kazi para
20 Md. Alam
Union: Sadipur; P/O: Borabo,
P/S: Sonargaon Narayangonj.
Sagarika International
21 Gouranga Basak Kalibari Road,Adalatpara
Tangail-1900 / Phone:092155558/01819433554
Joya
Nawshad Ali Khan 620, Shaheen Bag, Lane- 6, Tejgaon, Dhaka-1215.
22
ph# 01196262542, 01750922184
email: upal@yahoo.com subornarekha@yahoo.com
Jamdani Weiving Factory
Bargaon, Kazi para
23 Md. Ismail Union: Sadipur; P/O: Borabo,
P/S: Sonargaon Narayangonj.
Phone: 01718229719/ 01199423233
Jamdani Weiving Factory
Bargaon, Kazi para
24 Md. Ali Hossain
Union: Sadipur; P/O: Borabo,
P/S: Sonargaon Narayangonj. ph# 01855733964
25 Ahana Fabrics
Mr. Raju Saha 92, Railway Market. B.B. Road,
Narayangonj. Phone: 02-7640847/01711-708741
26 Jamdani Weiving Factory
Bargaon, Kazi para
Md. Harun
Union: Sadipur; P/O: Borabo,
P/S: Sonargaon Narayangonj. ph# 01911962203

27
Appendix 2: List of JDP entrepreneurs
SL # Name Enterprise /Company
Time Expo
Design Spark, Flat# D/1,
23/1, North Dhanmondi, Kalabagan
1 Mr. Faisal Hassan
Dhaka –1205,
Phone :02-9144571/01818000048
E-mail :timeexpo@dhaka.net
The Source
House No-56, Road No-5
Block-B,Mons Society. Adabor, Dhaka.urabadHousing
2 Md. Tafazzal Hussain Phone: 8114684/8150643 (Off)
9133709 (Res) / Mob: 01713016980
E-mail hussaint12@yahoo.com
Karupannya Rangpur Ltd
C/O.Satranji
3 100/A,Sukrabad,Mirpur Road.
Shafiqul Alam Selim Dhanmondi, Dhaka.
Phone: 8153512/01713063328
E-mail: karupannya@yahoo.com
Diamond Jute Diversification & Co
Suvechha Plaza,Suit#29,30
4
Md. Mosharrof Hossain 32/1,Shahid Nazrul Islam Road
Phone:7500516/01713-025548
E-mail :diamondjute @gmail.com
Jutemart & Craft in Bangladesh
House # 13, Block # A,
5 Road # 2, Banasree
Khaleda Sultana
Rampura, Dhaka-1219.
Phone : 8396784/01811414391 Email :
E-mail: sales@jutemart.net
Golden Jute Product
6 118, South Dariapur,Savar,Dhaka
D. Hakim Ali Sardar
Phone : 01818505179
E-mail: nargis@goldenjutebd.com
Rahman Jute Crafts
House#101,Road#3,Block#A
7 Nemykashari,Siddhirgonj
Md.Ohidur Rahman
Narayangonj
Phone: 01715129875, 01738773040
E-mail:rahman.jute@yahoo.com
Classical Handmade Products BD
26.Baitul Aman Masque Complexe
8 Md.Tauhid Bin Abdus Motijheel.C/A.Dhaka –1000
Salam Mob:01713036940(Resi)7101206
Cell:01734953050 (Shaheen)
E-mail :tauhid@rugsbd.com
Golden Jute Diversification Centre
Bagmara,Sanarpar,Siddergonj,
9
Md. Mokbul Hossain Narayangonj
Phone: 01670142357/01712195019
Email : goldenbdjute@yahoo.com

28
SL # Name Enterprise /Company
Jute Land (PVT) Ltd
Asina,House#54.Road#03
10 Mrs Protima Chakraborty Block-B. Niketon Gulshan-1.Dhaka
Phone : 8836351/01715962900
E-mail : jute land @yahoo.com
Eshana Jute Products Ltd
House No. 1 Flat-4B,Road No 23/A
11
Mr.Mahfuzul Hoque Gulshan-1, Dhaka.
Phone: 8817317/Fax: 8820387
Email : pjf@bangla.net
Uttaran Enterprise
12 Kazi Sahabuddin 259 East Kafrul Phone:01715186719
E-mail :uttaranent@gmail.com
Joya
13 Nawshad Ali Khan 620, Shaheen Bag, Lane- 6, Tejgaon, Dhaka-1215.
ph# 01196262542, 01750922184
email: upal@yahoo.com subornarekha@yahoo.com
Uttama Ltd
House# 212, Road# 2, (4th Floor) DOSH
14 Sheikh Selina Islam Baridhara, Dhaka – 1212
Phone: 8815772/8851646(Res.)
01793533444
2 Z Crafts
2/H/4, Golden Street, Ring Road.
15 Md. Zamal Hossain Shamoli, Dhaka.
Phone: 01715102573/01684682962
E-mail: zamalalhossain92@ yahoo.com
Shakh Crafts
16 Section-11/A,Road-3/3,Mirpur, Dhaka
Mrs. Razia Zaher
Phone: 01711544596 (Resi)8034684
E-mail: shakhra@gmail.com
Swajan Crafts
House No-6, Road No23/A
17 Mr. Taibul Hasan
Gulshan, Dhaka-1212
Khondaker
Phone: 8817607/01819410508
E-mail: swajan.crafts@gmail.com
Heed Handicrafts
Plot # B-17, BSCIC Industrial
18 Estate, Tongi, Gazipur
Mr.Ranjit Kumer Sarker
Phone: 9803829/9803632
Mob: 01713277155
E-mail: hhcrafts@agani.com
Shohojogita
19 14/1,Borobag,Mirpur-2.Dhaka
Mr Kamal Gomes
Office:8060306/01714446297
E-mail : shojugi@citechco.net
Craft N Kraft
113/A, Monipuri Para
20 Md. Wasiur Rahman Tejgaon, Dhaka-1215
Phone :01766943490/01963512926
E-mail : wasiur.murad@gmail.com
21 Nipun Craft Ltd. 17/1/C/1, Tolar bagh, Mirpur 1, Dhaka E-mail:
Sadia Afrin Eva
nipunltd@yahoo. Com Mob: 01918347089

29
SL # Name Enterprise /Company
Liza Boutique
57, Central Road, Flat No# A/4
22 Ezaz Nasrul Islam Dhanmondi, Dhaka –1205
Phone:01820101049/01552336958
E-mail :lizabdtc@yahoo.com
23 Mony Jute 82,W/1, Monypuri, Madertak, Bashabo, Dhaka-1214.
Md. Moin Uddin
24 Ms. Humayra Rahman Parvin Handi crafts 37 Uttar Mugda, Dhaka.

25 Ahmmad Handicraft A/02,Bagmara, Sanarpan, Siddirganj,


Md. Mainuddin
Narayangonj
Creative Connections
Ph# 01817673787 , email: mashraka009@gmail.com
Mashraka Binta Mosharrof Factory Address: 66/10 West Raja Bazar, Tejgaon, Dhaka-
26
1215..
Office Address: House No: 511, Road No: 9, DOHS
Baridhara,Dhaka.
Eshana Jute Products Ltd
House No. 1 Flat-4B,Road No 23/A
27
Mr.Mahfuzul Hoque Gulshan-1, Dhaka.
Phone: 8817317/Fax: 8820387
Email : pjf@bangla.net

30
Appendix 3: Survey of potential exporters
1. Name of Company:
2. Number of years in operation: ………………………
3. Do you have your own showroom: Yes ………….., No ………………, if yes, location: ………………..
4. Do you have your own factory: Yes…………….., No…………………, if yes, location: ………………..
or, Do you have your own network of small suppliers: Yes ………….., No ……………….., if yes,
location: ………………..,
5. Number of workers in own factory: Male ……………………, Female………….………
or, number of workers in an average supplier’s factory/production unit: Male ……………………,
Female………….………
6. List the names/types of the products produced:
7. Do you export or have you ever exported: Export regularly …………………………Exported in the past
………………..
7.1 If yes, how long have you been exporting: ……………..
7.2 If you currently export, what is the approximate share of your export in your total production:
……………%
7.3 If you currently export, what is the approximate share of your export in your total revenue: ……………%
7.4 List the countries where you export/exported:
7.5 List the names/types of the products you export/exported:
7.6 If you never exported, list any products that you think you can export;
8. Did you get any government support/incentive: Yes ……………, No ………………..
8.1 If yes, what type of support:
9. Did you get any support from any NGOs and/or other private companies: Yes …… No ……..
10. If yes, what type of support:
11. Do you have any standard certification like ISO, HACCP, organic, health, labour, GAP
etc.:…………………………………………..
12. Describe any Corporate Social Responsibility activities (e.g. fair trade certification, environmental
protection, community support, etc.):……………………………………………….

Note: In Answering the Following Questions Use the Following Values.


1 = not important at all, 2 = somewhat important, 3 = moderately important, 4 = very important, 5 =
extremely important, 6 = not applicable
1 = not difficult at all, 2 = somewhat difficult, 3 = moderately difficult, 4 = very difficult, 5 = extremely
difficult, 6 = not applicable

31
Difficulty to
Importance
Export problem factors solve the
of the issue
issue

1. Marketing knowledge barrier


1.1 Lack of knowledge to locate foreign marketing opportunities

1.2 Lack of specific information regarding foreign agents, distributors


and prospective buyers

1.3 Lack of export marketing research

1.4 Language problem to communicate to overseas customers

1.5 Lack of pricing knowledge for foreign markets

2. Human resource barriers


2.1 Lack of personnel trained and qualified in export marketing

2.2 Lack of experience in planning and executing export operations

2.3 Lack of domestic support in export consulting

2.4 The lack of exposure to other cultures and to different methods of


doing business

3. Financial barriers
3.1 Inability of the firm to self-finance exports

3.2 High cost of capital to finance exports

3.3 Strict credit requirements of the bank

4. Product quality barriers


4.1 Product quality problems

4.2 Lack of knowledge about product standard and quality expectation


in foreign markets

4.3 High sensitivity of products to fashion

5. Product adaptation problem


5.1 Lack of adequate skill/knowledge to adapt products for foreign
markets

5.2 It will be difficult in meeting importer’s product quality standards

5.3 It will be difficult in meeting export packaging and labelling


requirements

5.4 Lack of ability to supply required quantity on continuous basis

6. Industry structure
6.1 Lack of adequate quality of raw materials

6.2 Too Small in size to initiate export operations

32
Difficulty to
Importance
Export problem factors solve the
of the issue
issue

7. Competition
7.1 Strong competition from domestic producers

7.2 Strong competition from other domestic/foreign producers in


potential markets
8. Customer barriers
8.1 Poor image/knowledge of products in foreign market

8.2 Insufficient foreign demand

9. Procedural barriers
9.1 Lack of knowledge about export procedures and practices

9.2 Problems in making arrangements for getting paid

9.3 Problems in making shipment arrangement and meeting delivery


dates

9.4 Restrictive foreign tariffs, rules and regulations

10. Government policies


10.1 Lack of government assistance in overcoming export barriers

10.2 Red tape in public institutions

10.3 Lack of export promotion programs sponsored by the government

10.4 Lack of export promotion programs sponsored by international


organizations

10.5 Protectionist barriers in foreign markets

10.6 Inadequate diplomatic support

11. Exogenous economic barriers


11.1 Political instability in local economy

11.2 High interest rates

11.3 High freight costs to foreign markets

11.4 High international communication costs (telephone fax, travel)

11.5 High value of domestic currency

Any comments:

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

33