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Submitted To M.D. University Rohtak, For the Partial Fulfillment Of The

Award of Degree Of


BATCH: 2008-2010

Under the guidance of: Submitted by:

MR. Narender Tanwar AMIT KUMAR
Lecturer. In MBA deptt. MBA 4th Sem.
Roll no.08/mba02

Bhawani Shankar Anangpuria


(Approved by AICTE, Govt. Of INDIA & Affiliated to M.D.U., Rohtak)
Alampur, Faridabad -121004

I was delighted to avail this opportunity to thank all those who have contributed in our
efforts in the development of the project and making it a success, which would have been
a difficult, task otherwise.

I would like to express my gratitude to my guide Mr Narender tanwer, who guided me

through out the project work and special thanks for the care and concern shown by him.

I am highly thankful to Head of department of M.B.A. Faculty, which provide a chance

to work with these brands.

In last but not a least, I am thankful to dealers, users which provide a time for

Place- Amit kumar

The curriculum of MBA is so designed that it besides providing theoretical knowledge

gives practical experience to the participants, with an opportunity to deal with real life
situation through field visitor or as research project dissertation are enriched and well
equipped to face the future challenge and counting excise which are enriched and
inseparable and unavoidable in business.
The objective of research project is to impart the student with the practical experience
and an exposure of the corporate world. The student has to complete research project
under the professor of his institute and do a project which he thinks would add to
knowledge and he will learn about how We work on market research of any particular
I fortunately got an opportunity to do my research project on “CUSTOMER
Working on this project was a rewarding time for me, where I came to know about the
various programmatic aspects of managerial work and management.

I Amit kumar roll no 08/MBA02 M.B.A.4th Semester of institute of ‘Bhawani Shankar

Anangpuria Institute of Technology & Management’ Faridabad hereby declare that the
project entitled “Customer preferences towards Goodyear v/s Apollo Tyres” Is an
original work and the same has not been submitted to any other institute for the award of
any other degree. The interim report was presented to the supervisor on Mr. Narender
Tanwar asst. professor’s feasible suggestions have been duly incorporated in consultation
with the supervisor.

Amit kumar

Chapter I Objectives

Chapter II Introduction of
the companies

Chapter III Introduction of


Chapter IV Research

Chapter V Data Analysis

& Interpretation

Chapter VI Limitation &


Chaptern VII Suggesstion

Chapter VIII Bibliography

Chapter IX Questionairre



• To determine customer preferences while selecting Goodyear & Apollo Tyres.

• To study the customers attitude towards Goodyear & Apollo Tyres.
• To study the psychological needs of customers towards Goodyear & Apollo
• To study the product related and dealer related parameters provided by Goodyear
& Apollo Tyres.




NAME OF THE COMPANY: Goodyear India ltd.

Year of Establishment:
Goodyear India Ltd (Goodyear) was established in 1922 by Goodyear Tire and
Rubber Co, US which currently is the holding company. In 1961, the company
began its own manufacturing in the country. Goodyear manufactures tyres and rubber
goods used by the automobile industry.
Country of Origin :
The United States of America, Ohio
Nature of Business Diversification:
Tyres, flaps, industrial rubber products.
Number of Employees:
Goodyear is one of the world’s largest tire companies, with operations in most regions of
the world. Together with its U.S. and international subsidiaries and joint ventures,
Goodyear develops, manufactures, markets and sells tires for most applications. It also
manufactures and sells rubber-related chemicals for various applications. Goodyear is
one of the world’s largest operators of commercial truck service and retreading centers.
In addition, it operates more than 1,600 tire and auto service center outlets where it offers
its products for retail sale and provides automotive repair and other services. Goodyear
manufactures its products in more than 60 facilities in 25 countries. It has marketing
operations in almost every country around the world.
Product Profile and Portfolio of Business: Goodyear manufactures automotive bias tyres
viz. medium commercial truck and farm tyres. The company also trades in Goodyear
branded tyres including radial passenger and off-the-road bias tyres. The other products

manufactured by the company include tubes, flaps and other industrial rubber products.
The other brands promoted by the holding company include Dunlop, Kelly, Sava and

Fulda. Goodyear has an installed capacity to manufacture 1.2 mn tyres, 1.3 mn tubes and
over 300,000 flaps. The company’s radial passenger tyres are manufactured by its
subsidiary Goodyear South Asia Tyres Pvt Ltd in Ahmedabad, Gujarat. The company
undertakes R&D at the technical centres of the holding company located in
In the farm segment, Goodyear tyres are supplied to tractor manufacturers like PTL, ITL,
TAFE, Eicher and Escorts where as the trucks and HV tyres are sold to TELCO, Ashok
Leyland, and Swaraj Mazda among others. The company exports to Pakistan, Nepal,
Bangaldesh, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, Australia, Dubai, Hong Kong and Phillipines. In 2006
the company launched its retail store shop-in-shop in eight cities.
 Dunlop Tyres
 The Kelly Springfield Tire Company
 Fierce
 Lee
 Sava Tyres (Slovenia)
 Fulda (Germany)
 Debica (Poland)
 Wingfoot commercial tire systems, LLC.
Regetta (Australia) Distributed by KMART
LS2000 (Japan) Disributed by Goodyear Autocare


Name Title
Rajeev Anand Vice Chairman, Managing Director and Member of
Audit Committee
Hugo Oswald Dedekind Whole Time Financial Director, Executive Director and
Member of Shareholders/Investors Grievance Committee
Hingorani Harish Head of IT

Name Primary Company

Pierre E. Cohade Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.
Rajeev Anand Goodyear India Ltd.
Hugo Oswald Dedekind Goodyear India Ltd.
C. Dasgupta Goodyear India Ltd.
Ravi Vira Gupta Seshasayee Paper and Boards Ltd.


Committee Name Chairperson Members
Audit Committee Ravi Vira Gupta 4 Executives
Corporate Governance Committee C. Dasgupta 5 Relationships 4
1922: Goodyear tyre and Rubber company Akron, Ohio entered the Indian Market.
1961: Goodyear India's own manufacturing facility was inaugurated in Ballabgarh, 32
kms from India’s capital New Delhi .The plant had an investment of US $12million and
was commissioned within 12 months.
1965: The Ballabgarh plant was expanded which increased the plant production by 35%
1969-70: The production increased by nearly 100%
1993: Goodyear formed a 50-50 joint venture with South- Asian Tyres Ltd. (SATL) at
Aurangabad to manufacture state-of-art radial tyres for car and light truck and bias
construction tyres for graders and earthmovers.
1996: The first tyre GPS2 radial Passenger was rolled out from Aurangabad plant
1998: SATL becomes a fully owned Goodyear Company
1999: A significant investment of 9.3 MM USD was made in the farm tyre manufacturing
2002: Goodyear becomes the first tyre manufacturer to roll out tubeless tyres on Indian


Quarterly Report For GOODYEAR INDIA(2008)
- Sales of $4.1 billion for quarter, $19.5 billion for year
- Pricing/product mix gains of $263 million for quarter, $942 million for year
- Significant cost savings of $205 million for quarter, $700 million for year
2009 Actions
- Global product leadership extended with more than 50 new tire launches
- Cost actions raise 4-point plan savings to $2.5 billion, $700 million in 2009
- Personnel reductions of nearly 5,000 planned, salaries frozen
- Additional capacity reduction of 15 to 25 million units over the next two years
- Cash flow actions target 2009 capital expenditures of $700 to $800 million and
inventory reductions of more than $500 million.
AKRON, Ohio, Feb. 18 -- The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company today reported fourth
quarter and full year 2008 results and detailed actions to address market challenges in a
much weaker economy.
Goodyear's fourth quarter 2008 sales were $4.1 billion, down from $5.2 billion in the
2007 quarter, despite increases in Goodyear-branded market share. The company's net
loss was $330 million ($1.37 per share), compared with net income of $52 million (23
cents per share) in the 2007 quarter. All per share amounts are diluted.
"Given lower industry demand, we are taking aggressive action, reducing tire production,
cutting costs and adjusting investments to better match market conditions," said Robert J.
Keegan, chairman and chief executive officer.
"The many positive actions we took and the results we achieved in 2008 provide a base
from which we will address the market challenges we will inevitably face in 2009," he
2009 Actions
Consistent with Goodyear's ongoing strategies, Keegan announced actions in three key
areas to address the economic environment in 2009.
Top Line Growth: The company plans an unprecedented number of new product launches
in 2009, with more than 50 new tires being introduced globally. Targeted to key
segments, these include the new Assurance Fuel Max tire introduced earlier this month in
North America and more recently announced as original equipment on the new Chevrolet
Volt electric vehicle. Significant launches that showcase Goodyear's innovative new
products will be made across all geographic regions.
Cost Reductions: Goodyear plans to further reduce costs by approximately $700 million
in 2009 and has therefore raised its four-point cost savings plan target to $2.5 billion.
Actions include:
-- Further reducing personnel levels by nearly 5,000 in addition to almost
4,000 reductions in the second half of 2008 and freezing salaries.
-- Implementing new cost control policies to eliminate non-essential discretionary
-- Purchasing actions to lower the cost of both raw materials and indirect materials.
In addition, Goodyear plans to eliminate between 15 million and 25 million units of
additional manufacturing capacity worldwide over the next two years. Managing for
Cash: The Company plans to implement a number of cash flow actions in 2009,
-- Cutting capital expenditures to between $700 million and $800 million.
-- Reducing inventory levels by more than $500 million.
-- Pursuing the sale of non-core assets.
"Collectively, these actions address the new economic realities," said Keegan. "We will
remain flexible and are prepared to take additional actions if market conditions warrant.
Our goal is to ensure Goodyear is positioned for success when tire markets recover."""

Quarter 1 1 4
Term (no of months) 3 3 3
Sale 19,343.00 -7.00 20,800.00 -5.70
Other Income 174.00 -62.74 467.00 27.95 -297.00
Total expenses 17,156.00 -9.39 18,934.00 -6.94
Stock/inventories 543.00 - -1,144.00 -
Raw material 7,498.00 -28.64 10,508.00 -2.57 9,522.00
Staff cost 1,281.00 24.01 1,033.00 13.52 1,236.00
Other expenses 7,834.00 -8.23 8,537.00
-17.22 10,727.00
Gross profit 2,296.00 0.83 2,277.00 19.15
Interest 65.00 16.07 56.00 -66.06
Depreciation 311.00 3.32 301.00 9.06
Tax 684.00 -4.20 714.00 14.79
Net profit 1,301.00 3.09 1,262.00 24.58
Equity 2,307.00 0.00 2,307.00 0.00
Reserves 0.00 - 0.00 - 0.00
Dividend 0.00 - 0.00 - 0.00

Goodyear's top competitors are Michelin and Bridgestone. Goodyear is the third largest
by market share
behind Bridgestone and the leader Michelin. Both competitors are based overseas,
Michelin in France
and Bridgestone in Japan. Michelin is the leading producer in Europe and also is the
leading producer in
China. Bridgestone is the leading producer in Japan. Michelin, has a less favorable cost
base than
Goodyear but can charge higher prices due its superior technology. Through
Bridgestone's combination
of marketing and product mix it has been able to increase its sales dramatically in
comparison to its
competitors while charging higher prices.
Company Comparison in 2008
Largest Research and
Revenue (in Revenue Operating
Company Sales Development Cost (in
millions) Growth Margin
Region millions)
Goodyear $20,258 2.7% 3.9% $359
Michelin $22,031 5.1% Europe 8.2% $591
Bridgestone $25,113 11.1% 6.4% $728


Goodyear and the U.S. Department of Energy’s Sandia National Laboratories will work
together to develop new and more efficient manufacturing processes under an agreement
signed here today.
The $17 million pact allows Goodyear and Sandia to share technology. Sandia, as a
Department of Energy national lab, is responsible for designing and manufacturing
oversight of components used in the nation’s defense programs.
the tire company recently announced it would invest $26 million to hire 125 new
engineers and scientists for its technical centers in Akron and Colmar-Berg, Luxembourg
to spur new product development.
United States
Akron, Ohio World Headquarters, North American Tire headquarters, technical center,
racing tires, tire proving grounds, global purchasing, airship operations, research and
development facilities
Asheboro, North Carolina Steel tire cord
Bayport, Texas Chemicals
Beaumont, Texas Synthetic rubber
Carson, California Airship operations



Goodyear is committed to protecting the environment and the

health and safety of their associates, their customers, and the

communities where they operate. As a global socially responsible corporate citizen,

goodyear conducts the business with the highest applicable legal and ethical standards

and shall strive to contribute to economic development and environmental protection,

while seeking to improve the quality of life for associates, families and communities, and

society in general. We want our associates to have a work environment where they feel

safe and secure. To that end, we shall:

• Comply with all applicable environmental, health and safety laws and regulations

and Goodyear's global Environmental Protection, Health and Safety standards.

• Establish environmental health and safety management systems based on

recognized standards, and a set of company-wide goals and objectives for

continual improvement.

• Integrate environmental, health and safety considerations into all key business

decisions - including the design, production, distribution and support of our

products and services.

• Work with suppliers and customers to promote responsible use of our products.

• Strive to reduce environmental impact and conserve natural resources by

minimizing waste and emissions, reusing and recycling materials, and responsibly

managing energy use.

• Encourage and educate our associates to take personal accountability for working

toward protecting the environment and creating a safe and healthy workplace.

Meeting these objectives is a primary management goal and the individual and collective

responsibility of all Goodyear associates worldwide.


Sexual discrimination lawsuits

Lilly Ledbetter was a supervisor at Goodyear Tire and Rubber’s plant in Gadsden,

Alabama, from 1979 until her retirement in 1998. For most of those years, she worked as

an area manager, a position largely occupied by men. Initially, Ledbetter’s salary was in

line with the salaries of men performing substantially similar work. Over time, however,

her pay slipped in comparison to the pay of male area managers with equal or less

seniority. By the end of 1997, Ledbetter was the only woman working as an area manager

and the pay discrepancy between Ledbetter and her 15 male counterparts was stark:

Ledbetter was paid $3,727 per month; the lowest paid male area manager received $4,286

per month, the highest paid, $5,236. Lilly Ledbetter sued Goodyear claiming she was

paid less than men doing the same work. She won the suit and was awarded $360,000,

the jury deciding that Goodyear had clearly engaged in discrimination.

"No Firearms" policy

Recently customers have noticed a "no firearms allowed" sign posted on the entrance

doors to all Goodyear stores. The official response from the company is as follows:

Goodyear recognizes that it has a responsibility to support and give back to the

communities in which it operates. Goodyear charitable giving and community enterprise

programs are based on the principle that corporate social responsibility is the right thing

to do. Throughout the world, Goodyear is one of the leading employers, and communities

look to the company for support.


Emergency Earthquake Relief

• In May 2006, Indonesia suffered an earthquake with a magnitude of 5.9. More

than 4,000 died and over 100,000 were displaced. Goodyear Indonesia responded

with emergency relief, including food, clothing and money.

Typhoon Relief
• In 2006, the western portion of China’s Guangdong Province suffered losses from

floods and heavy rains due to Typhoons Bilis and Prapiroon. Goodyear joined

with one of China’s influential news organizations to auction photographs of the

Goodyear Blimp’s first flight to Guangdong Province. Proceeds from

the auction, along with other donations from

Goodyear, generated more than $38,000.

European Union

Royal National Lifeboat Association

• Since 2004, Goodyear associates in the United Kingdom have been participating

in this program and raising funds through the Goodyear National Wet Safety




Apollo Tyres straddles the Indian tyre industry much like the Greek Sun God Apollo's
four horse-drawn chariot races across the vast expanse of the sky, symbolising the
creation of light, hence knowledge and truth. And like the Greek charioteer, Apollo
Tyres has stood the test of time on the four pillars of vision, integrity, quality and sheer
The history of Apollo Tyres dates back to 1974 when it was incorporated as a company
in Cochin, Kerala through the purchase of a licence from the Ruby Rubber Works.
Cochin by Mr. Mathew T. Marattukalam, Jacob Thomas and his associates. In 1976,
the company was taken over by Dr. Raunaq Singh. Apollo's first manufacturing facility
(often referred to as the 'mother plant') is in Perambra, Cochin where production
commenced in 1977 with an installed capacity of 420,000 each of tyres and tubes.
The first 20 years of the company's existence were not easy. Those were times when
licences and quotas ruled the world of manufacturing in a market dominated by
multinational companies with access to technology and machinery and deep pockets.
Therefore, soon after its inception, due to the huge investments required, Apollo wiped
out its net worth and became a BIFR company during the Emergency years. However,
Apollo Tyres was returned to its owners during the Janata Government.
Apollo then used to make the entire gamut of tyres required for scooters, bicycles,
trucks and cars. However, the then core team, led by Onkar Singh Kanwar, realized
that to make an impact in the market and become financially viable it had to become a
dominant player in the commercial vehicles segment. At the time, Modi Tyres had an
overwhelming market share and reputation. Extensive on-ground research by the team
allowed it to understand the areas in which Apollo could make an impact.

The philosophy then was 'one product fits all', where regardless of the kind of usage,
the tyres truckers fitted on their vehicles were the same. Team Apollo decided to
known as the 'overload' segment and produce tyres which could withstand the extra
load the vehicles were made to carry, while providing drivers with the crucial safety
net. It was a tyre called the Hercules which was the first of its kind. Later, products like
Amar, Loadstar and XT-7, XT-9 and XT-9 Gold were introduced, products still enjoy
consumer validation. In fact, XT-9 is the only tyre in India to have sold more than one
crore units, providing the superiority of the product.
In later years, there have been many such first in Apollo's cap. Apart from enjoying the
distinction of being the first tyre company to segment the market on the basis of load
and mileage requirements, it has been the first to introduce packaging for car tyres and
tubes and also the very first Indian company to introduce farm radial tyres. n other
innovative moves, Apollo is the first tyre company to run customer loyalty and
awareness programmes to enable them to derive optimal benefits from their Apollo
farm tyres, and also the first to launch exclusive rural retail stores 'Apollo Tyre World'
for truck tyres. Apollo tyres Ltd. has another first to its credit being the first Tyre
Manufacturing Company Worldwide to be certified for B7799 given for information
security of IT systems. Another landmark has been the successful implementation of
SAP across the organisation for better results and productivity.
"People deliver innovation
Innovations deliver success
A few of the differences our people made"
The Future
At Apollo Tyres, they believe in being in control of their destiny. They set ambitious
targets and believe in stretching themselves to outperform them. Therefore, the
leadership position in the Indian market notwithstanding, Apollo is now set to look
overseas for new challenges. Nearly all initiatives being taken at this point in time are
geared to fuel this ambition.
At home and abroad, Apollo is looking to not only consolidate its leadership position
in various segments through newer, high technology products but also through
consistent organic and inorganic growth opportunities, in tyres and allied products.
Becoming a leader in the passenger car tyre segment is a priority as is the export of
passenger car radials. If the company continues to grow at the current pace, Apollo
expected to reach the US$1 billion mark in less than five years. Continuous focus on
cost control and operating efficiency remains the hallmark of the company.
Adding to all this is the fact that radialisation in India is throwing up fresh
opportunities, as is the boom in road infrastructure and the completion of the Golden
Quadrilateral and the North-South-East-West corridor. Therefore the future is
optimistic with promises of a virtuous cycle of growth.
Apollo has three tyre manufacturing facilities and one unit for the production of tubes
and flaps in four locations based in West and South India. Apollo endeavour has been
to have the widest spread of sales and regional offices, along with stock points at
locations which allow for maximum customer reach and efficient supply chain
management. Apollo dealer or business partners are also chosen with great care.
Apollo's products are sold through a combination of outlets ranging from exclusive
dealerships to multi-brand and branded retail outlets.

The continuous upgradation of dealer knowledge is in Apollo's interest and therefore

their training is undertaken by the company. With a dedicated field sales, technical and
A brand is a collection of images and ideas representing an economic producer; more
specifically, it refers to the descriptive verbal attributes and concrete symbols such as a
name, logo, slogan, and design scheme that convey the essence of a company, product
or service. Brand recognition and other reactions are created by the accumulation of
experiences with the specific product or service, both directly relating to its use, and
through the influence of advertising, design, and media commentary. A brand is a
symbolic embodiment of all the information connected to a company, product or
service. A brand serves to create associations and expectations among products made
by a producer. A brand often includes an explicit logo, fonts, color schemes, symbols
and sound which may be developed to represent implicit values, ideas, and even
personality. The key objective is to create a relationship of trust.
The brand, and "branding" and brand equity have become increasingly important
components of culture and the economy, now being described as "cultural accessories
and personal philosophies".
In non-commercial contexts, the marketing of entities which supply ideas or promises
rather than product and services (e.g. political parties or religious organizations) may
also be known as "branding".
Brand identity
How the brand owner wants the consumer to perceive the brand - and by extension the
branded company, organisation, product or service. The brand owner will seek to
bridge the gap between the brand image and the brand identity.[2] Brand identity is
fundamental to consumer recognition and symbolizes the brand's differentiation from
Brand identity may be defined as simply the outward expression of the brand, such as
name and visual appearance.[3] Some practitioners however define brand identity as not
only outward expression (or physical facet), but also in terms of the values a brand
carries in the eye of the consumer. In 1992 Jean-Noel Kapferer developed the Brand
Identity Prism, which charts the brand identity along a constructed source and
constructed receiver axis, with externalization on the one side and internalization on
the other. On the externalization side brand identity consists of "physical facet",
"relationship" and "reflected consumer". On the internalization side brand identity
consists of "personality", "culture (values)" and "consumer mentalisation". In this
respect Kapferer positions brand personality as one factor within brand identity.
Brand personality
Brand personality is the attribution of human personality traits to a brand as a way to
achieve differentiation. Such brand personality traits may include seriousness, warmth,
or imagination. Brand personality is usually built through long-term marketing, as well
as packaging and graphics.
Brand promise
Brand promise is a statement from the brand owner to customers, which identifies
what consumers should expect from all interactions with the brand. Interactions may
include employees, representatives, actual service or product quality or performance,
communication etc. The brand promise is often strongly associated with the brand
owner's name and/or logo.
Brand value
Brand equity or brand value measures the total value of the brand to the brand owner,
and reflects the extent of brand franchise.
A brand can be an intangible asset, used by analysts to rationalize the difference
between a company's "book value" and market value. For example, the market value of
a company can far exceed its tangible assets (physical assets owned by the company,
such as stock or machinery), and its brand value can account for some of the
difference. Up to 85 percent of a company’s market value might be intangible (for
example know-how, existing client relationships), and Interbrand, a brand consultancy,
states that tangible assets may account for less than five percent of a company’s market
Brand value, especially in the case of consumer product brands, may arise out of
customer loyalty. Brand value may also arise in terms of staff retention benefits (e.g.
the ability of the company to attract and retain skilled and/or talented employees
offering competitive salaries).
Campaigning groups may deliberately target a company’s brand value to force a
company into adopting a certain position or practices. Some campaign groups have
thought to do this by deliberately subverting a brand’s image, logo or message,
creating a negative association among consumers. This attack may be visual, as
pioneered by groups such as Adbusters, or focusing on the message.
Brand monopoly
In economic terms the "brand" is, in effect, a device to create a "monopoly" — or at
least some form of "imperfect competition" — so that the brand owner can obtain
some of the benefits which accrue to a monopoly or unique point of sale, particularly
those related to decreased price competition. In this context, most "branding" is
established by promotional means. However, there is also a legal dimension, for it is
essential that the brand names and trademarks are protected by all means available.
In all these contexts, retailers' "own label" brands can be just as powerful. The "brand",
whatever its derivation, is a very important investment for any organization
Branding policies
There are a number of possible policies:
Company name
Often, especially in the industrial sector, it is just the company's name which is
promoted (leading to one of the most powerful statements of "branding"; the saying,
before the company's downgrading,).
In this case a very strong brand name (or company name) is made the vehicle for a
range of products or even a range of subsidiary brands.
Individual branding
Individual branding, also called multibranding, is the marketing strategy of giving
each product in a product portfolio its own unique brand name. This is contrasted with
family branding in which the products in a product line are given the same brand
name. The advantage of individual branding is that each product has a self image and
identity that's unique. This facilitates the positioning process. That means that there
are less Halo-effects and one can position all products differently without making
Attitude branding
Attitude branding is the choice to represent a larger feeling, which is not necessarily
connected with the product or consumption of the product at all. Marketing labeled as
attitude branding include that of Nike, Starbucks, The Body Shop, Safeway, and Apple
Computer. In the 2000 book, No Logo, attitude branding is described by Naomi Klein
as a "fetish strategy".
"No-brand" branding
Recently a number of companies have successfully pursued "No-Brand" strategies,
examples include the Japanese company Muji, which means "No label, quality goods"
in English. Although there is a distinct Muji brand, Muji products are not branded. This
no-brand strategy means that little is spent on advertisement or classical marketing and
Muji's success is attributed to the word-of-mouth, a simple shopping experience and
the anti-brand movement. Other brands which are thought to follow a no-brand
strategy like Muji, does not brand its products.

Derived brands
In this case the supplier of a key component, used by a number of suppliers of the
may wish to guarantee its own position by promoting that component as a
brand in its own right.
Brand development
In terms of existing products, brands may be developed in a number of ways:
Brand extension
The existing strong brand name can be used as a vehicle for new or modified products;
for example, many fashion and designer companies extended brands into fragrances,
shoes and accessories, home textile, home decor, luggage, (sun-) glasses, furniture,
hotels, etc.
Alternatively, in a market that is fragmented amongst a number of brands a supplier
can choose deliberately to launch totally new brands in apparent competition with its
own existing strong brand (and often with identical product characteristics); simply to
soak up some of the share of the market which will in any case go to minor brands.
The rationale is that having 3 out of 12 brands in such a market will give a greater
overall share than having 1 out of 10 (even if much of the share of these new brands is
taken from the existing one). In its most extreme manifestation, a supplier pioneering a
new market which it believes will be particularly attractive may choose immediately to
launch a second brand in competition with its first, in order to pre-empt others entering
the market.
Individual brand names naturally allow greater flexibility by permitting a variety of
different products, of differing quality, to be sold without confusing the consumer's
perception of what business the company is in or diluting higher quality products.
Once again, Procter & Gamble is a leading exponent of this philosophy, running as
many as ten detergent brands in the US market. This also increases the total number of
"facings" it receives on supermarket shelves. Sara Lee, on the other hand, uses it to
keep the very different parts of the business separate — from Sara Lee cakes through
Kiwi polishes to L'Eggs pantyhose.
Small business brands
Branding a small or medium sized business (SME) follows essentially the same
principle a branding larger corporation. The main differences being that small
businesses usually have a smaller market and have less reach than larger brands. Some
people argue that it is not possible to brand a small business, however there are many
examples of small businesses that became very successful due to branding.
Own brands and generics
With the emergence of strong retailers the "own brand", a retailer's own branded
product (or service), also emerged as a major factor in the marketplace. Where the
retailer has a particularly strong this "own brand" may be able to compete against even
the strongest brand leaders, and may outperform those products that are not otherwise
strongly branded.
Concerns were raised that such "own brands" might displace all other brands, but the
evidence is that — at least in supermarkets and department stores — consumers
generally expect to see on display something over 50 per cent (and preferably over 60
per cent) of brands other than those of the retailer.

The strength of the retailers has, perhaps, been seen more in the pressure they have
been able to exert on the owners of even the strongest brands (and in particular on the
owners of the weaker third and fourth brands). Relationship marketing has been
applied most often to meet the wishes of such large customers (and indeed has been
demanded by them as recognition of their buying power). Some of the more active
marketers have now also switched to 'category marketing' - in which they take into
account all the needs of a retailer in a product category rather than more narrowly
focusing on their own brand.
At the same time, probably as an outgrowth of consumerism, "generic" (that is,
effectively unbranded goods) have also emerged. These made a positive virtue of
saving the cost of almost all marketing activities; emphasizing the lack of advertising
and, especially, the plain packaging (which was, however, often simply a vehicle for a
different kind of image)..



Services are deeds, processes and performances.

They are produced not only by service businesses but are also integral to the offerings of
many manufactured goods producers. E.g. car manufacturers offer warranties and
repair services.

Tangibility spectrum

The broad definition of services implies that tangibility is a key determinant of whether
an offering is or is not a service.
It is also true that very few products are purely intangible or totally tangible. Services
tend to be more intangible than manufactured products and manufactured tend to be
more tangible than services.
There are very few pure services or pure goods.


INTANGIBILITY: as services are performances or actions rather than objects, they

cannot be seen, felt, tasted or touched in the same manner as a product. Many
services are difficult to comprehend even after completion.
Hence services cannot be inventoried, so fluctuations in demand are difficult to manage.
Services cannot be patented easily, therefore can be easily copied.
Services cannot be readily displayed or easily communicated to customers, so quality
may be difficult for consumers to assess.
The actual costs of an unit of service are hard to determine and the price/quality
relationship is complex.

HETEROGENEITY: As services are performances frequently produced by humans no

two services will be precisely alike. The employees performance can vary day to
day or even hour to hour. It also results because no two customers are alike; their
demands and experiences will vary.
Ensuring consistent service quality is always challenging.
Quality is dependent on lots of uncontrollable variables.

the service manager cannot always know for sure that the service is being delivered in a
manner consistent with what was originally planned.


first and then produced and consumed. Restaurant services cannot be provided
unless they are sold, the dining experience is essentially produced and consumed at
the same time. This also means the consumer is present while the service is being
produced and in some cases may even participate in the process of production.
Mass production is not possible.
The quality of service and customer satisfaction is dependent on what happens in real

Customers influence not just the service outcome but may also affect the service
experience of other customers.
Usually not possible to gain economies of scale through centralization.

PERISHABILITY : services cannot be saved, stored, resold or returned.

There is inability to inventory.
Demand planning and capacity utilization are challenging decision areas.
Strong recovery techniques are required when service delivery goes bad.

Nature of product: akin to staging a play. Services are time bound, experiential, even
though some outcomes may have lasting consequences.

Greater involvement of customers in the production process: either through self service or
through cooperation.

People as part of the product: esp. in high contact services

Greater difficulty in maintaining quality control standards: final assembly happens in real
time so mistakes and shortcomings are harder to conceal, consistency can be a
5. Harder for customers to evaluate: most physical goods are high in search quality
(attributes a customer can determine prior to purchase such as color, shape, fit, style
etc); other goods in contrast may emphasize experience qualities ( which can be
discerned only after purchase or during consumption like ease of handling,
quietness and personal treatment). There are credence qualities (characteristics that
customers find difficult to evaluate even after consumption e.g. complex surgery,
technical repairs not visible). The harder a product is to evaluate in advance of use,
the greater the risk for the customer. Strategies to reduce risk have to be applied.

6.No inventories for services: the necessary facilities, labor, equipment can be kept in
readiness, but these represent the capacity not the service itself.

7.Importance of the time factor: customers have to be physically present in many

services. There is a limit to the time a customer will wait for a service.

8.Different distribution channels: many service firms cannot use the traditional physical
distribution system, electronic/franchise/direct are used.

Consumers go through a decision making process that can include these steps:
Need recognition-- the customer has a need to fulfil or a problem to solve.

Information search--the customer seeks out information to help satisfy the need.

Evaluation of alternatives-- the customer selects a subset of alternatives and evaluates


Purchase-- the customer choose a particular brand and then buys it.

Purchase outcome/post purchase evaluation -- the customer evaluates the choices

Decision - made and decides whether it lives up to expectations

In services these steps do not occur in a linear sequence the way they do in the purchase
of goods.

consumers obtain information about product and services from personal(friends, peers)
and from non personal sources(mass or selective media). When purchasing services
consumers seek and rely to a great extent on personal sources.
Consumers engage in greater post purchase evaluation and information seeking with
services than goods.
consumers engage in more post purchase evaluation than pre purchase evaluation when
selecting and consuming services.
Consumers perceive greater risks when buying services than when buying goods. This is
because of its intangible and experiential nature. Also because mostly service
comes with no guarantee or warrantee.


The consumers evoked set of alternatives(the group of products a consumer considers
acceptable options in a given product category) is smaller with services than with
For many non professional services, the consumers evoked set frequently includes self
provision of the service.
Positive/negative moods and emotions enhance or decrease the likelihood of performance
of behaviors with positive expected outcomes.
Mood and emotion bias the customers evaluation of service encounters in mood
congruent directions.
The mood of customers influences the way impressions of a service are encoded, retained
and retrieved by the customer, the greater the human interaction in the service
encounter, the more likely the consumers evaluation of the service will be
influenced by moods and emotions .The delivery of service can be conceived as
drama where--service personnel are the “actors”, service customers are the
“audience”, physical evidence of the service is the “setting”, and the process of
assembly is the “performance”.
Service encounters can be viewed as role performances.
Negative departure from the customer’s expected



Aim for customer satisfaction in every service encounter:

plan for effective recovery

facilitate adaptability and flexibility

encourage spontaneity

help employees with problem customers

manage dimensions of quality at the encounter level.

Manage the evidence of service to reinforce perceptions.

Communicate realistically and use customer experiences to reinforce images.

Use price to enhance customer perceptions of quality and value.


The fact is that it is usually much cheaper to keep a current customer than to attract a new
The primary goal of relationship marketing is to build and maintain a base of customers
who are profitable for the organization. To achieve this the firm will focus on the
attraction, retention, and enhancement of customer relationships.
The customers are less likely to be pulled away by competitors if a relationship is already
in place.

Benefits for organizations:

increasing purchase

lower costs

free advertising through word of mouth

employee retention.
Lifetime value of a customer= the actual value of a loyal customer.


As competition intensifies in the service sector, it’s becoming progressively more

important for service organizations to differentiate their products in meaningful
Firms should be selective in targeting customers and distinctive in the way they present
Rather than trying to compete in an entire market, perhaps against superior competitors,
each firm should adopt a strategy of market segmentation.

As each person or corporate buyer has distinctive (unique) needs, any prospective buyer
is potentially a separate target segment. Some professional and personal services
are indeed customized to the needs of individual customers e.g. doctors, architects,
hair dressers etc.
however, the majority of service businesses do not find such micro segmentation worth
their while. Instead they look to achieve economies of scale by marketing to those
customers within a specific segment.
Partial customization a strategy for mass customization may be achieved by offering a
standardized core product but tailoring supplementary service elements to fit the
requirements of individual buyers.
Target segments must be selected not only on the basis of their sales and profit potential
but also with reference to the firm’s ability to match or exceed competitive
offerings directed at the same segment.


A position reflects how consumers perceive the product’s performance on certain
attributes relative to that of one or more competitors.
Customers brand choices reflect which brands are even known and remembered and then,
how each of these brands is positioned within each customers mind.
These positions are of course perceptual.
Using advertising to create images and association
for broadly similar branded products so as to give them a special distinction in the
customer’s mind is called copy positioning.

It is important to compete on more than imagery or vague promises. This entails

decisions on substantive attributes that are known to be important to customers,
relating to product performance, price and service availability. In such cases the
primary task of communication is to ensure accurate perception of service by


It plays an important role in marketing strategy as it links market analysis and
competitive analysis to internal corporate analysis.

what is our product?

What do we want it to become?

What actions must we take to get there?

Principal uses are

Provide a useful diagnostic tool for defining and understanding the relationships between
products and markets.

Identify market opportunities for introducing new products, redesigning existing

products, eliminating products.

Making other marketing mix decisions to preempt, or respond to competitive moves.

Because of the intangible, experiential nature of many services, an explicit positioning
strategy is valuable in helping prospective customers to get a mental fix on a
product that would be rather amorphous.

If not positioned properly the following outcomes:

the product is pushed into a position where it faces head on competition from stronger
The product is pushed into a position of low customer demand.
The product is so fuzzy that nobody knows what its distinctive competence really is.
The product has no position in the market place because nobody has heard of it.


Professor Neil Gordon, created the concept of marketing mix. In services it is made up of
7 p’s.
Service is a performance rather than a thing. Customers may be asked to participate
actively in the process of service creation, delivery and consumption.
The service delivery system consists of the visible elements of the service system and
may include the service facilities, equipment, personnel and even other customers.

The design of this physical environment, or the servicescape, is often an important

determinant of customer satisfaction and may play a substantive role in
differentiating one service from the other.
In the case of service delivered at arm’s length, the physical delivery system may be
replaced by an electronic one, thus radically changing the nature of the service

To understand the nature of the delivery system it is useful to flowchart the various steps
in service delivery.
Flowcharting helps us to understand that service delivery is a linear process from the
consumers perspective, occurring in real time. It also helps us to identify steps that
can be outsourced to a specialist contractor.
A service delivery product typically consists of a core product bundled together with a
variety of supplementary service elements.

The core elements respond to the customers need for a basic benefit-- such as
transportation to a specific location, resolution of a specific health problem, or
repair of malfunctioning equipment.
Supplementary services are those that facilitate and enhance the use of the core service.
They range from provision of needed information, advice, and documentation to
problem solving and acts of hospitality.

All service organizations face choices concerning the types of products to offer and the
operational procedures to use in creating them.
The task begins at the corporate level with a statement of institutional objectives and an
appraisal of current or obtainable resources.
From market and competitive analysis, marketing opportunities can be identified and a
positioning statement can be developed.

This positioning strategy must than be related to a statement of the operating assets
needed for execution.
The next step involves establishing a service marketing concept, to clarify the benefits
offered to the customers and the cost they will incur in return. This considers both
core and supplementary services, reliability levels for these services, and where and
when will customers have access to these services. Costs include money, time,
mental and physical effort.

A parallel step is to establish a service operations concept, which stipulates the

geographic scope and scheduling of operations, describes facilities design and
layout, and indicates how and when operating assets can be deployed to perform
specific tasks. The operations concept also addresses opportunities for leveraging
through intermediaries or the customers themselves. It also clarifies which task will
be assigned to front stage and which to backstage operations.
The 2 concepts--positioning strategy and the services operations concept; interact with a
set of choices that management must make in order configure the service delivery
Sequencing the service delivery process.
Extent of delegation.
Nature of contact between customers and providers.
Nature of process.
Protocol for allocating limited capacity.
Imagery and atmosphere.

Performance evaluation:




Methodology in the applied sense refers to various methods used by the researcher right
from data collection and various techniques used for the same for interpretation and
inference. Methods and techniques are often used synonymously in research literature.
Research methodology is what must be done, how it will be done, what data will be
needed, what data gathering will be employed, how sources of data will be selected and
how the data will be analyzed and conclusions reached. When we talk of research
methodology we not only talk of the research methods but also consider the logic behind
the methods we use in the context of our research study and explain why we are using a
particular method or technique and why we are not using others so that research results
are capable of being evaluated either by the researcher himself or by others.

Significance of research and research leads to invention. Following facts

highlight the importance of the research.

(1) Research facilitates logical or scientific thinking process which leads towards
flow less strategy formulation.

(2) It facilitates identification of ‘trends’ which ultimately responsible in marketing


(3) Decision making becomes easier for well researched phenomenon.

(4) Research is important in solving various operational and planning problems of

business and industry.

Major Data Collection methods

I. Secondary Research
a) Internal secondary data Data from the company itself which the
company already has.
b) External secondary data Data from the magazines and news papers,
II. Survey Research
a)Telephone interviews Collection of information from respondents via
b) Mail interviews Collection of information from respondents via
mail or similar techniques
c) Personal interviews Collection of information in a face-to-face
• Home interviews Personal interviews in the respondent’s home or
• Intercept interviews office
Personal interviews in a central location,
generally a shopping mall
III. Field experiments Manipulation of the independent variable(s) in a
natural situation.


There are many types of the research like descriptive, analytical, basic, applied,
qualitative, quantitative, and conceptual. I have chosen the field of Asthana tower,
reliance communication .

Descriptive Research:
In this type of research I have collected data by observation, by mailing to the companies
or to the key decision maker, by going to the company with the appointment with the key
decision maker and ask employees about training produres in the Reliance
Communication .
Analytical Research:
I also have collected data from already available information. I got the information from
the newspapers with the help of that information (phone no.) I used to take appointment
with the concerned person and. In this research correlation technique is used to analyze
the data.

Basic or Pure Research:

Visiting to the company to company I have got many people who are not satisfied with
the services of RCIL.This enhance my ability of dealing with the people and make them

Applied Research:
The research which has immediate commercial potential is called applied research.
Applied research can further be classified as problem oriented and problem solving

Problem Oriented Research –

During the research I have met with many people who are having many problems
regarding the connections, poor network, poor services and many other problems. Most
of the customers are saying about the billing procedure they have big problem with the
collection of the bills so that makes the satisfaction level of the customers down.

Problem solving Research –

RCIL is facing the main problem about the network and the billing of postpaid
connections users because there is no collection centre near by the area which I have
visited that is why the company is not getting good business from the particular area.

Quantitative Research:
I have visited about 350 companies and I have got different result from them 80% of the
people listened to me, 20% of the people did not listen me, the sales results were very

Conceptual Research:
Many of the people want to pay the bill at the place which should be near to them and
safe also



Comparision of net sales of Good year and Apollo Tyres

Graphical Representation:
YEAR Sales in Cr
2001-02 10667
2002-03 9954
2003-04 10139
2004-05 8828
2005-06 11060






2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06


In 2001 the sales of Good Year was Rs 10,667 Cr and it was Rs 10,139 Cr in 2003
where as it was Rs 11,060 Cr in 2005-06 reason being in 2005-06 the expenditure on
advertisement and promotion activities was more than Rs 1000 Cr.
YEAR Expenditure in Rs (Cr)
2001-02 824

2002-03 842

2003-04 760

2004-05 836

2005-06 1008

Year wise expenditure on advertisement & :

Graphical Representation:



Rs IN Cr


2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06


The expenditure by
Good Year and Apollo Tyres on advertisement has been increased from year 2004-
05 to year 2005-06.

Comparision of net profit of Good year and Apollo Tyres:

YEAR Profit in Rs (Cr)
2001-02 1641

2002-03 1755

2003-04 1771

2004-05 2197

2005-06 2400
2005-06 2400
Graphical Representation




Profit in Cr


2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06
Comparision of net revenue of Good Year and Apollo Tyres

YEAR Total Revenue in Rs (Cr)

2001-02 10721

2002-03 10038

2003-04 10245

2004-05 10135

2005-06 11193

Activities have shown direct impact on Net profit of Good Year and Apollo Tyres.

Graphical Representation:

10200 Revenue in Cr
2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06

Continues expenditure on advertisement has increased the revenue thereby profit.
As the graph shows continues increase in revenue.

In 2001 the highest share in total revenue was by shop and detergent section of HLL
followed by export and beverage.

Comparision of Good Year global share with other tyres




Responsible managers & personals in the marketing department of varun beverage Ltd.

Provide necessary assistance to me in “Comparative Analysis of customer prererences

towards Good year v/s Apollo Tyres.” They discussed different aspects & Function of

marketing .as practical (Good year and Apollo Tyres India ltd.). Almost all necessary

information was provided to me in the support of this project report.

How ever some problems , which can not escape from . the limitation faced , felt or

expressed by me are as follows-

• Due to lack of time (i.e. two months) it is not possible to reach all respondents.

• The lack of availability of time on the respondent’s part.

• Some respondent’s was biased.

• Unwillingness of the respondents.

I tried to overcome on these limitations.


After conducting six weeks survey at Muzaffarpur I have reached these conclusion.
 Apollo tyre is the market leader in the LCV&SCV segment followed by Goodyear
J.K., Birls, Ceat.
 Apollo Tyres brand XT-7 and Amar are market leader at Muzaffarpur Urban and
Rural Area.
 XT-7 is Lug tyres and Amar RIB tyres, Most of the customers are satisfied with
the performance of both tyres.
 Appox 70% customers have positive and 30% customers have negative attitude
in support of preference of Apollo tyre at Muzaffarpur.
 Customer's awareness level is better at Muzaffarpur area.
 Apollo tyres is the first tyre company which has launched new scheme to solve
the claim within 2 days.
 Most of the customers are unsatisfied with this scheme. Because dealers do not
provide them this type of facility at their disposal.
I have studied and analyzed the comparison of on different aspects of the market ,
outlets ,Distribution & consumers . The survey was conducted in various areas of
Mathura city with great Enthusiasm. This project report concludes that is much strong
than the and 100% is tough job & the most important Thing , which I feel to improve , is
“the availability to retailers & consumers”.
The retailers & consumers both promotes either or any other of its brands
(e.g.) for could be with regard to order processing , ware housing , inventory
Management & Transportation , besides that shop covering , time of enter & exit from
the market by the sales man , cooling appliances, glow shine board , schemes ,
incentives , prizes , gifts , discounts , proper biling , returning of defective goods , proper
supply should be improved.

My objective was to make marketing managers aware of all the problems so

that a proper course of action is required to be undertaken. The only competitor of is &
no local brands can beat.


The suggestions from the consumers to the tyre company are following.
 Some consumer are unsatisfied with the price because competitors product
price are less than Apollo, So company should pay attention in their mind on
 Company should provide more mileage of tyres because overloading has been
imposed by the government.
 Company should provide credit facility because customer demands this type of
 The problem of Apollo consumers are lack of adequate promotional schemes.
Dealers don't provide adequate information in the support of the Apollo brands.
They see their margin of profit alone.
 Some schemes should be provided by company. It is good technique for sales
 Company should give special attention after sales service of their customers
One of the basic limitations in the project was a biased sample as random sampling was
not possible. At least the basic requirement for the sample was literacy. So in order to
find the impact of print media on Indian masses one should be selective about the sample.
A biased sample will produce biased results. Totally excluding all bias is almost
impossible; however, if you recognize bias exists you can intuitively discount some of the
answers. The following list shows some examples of biased samples.

Probable Bias.

Your customers are Favorable, They would not be your customers if they were unhappy,
but it is important to know what keeps them happy.
Your ex-customers are Unfavorable, If they were happy they would not be ex-customers,
but it is important to know why they left you.
"Phone in" Extreme Views Only people with a strong interest polls in a subject (either for
or against) are likely to call in - and they may do so several times to load the vote.
Daytime Non-working a majority of people who are at home during Interviews the day
does not work. Their opinions may not reflect the working population.
Internet Atypical People Limited to people with Internet access. Internet users are not
representative of the general population, even when matched on age, gender, etc. This
can be a serious problem, unless you are only interested in people who have Internet
access. In many business surveys this limitation might not be a problem. Another
concern is that respondents have been known to complete multiple surveys to sway
results, unless the software prevents this.
The consequences of a source of bias depend on the nature of the survey. For example, a
survey for a product aimed at retirees will not be as biased by daytime interviews as will
a general public opinion survey. A survey about Internet products can safely ignore
people who do not use the Internet.

A Quota is a sample size for a sub-group. It is sometimes useful to establish quotas to

ensure that your sample accurately reflects relevant sub-groups in your target population.
For example, men and women have somewhat different opinions in many areas. If you
want your survey to accurately reflect the general population's opinions, you will want to
ensure that the percentage of men and women in your sample reflect their percentages of
the general population.

If you are interviewing users of a particular type of product, you probably want to ensure
that users of the different current brands are represented in proportions that approximate
the current market share. Alternatively, you may want to ensure that you have enough
users of each brand to be able to analyze the users of each brand as a separate group. If
you are doing telephone or Web page interviewing, The Survey System's optional Sample
Management or Internet Module can help you enforce quotas. They let you create
automatically enforced quotas and/or monitor your sample during interviewing sessions.

Here the focus was to find the impact of print media through interviews conducted on
educated masses. The idea was also to find the comparisons with other media, electronic
or traditional.


Kotler , Philip, Marketing Management : 12th Edition 2006

Kothari , C. R. , Research Methodology , 2e New Age International


Gupta C. B. , Marketing Management , 8th e 2006 Sultan Chand & Sons



The Economic Times



Name of respondent: ......................................................................

Address : ..............................................................................................
Contact No. : .......................................................................................

(1) Which Brand of tyres you use in Lug Pattern ?

(a) Apollo
(b) Good year

(2) Which Brand you use in Rib Pattern ?

(a) Apollo
(b) MRF.

(3) In case of Apollo, rank the following according to priority :-

a) Mileage ............................
b) Price ............................
c) Quality ............................
d) Retread ability .........................
e) Claim Settlement .....................
(4) In case other brand what is the co region for choosing other brand
a) ...................................
b) ......................................
c) .......................................
d) .......................................

(4) Have you heard 2 days "Claim Settlement" by Apollo.

(a) Yes
(b) No

(5) Your Purchase on :

a) Cash
b) Credit
c) Both

(6) Does Company's Dealer help in choosing the Brand as per your requirement?
(a) Yes
(b) No

(7) What type of tyre do you use?

a) Tube Type Radial
b) Tubeless Radial
c) Bias Ply
(8) How do you come to know about these products?
a) Dealer
b) Advertisement
c) Magazines
d) Bannners

(9) How do you rate overall performance of Good year and Apollo tyres?
a) Excellent
b) Good
c) Average
d) Poor
(10) Are you satisfied with the service provided by the dealer?
a) Highly satisfied
b) Satisfied
c) Not satisfied
(11) What type of problem do you come across with your present brand of tyre?
a) Frequent purchase
b) Noise
c) Hardness
d) Non durability
(12) Are you aware with the emerging technologies in the tyre industries?
a) Yes
b) No
(13) Any suggestion to company