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Heavy Oil Desalting “Performance Issues” Dr. Davis Taggart, NATCO R & D

Heavy Oil Desalting “Performance Issues”

Dr. Davis Taggart, NATCO R & D

Desalting Steps Desalter Flow Diagram Oil Outlet Transformer Desalter • Demulsifier Injection • Process Heating
Desalting Steps Desalter Flow Diagram
Desalting Steps
Desalter Flow Diagram

Oil Outlet

Transformer

Desalter
Desalter

• Demulsifier Injection

• Process Heating

Dilution Water Injection

• Mixing

C

Feed

• Dil u ti on Wat er Injec ti on • Mixing C Feed Stream f

Stream

f

Mixing Valve
Mixing
Valve

n er ace

• Mud Wash

• Electrostatic Dehydration

• Effluent Water

I

t

t

l

on ro

Effluent

Water

Dilution

Recycle

Water

Pump

BS&W, %

Effluent

BS&W, % Effluent g Increased Refinery dosage Reverse Emulsion Breakers Easy t o O ver t

g Increased Refinery dosage Reverse Emulsion Breakers Easy to Overtreat

Hi her Field Dosa es

Demulsifiers

g

1.6

1.4

1.2

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

Best Over-Treat Under-Treat
Best
Over-Treat
Under-Treat

Electrostatic Compatibility

0

50

100

150

200

Chemical Dosage, ppm

Process Heating Reduced heat transfer Increased tem p erature required More heat demand Higher exchanger

Process Heating

Process Heating Reduced heat transfer Increased tem p erature required More heat demand Higher exchanger fouling

Reduced heat transfer Increased temperature required More heat demand Higher exchanger fouling Potential for crystalline salts

Dilution Water Increased water demand More heat demand Recycle water can be used Mix Technology

Dilution Water

Increased water demand More heat demand Recycle water can be used

Mix Technology

Electrostatic Technolo gy

BS&W

NaCl

%

p

tb

3

Static + Valve

Deep-field AC

0.6

2.2

3

Static + Valve

Dual Polarity

0.4

1.3

3

Static + Valve

Dual Frequency

0.15

0.5

 

Dynamic

Dual Frequency

0.3

 

1

Mixing 200 Reduced mixing intensity Increased pressure drop Creates tighter emulsions 100 Produces more
Mixing 200 Reduced mixing intensity Increased pressure drop Creates tighter emulsions 100 Produces more
Mixing
200
Reduced mixing intensity
Increased pressure drop
Creates tighter emulsions
100
Produces more interface ra g
Compromises electrostatic
dehydration
0
TYPICAL FIELD
REQUIREMENTS
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
RESIDUAL WATER (%)
TYPICAL REFINERY
REQ UIREMENTS
PTB (P OUNDS
OF SALT
PER 10 00 BBLS OF OIL)
Interface Control • Interface formation up to 15% of charge • Heavy solids loading •

Interface Control

Interface formation up to 15% of charge

Heavy solids loading

Potent ial asp h a l tene

Interface drains essential

To p View Oil Layer Interface Layer Water Layer Side View
To
p View
Oil Layer
Interface Layer
Water
Layer
Side View

Tool Stool Drain

Pipe Header
Pipe Header
Mud Washing Continuous preferred over intermittent Heavier loading to water plant Hi g her or

Mud Washing

Continuous preferred over intermittent Heavier loading to water plant Higher organic content Spray Nozzles

Recycle Water Drain Sand W a er t
Recycle
Water
Drain
Sand
W
a er
t

Trough

Electrostatic Dehydration Desalter capacit y is red u ced Slower water coalescence Hi nd ere

Electrostatic Dehydration

Desalter capacity is reduced Slower water coalescence Hindered by filterable solids Needs viscosity between 5 and 10 cp. Lower density differential Slower water separation

AC/DC El ec trosta ti c Fi e ld •Dual Polarit y ® •Modulated Dual

AC/DC Electrostatic Field

•Dual Polarity ® •Modulated Dual Polarity ® Electro-D namic Desalter ® •Dual Frequency ®

y

Bulk } Water Removal Oil Flu x
Bulk
} Water
Removal
Oil Flu x
Desalting Technology 1000 Inlet Salt Outlet Salt %BSW 100 10 1 0.1 AC AC-AC DF

Desalting Technology

1000 Inlet Salt Outlet Salt %BSW 100 10 1 0.1 AC AC-AC DF DF-DF DF-EDD
1000
Inlet Salt
Outlet Salt
%BSW
100
10
1
0.1
AC
AC-AC
DF
DF-DF
DF-EDD
EDD-DF
EDD-EDD
Salt Co ntent Na Cl (ptb)

Desalting Technology

Effluent Water Hea vy solids loading Heavy oil loading Sl ower ra t es i

Effluent Water

Heavy solids loading Heavy oil loading Slower rates in a Biotreating facility