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First paperback edition 1996 Copyright © by the University of Michigan 1994 All rights reserved Published in the United States ofAmerica by

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Manufactured in the United States ofAmerica

Press

§ Printed on acid-free paper

2002

2001

2000

5

4

3

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, or otherwise, without the written permission of the publisher.

A CIP catalog recordfor this book is available from the

British Library.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in Publication Data

Shapiro, Michael, 1938- Gender in play on the Shakespearean stage : boy heroines and female pages I Michael Shapiro.

p.

em.

Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-472-10567-1 ISBN 978-0-472-08405-0

1. Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616-Stage history-To 1625.

2. Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616-Dramatic production.

3. Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616-Characters-Women. 4. Theater-

England-Casting-History-16th century. 5. Theater-England- Casting-History-17th century. 6 . Children as actors-England- History. 7. Gender identity in literature. 8. Sex role in literature. 9. Disguise in literature. 10. Women in literature.

I. Title.

PR3095.S524

1994 822.3'3-dc20

94-34462

 

CIP

ISBN 0-472-08405-4 (pbk. :aile paper)

I

was

a

at

entiality

rich

ly

roject

my

rd

staff

of

the

English

the

d

ass-

hank

sus

the

earch

-

not

,

red

g

up. I

ence,

iver-

nterna-

he

dieval

rich ly roject my rd staff of the English the d ass- hank sus the earch

anen,

ead-

generous

ed

ald

As-

H.

Klein

book

is

hind

it.

s

its

to

desti-

raging

the

copy

Trager.

e

errors

l

anen, ead- generous ed ald As- H. Klein book is hind it. s its to desti-

oles,

arious

of

the

lion's

amaturgical

modern

attire

play,

s-dressed

h

in

to

men

the

ionship

d

in

multifarious,

society

d

the

don

social

thea-

previ-

crit-

ed

d

g

the

xample,

the

as

s-dressed h in to men the ionship d in multifarious, society d the don social thea-

complexity

des

erary,

and

the

on

d

tual

tried

to

cross-

nscribed

e theater

and

disagree-

e

and

for

g

not

our

.

ues

contain-

male

homo-

,

so

I

s

late

n

l compa-

ve

maleness

Jardine,

more

sponses

eater

of

cters

from

as

for g not our . ues contain- male homo- , so I s late n l

more

opinion, I

.

cross-

welfth

rsive reso-

eption

ls the

ne and

r-

speare's

iations of

xt.

n

ho view

Phyl-

hake-

ed gen-

r not

ogue (as in

"counter-

tributing

to char-

male

gen-

l. As Wil-

poetic

Renais-

a play-

ive sym-

e offered

ner-

he

pre-

of, an

ce

otesque

tributing to char- male gen- l. As Wil- poetic Renais- a play- ive sym- e offered

discretely

na.

ll of

' minds.

-gender

e world

sts:

tism in

ssed hero-

opposing

al

nary oppo-

piste-

al mate-

of

ms

rection

England

rn

sts

ical trans-

f those

e gender

xual

riness

es, differ-

toward

delight

er dis-

sense

y

that

Dramatic

s

of

r

e

po-

ater,

all

con-

ermons,

romul-

men.

xual riness es, differ- toward delight er dis- sense y that Dramatic s of r e

does

esumably

11 She

uch

or not

es,

essential-

ions of

dge

of dis-

matic

troubling

lively

cross-

hough

nd

tellectual

ments,

erial ob-

, who

Italian

s, owned

pro-

ical

ment

try.

ehearsal

is

evi-

rs,

ons

under

minded

involving

concerns

to

the

es

had

the

risked

e

scripts

r

s, owned pro- ical ment try. ehearsal is evi- rs, ons under minded involving concerns to

been

uently

ue coterie

on live

f

to

or

them.

on

usually

could

hout

or

test

membering

men

hich

and

were

or

sub-

of

Lon-

misrule.

these

n

exposed

essed

with

itated.13

or

rse

a process

er

ern

heroine

phen

he power

-referen-

was as-

r. In

stage,

s,

given mo-

sized

without

coexisted

or rse a process er ern heroine phen he power -referen- was as- r. In stage,

ayed

or

thea-

rently

to

virtually

identity,

aware-

e

t

the

play-

veyed

I

do

not

believe

tain

it

that

ross-

ticization,

roine.

eate

a

al-

sense

intensely

pre-

consider-

were re-

any

ptive

cross-

trical

adrama-

hero-

ed

rn

under-

to

ences

a

ch

tary

C) re-

x

y

of

intensely pre- consider- were re- any ptive cross- trical adrama- hero- ed rn under- to ences

male

cross-

of

ers

ex-

even

others

e

entices.

asting

in

y

ness

leton's

More

preg-

a

e

es

her

nt

of

ous

and

r

ur

in

en

de-

hts

cultural

men and

r, open-

industry

nt drama-

ence

y

spectators

x model

udies

ro-

the

of the

to

,

thin a

r ur in en de- hts cultural men and r, open- industry nt drama- ence y

the

s refuse,

Dates of

ned

ns. It may

revised

a

or

etween

Wise

1638,

l

t

ity

not

and

ormed

inties

of

precise

because

its

This

lays

pat-

involv-

ried

or

se

ex-

Each

five

's

sources,

order

in

s,

g

of

peare's

of

ons.

Lylian

a,

his

theatri-

le

-dressed

the

addi-

uise,

I

7,

r

be-

when

's sources, order in s, g of peare's of ons. Lylian a, his theatri- le -dressed

n the

ill

sting

s Shake-

equently

s anxi-

cy

by

an

Shake-

ch

radical

A

ctly

usually

epted

ical

there

,

are

k

it

will

istry.

laborating

earlier

ed

espeare's

follow

to

timu-

man

oping

their

work

demon-

to

d

periods,

play-

ote

hen

this

of

e

oines

ri-

orial

ects

ced

and

follow to timu- man oping their work demon- to d periods, play- ote hen this of

com-

g

that

s

are

modest

on

actors.

t

hem,

ylized)

orld

of

the

n

the

of

t

aracter

place

on

crucial

no

might

s

titudes

ify

those

gs

of

ngland.

on actors. t hem, ylized) orld of the n the of t aracter place on crucial

run off

mar-

detection

of great

ublet,

black

She

Channel

ecap-

too

he

was

sister

ol,

allow

r

not

her

mour

to

Sey-

d

ife

nc6,

with

she

and

,

quality

y

differed

black She Channel ecap- too he was sister ol, allow r not her mour to Sey-

used of

ties

while

f

the

Court

printed

being

as

d

emale

and

the

servant

n between

and of

e of

in Deu-

female

enses.

don,

as

ulated

d

the

social

apparel

e

351

's

e

authori-

al

out

the

read

stitutes

han

al

annot

, one

ice.

r forni-

a mans

as ulated d the social apparel e 351 's e authori- al out the read stitutes

ndard

te,

the

l

to

e-

noto-

a

and

one

of

y

ocure

merely

ter

mans

was found

and

and

ss-

rrell

e

n

is

no.

i),

hood"

cords

use

Margaret

pun-

as for

uised

. 3). No illicit

tly for

h

aps

llads

heroine

and ss- rrell e n is no. i), hood" cords use Margaret pun- as for uised

for a

rman

cious

for a

ste

rs on

s, he

ld be

es seeking

ering

hat-

hout

e

ghter

heir

one

e.

ted

Sen-

to

special

x

plied

on make

itutes

dily,

of sexual

nd

sh

nd Lotte

eas

r

avior,

ering hat- hout e ghter heir one e. ted Sen- to special x plied on make

some

ved,

fy a desire

other

aling

only

recruit-

ives.

tualistic

sions,

nd

more

ng

olated

who

ernative

ant,

only

put

it,

ting

the

to-

ses

that

the vir-

d,

tution

t

ior

and

on. In

they

d,

esbian-

exten-

ed

t En-

associ-

us far,

only put it, ting the to- ses that the vir- d, tution t ior and on.

llel to

ty of

in

al mo-

tional

ridewell

tion,

even

ere

munici-

stitutes

ss-

he

ts distinc-

rded

al behav-

essed

o go

o

cross-

hem as

ark

fined

eness."9

p of

he

llenge

acces-

of

amental

aco-

ss- he ts distinc- rded al behav- essed o go o cross- hem as ark fined

n

6io

and

contro-

a

evoked,

ement,

Hic

aspects

d

tyle

s-

to

ned

isted

to

weak,

knee-

d,

Chamber-

nted

and

s,

in-

other

who

n"

the

far

cry

cloaks

and

s-

ress

and

ertising

kind

l

ity.

ermaphro-

,

but

er

the

s.

So

lier,

t"

trulls

se

hether

n" the far cry cloaks and s- ress and ertising kind l ity. ermaphro- , but

gura-

es the

of sex-

tive and

ess,

his

ng

rriors

cross-

t your

t

agos and

f vari-

.

er

model

s and

is

serts,

s distinc-

uised-

rly in

ntel-

m than

n-

urbaniza-

ng rriors cross- t your t agos and f vari- . er model s and is

men in

act

. It

-dressed

,

challenge

ocial liber-

en as

hers

whom

daugh-

onceal

Mulier

cluding

under-

se

its

c

Mu-

stable

ashion-

rges

(273).

hat

he

felt

the

of

for

ite

worn

nce

sguised

resence

s from

ender dis-

rical repre-

y

mati-

Mu- stable ashion- rges (273). hat he felt the of for ite worn nce sguised resence

orge

motif

ates

-

ke

it

esent

the

men

illicit

nd

surro-

r

devotion

as when

n,

preda-

unters

of

cross-

e stage:

ow of

naides's

Middleton's

ise them-

hield

of these

or

pages

in

ees

has been

or peni-

ncile

ggests

ection

e stage: ow of naides's Middleton's ise them- hield of these or pages in ees has

, although

f her

ification

used.20

ef-

a realistic

, and

three

had

ge

oss-

prostitu-

she

does

e

her

Hip-

of

poses

a

tif,

e

man

e

rs,

for

the

asure

in

ar-

not

from

their

many

n

of

ellafront

creases

her

e

tate-

men

y-

e her Hip- of poses a tif, e man e rs, for the asure in ar-

attle

th

men

gres-

resent

tic

woman

d

at

er

true

s

is

stic

ose's

dopt

impudence

character,

play as

black

ic.22 Later

(II.ii.75),

briefly

then

even

lay itself

was

ction

rly &

he habite of

to play

out 3

her bootes

nd

explicitly

benign

(II.ii.75), briefly then even lay itself was ction rly & he habite of to play out

lier

ntric.

lists

of

fields,

astity,

love

"I

:

de;

to

ess,

wife

a

one

of

Comedy,

bbery.

hers,

eois

and

true

of

just

is

es

in

as

play's

e

law

and

5

c

who

t

ith

a

man.

ngrave

itute

my-

this

m

juridi-

d Sebas-

th'

rave's

V.i.38),

ther's

.

er-

se

onal

re's

y Beth

ional

a man. ngrave itute my- this m juridi- d Sebas- th' rave's V.i.38), ther's . er-

ary

class

d

sting

mo-

wel-

n

:

com-

s

ompa-

prentices

mannish

man

e,

but

to

racter

e,

or

o

Moll

bout

I

.

ised

the

presence

e

the

boy

thus

th

as

ver-

gn

o

iarchal

prentices mannish man e, but to racter e, or o Moll bout I . ised the

modern

terature

in

allude

icon

female

lph's

Som-

y figures

oborat-

her

cused

was

misde-

youthful

idleness.

ridewell

to find

lance.

ion of

hey did

the

female lph's Som- y figures oborat- her cused was misde- youthful idleness. ridewell to find lance.

matic

associated

ated,

ut as a

overtly

made

ng for

mples

bin

house

s the

than

ic

ies.

men

norms,

al

ure's

nega-

most

ession

or

lry

as-

sing

framed

records

vento-

dition

of

ant

to

cross-

1614,

in

t

to

ked

men norms, al ure's nega- most ession or lry as- sing framed records vento- dition of

g,

wear

to

n

him

to

the

what

ll

to

play

oyes

g

of

s

to

the

boys

took

ss

as

lay-

when

most

noma-

recently

sing

tak-

sexual

l" actresses,

s

was

hy the

where, and

place.

ar less

nneries

cles.6

by

lay- when most noma- recently sing tak- sexual l" actresses, s was hy the where, and

the

corn-

ecord

of

crese

e

eigh-

rities

for

dopted

and

com-

ery

profes-

in

prac-

the early

resses

actresses

n

ances,

hough

em-

nfre-

ies may

oducing

tocked

some

s new Ital-

tion

intro-

but pre-

alized

These

countries

En-

trical hys-

ical image

em- nfre- ies may oducing tocked some s new Ital- tion intro- but pre- alized These

s. En-

surely

of the

with

fact that

cal rea-

resses, as

been

nce. One

specialists

th

pecialists,

ation

title

the

by

d

Wit's

hen

pren-

perhaps

imper-

e

g

ngain

ere

what-

ten

of

ge

nce. One specialists th pecialists, ation title the by d Wit's hen pren- perhaps imper- e

, who

sting

632

and

me their

dult male

than it

ented

cious

ological

male

were

linked

orld of

tradition

be

oss-

f the play

the

ides.16

his

broad

dding type

es,

ayers)

ry Wives

such a

of

choed at the

ride is

from the

as Zel-

be oss- f the play the ides.16 his broad dding type es, ayers) ry Wives such

ride

the

of

al

-

female

of

e

men

to

Midsum-

play

o

and

o

char-

e

er

on

therefore

cter's

male

c. 1591?),

The

6)

it

ne

up

de

very

e

end

performed

adding

a

age

lida,

zon

es,

these

audi-

r

lem

for

d

a

ment

playful-

des

were

ith

g

for

her

it ne up de very e end performed adding a age lida, zon es, these audi-

in her

lady,

access

ay-boy

a well-

to

n

nd of

e

re-

how

s wife,

drinke

men knew

anecdote

en in by

ervedly

Will

ier.

le

he

s, evi-

specta-

ss-dress-

so

ls

them

ge female

ity to

"the

drinke men knew anecdote en in by ervedly Will ier. le he s, evi- specta- ss-dress-

them

play."20

ays

The

in

mew

nalian

ones,

for

at

uke

com-

e

limited

a

wed,

where

scripted

play,

like

with

g

coney

nd

volved a

ality

lier

rms, as

es.

n

icated

istically.

e

or

itself

ical

n

the

vexed

a

ability

of

s

and

fe-

,

the

of

s

emininity.

a ality lier rms, as es. n icated istically. e or itself ical n the vexed

that

g

clear

lip

s

cross-

r

the

hey

regard

n stage,

g

pectators

nomic

at

unclean-

1612),

e

s,

h a

homo-

e sexually

ount of

laves

t-

bly

t

s cross- r the hey regard n stage, g pectators nomic at unclean- 1612), e s,

that

ho-

ith

hapel,

plays

e

shall

. I

I. 15-

two

s-

strio

Tucca

nam-

imper-

her

out

ffer

to

you'll

m:

usness

uses

io

gani-

a

,

xual

here

work

ic

Blackfri-

a

ish

itheatrical

ided

in

-

mong

the

primary

se

tic.

moerotic

,

in

or

imper-

e

uction of

ions of

speare's

ic Blackfri- a ish itheatrical ided in - mong the primary se tic. moerotic , in

in spite

s

al

fferen-

emained

con-

al stress,

individu-

my

iquity

e con-

ributed to

traordi-

e

of

the

domi-

y

was

l

list

until

dif-

the

cultural

g

a

in

taining.

vinced

gender

ughout

s-

titudes.

as a

t in

m.32

they

s

femi-

r

domi- y was l list until dif- the cultural g a in taining. vinced gender ughout

menon,

al artifice

. If boys

r iden-

ergirding

have

ng the

ierarchical

nfinement

ews could

eater-

of being

se

range

a

s

differences

oppos-

oss-

level

gh

roles;

ys

in

me

m-

ily

witty

re-

eo-

ave

sons

n

are

the

was

that

the

being se range a s differences oppos- oss- level gh roles; ys in me m- ily

erived

closer

of atti-

e

n.

Venice

in

aw

that

ith

a

roles

must

"The

spectators

with-

e

conti-

t

eared

Lon-

a-

nt.37

e.

An

ikely

es

glish

ot

The

thea-

onses,

the

in

ism

e

of

the

le

ngled

out

the

with- e conti- t eared Lon- a- nt.37 e. An ikely es glish ot The thea-

mur-

t

atly;

er

situ-

g it. The two

gram-

evoke

kson

is

stry

of

s

rose

y

s

of

ges

nonetheless

likely

m

author

he

aded

hboring

falls

pas-

her

woo-

first

uce this

seeke,

,

kson is stry of s rose y s of ges nonetheless likely m author he aded

s

whose

hat is,'the

mpared

ction

like

an

t

her

tech-

r

but

narrative

e

used

is

r

the

n

duplicity:

un-

farr

es

les

boy

mallity,

h-

om

with

oe

e

tt

urs

ction like an t her tech- r but narrative e used is r the n duplicity:

ing

the

their

to

ry

ate

sm. Whereas

ransforma-

bout

the

racter

or

st

indicate

o

nate

ar-

thetic

cipant

in

given

uses.41

woe-

de-

rly

ed

gned.

mention

sug-

h

rtrayal.

s

the

studied

a

s

passage

s (looks,

n,

namorata.42

onses

e in-

but

as responses

ces

emale

ed gned. mention sug- h rtrayal. s the studied a s passage s (looks, n, namorata.42

ty.

are, al-

nt

mbig-

much-

1606),

c.

hu-

the

satiric

"I shall

of a

r-

uided

ly

the

y

f its

on of

ct of its

dual

lways

the stage is

on is

as

o

istrionic

ld

e text

repre-

o. In

ugh

on to the

arlier

ly the y f its on of ct of its dual lways the stage is on

female

chnical

te variety."

pend-

y por-

laud

nder

rein-

cast-

n

England,

mic

in

-boys

female chnical te variety." pend- y por- laud nder rein- cast- n England, mic in -boys

what audi-

self-

sence may

female

Lady

oy

roles

er plays

ened

he

single

resound

oint

did so in

ity, the

actor him-

nical

umed

blish the

he

have

ficial and

per-

oy roles er plays ened he single resound oint did so in ity, the actor him-

dis-

rough

ictorian

acter,

modern

male

of

ies

a

asser-

y,

and

in

"

ap-

-

Mellida

d

will

calls

nd

action

me

when

must

I

arly

than

dif-

a

is

where

the

rsion

winsome

ther

than

e

Re-

the

sible

to

rent

at

a

fashion

mes

ing

rapidly

nother

only

by

n

than dif- a is where the rsion winsome ther than e Re- the sible to rent

-

would

ither

ctive

s, playing

seem like

haracter.

roine's

not,

his

enlarge-

n

likely

yness.

might

the

male

tly

eemed

becomes

structed

real

ct

the

the

er

er

is

cinematic

theater,

con-

l

the

En-

of

to

ors

resump-

y's

n

boy

's

ult

com-

structed real ct the the er er is cinematic theater, con- l the En- of to

elf-con-

have

.6 They

d

as

a

boy

com-

r

sguised-

nio

ng

boy

s,

oy

xtapose

ith

Orlando,

re.

lief

Juliet

the

ised

as

the

ise

female

(as

Olivia),

e

mo-

s.

ressed

that

s

resumed

he

house

com-

y,

identities

en-

y.

illus-

and literary

Writing

eroine

female (as Olivia), e mo- s. ressed that s resumed he house com- y, identities en-

l vari-

narrative

provides

only

sticated

eir

vir-

there-

d

iously

emblers

less

Jessica's

as

t

dacious

e

as

a

nt

arlier

hints.

For

a

to

don

ne he

to it

e motif

whispers

hat

. 173)

emblers less Jessica's as t dacious e as a nt arlier hints. For a to don

e had

troversy,

ggests,

e cardinal

Cupid's

, and

to

heroine

d

, asser-

ad of

h, she is

stine

ed the

id

to

nto

n as

and

ghter

as

to

sty

ypically

s

and

tremely

d

one

s

a

be

to

lness.

other

former

er

run

love

for

s

xy"

she

can

nto n as and ghter as to sty ypically s and tremely d one s a

aking

hes,

she

the

ck

could

ou

gypsy

e

the

t

but

for

when

she

is

twain"

s

won

city

bed

/As

nly

cryptic

desty"

is

speech

un-

finally

to

uncle,

is

nephew

aling

the

sire

to

(1. 59).

antio

ns

to

his

his

one

arrival

t

the

t

Middle-

e

to

ar,

sir,

I'm

lines

derived

undercuts

These

ess and,

parishes,

antio ns to his his one arrival t the t Middle- e to ar, sir, I'm

ers.

a

h

et

for

and

y

ac-

e forty

that

ally

mar-

hopes

to

mascu-

se,

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the

the

imper-

-

frail

a

he

and

elation

of

ibes the

ess'd

on to

ac- e forty that ally mar- hopes to mascu- se, "A the the imper- - frail

the

t

this

cardinal

ensified

as

lus

llows

us

its

as

or

s

page's

ng-

ging

the

hy

alleged

et

in

a

his

ls

own

er[ing]

nude

r

get

one

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s

a

what

ll-

l

level,

play

as

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a

t,

the

child

simply

ed

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the

in

d

as

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ncing

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tells

ss

as sing.

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hest,

chet

ons

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in

ine

losing

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t

ing

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ught,

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play-boy

e

er,

who

see

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ed

sician

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livery,

the

oy's

oy

rant

fren-

thee!

on

er:

nd

the page,

) and is

he

. Some

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e-

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nti-

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o

ir

. All of

wanted.

y

he

powerful

t

the

from

ntation

of

the

the

ers of

to dis-

trical

between

influenced

or

in plot.

owed

y

to

n

his

celibate

f

263). Even

is

he

mbles

rning

general

rives

a

er

the play,

use

t

between influenced or in plot. owed y to n his celibate f 263). Even is he

"a just

the

conduct

position

in a

d

le"

to

. pick'd

wealth

ssing

hoes

iage

the duch-

believes

t only

reputation

familiar

to

life"

l

g

of

his

uchess.

There's

the

the

en

hess,

more

cardi-

he

d

h

as

-

stereo-

dle-

.14

ous

p

op-

aware-

ve

so

of

the

l g of his uchess. There's the the en hess, more cardi- he d h as

dness

debate

on

al

in

le

dismiss

mbers

tiric

carica-

held

es

d,

onjunction

represen-

play-

veying

often

kind

a

s

e

of

,

or

a

rk

and

ines

opportu-

al

that

ries.

n

or

testing.

al

I

fact

n

arious

because

I

rks of

titudes

wish

partially

lex

ne of

rather

seem-

ng an old

lly

modern

ries. n or testing. al I fact n arious because I rks of titudes wish partially

oss-

r own

the

identi-

r

se of a

potency,

o another,

rom one

char-

depths

us

. One

ation be-

ther

erscore

from

e

inale

al

in

g

,

as

well

female

d

onances

e-

five

chapters

lay,

low

that

oss-

artistry

. One ation be- ther erscore from e inale al in g , as well female

val

erona

f onstage.1

ends

ad

bly

med

to be a

cross-

e

city

Shake-

hero-

ed

saucy

he

Renais-

lier

narra-

isguise

hem

d the

en the

resume

male

ends ad bly med to be a cross- e city Shake- hero- ed saucy he Renais-

iences

who

the

cross-

celi-

of

saint

ves,

cross-

d

hus-

pages

r

tity,

as

romantic

or

el

to

table

women

by

f them

an-

lf. The

very

ave the

e: be-

the

he brash

ally

pear

s, John

ell as at

om

the

to

layed by

ypically

tion by

rough

nvolving

troupes

e early

a single

be- the he brash ally pear s, John ell as at om the to layed by

num-

e

ster

or

much

a

harac-

ther

in

the

servants

rather

differ-

is

the

im-

English

female

e,

squires

the

,

nment

and

the

source,

and

she

heroines

are

she

lathea:

ea,

the

herself

es

ized

servant

serve

as

ls

for

from

lic

ry

the

Julia

infatu-

r

the

tter:

"She

with

ed

second

follow Proteus

herself es ized servant serve as ls for from lic ry the Julia infatu- r the

pears on

ator.

e:

ce's

ome

but

chorus,

play world."7

repartee

ess's

ddles, jests,

her the

audience

nd Rowe:

o her"

most ex-

ch

has

ome but chorus, play world."7 repartee ess's ddles, jests, her the audience nd Rowe: o her"

ouplet of

equently

ine

accosted

n of

' invitation

. 39). The

iefly

cs. But

Valentine

his

y's

n.

with

her

s

the

ile