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Antonio Rebosa, Ll.B, M.D

LEGAL MEDICINE are cut cleanly and without ragged

 Branch of medicine which deals with
the application of medical knowledge Eg.: Knife, blade, scalpel.
to the purpose of law and in the
administration of justice. 4. Stab wound (saksak) – caused by an
 The application of basic and clinical, instrument sharp point with a sharp
medical and paramedical sciences to edge. A small surgical incision
elucidate legal matters. caused by a thrust with a sharp
instrument. (single/ double bladed).
1. Lacerated wound / tear (putok) – open 5. Hacking wound (taga) [bolo/axe] –
wound caued by a blunt object or large incise wounds.
6. Contusion (pasa) – tapture of blood
These wounds are torn, rather than vessels due to forceful contact due to
cut. They have ragged, irregular a blunt object or instrument. Another
edges and masses of torn tissue name for a bruise.
underneath. These wounds are
usually made by blunt, rather than A bruise or contusion is caused when
sharp objects. blood vessels are damaged or broken
as the result of a blow to the skin. (be
Eg: Fist blow in the face, bump of the it bumping against something or
car, bamboo, lead pipe. hitting yourself with a hammer.)

2. Punctured wound (tusok) – caused by 7. Hematoma (bukol) – blood cyst or

a sharp pointed instrument or object. tumor – extravassation of blood that
newly formed cavity, also cause by a
Punctures are caused by objects that blunt object.
penetrate into the tissues while
leaving a small surface opening. An abnormal localized collection of
Wounds made by nails, needles, wire, blood in which the blood is usually
and bullets are usually punctures. As clotted or partially clotted and is
a rule small puncture wounds do not usually situated within an organ or
bleed freely. soft tissue space, such as within a
muscle. A hematoma is caused by a
Eg.: Syringe, needle, pen, ice pick, break in the wall of a blood vessel.
nail (.5cm.)
8. Abrasion (gasgas) – contact with a
3. Incised wound (hiwa/ cut/ slash) – rough surface / friction or scratching.
caused by a sharp edged instrument.
Incisions, commonly called CUTS Made when the skin is rubbed or
are wounds caused by sharp cutting scraped off. Rope burns, flood burns,
instruments such as knives, razors, and skinned knees or elbows are

and broken glass. Incisions tend to common examples of abrasions.


bleed freely because the blood vessels

©Manuel Rodriguez II
FEU – Institute of Law
Antonio Rebosa, Ll.B, M.D

This kind of wound can become 2. External – from the time it leaves the
infected quite easily because dirt and barrel of the gun
germs are usually embedded in the 3. Terminal – effect of the bullet on an
tissues. object when hit
4. Medical – when a bullet hits human
Types of Abrasions body.

1. Linear Firearm identification – used to determine

2. Multi-linear whether the gun that is subject of the
3. Confluent (tapyas) investigation has the same gun used or fired.

Special Types of Wounds Parts of Ammunition (bala)

1. Patterned wound 1. Shell / cartridge

2. Defense wound 2. Gun powder – inside the shell
- A wound sustained when a victim 3. Primer – made up of lead, antimony,
places a hand, arm or other body barium
part to prevent or minimize a 4. Projectile (tingga)
blow or slashing by a sharp
Products of Combustion
3. Self-inflicted wound 1. Smudging smoke or soop
4. Suicidal wound 2. Singeing – (kulot pag natamaan)
3. Tatooing, peppering, stippling
4. Contusion or collar
Gun Shot Wounds – A person with a gunshot -would help determine the relative
wound has an injury from a bullet that was position between the assailant or the
fired from a gun. victim and or the trajectory of the
Classification of Firearms
Point of Entry Point of Exit
1. Short (revolver, pistol) Smaller and Usually bigger
2. Long (rifle, AK47, M16, Machine oval in shape and irregular or
Gun etc.) unless it is a stellate in shape.
Major parts of Firearm close contact
1. Barrel The edges are Everted, and
2. Handle inverted tissued are
3. Trigger protruding.
4. Percussion cap Depending upon Always
5. Firing Pin a distance, may negative.
6. Muzzle be positive for
the products of
Kinds of Ballistics combustion and
1. Internal / Interior – from the time you

pull the trigger


©Manuel Rodriguez II
FEU – Institute of Law
Antonio Rebosa, Ll.B, M.D

Have a Absent * Senile / Insane

contusion or
abrasion collar * Those who have previously been convicted
of perjury

Perrafim test – used to determine whether the Two Types of Witnesses:

subject has recently fired a gun or not. 1. Ordinary – goes to court and specify
-not used to determine whether the subject is what he has perceived.
the killer or shooter. 2. Expert – goes to court to enlighten the
court to render his expert opinion on
-the value of the test is only presumptive, not matters.
conclusive, because of false positive and - He has authority on that particular
false negative results. field.

FALSE POSITIVE Subpoena – order issued by the court to a

person to appear in court.
1. Subject recently fired a gun
-totally not related to the incident in A “subpoena ad testificandum” is a court
question summons to appear and give oral testimony
for use at a hearing or trial.
2. Subject is a smoker
3. Subject is a farmer who deals with
fertilizer. -any willfull disobedience to or disregard of
a court order or any misconduct in the
FALSE NEGATIVE presence of a court action that interferes with
a judge’s ability to administer justice or that
1. Subject is a professional
insults the dignity of the court. Punishable by
2. Incessant rushing with water and soap
fine or imprisonment or both.
3. Paraffim test was done beyond 3 days 2 kinds:
from the time of incident.
Direct – inside the court room or anywhere in
WITNESS the court room
- A person who by perceiving and Indirect – outside the court room, defied the
made known his perception to order of the court.
- Person who testifies under oath in
a trial with first hand or expert
evidence useful in a lawsuit. VIRGINITY
- A person who sees an event. - A condition of a female who has
Who cannot be a witness? not experience sexual intercourse
and whose genital organs have not
-Those who cannot made known his been alteres by carnal connection
perception to others and whose hymen is still intact.

* Children Virtuous Female

©Manuel Rodriguez II
FEU – Institute of Law
Antonio Rebosa, Ll.B, M.D

- If her body is pure and if she has -this term refers to a condition who
never had any sexual intercourse permits any form of sexual liberties as
with another though her mind and long as they abstain from rupturing
heart is impure. the hymen by sexual act.
- the woman may be embraced,
Kinds of Virginity: kissed, may allow her breasts to be
fondled, her private organ to be held
1. MORAL – the state of not knowing
and other lascivious acts.
the nature of sexual life and not
- the woman allows sexual
having experienced sexual relation.
intercourse but only “inter-femora” or
- Applies to children below the age
even “inter-labia” but not to the
of puberty and whose sex organs
extent of rupturing the hymen.
and secondary sex characters are
- hymen is still intact
not yet developed.
2. PHYSICAL – condition whereby a 4. “VIRGO INTACTA”
woman is conscious of the nature of
the sexual life but has not experienced - literally the term refers to a truly
sexual intercourse. virgin woman; that there are structural
changes in her organ to infer previous sexual
The term applies to women who have intercourse and that she is a virtuous woman.
reached sexual maturity but have not
experienced sexual intercourse. - inasmuch as there are no conclusive
evidence to prove the existence of such
Distinction between True and False Physical condition, liberal authorities extend the
Virginity. connotation of the term to include women
who have had previous sexual act or even
a) True Physical Virginity – a condition habitually but had not given birth.
wherein hymen is intact with edges
distinct and regular and the opening
small to barely admit the tip of the
smallest finger of the examiners even Defloration – is the laceration or rupture of
if the thighs are separated. the hymen as a result of sexual intercourse.
b) False Physical Virginity – a condition
- All other lacerations of the hymen
wherein the hymen is unruptured but
which are not caused by sexual
the orifice is wide and elastic to admit
act are not considered as
two or more fingers of the examiner
with a lesser degree of resistance.
-the hymen may be laxed and Other causes of Hymenal Laceration:
distensible and may have previous
sexual relation. In this particular 1. Passage of clotted blood during
instance the physician may not be menstruation
able to make a convincing conclusion 2. Ulceration due to disease like
that the subject is virgin. diphtheria
3. Jumping or Running
4. Falling on hard sharp object

5. Medical instrumentation

©Manuel Rodriguez II
FEU – Institute of Law
Antonio Rebosa, Ll.B, M.D

6. Self-scratching or irritation o Dead, but cells are still alive

7. Masturbation 2. Molecular /Cellular Death
8. Insertion of foreign bodies o Dead for 3-6 hours
9. Previous operation o Death also of the cells
10. Horseback riding 3. “Apparent Death” or State of
11. Aerobics / biking Suspended Animation
12. Throma to the genitalia o Transient loss of
consciousness or
Degree of Laceration: o Temporary cessation of the
vital functions of the body
a) Incomplete Laceration
- It is important to determine the
- Rupture or laceration of the
condition of suspended animation to
hymen is considered incomplete
prevent premature burial.
when it does not involve the
whole width or height of hymen.
 Superficial – the laceration does not
go beyond one-half of the whole MUSCULAR CHANGES in the BODY
width of the hymen following DEATH
 Deep – the laceration involves more
than one-half of the width of the Importance: help us determine the
hymen but not reaching the base. approximate time of death.
1. Stage of Primary Flaccidity:

b) Complete Laceration -AKA “post-mortem irritability.”

- The hymenal laceration involves -The muscles are relaxed and
the whole width but not beyond capable of contracting when
the base of the hymen stimulated.
-Died less than six (6) hours.
c) Compound or Complicated
- The laceration involves the 2. Stage of Post Mortem Rigidity:
hymen and also the surrounding
tissues. -AKA “Rigor Mortis”
- It may involve the hymen also the -The whole body becomes rigid due
surrounding tissues. to the contraction of the muscles.
- It may involve the perineum, - Six (6) – twenty four(24) hours
vaginal canal, urethra or rectum.
3. Stage of Secondary Flaccidity /
DEATH Onset of Decomposition:

- Complete cessation of all cardio- -AKA “commencement of

pulmonary (heart-lungs) and/or putrefaction”
cessation of brain activity. -Relaxed and soft but with foul odor
- 24-36 hours ++
3 Kinds of Death
Forensic Entomology – involves the insects

1. Somatic Death / Clinical Death that are eating up the body.


o Dead for less than 3 hours.

©Manuel Rodriguez II
FEU – Institute of Law
Antonio Rebosa, Ll.B, M.D


-it occurs in most extensive areas of the authorized by law PARTIAL autopsy.
most dependent portions of the body. may perform this -by the pathologist
kind of autopsy of the hospital
Importance: to determine the position of the
body when the person died.


fluid on form.
- Medico legal of PNP
- Medico legal of NBI
already coagulated, blood already
- Municipal/ Health Officers who are
considered ex-officio medical
- Those authorized by an ordinance or
POST MORTEM EXAMINATION thru request from chief of police,
mayor, prosecutor.
- Intermal examination of the dead.
Importance: to determine the cause of death.
- Both the internal and external
examination of the dead.
NEGATIVE AUTOPSY – after the autopsy,
cause of death is still unknown.
NEGLIGENT AUTOPSY – cause of death
is still unknown because of so many errors
committed during the autopsy.
An autopsy may be official and non official,
the differences are as follows:
-medico legal or -hospital based or
mandatory autopsy. elective autopsy
-done on those who -done to those who
died on non-natural died from natural
causes causes
-NO NEED for -consent from next
consent of the next of kin is needed,
of kin. they will decide

-always a TOTAL whether it will be a



©Manuel Rodriguez II
FEU – Institute of Law