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Document No.

GP 04-81
Applicability Group
Date 23 November 05

Guidance on Practice for


UXO Risk Mitigation Strategy for Projects -
Implementation

GP 04-81

BP GROUP
ENGINEERING TECHNICAL PRACTICES
23 November 05 GP 04-81
Guidance on Practice for UXO Risk Mitigation Strategy for Projects - Implementation

Foreword

This document is the second of two Group Engineering Technical Practices, ETP GP 04-80 and GP
04-81, on the development and implementation of an UXO RMS for projects.

The aim of these Guidelines is to ensure that BP’s people, projects and reputations are protected from
the affects of encountering UXO contamination as part of the HSSE plan.

The guidelines are in two parts:

• GP 04-80 provides guidance on the development of a UXO RMS.


• GP 04-81 provides guidance on how a project team should implement the selected UXO
RMS and should only be read once the reader is familiar with GP 04-80.
These guidelines show how UXO RMS is aligned to the Capital Value Practice.

Copyright  2005, BP Group. All rights reserved. The information contained in this
document is subject to the terms and conditions of the agreement or contract under which
the document was supplied to the recipient’s organization. None of the information
contained in this document shall be disclosed outside the recipient’s own organization
without the prior written permission of Director of Engineering, BP Group, unless the
terms of such agreement or contract expressly allow.

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Table of Contents
Page
Foreword.......................................................................................................................................... 2
1. Scope...................................................................................................................................... 5
2. Normative references.............................................................................................................. 5
3. Terms and definitions.............................................................................................................. 5
4. Symbols and abbreviations.....................................................................................................9
5. Context.................................................................................................................................. 10
5.1. General...................................................................................................................... 10
5.2. International Mine Action Standards (IMAS)...............................................................11
5.3. Unplanned discovery of UXO.....................................................................................12
6. Implementing the project UXO RMS.....................................................................................12
6.1. Scope......................................................................................................................... 12
6.2. Purpose...................................................................................................................... 12
6.3. Programme management responsibilities..................................................................13
7. Contracting strategy.............................................................................................................. 16
7.1. General...................................................................................................................... 16
7.2. Contracting options....................................................................................................16
7.3. Contract setting.......................................................................................................... 16
7.4. EOD contractors.........................................................................................................22
7.5. Certification................................................................................................................23
7.6. Supporting documents...............................................................................................23
8. Managing quality................................................................................................................... 23
8.1. General...................................................................................................................... 23
8.2. IMAS - Stage one.......................................................................................................24
8.3. IMAS - Stage two.......................................................................................................26
8.4. Post-clearance inspection..........................................................................................27
9. Safety management.............................................................................................................. 29
9.1. Safety management...................................................................................................29
9.2. Continual development of the UXO risk assessment..................................................29
9.3. Action on finding a suspected item of UXO................................................................29
10. EOD offshore operations.......................................................................................................29
10.1. General...................................................................................................................... 29
10.2. Contracting for offshore EOD support........................................................................31
10.3. Offshore EOD operations...........................................................................................31
11. Managing residual risk.......................................................................................................... 33
Annex A (Normative) Management of the Unplanned Discovery of UXO.......................................35
A.1. Forward................................................................................................................................. 35

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A.2. Impact on the project............................................................................................................. 35


A.3. Preparation of the workforce.................................................................................................35
A.4. Unexpected discovery of UXO..............................................................................................36
A.5. Levels of response................................................................................................................ 36
A.6. Emergency management response.......................................................................................37
A.7. Follow-up action.................................................................................................................... 38
A.8. Full UXO RMS....................................................................................................................... 39
A.9. Summary............................................................................................................................... 39
Annex B (Normative) Sample Size 1...............................................................................................40
Annex C (Normative) Stage two – Switching rules.........................................................................41
Annex D (Normative) Actions to be taken upon discovery of UXO.................................................42
D.1. Purpose................................................................................................................................. 42
D.2. Scope.................................................................................................................................... 42
D.3. Introduction to action to be taken upon discovering UXO......................................................42
D.4. Immediate action................................................................................................................... 42
D.5. Follow-up actions..................................................................................................................43
D.6. EOD remedial actions...........................................................................................................44
D.7. Guidance timings..................................................................................................................44
D.8. Assistance to EOD teams.....................................................................................................44
D.9. Action on small arms ammunition..........................................................................................45

List of Tables

Table 1 – Confidence levels............................................................................................................ 28

List of Figures

Figure 1 – Responsibilities............................................................................................................. 14
Figure 2 – Sample size formula......................................................................................................28
Figure 3 – The UXO offshore area.................................................................................................31
Figure 4 – Offshore toolbox (depth in meters)................................................................................32

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1. Scope

This GP covers the implementation of a UXO RMS formulated under the guidance given in GP 04-80.

2. Normative references

The following normative documents contain requirements that, through reference in this text,
constitute requirements of this technical practice. For dated references, subsequent amendments to, or
revisions of, any of these publications do not apply. However, parties to agreements based on this
technical practice are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of
the normative documents indicated below. For undated references, the latest edition of the normative
document referred to applies.

International Mine Action Standards (IMAS)


IMAS 01.10 Guide for the application of International Mine Action Standards.
IMAS 04.10 Glossary of Terms and Definitions.

International Organization for Standardization (ISO)


ISO 9000 Quality management systems – Fundamentals and vocabulary.
ISO Guide 51 Safety aspects -- Guidelines for their inclusion in standards.
ISO Guide 2859 Sampling procedures for inspection by attributes.

BP
E&P risk management guidelines for major projects.

3. Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this GP, the following terms and definitions apply:

AAP6
AAP 6 is the document that defines NATO terms.

Alert (http://projects.bpweb.bp.com/alert/)
ALERT is a structured and facilitated session to discuss the risk and uncertainties of a project. It is
usually conducted in the Appraise stage of project development to enable early management
intervention and to promote development of effective risk management and opportunity capture plans.

Accreditation
The procedure by which an organisation is formally recognised as being competent and able to plan
and manage UXO risk mitigation activities safely, effectively and efficiently.

Bomblet
(see submunition)

Clearance (explosive ordnance clearance)


Tasks or actions to reduce or eliminate the explosive ordnance (EO hazard) from a specified area in
order to provide land fit for use. [NATO study 2187]. This can also be referred to as Explosive
Ordnance Disposal (EOD) operations.

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Cleared Area
An area that has been physically and systematically processed by a demining organisation to ensure
the removal and /or destruction of all mine and UXO hazards to a specified depth. [IMAS]

Destroy (destruction) in situ [“blow in situ”]


the destruction of any item of ordnance by explosives without moving the item from where it was
found, normally by placing an explosive charge alongside.

Disarm
The act of making a mine (munition) safe by removing the fuse or igniter. The procedure normally
removes one or more links from the firing train.

Disposal
The final acts that removes the hazards presented by a UXO. The final disposal of explosive ordnance
which may include demolition or burning in place, removal to a disposal area or other appropriate
means. [AAP-6]

Note: In a number of countries, the final “Disposal” of UXO


remains the responsibility of the national authority.

Early Assessment (EA)


The first part of a GA the aim of which is to determine whether there is evidence of potential UXO
contamination within a broad project footprint and local environs.

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)/ Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA)
A process to assess the potential impact and environmental (/social) improvement opportunities of all
stages of the future development on the surrounding environment (and social conditions).

Explosive Ordnance
All munitions containing explosives, nuclear fission or fusion material, and biological and chemical
agents. This includes bombs and warheads, guided and ballistic missiles; artillery, mortar, rocket and
small arms ammunition; all mines, torpedoes and depth charges; pyrotechnics; clusters and dispensers;
cartridge and propellant devices; electro-explosive devices; clandestine and improvised explosive
devices; and all similar or related items or components explosive in nature [AAP-6].

Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD)


The deliberate searching for (detection), identification, evaluation, render safe, recovery/removal and
destruction/fin al disposal of unexploded ordnance.

Note: For the purpose of GP 04-80 & GP 04-81, the term EOD
should be considered to cover all the services provides by
an EOD authorities, agencies and contractors in support of a
project’s UXO Risk Mitigation Strategy including the delivery
of Mine Risk.

Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) Consultant


EOD Consultants provide advice on managing EOD programmes. This may include putting in place
management systems, the conduct of UXO Risk assessments, the production of UXO RMS and the
audit of working systems.

Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) Contractors


This covers contractors employed to deliver Mine Risk Education, Technical Investigation (TI),
Clearance, Disposal and QA/QC.

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Note: In a number of countries the final “Disposal” of UXO remains


the responsibility of the national authorities.

Explosive Ordnance Safety and Awareness Briefing (or Training)


(see Mine Risk Education).

General Assessment (GA)


The continuous process by which a comprehensive inventory can be obtained, and developed, of all
reported and/or suspected locations of UXO contamination, the quantities and types of explosive
hazards, and information on local land and sea conditions. This includes but is not limited to: soil
characteristics, vegetation, geology, hydrography and climate; and assessment of the scale and impact
of the UXO problem on the project or activity.

Note: For the purpose of GP 04-80 & GP 04-81, the term GA


covers the rolling assessment of the UXO risk to a project or
activity. The GA encompasses the Early Assessment, the
Initial Assessment, the Risk Estimation, the Risk Workshops
and Technical Investigations.

Hazard
Potential source of harm from items of UXO or component parts.

[based on ISO Guide 51:1999(E)]

Initial Assessment (IA)


A stage in the General Assessment the aim of which is to quantify, by type, the potential UXO
contamination within a project footprint. The IA examines:

• The probability of the risk event occurring.


• The potential impact of the risk if it occurs.
• The ranges of uncertainty in impact and probability.
• The risk rating (a function of probability and impact).
• And advice on how easily the risk can be managed.

International Mine Action Standards (IMAS)


IMAS provides a framework of international standards and guidelines, sponsored by the United
Nations, for Mine action. The aim is to improve safety and efficiency in mine action by promoting the
preferred procedures and practices at both headquarters and field level.

Note: IMAS provides the only internationally agreed standards that


cover EOD operations.

Note: IMAS allows for National and other Military standards to be


at variance the central standard.

Mine Risk Education


A process that promotes the adoption of safer behaviours by at-risk groups, and that provides the links
between affected communities, other mine action components, and other sectors. [IMAS 04.10].

Note: For the purpose of GP 04-80 & GP 04-81 the term MRE
cover the training and education of Company and contractor
staff in the risks associated with operating in a UXO

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contaminated area and the measures that they need to take


in order to mitigate the risk they face.

Munitions
(Also “Ammunition”) - A complete device charged with explosives, propellants, pyrotechnics,
initiating composition, or nuclear, biological or chemical material for use in military operations,
including demolitions [AAP-6].

Neutralise
The act of replacing safety devices such as pins or rods into an explosive item to prevent the fuse or
igniter from functioning.

Note: It does not make an item completely safe as removal of the


safety devices will immediately make the item active again.

Note: A mine is said to be neutralised when it has been rendered,


by external means, incapable of firing on passage of a
target, although it may remain dangerous to handle. [AAP-6]

Probability Impact Grid


A diagram depicting the importance of a risk and which plots probability on the x-axis and impact on
the y-axis.

Quality Assurance (QA)


Part of quality management focused on providing confidence that quality requirements will be met
ISO 9000.

Note: The purpose of QA is to confirm that management practices


and operational procedures for EOD are appropriate and will
achieve the stated requirement in a safe, effective and
efficient manner. Internal QA will be conducted by EOD
organizations themselves; but, external inspections by an
external monitoring body should also be conducted.

Quality Control (QC)


Part of quality management focused on fulfilling quality requirements [ISO 9000].

Note: QC relates to the inspection of a finished product. The


'product' is safe cleared land.

Random Sampling
The selection of samples by a process involving equal chances of selection of each item. Used as an
objective or impartial means of selecting areas for test purposes.

Render Safe Procedure (RSP)


The application of special EOD methods and tools to provide for the interruption of functions or
separation of essential components to prevent an unacceptable detonation.

Remedial EOD Work


EOD work completed by Project coordinated EOD resources when an item of UXO is discovered on
the Project construction footprint after it has been released for construction.

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Residual UXO Risk


The risk from UXO that remains at a location when a Project releases an area to a contractor for
construction or other activities.

Risk Estimate
An appraisal of the UXO risk to a project or associated activity that identifies the hazards, assesses
their impact, and proposes response options.

Sampling
A defined procedure whereby part or parts of an area of cleared land are taken, for testing, as a
representation of the whole area.

Small Arms Ammunition (SAA)


Ammunition with a calibre of less than 12,5 mm.

Note: Although potentially dangerous the risk posed is less than


that posed by UXO.

Submunition
Any munition that, to perform its task, separates from a parent munition. [AAP-6]

Technical Survey (TS)/ Investigation (TI)


The detailed investigation of known or suspected UXO contaminated area identified during the
planning phase employing visual techniques and equipment in order to gain a more detailed
understanding of the type, level and extent of the UXO contamination within a specified area to a
specified depth. Such areas may have been identified during the general mine action assessment or
have been otherwise reported.

UneXploded Ordnance (UXO)


Explosive ordnance that has been primed, fused, armed, or otherwise prepared for use or used. It may
have been fired, dropped, placed, launched, or projected yet remains unexploded either through
malfunction or design, or for any other reason.

Note: For the purpose of GP 04-80 & GP 04-81 the term includes
all explosive ordnance, munitions or parts thereof that might
be encountered, irrespective of whether it has been
prepared for use or not.

UXO Risk Mitigation Strategy


A systematic process for identifying and assessing the risk posed by UXO to personnel and projects in
order to determine and implement the most appropriate and proportionate means of mitigation. It
provides quantifiable assurance that land and seabed is fit for purpose.

War Grave
Ship or aircraft containing human remains or individual bodies that are casualties of war.

4. Symbols and abbreviations

For the purpose of this GP, the following symbols and abbreviations apply:

ALARP As Low as Reasonably Practicable

EOD Explosive Ordnance Disposal

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EODCC EOD Coordination Centre

FEL Front End Loading

FFE Free From Explosives

GIS Geographical Information System

HSSE Health, Safety, Security and Environmental

IMAS International Mine Action Standards

MERP Medical Emergency Reaction Plan

MRE Mine Risk Education

PM Project Manager

ROV Remotely Operated Vehicles

QA/QC Quality Assurance/Quality Control

SOPs Standing Operational Procedures

SPA Single Point of Accountability

SQL Specified Quality Level

UXO Unexploded Ordnance

RMS Risk Mitigation Strategy

5. Context

5.1. General
a. Managing an EOD programme within the context of an Oil and Gas Project should be seen
as the implementation of the Project’s UXO RMS. The development of a Project UXO
RMS is covered in GP 04-80. For the purpose of this GP, an EOD programme is
considered to be any activity that requires the contracting of UXO EOD Services for any of
the following activities, or a combination thereof:
1. Mine Risk Education (MRE). The role of the MRE contractor is the promotion of
awareness of the UXO risk that leads to the adoption of safer behaviours by at-risk
groups. This might include the reporting of indications that UXO contamination
might be present or the correct action to be taken should an item of UXO be
discovered. A general safety poster can be found on the UXO RMS Website.
2. Technical Investigation (TI). The role of the TI contractor is to develop the ongoing
General Assessment (overall UXO risk assessment) by conducting detailed on-site
investigation (visual search, magnetic instrument search, side scan sonar, and
magnetometer offshore) in order to inform the decision-making processes for
alternatives and clearance options. This might include the location and identification
of individual items of concern.
3. UXO Clearance Operations. The role of the Clearance contractor is to eliminate all
UXO hazards from a site in order to produce cleared land or sea bed (i.e., a specified

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area that has been physically and systematically processed by an EOD organisation to
ensure the removal and/or destruction of all UXO hazards to a specified depth).
4. Quality Assurance (QA). The purpose of QA is to confirm that management practices
and operational procedures of MRE and EOD contractors are appropriate and will
achieve the stated requirement in a safe, effective and efficient manner. The MRE and
EOD contractors will conduct internal QA; this should be assessed by an independent
external QA monitoring body in accordance with IMAS.
5. Quality Control (QC). The purpose of QC is the independent inspection of the
finished product; (i.e. confirm whether the land or seabed is fit for purpose, following
clearance).
b. The aim of this GP is to provide practical guidance to Project staff on the implementation
of the Project UXO RMS.

5.2. International Mine Action Standards (IMAS)

5.2.1. Generals
a. International Standards for UXO operations were developed by the United Nation as the
IMAS. Since the introduction of IMAS in 2001, many EOD organisations claim to
understand and comply with the Standard. However, there is evidence that this may not be
the case. Project teams should be aware of this and put mechanisms in place to ensure that
they receive the quality of service that is required. The basis of this GP is the IMAS
standard - this provides a minimum standard to which any EOD contractor should
conform.

Note As a parallel, in 2005 the EOD industry should be


considered to be as mature as the commercial diving
industry was 15 years ago.

b. The EOD Quality processes should ensure the safety of all stakeholders and provide an
acceptable and verifiable level of confidence that the land or sea bed in question is fit for
purpose (i.e., clear of UXO contamination).

5.2.2. Fundamentals and assumptions


The following fundamentals and assumptions informed the development of IMAS:
a. The goal of every EOD clearance operation should be the removal of all UXO identified as
a potential hazard from a defined area. This shall be assumed to be BP’s default setting
unless the project team can demonstrate that an alternative option reduces the risk to a
statistically acceptable level.
b. The specified clearance standard should take account of the intended use of the
contaminated land. This determines the effort and, therefore, the resources required to
verify the overall quality of clearance achieved. The more sensitive the intended use of the
land, the more resources that could be expected to be committed to verify the quality of the
cleared land. This is known as a ‘suitable for use’ approach. This should have been defined
in the Project’s UXO RMS.
c. IMAS recognises that no human process is ever entirely error-free. Therefore, some
residual risk may remain following a clearance operation even after all remedial action that
results from a Quality Assurance process has been completed. Also, natural and man-made
circumstances may moveUXO into previously cleared areas - particularly offshore. This
residual risk needs to be managed.
d. The residual risk should be verifiable (quantifiable) through the final independent Quality
Control process and deemed tolerable (acceptable) to the client.

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5.2.3. IMAS based process


The IMAS based process includes the following:
a. Production of comprehensive EOD policies/procedures.
b. A formal Organisational Accreditation (AO) process for all EOD organisations.

Note It should be noted that “organisational accreditation” is the


term IMAS uses for what is referred to within BP as
contractor “pre-qualification”.

c. A formal Inspection of EOD Contractor’s teams on mobilisation (Operational


Accreditation).
d. Internal & External Quality Assurance monitoring of EOD Contractor’s activities.
e. External Quality Control Inspection of EOD Contractor’s field activities.

5.3. Unplanned discovery of UXO


a. The premise behind this GP is that a UXO risk, like many other risks, can be mitigated
with proper planning. In order to produce the most cost effective solution, this planning
should be done in line with the concept FEL well in advance of any required action.
b. If, however, UXO is found on the site of a project that has chosen a Do Nothing strategy,
the Project should refer to the guide for the management action required that can be found
at Annex A.
c. Projects also, however, need to consider how they might expect their staff to react to such a
hazard if the workforce has not received any training in this subject. The Project should
consider the potential delays that may be caused if no provision has been made to provide
EOD clearance support to the project site.

6. Implementing the project UXO RMS

6.1. Scope
The implementation of a successful Project UXO RMS, should include the following:
a. Contracting the right support from EOD Contractors at the right time and place and in the
most cost effective manner.
b. Ensuring that EOD contractors deliver their services to the prescribed standards.
c. Ensuring that the Project Team remains aware and up-to-date with the potential risk from
UXO even after a site has been cleared to the specified standard. This is referred to as
‘Managing the Residual Risk’.
d. Ensuring that non-EOD contractors, who may be undertaking work on land that has been
released as being fit for purpose following implementation of the project UXO RMS, are
made aware of the risk that UXO may still pose to them and understand the risk mitigation
options open to them.

6.2. Purpose
a. The purpose of any EOD programme is to ensure that the land or seabed in question is fit
for purpose.
1. An Initial Assessment may have alerted the project team to a potential UXO hazard
on, or in the vicinity of, the project site.

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2. If detailed records and information are available of the precise location of activity that
could have led to the existence of potential UXO contamination, this assessment may
have enabled the project team to eliminate some areas of the project site from being
considered as being at risk and pin-pointed others as being of concern.
b. If records and information are incomplete, the Project should consider using TI to improve
the accuracy and completeness of the data available to make the informed decision as to
whether a
1. Clearance operation would be required or whether some other option might be
available.
2. TI may range from 100% visual/side scan sonar cover plus random instrument
samples (4, 8, or 12%) up to a 100% instrument investigation of a specific part of the
site.
3. The aim would be to achieve a clear understanding of the UXO contamination on the
site to enable the Project team to make informed decisions on the requirements for
Clearance operations.
4. The project team is likely to want only to conduct EOD Clearance operations in as
limited an area as possible where no practical alterative to Clearance can be found.
c. Once the requirement for a Clearance operation has been established in a specific area, the
EOD programme manager shall ensure that the work is completed to the required standard.
The EOD programme manager should ensure that any UXO cleared from the site does not
present any hazard in the future.
d. The EOD programme manager may also be required to deal with the sensitive issue of war
dead should any remains be discovered during UXO EOD work.

6.3. Programme management responsibilities


a. The Business Unit or Project Team shall determine and agree early with the Host Nation
Authorities where responsibilities and authority for EOD operations lie.
1. The National Authority, as a requirement of IMAS, should be responsible for ensuring
that EOD contractors working in-country are fit for role through some form of a
National accreditation scheme.
2. However, this is not always the case. The question of accreditation should be clarified
in the Host Nation Agreement.
3. If there is no National Authority responsible for EOD work within National
boundaries or it does not meet BP’s needs, BP shall assume this responsibility.
b. The overall SPA for UXO matters is covered in Part One. As part of any contracting
strategy, the BU/Project SPA may nominate a Contract Accountable Manager (CAM) to
run the EOD programme and all its associated contracts. For small EOD operations, the
SPA may elect to perform this function themselves. The CAM requires the following
competencies:
1. Lead.
2. Let and manage contracts.
3. Conversant with the practices outlined in this GP and aware of IMAS and its
provisions.
4. Sufficiently aware of UXO issues to be able to evaluate the changing impact that
identified UXO risk may have on the project especially as construction approaches.
5. Sufficient personal credibility for their advice to senior members of the project team
to be taken seriously.

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6. Understand the requirements of and implementation of a Quality Management


Framework.
7. Know BP’s UXO network and where to obtain UXO SME advice both at the strategic
and the operational level.
c. Clear responsibilities should be established for parties involved in the programme.
Wherever EOD services are conducted, IMAS requires that the EOD contractor’s work be
monitored and inspected by an independent third party (a QA/QC contractor). The CAM
shall decide how this work is managed.
d. If required, the CAM should look initially to the Project HSSE Manager for advice. The
Project HSSE Manager may refer the CAM to BP UXO SPA who in turn may point the
CAM towards a UXO Subject Matter Expert.
e. A typical division of responsibility for Project EOD for the management of EOD operation
within a project is at Figure 1. The QA and QC role could be performed by the same
contractor. MRE, TI, and Clearance could be performed by a single contractor independent
of the QA/QC contractor.

Figure 1 – Responsibilities

EOD
BUL /P rojec t Ma na ge r
Co nsulta nt

BU/ Project HSSE Ma na ger (SP A) Advice


Accountability
UXO Contrac t Ac co untab le
Mana ger (CAM) Independe nt EOD
Subj ect Matter
Expe rt

Compa ny Repre se nta tives Full-tim e


em ploy ee of BP
(W h ere A p p rop riate)
Short-term
em ploy ee of BP

EO D Contractor
EOD M RE Contrac tor
Legend

EOD TI Co ntractor EOD QA Co ntractor

EOD C lea ra nce Contrac tor EOD QC Contracto r

f. If appropriate, the CAM may use a BP Representative as an intermediary between


themselves and the EOD Contractor. The BP Representative would be a short-term hire by
BP to represent their interests during a specific phase of an EOD programme. The CAM
may consider using their UXO consultant to help find and select any BP Representatives
required. To fulfil their role, BP Representatives need to have the following competencies:
1. Be an SME in the operational EOD disciplines that they are monitoring.
2. Understand the provisions of IMAS and have experience of its implementation.
3. Be experienced in contract management and the implementation of a Quality
Management Framework.
g. Once it has been determined that EOD contractor support is required, the CAM should
establish a focal point for all UXO RMS coordination across the entire Project. For smaller
packages of work, this role may remain as part of the function of the Contract Accountable

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Manager. For larger operations, this may require the setting up a staffed EODCC under the
control of an EOD Coordinator, which would be responsible for managing EOD
operations. To this end, it should:
1. Maintain a diary of key decisions, events, and milestones in the life of the project,
which acts as the framework for the required Quality management audit trail.
2. Ensure that the necessary project SOPs are in place, understood, and used by the
relevant parties. A list of SOPs titles potentially required by an EODCC can be found
on the UXO RMS website. It should be noted that wherever a SOPs is produced, it
should be written to assume that an EODCC has been established to control EOD
work.
3. Ensure thorough on-site inspections, as part of Operational Accreditation, that EOD
contractors meet the standards required within the contract.
4. Generate a unique Task Dossier for each construction site. Depending upon the size of
the particular site, this contains a number of Lot Folders.
5. Ensure the QA/QC is conducted on the MRE, TI, and Clearance contractors’ work to
ensure that they fulfil their contractual obligations.
6. Ensure that lessons learnt are collected and passed to the UXO RMS owner.
h. The EOD Coordinator shall have the following competencies:
1. Lead.
2. Implement and control all contract T’s & C’s, interact with local authorities in the
BP’s best interests.
3. Interact with local authorities in BP’s best interests.
4. Have full legal awareness of the land release process and managing residual risk.
5. Be fully conversant with the practices outlined in this GP and IMAS and its
provisions.
6. Be sufficiently aware of the impact of UXO issues on Project disciplines and
activities to be able to advise the CAM in adequate time of any changing impact that
identified UXO risk may have on the project.
7. Have sufficient personal, credibility, and technical EOD expertise for their advice to
the CAM and senior members of the project team to be taken seriously.
8. Implement the full requirements of a Quality Management Framework.
9. Know BP’s UXO network and where to obtain UXO SME operational level advice.
i. When Offshore EOD operations are being conducted, the CAM may elect to have BP
Representatives on site to ensure, through monitoring, that the EOD Contractor’s activities
meet the required standards. The roles of the BP Representative and an External QA
contractor may overlap and, therefore, this issue shall be considered in detail when the
UXO RMS implementation plan is drawn up.
j. If the EOD Coordinator, BP Representatives or any support staff are outsourced, they shall
hold and maintain the appropriate BP directed medical, survival, fire fighting, and first aid
certification for the duration of their Contract.

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7. Contracting strategy

7.1. General
a. UXO/EOD work invariably involves close co-operation between the client, contractors,
and National Regulatory Authorities, especially when public safety issues, Operational
Accreditation, permitting requirements, or potential media involvement, arise.
b. One of the major reasons that UXO contamination can have such an adverse effect on a
project is the time often needed to identify, contract, and mobilise EOD contractors
following the discovery of a UXO hazard. The failure of EOD contractors to consistently
produce the required quality of clearance is another.
c. The contract strategy shall, therefore, ensure that work done to ensure the quality of work
previously carried out shall be conducted in such a manner to ensure an independent
assessment of the quality achieved is provided to the CAM. This at least requires
independent supervision of the quality verification process and may require the use of a
completely separate EOD contractor.
d. As BP moves into areas where UXO hazards are more likely to occur, BP is seeking to
identify a coherent, effective and visible contracting strategy for EOD Services. This
strategy helps projects identify EOD contractors capable of producing a cost effective
service, of acceptable quality, with minimum delays and enables best practice to be
communicated throughout the appropriate BP Networks.

7.2. Contracting options


The following options should be considered before engaging EOD contractors based on a risk
management framework:
a. Do Nothing (while do nothing is an option, the risk associated with this option must be
clearly understood before this course of action is taken).
b. Explore the EOD Services contractor base through a Request for Information process in
order to allow the Project to become an ‘Intelligent Customer’. However, this process can
take considerable time. A desk pre-qualification has been conducted that has identified a
potential tender list. For details, contact PSCMI Sunbury.
c. Establish a list of pre-qualified contractors. (Here the Project is more likely to get the
support required ‘Just in Time’ as the supplier base is small and market forces may
prevail).
d. Enter into a ‘call off’ contract with contractor(s) after having conducted appropriate pre-
qualification (Organisational Accreditation having been completed and requirement
modality for Operational Accreditation agreed). There might be several call-off contracts in
place distributed regionally as appropriate. (Here the PM would have access to a contractor
and have arrangements in place to call them in if needed; ‘Just in Case’. In this option the
contract might never be used so it should be cheaper than the final option explained below.
This option would only be exercised if the business considered the risk was sufficient and,
therefore, delay would be likely to occur as a call-off contract may require some retention
fee).
e. Deploy an EOD contractor to site.

7.3. Contract setting

7.3.1. General
a. Once a PM has determined that UXO is likely to be an issue on the Project, he should:
1. Establish the project specific constraints for employing EOD contractors.

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2. Establish timescale to obtain government permits for EOD related operations.


3. Determine the fundamental requirements that need to be included in any contract.
4. Determine which contracting strategy would most suit project needs.
5. Review the list of pre-qualified contractors.
6. Clearly set the EOD requirement (rolling or one-off; enabling or directive).
7. Run offshore EOD work with the deployment of a spread for other purposes if
possible.
b. Detailed consideration should be given to the following issues:

7.3.2. Contracted service


The six services that may be contracted are:
a. Subject Matter Expert advice to begin the General Assessment of UXO risk and provide
input to RMS development.
b. TI to help define the level of UXO contamination.
c. Clearance Operations if the product is Cleared land against a SQL.
d. QA services if the product is confirmation that the management systems and operational
procedures of the EOD Contractor are consistent with the terms of the Accreditation.
e. QC services if the product is confirmation that the land is fit for use.
f. MRE if the product is behavioural changes of the audience in that they have adopted safe
practices for operating in a UXO contaminated area.

7.3.3. Definitions of terms


The key terms that will be the basis of the contract shall be established and their use shall be
defined.

7.3.4. Acceptance criteria


a. The contract should state the land fit for purpose acceptance criteria.
1. For clearance operations, this should be based on the EOD contractor ensuring the
removal and/or destruction of all UXO identified as a potential hazard from the
specified area to the specified depth.
2. The specified area to be cleared may be determined by TI or from other reliable
information that indicates the extent of the UXO hazard area limits.
b. The contractual arrangements should specify the area to be cleared, the clearance depth,
and the requirements for monitoring and inspection.
c. The removal and/or destruction of all UXO identified as a potential hazards in the
specified area should be to the specified depth to the required level of confidence through
following the prescribed QA/QC process:
1. Using accredited EOD Contractors with the appropriate Operational Accreditation.
2. Using appropriate management practices, and applying safe and effective operational
procedures.
3. Monitoring the EOD Contractor and sub-units.
4. Conducting a process of post-clearance inspection of cleared land.

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d. If the ground level has changed since the UXO contamination occurred, the contract
should be written to ensure that there is no misunderstanding over the required clearance
depth below existing ground level.
e. The required clearance depth may be adjusted as clearance work progresses. Any
amendment should be agreed with the EOD contractor and should be formally recorded.

7.3.5. Task dossiers


Each project site that is to be subject to TI or Clearance should be detailed in a Task Dossier.
Each construction site should have a unique Task Dossier. This should provide the necessary
information for the Contractor to plan the task. This shall. contain a number of Lot Folders
depending on the size of the particular task site. This should include, but not be restricted to:
a. The outline Footprint for the complete construction site, including key reference points and
temporary footprints.
b. The General Assessment for the area, including known threat indicators for the task site.
c. The assigned UXO risk level for the site.
d. Site locations and descriptions with appropriate mapping, charting, and boundary co-
ordinates.
e. An overview of the EOD statement of work for the site including targets and constraints.
f. Known environmental considerations specific to the site or with the potential to influence
the conduct of the task.
g. Details of the division of the Task Site into Lots and the risk categories for the different
areas of the site.
h. The Lot Folders for the Lots within the Task Site footprint.
i. Action to be taken with items of UXO that do not constitute a hazardous item in the Lot.
j. Other information pertinent to the construction site such as details of the local mayor,
forestry agent, and land owners, copies of survey permits appropriate to the land, military
history, access, vegetation, sources of potable water, etc.

7.3.6. Geographical Information Systems (GIS)


To ensure compatibility between the EODCC and the EOD contractors, the GIS system to be
used needs to be prescribed.

7.3.7. Land use levels


a. The LU category for each lot, and subsequent confidence levels of the quality of EOD
clearance achieved, shall be decided by the National Authority or BP in accordance with
national policy, and should be included in the clearance contract or some other formal
agreement.
b. If no level is specified, the highest confidence level, LU1, shall be applied.

7.3.8. Lot size


a. The area of concern from UXO contamination to the CAM should be reduced as the
programme proceeds through the Initial Assessment, TI, and clearance phases.
b. To make the area of concern more manageable, it should be divided into Lots. The Lot size
should be agreed with the EOD contractor.
c. The CAM should ensure that a modality for agreeing changes to Lots size during the
operation is specified in the contract.

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d. The CAM should also ensure that the EOD contractor is only contracted to deal with the
area specific to his programme requirements; this may change during the operation as areas
of concern are eliminated. In coming to these decisions, he should consider the following:
1. Lot sizes shall be determined by the EODCC in conjunction with the end user
hardware group.
2. The specified area to be cleared should be determined by a technical survey or from
other reliable information that establishes the extent of the UXO hazard area.
3. In general, the optimum land lot size is 50,000 m2 (500 000 ft2); and, for offshore it is
10 000 m2 (100 000 ft2). These should be used as the default settings unless there is
good operational reason to change them.
4. Larger lots create management risks that should be balanced against sampling costs.
5. Small areas of land may be grouped into a single lot, and submitted as a single lot for
inspection so long as the areas have been cleared by the same EOD Contractor team
under similar conditions. All areas, regardless of size, shall be inspected. The
sampling effort shall be in proportion to the size of each area.
e. Random sampling encourages the use of larger lots. Larger lots require proportionally less
sampling to achieve the same level of confidence.

7.3.9. Depth of clearance


The Depth of Clearance shall be determined from the intended land/seabed use which, for the
Project, is initially driven by engineering requirements.
a. This may be modified during the EOD programme if TI indicates that UXO are not to be
found to that depth.
b. To provide a margin of safety, the clearance depth should be to a minimum of 0,5 m (20 in)
deeper than that of the actual requirement.
c. The depth of clearance required may, therefore, vary from lot to lot, and over time; an
appropriate mechanism shall be specified in the contract.

7.3.10. Operational standards


a. The contract shall establish the competences required by each EOD contractor in support
of an EOD programme.
b. Project procedures in support of the UXO RMS shall implement IMAS and shall be ISO
compliant. EOD activities conducted for or under the auspices of the Project shall,
therefore, be conducted in accordance with these procedures.
c. EOD Contractors shall produce documented EOD procedures (referred to as SOPs)
covering the detection, identification, field evaluation, render safe, recovery, and final
disposal of any UXO likely to be encountered to meet the standard required.
1. These SOPs should have been adapted to the needs of the site and this must be
demonstrated to the Accrediting Authority during Operational Accreditation.
2. The EOD Contractor shall demonstrate that their personnel adhere to their SOPs and
have the specific competences required by the contract.
3. The contract should set out how this assessment will be conducted.
4. The standards should be set by the National Authority and should, at a minimum,
conform to IMAS.
d. In additional to operational methodologies associated with the requirements of Operational
Accreditation, these SOPs should include:

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1. How a field team is administered.


2. How safety and occupational health standards ensure a safe working environment
through effective management and supervision by developing work practices that
contribute to risk reduction, by selecting equipment with inherently safe design, by
providing appropriate training, and by the use of effective personal protective
equipment (PPE).
3. How datum points are established and marked.
4. How hazards are marked and fenced.
5. How any explosive materials (including temporary UXO storage) are managed,
transported and secured.
6. How operational information is collected, geo-referenced, recorded, and managed.
7. How the clearance is reported and how the handover is documented.
8. How the Post Project review is conducted.

7.3.11. Action on a find


a. The clearance contract should establish what UXO are likely to be found, action to be
taken in the event of a find, and whether any constraints have been imposed on EOD
operations by the National Authority/BP.
b. The environmental impact of the proposed method of disposal shall be assessed and any
mitigation required shall be agreed before the clearance contract is finalised.

7.3.12. Quality assurance/quality control


a. The contract should establish the operational and monitoring procedures required before,
during, and after EOD operations; this is particularly important for the accreditation
process and post-clearance inspections. The quality required should be measurable and
verifiable. This should be conducted as a two stage process:
1. Stage 1 QA involves the accreditation and monitoring of the EOD Contractor before
and during the clearance process.
2. Stage 2 QC involves the process of inspection of cleared land before it is formally
released to the beneficiary for use.
b. The QC contractor should be required during their operational accreditation to have their
sampling methodology (including how they achieve truly random sampling) approved.
c. The contract should establish the criteria under which a lot is considered as cleared.
1. As a default position, this should be only if all the samples in the lot are found to be
free of UXO down to the depth specified in the contract.
2. If any sample in the lot is found to contain one or more UXO, this constitutes a
‘critical non-conformity’; and, the lot containing that sample should be declared to
have failed the inspection.
d. The contract shall confirm the ‘Switching Rule’ (see below) that affects the size of QC
samples that are used and where authority lies to change scrutiny levels.
e. The EOD contractor should be required to produce a Quality Plan that is scrutinised during
accreditation.
1. This should cover the QA conducted by EOD Contractor themselves, and by an
impartial external monitoring body.

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2. The plan should confirm that management practices and operational procedures for
EOD operations are appropriate, and achieve the stated requirement in a safe,
effective, and efficient manner.
3. The contract should set out how monitoring is conducted and by whom.
f. EOD contractors should be encouraged to demonstrate their quality management for their
organisation to be ISO 9000 compliant.

7.3.13. Critical non-conformity


a. As well as containing UXO, cleared land may contain other indicators of potential non-
conformity, such as residual metal fragments (i.e., scrap metal). Discovery of such items
post clearance could indicate a potential critical failure of the clearance process
(equipment, people, or procedures) and may constitute a critical non-conformity.
b. The conditions for acceptance or non-acceptance of categories of non-conformity should
be agreed with the EOD Contractor before the start of clearance. The definition of critical
non-conformities must take into account the clearance methodology used by the EOD
Contractor.

7.3.14. Community liaison


The contracting strategy should define where the responsibilities for community liaison lie.
a. This should encompass the need to warn other contractors on site, as well as the local
population, of the developing EOD situation.
b. The CAM should consider how he intends to keep all concerned current with status of the
EOD operation and how to warn those affected when particular phases of activity will
affect them.
c. The CAM should ensure that any responsibilities that the EOD contractors may have for
community liaison are made clear.

7.3.15. Corrective action


The contract should establish the corrective action procedure to be used in the event of a lot
failing an inspection. This should include the process for re-inspection and the method by which
the details shall be recorded.

7.3.16. Residual risk


a. The contract documents should detail the action the Project has taken to mitigate UXO risk
and, in particular, to specify what was considered to constitute a hazard in each area and
the depth of clearance where EOD action occurred. It shall be clearly stated what
responsibility a construction contractor has for UXO risk mitigation including dealing with
Residual Risk.
b. The issues of residual risk and liability shall be clarified and agreed in the contract. The
two options which the Project shall consider are:
1. Whether the handover of the cleared land that meets the contracted standard shall be
the mitigation of liability point for the EOD Contractor following the issue of a
clearance certificate once the independent QC contractor has certified that no critical
non-conformity were found on the site during their inspection.
2. Whether some degree of residual risk lies with the EOD contractor and whether the
Contractor should guarantee his work through some sort of warranty. In these
circumstances the Project needs to be clear about when the EOD contractor will be
released from any liability.

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c. Contractual issues arising from the discovery of a suspect item of UXO being found on site
shall be covered in the contracts between the Project and Contractors. This shall cover the
fact that the Contractor may be requested to assist with onsite logistic support for EOD
support callouts.

7.4. EOD contractors

7.4.1. General
The Project shall understand the contractor base in order to form an opinion on overall contract
strategy.

7.4.2. Organisational accreditation (pre-qualification)


a. Before signing any contract with an EOD service provider, they shall undergo Pre-
qualification.
b. Accreditation should be given to the in-country headquarters of the EOD contractor for a
finite duration, normally for a period of two to three years.

7.4.3. Operational accreditation


This process should be conducted as part of the mobilisation phase of any EOD contract.

7.5. Certification
The contract should establish the certification required. This should include:

7.5.1. Clearance certificates


Before any area that has been subject to clearance operation can be used for any purpose, the
project team shall be in possession of a Clearance certificate signed by the EOD contractor who
has conducted the Clearance operation and by the independent EOD contractor who has
conducted the QC of the work.

7.5.2. FFE certificates


Any item of UXO that is to be used by the project team as a training aid, or for any other
purpose, shall be certified free from explosives by an accredited and licensed EOD contractor. A
formal register of such items with whereabouts and custodian shall be rigorously maintained.

7.5.3. Destruction certificates


If destruction or final disposal of UXO items has been executed on or away from the BP
footprint or operating area, the EOD contractor shall certify that the item(s) have been destroyed
and no detritus remains at the location of the disposal.

7.6. Supporting documents


The following template documents are available on the UXO RMS website and should be used
to assist the CAM when drafting documentation.
a. Draft Scope of Work.
b. Guide to Non-EOD contractors when UXO is considered to be a potential on-site risk.

8. Managing quality

8.1. General
a. The CAM shall ensure that a full Quality Plan is produced for the EOD programme and
that the EOD contractor has a Quality Plan that assures the quality of the service delivered.

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Whichever EOD option is adopted, there shall be some form of third-party Quality
Assurance of the EOD work in order to conform to International Standards and meet the
requirements of BP’s insurance underwriters.
b. The UXO RMS quality plan shall consist of the following components:
1. Pre-Qualification of the contractor that shall ensure that the contractor is competent to
mount, conduct, and support the EOD operations to the required standard set out in
the contract.
a) This shall be completed before any contract being signed. It is normally
conducted externally by an Accreditation Body.
b) The project team shall determine who constitutes the Accreditation Body for
their area of operations.
2. On-site Assessment of the EOD Contractor during mobilisation that shall ensure the
EOD teams and support deployed are competent, that their operational and
administrational processes are viable, and that the technology proposed works under
the required operational conditions and environment set out in the contract.
a) This shall be completed before the Contractor being deemed “mobilised” for
operations.
b) It shall be conducted by the agreed Accreditation Body.
3. Monitoring of the EOD contractor that shall be conducted internally by the EOD
Contractor itself and by an external independent Monitoring Body (this should also be
the Accreditation Body). The monitoring shall ensures that the EOD contractors’
procedures (including internal QA arrangements) and work, are being conducted in
accordance with the agreed method, to the required standards.
4. Finally, inspections of the EOD contractors’ work to ensure that the product defined
in the contract (Cleared land, QA monitoring or MRE) has been delivered to the
required standards.

8.2. IMAS - Stage one

8.2.1. General
The EOD contractor should demonstrate that:
a. They have people with appropriate levels of skill and knowledge. This can be
demonstrated by setting minimum levels of qualifications acceptable and verifying
experience.
b. Their equipment is appropriate, well maintained and their employees properly trained in its
use.
c. They have recorded accurately what areas had been cleared on a daily basis.
d. They have a management system in place that is capable of controlling the clearance
process.
e. Their reporting meets BP requirements.

8.2.2. Qualification
The Qualification Process (IMAS refers to “Accreditation”) should be in two stages:
a. Desk assessment of the application (Pre-qualification).
For Prequalification (IMAS term: Organisational Accreditation), the assessment shall
consider the suitability of the applicant’s organisational structure, formal qualifications and
practical experience of its management, financial viability; freedom from any liability;

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planning and project management capabilities, logistic planning procedures (equipment


procurement, evaluation, maintenance, and repair), financial planning and control
procedures, information management systems and mapping, management training
schemes, safety and occupational health (S&OH) policy; insurance coverage (both staff
medical insurance and third party liability), and other accreditation schemes obtained by
the EOD Contractor such as ISO 9000, which demonstrate the effectiveness of their quality
management system.
b. As part of the mobilization process (which IMAS refers to as “Operational Accreditation”),
the assessment shall consider the suitability of the sub-unit’s organisational structure
(logistic and re-supply system), human skills (formal qualifications and experience),
equipment capabilities, operational procedures (SOPs), worksite safety and occupational
health (S&OH) procedures, previous licenses obtained by the sub-unit and additional
requirements (such as the use of sub-contractors and local labour) that may be required by
the National Authority.
1. The on-site assessment shall confirm that the management practices and operational
procedures proposed by the EOD Contractor can be applied in a safe, effective, and
efficient manner.
a) The on-site assessment should include visits to management, logistic and
administrative offices (explosive storage and equipment maintenance areas,
medical facilities), visits to sub-unit locations (worksites), observing sub-units in
their final phase of training, observing the field testing and evaluation of
equipment and observing simulated EOD activities during mobilisation.
b) The EOD activities should simulate as near as practically possible the
environment in which the work is to be carried out using dummy targets to
represent the type of UXO considered likely to be present, down to the limit of
the required detection depth.
c) It should involve excavation of the dummy targets including use of all necessary
shoring and dewatering equipment to meet HSSE requirements.
d) Each sub-unit should be tested separately as a formed body with the supervisors
that it will use for work post mobilisation.
2. Contingencies and emergency responses that are tied to Company requirements (e.g.,
Medical emergency response plans (MERPs)) shall also be practised.

8.2.3. Internal & external monitoring


a. The activities of the EOD Contractor shall be monitored both internally by the Contractor
and externally by an independent third party (a QA contractor - offshore these are often
referred to as ‘Company Representatives’). The monitoring regimes shall examine:
1. Management controls to determine whether the EOD Contractor has an effective
structure for quality in place and whether the EOD Contractor quality systems are
adequate.
2. Design controls to determine whether the EOD Contractor service meets the end
users’ needs, intended uses, and contract requirements.
3. Corrective & preventive actions to determine whether the EOD Contractor process
deficiencies are identified, investigated, analysed, corrected, and prevented.
4. Production and process controls to determine whether the EOD Contractors have their
processes in control.
b. The quality procedures defined in Stage 1 of IMAS shall cover:
1. Ensuring that workers were qualified and their equipment was of an approved type,
properly maintained, and regularly checked for effectiveness.

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2. Training of personnel in operational and quality matters.


3. Identification and traceability of ground, people, equipment. and all other inputs to
the clearance process,
4. Process control ensuring that the actual activity of clearance meets the required
standards and any other requirements specific to the task or contract.
5. Ensuring that internal auditing procedures cover the overall clearance system.
6. Ensuring that the correct area of ground was cleared in accordance with any special
constraints and the client’s requirements.
7. Ensuring that the non-conformances are identified, what to do to correct them is
understood, and action is taken to prevent them happening again.
8. Data recording to ensure the cleared land and UXO was accurately marked and
recorded.
c. All parts of the process and all stages shall be monitored and records of the inspection shall
be made.

8.3. IMAS - Stage two

8.3.1. Sampling methods


IMAS has chosen Acceptance Sampling as its QC method which inspects for Critical Non-
conformity. It is one of the most rigorous processes, yet it is simple to use. It does not permit the
discovery of a single non-conformity (one or more item of UXO found in a square metre of
cleared land being sampled) in the sample.
a. Each project shall define clearly what constitutes a Critical Non-conformity.
b. Acceptance Sampling shall enable a decision to be made on the quality of a particular
cleared area by randomly inspecting a limited sample of the total cleared area.
1. The sample area shall be determined by the sampling table at Annex B and is made up
of a number of 1 m2 (10 ft2) units.
2. The QC process must find no residual UXO contamination (referred to a non-
conformities) in the area examined.
3. Acceptance Sampling shall be carried out by comparing the level of contamination
found in the random samples to the specified SQL.
c. The Project shall be free to set another SQL value for the project.
d. The inspection shall be done by “sampling” (a sample is a defined number area 1 m2
(10 ft2)) of the lot. The procedures shall be based in ISO 2859 and the minimum total area
to be inspected should be calculated using figures derived from that standard.

8.4. Post-clearance inspection

8.4.1. General
a. The quality plan shall establish the post-clearance inspection regime.
b. For the inspection for critical non-conformities, the same rule shall apply at all times: if 1
missed UXO is found in the sample, the lot is rejected; and, that lot shall be re-Cleared
usually at the contractor’s expense before it is submitted again for QC inspection.

Note The find may be a UXO, an item deemed to be a “critical


non-conformity” or a combination of “non-critical non-
conformities” that have been deemed in the contracted to be
“critical non-conformity”.

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c. Each land Use (LU1, 2, or 3) and each inspection level (Reduced, Normal, or Tightened) is
associated with a confidence level.
1. These confidence levels express the probability of making the correct decision in
rejecting a lot that has not cleared to the standard and accepting a lot that has.
2. Table 1 below shows the confidence levels that have been used in IMAS:

Table 1 – Confidence levels

8.4.2. Confidence levels Reduced Normal Tightened Sample


Land Use 1 91% 95% 99%
size
Land Use 2 81% 85% 89%
Land Use 3 71% 75% 79%

a. The sample size required to achieve the predetermined SQL shall be derived from a
combination of 2 elements:
1. The sensitivity of the subsequent land use that has been addressed above.
2. The EOD clearance contractor individual team performance record.
b. The size of the sample (n) that is the number of 1 m2 (10 ft2) sample lots required to be
taken at random to ensure the quality of an EOD contractor’s work, is given by the formula
in Figure 2 below:

Figure 2 – Sample size formula

n sample size – rounded up to nearest integer


N lot size in m2 (10 ft2)
B probability of failing to find at least 1 mine = level of confidence
n = (N-d/2)(1-B1/(d+1)) p maximum fraction of contaminated land = quality of clearance
d=Np maximum number of non conforming items allowed in the lot – rounded
down to nearest integer

c. For ease of interpretation this has been reduced to a table which can be found at Annex B.

8.4.3. Switching rule


a. Each clearance team should be subject to one of three different levels of inspection:
1. Reduced.
2. Normal.
3. Tightened.
b. The shift from one level to another shall be determined by Switching Rules.
c. The quality plan shall specify the Switching Rule to be adopted. A schematic of the default
Switching Rule can be found at Annex C.

8.4.4. Conduct of QC inspections


The EOD Programme Quality Plan shall set down the process by which the QC inspection is
conducted. As part of the quality plan and in order to determine the level of inspection required,
the QC inspecting team shall be provided with, or have the authority to gather, the following
information which is usually contained within the Lot folder:
a. Size of cleared area.
b. Intended use of land.

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c. Acceptance criteria.
d. Methods of inspection.
e. Sample select method.
f. Clustering parameters.
g. Clearance record.
h. Inspection record.
i. Curtailment rule.

9. Safety management

9.1. Safety management


Safety Management shall be considered in two parts:
a. The project team shall ensure that no personnel are put at undue risk from the threat posed
by UXO contamination on or in the vicinity of the work site. A strategy of education and
constraints on their freedom of action shall, as necessary, be implemented to achieve this
end.
b. Throughout the implementation of the UXO RMS, the project team shall ensure that every
aspect of the EOD contractor’s conduct conforms to safety best practices. This should start
during the planning process, when the safety plans of the EOD contractor should be
scrutinised during Accreditation, and should be continuously monitored during the
execution of the EOD operations to ensure that the EOD contractor conforms to the agreed
procedures and standards.

9.2. Continual development of the UXO risk assessment


The general threat assessment shall be kept under continual review to ensure that the project
team keeps up-to-date with the developing situation and implements the appropriate measures.

9.3. Action on finding a suspected item of UXO


The action taken on discovering an item suspected of being UXO shall conform to Annex D.

10. EOD offshore operations

10.1. General
a. Normal offshore industry data acquisition, calibration, recording, and reporting disciplines
are advanced and should already meet the IMAS requirement for quality. Sub-sea
intervention methods for EOD are not as well defined.
1. Most ROV and diving options currently available to execute EOD work require
support vessels in very close proximity to potential UXO danger areas.
2. Other options which reduce risk may be considered (e.g., Clearance diving operations
that use self-contained breathing apparatus that are currently outside IMCA scope and
have yet to be agreed as an oilfield diving technique).
b. Offshore practices differ from those used on land due to the escalating complexity of
support required as the depth of operations increase. This, coupled to environmental factors
such as the effects of tides, weather, and logistic factors, can increase the cost of operations
exponentially. In order to keep cost to a minimum, it is desirable to try to:
1. Run any EOD operational phase concurrently with other offshore UXO programmes
across all Project elements integrating, if possible, with other geophysical and

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geotechnical work. This is normally most effective when done in the earliest stages of
a project.
2. Use the same assets (vessels and positioning systems) to support both Geophysical
survey and UXO activities. It should be noted, however, that although geophysical
survey and HFSSS/magnetometer TI can run concurrently, survey/TI and UXO
identification and destruction operations cannot.
3. Coordinate with any land EOD work if possible to achieve economies of scale (e.g.,
use the same GIS, the same MERP helicopters, the same area control for explosive
disposal operations and same management).

Figure 3 – The UXO offshore area

NEAR SHORE OFFSHORE

BEACH SURF ZONE

BEA
CH HIGH WATER
LOW WATER
HIGH
HIGH
WATER 1 -1.5 Metres
10 Metres Approx
SPRINGS

LAT
LOWEST
ASTRONOMICAL
TIDE
NOT TO SCALE

10.2. Contracting for offshore EOD support


Because there is a very limited supply of suitably qualified and experienced offshore EOD
contractors, any requirement for their support should be identified early if this work is not to
endanger the overall project schedule.
a. The CAM should ensure that offshore components of their Project consider any UXO
contamination as a single issue across the Project rather than as an issue for their
component alone.
b. Before acting, the CAM should seek specialist advice on the specific services required
from an appropriate UXO consultancy.

10.3. Offshore EOD operations


a. The first element of TI offshore should only go as far as detecting Unidentified Objects;
these are referred to as “hits”. This may be done at the same time as other geophysical
work by adding suitable high frequency side scan sonar and/or magnetometer detection
equipment to the array of survey equipment already being used.
b. All hits shall be plotted to assist the project team to develop a greater understanding of the
site’s potential UXO contamination. This helps define any necessary EOD works
programme and ensures overlap, as necessary, including that with land UXO operations.
c. While a combination of ROVs and divers is likely to produce the most effective solution
when conducting subsea or beach intervention to investigate and process hits, ROVs may

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be used independently to conduct some elements of offshore EOD operations. These


operations may include TI, identification, donor charge placement, and the remote
movement of UXO.

Figure 4 – Offshore toolbox (depth in meters)

NEAR SHORE OFFSHORE


2 15 20 50 80 350? ???

B
E SCUBA
A Surface
Replacemen
Surf CH Supplie
t
Zone d
Clearanc SAT
e DIVING
Diving
INSHORE ADS
SURVEY Hard Suits
OFFSHORE SURVEY
RANGE
Saturation Diving
Surface Supplied
Air Diving
Scuba
Replacement
Clearance Diving NOT TO SCALE

d. Once it has been decided to conduct offshore EOD operations, consideration shall be given
to completing the task through to the final disposal of any UXO found.
e. As with land based operations, QA and QC shall be provided offshore by an independent
third party. Offshore, this may be undertaken by appropriately skilled and experienced BP
Representatives. The CAM needs to determine how BP Representatives are employed as
part of his Contracting Strategy.
1. QA is achieved by the BP Representatives continuously monitoring the contractor’s
internal processes during execution which have been agreed during Accreditation.
2. QC inspections are conducted by using different supervisors, divers, and ROV
operators from the ones who completed the original clearance under the direction of
BP representatives to conduct the necessary sampling.
f. The ability to coordinate EOD operations with other adjacent or affected activities is
essential. This includes the ability to exercise total control over the area in which EOD
operations are being conducted and shall cover any size of vessel or activity in the effected
sea area.
g. As on land, UXO which may have been moved for later final destruction shall be secured
and be safe until final disposal is certified as complete and the disposal area formally
abandoned. Arrangements for such activities shall be clearly defined in the EOD service.

11. Managing residual risk

a. During the implementation of the UXO Risk Mitigation Strategy, a point is reached on
individual parts of the Project footprint when the risk from UXO is considered to be
reduced to ALARP and the land or sea floor is released for use.

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b. With every other type of risk mitigation strategy, there is a residual risk from UXO.
Projects shall manage this risk.
c. False Alarms. In addition to the residual risk posed from actual UXO, there is an additional
schedule risk from false alarms. This residual risk shall also be managed.
d. Appropriate and effective management of UXO residual risk is Project specific, but the
project may be consider the following as part of their overall RMS:
1. UXO Awareness. It is important to give workforce confidence in the action taken to
mitigate UXO risk but at the same time raise awareness to alert workers to look for
possible UXO and then know what to do if it is encountered.
2. The presence of an appropriately qualified EOD Technician on site may help to
minimise delay:
a) In correctly identifying objects encountered during excavation as UXO or not.
b) Carrying out instrument search of an area ahead of any construction activity.
c) Clearing an area around the UXO find to confirm that it was an isolated event.

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Annex A
(Normative)
Management of the Unplanned Discovery of UXO

A.1. Forward

a. UXO may be discovered by project personnel at any time in the life of a project. In some
cases, this may have been anticipated and, in such circumstances, the project will have
established contingency plans to deal with such events. However, UXO may be
encountered in circumstances where no preparations for this contingency have been put in
place.
b. This guide covers the actions that need to happen in the event of the unplanned discovery
of an item suspected of being UXO (known from here on as UXO) where there has been
no prior consideration of this issue.
c. There should be no informal solutions adopted when dealing with the risks posed to
projects operating in UXO contaminated areas. All risks, including that from an
unexpected encounter with UXO, shall be managed in line with the guidance set out in the
main body of this GP.
d. Projects should contact BP’s EOD consultant/advisor for advice on how UXO can be
managed within BP’s Quality Management policy. The consultant is Aid to Management
Solutions Ltd. (http://www.ams-gb.co.uk, e-mail m.mcalpine@ams-gb.co.uk or call +44
(0) 7966 303821).

A.2. Impact on the project

A.3. Preparation of the workforce

a. In order to react properly to such an incident, the workforce shall be adequately prepared.
This should include staff:
1. Being made aware of the likely indications of UXO hazards on or in the vicinity of
project works.
2. Reporting suspected areas of UXO contamination to project and senior management.
3. Being educated not to tamper in any way with any UXO that they encounter.
b. Some form of education brief shall be given to personnel working in areas with a UXO
threat. The term for this type of activity is MRE and there are UN standards that can help
to target this type of activity effectively. Projects should engage experts in developing the
MRE.

A.4. Unexpected discovery of UXO

A.5. Levels of response

a. When a UXO is found on a project site, there should be a systematic escalation of the
levels of response.
b. The first actions shall be safety related.
1. They shall be designed to ensure that the threat posed by the UXO to the project is
controlled.

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2. Guidance on what immediate action should take place is contained at Annex D.


3. This is generic guidance and should be appropriately modified to suit local
circumstances.
c. The next series of actions shall be those that management needs to undertake to resolve the
immediate emergency. These are covered under the Emergency Management Response.
d. After the Emergency Management Response, the project shall consider the implications of
the UXO find on the remaining activity on the site affected. These are covered under the
Follow Up Actions.
e. Finally, the project shall consider the implications of the UXO find on other activities and
sites relating to the project. To do this, the Project shall develop a UXO RMS in line with
the main body of this GP and implement it as appropriate.

A.6. Emergency management response

a. When UXO is found on a worksite, priority shall be given to the protection of employees
and then property. This shall be done by:
1. Immediately withdrawing personnel from the area to ensure that the UXO cannot be
disturbed.
2. Controlling the area by sealing it off and taking action to prevent entry until qualified
people can conduct a risk assessment.
a) Tape placed across entrances and exits should be sufficient until more substantial
measures can be adopted to stop people accidentally entering the suspect area.
b) Security personnel may be required to enforce cordons.
3. Controlling the incident (creating a focal point for people, information and
subsequent action). A SPA shall be established to ensure that everyone on site is clear
about who has the ultimate responsibility for managing the incident.
b. If casualties have occurred, these shall be evacuated and treated without risking more lives
unnecessarily.
1. Personnel should only re-enter the area in order to rescue injured personnel.
2. In the event of an obvious fatality; no immediate attempt should be made to recover
bodies from the scene until the situation has been stabilised and the risks can be
properly assessed. An appropriately experienced, qualified, and equipped organisation
should be engaged for this task.
c. When making the decision about the size of the area to be evacuated, consideration should
be given to the following:
1. The fact that the UXO has not exploded to date shall not be a good reason to assume
that it will not explode in the future. The assumption should be made that the UXO
could explode and this assumption should remain valid until an appropriately trained
person has identified the UXO and determined the hazards that it poses.
2. The distance should be such that no activity outside the exclusion area should be able
to impose an influence on the UXO; this shall include consideration of vibration.
3. Should the UXO explode, the effects should not be felt outside the exclusion area.
d. The project should seek advice from the appropriate indigenous Government organization.
e. The SPA shall determine the timeframe for an EOD response to their emergency. If an
immediate response cannot be achieved, the SPA shall consider what activities might be

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permitted on site until the incident has been resolved. In these circumstances, he may wish
to seek advice through the BP SPA.
f. The SPA should keep senior project management advised of the situation whether or not
there were injuries or damage to assets or the environment.

A.7. Follow-up action

a. Once the emergency action has been taken, the project’s UXO RMS shall be reviewed.
b. The project should conduct an immediate review of the threat to employees, property, and
the environment not only from the UXO that has been found but also from the potential of
other UXO to be found within and adjacent to the project footprint. Action should be taken
to reduce the risk to employees where it is assessed as unacceptable. Employee risk
exposure should not be increased while taking this action. These actions may include:
1. Withdrawing employees operating in the vicinity of the identified threat.
2. Providing UXO awareness training for personnel on site before a formal training
package is established. Employees in the region should be informed of an incident,
the nature of the new risk, and the actions being taken to reduce the risk directly to
them. All employees could be issued with the aide memoir.
3. Sealing off roads and routes with heavy vehicular use.
4. The curtailment of activities should be considered until an appropriately qualified and
experienced organization has conducted a comprehensive risk assessment. Their
report should include routes where the risk is assessed as tolerable and any additional
measures required to reduce it to ALARP.
c. The project shall review its Risk Assessment of the effected site and plan any necessary
mitigation strategy. Points for consideration include:
1. The needs to obtain longer term EOD advice to help determine, and then mitigate,
this new level of risk.
2. The need to scrutinize their previous Risk Assessments.
a) The information it contains should be reviewed as it provides the foundation for
revising the UXO risk assessment.
b) An appropriately qualified and experienced organization should be engaged to
conduct a risk assessment and give advice on short-term strategies to manage
the risk.
3. The first priority of clearing the item of UXO discovered (if this had not already been
done by the emergency response team).
4. The next task should be to determine the likelihood of encountering further UXO in
the site and mitigating that risk.
5. Finally, the project should determine if a new perspective on one project site might
affect the perception of the likelihood of encountering UXO over the wider project
area.
a) The discovery of UXO contamination within the project construction footprint
should be the trigger to initiate the development of a UXO Risk Mitigation
Strategy if this had not already been done.
b) Data should be continuously gathered on likely areas of UXO contamination.
c) Detailed record keeping of all information and its source should be maintained.

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4. The longer term considerations such as the strategic options including the
implementation of an appropriate EOD programme to mitigate the risk and to allow
work to proceed to a revised schedule.
5. The need to manage any EOD support in the manner described in the main body of
this GP.
d. The Project shall consider the appropriate EOD support required.
1. A programme of MRE should be developed and implemented as quickly as possible.
This programme should be tailored to meet the specific threat(s) encountered and the
project requirements and be delivered by an appropriately qualified and experienced
organization.
2. If possible, avoidance of contaminated areas would be sufficient to manage the UXO
risk to ALARP. If contaminated areas cannot be avoided, another option shall be
adopted.
a) This probably means initially the development of an appropriate and very
limited EOD programme to investigate and, if necessary, clear known areas of
contamination.
b) In the longer run, a wider programme of work may be required to ensure that the
impact the UXO has on the project is kept to a minimum.
3. Whatever EOD support is contracted, the project should ensure that an appropriate
Quality Management programme is put in place.

A.8. Full UXO RMS

Once the emergency and immediate action on site have been resolved, the project shall reassess
its approach to the UXO risk across the whole spectrum of the project. This should take the
form of a UXO RMS as described in the main body of this GP.

A.9. Summary

In order to minimize the effects that such an incident might have on a project, the management
should remember that resolving UXO incidents is a relatively simple engineering solution with
the right preparation and they should consider what might have been put in place.

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Annex B
(Normative)
Sample Size 1

Inspection Level
Lot Size 1
Sensitivity Reduced Normal Tightened
LU1 295 335 410
0 – 500 LU2 230 250 280
LU3 145 200 220
LU1 480 575 785
501 – 1 500 LU2 350 395 450
LU3 210 300 335
LU1 570 690 990
1 501 – 3 000 LU2 405 460 525
LU3 240 345 385
LU1 610 750 1 100
3 001 – 5 000 LU2 430 490 565
LU3 250 365 405
LU1 640 785 1 175
5 001 – 8 000 LU2 445 510 590
LU3 260 375 420
LU1 660 820 1 235
8 001 – 15 000 LU2 460 525 610
LU3 265 385 435
LU1 680 840 1 285
15 001 – 40 000 LU2 470 535 625
LU3 270 395 440
LU1 685 885 1 310
40 001 – 200 000 LU2 475 540 630
LU3 270 395 445
1 Both the Sample Size and the Lot Size are expressed in the same units of measurement of area. For example, if the area cleared
is 500 m2 then the normal sample (LU1) would be 335 x 1 metre squares. If the area (LU1) was 5 000 ft2 then the reduced
sample would be 610 x 1 foot squares.

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Annex C
(Normative)
Stage two – Switching rules

Normal inspection

Success in Fail 2 no
no not yet
10 successive out of last 5
inspections inspections

yes yes

Reduced inspection Tightened inspection Start

no

yes Success Success yes


Failed 1 no
in 5 successive in 5 successive
inspection
inspections inspections
yes no
no Fail 2 out
yes
Failed 1 Skip lot of last 5
inspection sam pling inspections
yes
no
Review
Aid to Management Solutions Ltd
accreditation

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Annex D
(Normative)
Actions to be taken upon discovery of UXO

D.1. Purpose

a. The purpose of this Annex is to detail the actions to be taken on discovering an item
suspected of being UXO on the project onshore construction footprint.
b. These actions should be carried out by any person employed on the project whether they
are directly employed staff, staff directly employed by a Partner, or staff employed by a
contractor.
c. For the purpose of this instruction, they are all referred to by the term “employee”.

D.2. Scope

a. This Annex covers the actions to be taken following the discovery of UXO anywhere
within the project’s area of interest.
1. It provides an overview of the project response actions and indicative times for
remedial work to be completed.
2. Timings are provided for guidance only and in no way imply a binding contractual
undertaking to meet them.
b. This Annex does not specify actions to be taken by a discovery outside the footprint.

D.3. Introduction to action to be taken upon discovering UXO

a. An employee discovering UXO on the Project onshore footprint shall complete the actions
detailed in the paragraphs below.
b. During the conduct of EOD remedial actions, contact with project shall be completed
through a nominated focal point, which for contractors would be the BP Representative.
c. The project shall also nominate a focal point (referred to as the project) who ensures:
1. A consistency in the response to the residual risk.
2. The completion of the remedial EOD work in the shortest possible time.
3. The resumption of construction activity at the earliest safe time.
4. The minimisation of the risk of injury to personnel or damage to equipment.

D.4. Immediate action

If UXO is found on the project footprint, the project shall:


a. Immediately cease work in the vicinity of the UXO. No attempt shall be made to disturb,
move, or further expose the UXO. The immediate priority shall be the preservation of life.
b. Report the discovery of the UXO to the focal point by the fastest means and record the
discovery and subsequent actions in the site diary.
c. The employee shall be prepared to advise the focal point of the UXO location and the best
access point to the site from a main road.

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d. The Focal Point shall inform the project of the incident; the project shall mobilise and
coordinate EOD resources to the incident.
1. A Single Point of Accountability (SPA) shall be established to control the site and the
incident.
2. The SPA shall establish the team that is required to manage the incident and ensure
that all key events are recorded in the Site Diary.
e. The person finding UXO shall establish an inner cordon at 25 m (80 ft) from the UXO. [In
the event of an explosion, this should be done by the first person able to do so].
1. This shall be clearly visible and provide a physical barrier preventing inadvertent
entry into the cordoned area.
2. If plant was involved in the uncovering of the UXO, it shall be left in place to prevent
risk of further disturbance of the UXO.
f. In the event of an explosion that results in casualties, the priority shall be to help the
casualties while not exposing an unnecessarily large number of employees to unnecessary
risk. Initially, the dead should be left on site until the situation has been stabilised and they
can be recovered without putting the recovery teams at risk. This requires strong
management control.
g. If safe to do so, at approximately a meter offset from the UXO, the person finding the
UXO should mark its location with a non-ferrous marker (high visibility if possible).
Further contact with the UXO shall be avoided. If the UXO has been covered with spoil,
the last location that it was spotted shall be marked.
h. Establish an outer cordon at a minimum of 500 m (1 600 ft) from the UXO; in open terrain
a distance of 1 000 m (3 200 ft) may be more appropriate.
1. Mobile plant, less any involved in uncovering the UXO, may be withdrawn outside
the cordon if safe to do so.
2. Personnel shall be withdrawn outside this cordon.
3. Consideration should be given to weather conditions, site access, redeployment to
other tasks, and communications when moving personnel and equipment outside this
cordon.
i. The relevant SPA shall wait for the arrival of the EOD response team. If an EOD team is
not immediately available, the SPA shall review the activity in the area of the incident and
determine what can continue and what is to stop until their arrival.
j. When the BP Representative arrives on site he shall countersign the site diary to confirm
the time that he was informed of the UXO find. The effected contractor shall countersign
the BP Representative’s diary confirming the time of the report.
k. There is no restriction on work outside the outer cordon.

D.5. Follow-up actions

The follow up actions detailed below shall occur:


a. On arrival at site, the EOD team shall be given a briefing by the employee who found the
UXO. The briefing shall include a description of its location, any potential general hazards
and critical construction critical materials in the area (e.g., open excavations, fuel stores)
by the most appropriate people.
b. The EOD Team shall inspect the UXO, assess its identification and assess the remedial
work required.

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c. The EOD Team may adjust the outer cordon according to their determination of the hazard
by increasing or decreasing the distance from the UXO. They shall inform the SPA of the
actions they are going to take and the likely timetable of events. Changes to the cordon
shall be recorded in the site diary.
d. The SPA shall inform the contractor of the planned schedule of events.
e. The contractor may re-deploy personnel and equipment to other tasks outside the cordon.

D.6. EOD remedial actions

The following EOD remedial actions shall occur:


a. They shall determine the identification of the UXO.
b. If the item being identified is not UXO, they shall inform the SPA immediately and the
immediate resumption of work shall be permitted.
c. If the item is UXO, the SPA shall, when it is safe and convenient to do so, be advised of
their plan and schedule of actions.
d. The EOD Team shall determine the disposal method to be used. This should take into
consideration the location of plant, buildings, and materials; every effort shall be made to
minimise any damage but it shall not be done through compromising safety.
e. The cordon shall be adjusted according to the disposal method and other EOD work to be
completed. Changes in the cordon shall be recorded in the site diary.
f. The item shall be disposed of. This should be through destruction in location but may, if
circumstances demand, involve moving the UXO off the site.
g. Further investigation could be conducted in the immediate area of the find or across a
larger area of the site. The history of previous EOD work at the site and what is found
during the conduct of remedial work shall determine the boundaries of the EOD remedial
work.
h. On completion of the EOD remedial work, the SPA shall inform the contractor that the site
is available for reoccupation and that work can re-commence. This event shall be recorded
and countersigned in respective diaries.

D.7. Guidance timings

D.8. Assistance to EOD teams

The following actions shall be provided by the contractor to assist the EOD team in completing
their task as quickly and safely as possible with the minimum of disruption to the contractor:
a. Reporting the UXO to the BP Representative as quickly as possible.
b. Providing accurate information to the SPA and the EOD Team.
c. Following the actions in this Annex as completely as practicable.
d. Ensuring that the site is clearly sign posted or guides are posted.
e. Offering personnel to move equipment or material. (Possibly providing plant and other
equipment). The EOD team shall not request assistance from the contractor on any task
outside normal construction activity or if there is a risk to personnel.
f. Resisting the temptation to ask for constant updates on what is going on.
g. Providing beverages, food, shelter from adverse weather, and secure overnight storage for
equipment.

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D.9. Action on small arms ammunition

If a contractor finds small arms ammunition on a work site the following action shall be taken:
a. The contractor shall report the location of small arms ammunition to the BP
Representative.
b. The small arms ammunition shall be avoided if possible but work should continue.
c. Under no circumstances is the small arms ammunition to be picked up or exposed to any
artificial or extreme heat sources or physical impacts.
d. As the presence of small arms ammunition is an indicator that there may be other UXO in
the vicinity, there shall be increased vigilance while work continues.
e. The BP Representative shall report the presence of small arms ammunition to the project.
e. The project shall assess the implication of the presence of small arms ammunition on the
site and deploy appropriate EOD resources to dispose of the ammunition. The BP
Representative shall be informed of any planned actions before their conduct.

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