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# UNIVERSITY OF PERPETUAL HELP – CALAMBA CAMPUS

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
Page | 1
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

REFRIGERATION SYSTEM

SATURDAY CLASS

10:00 AM – 1:00 PM

PROFESSOR
.
Page | 2

## ICE MAKING PLANT

I. TERMS OF REFERENCE

##  TO DESIGN 50 KG ICE CAN OF BLOCK ICE

Page | 3
 DESIGN CAPACITY IS 30 Tons per day

 Refrigerant is Ammonia

##  Location: ILOILO CITY FISHING PORT

FISHING BOAT ARRIVAL Page | 4
• Last April to August ,Fish Catch is approximately 26 Tons per Day .
• Outside Buyer of Ice from neighbouring areas are approximately 2 tons
• Local Wet Market Requirement is approximately 1.5 Tons everyday
• And ,according to FAO, STANDARD IS IKG OF FISH NEEDS 1 KG OF
ICE;therefore 30 Tons per day of Ice Making Plant is required to build in Iloilo City.

## 3. To know the specifications of the important equipment to be used in the

design.

METHODOLOGY
The plant can produce 30 tons of ice per day.

## Capacity/day = tons of ice / mass of ice block

= 30000kg / 50kg/block
= 600 blocks/day
Ice cube specification

 The design will use the international standard size of ice can, 210mm Long, (410mm) Page | 5
Wide, (890m) High. The actual weight of the ice block is approximately 110lbs
(50kg). The gage of ice can metal to be used are 18(sides) and 16(bottom).Based on
kents Mechanical Engineering Handbook section 11-48(Power Volume).

## Weight per block Ice can dimension Freezing time

lbs. kgs. L, mm W, mm H, mm hours
55 25 270 150 890 15
110 50 410 210 890 21
220 100 510 260 1200 30
300 135 580 300 1140 44
BRINE TEMPERATURE
The brine temperature may be computed by using the equation Page | 6

32−582𝑎2
T=
𝑊𝑛

Where:

T = brine temperature, °F
a = thickness of ice block, inches
n = no. of ice can / ton of ice / day
W = mass of ice block, (lbs); use 110lbs

## For the value of T

32−582(8.32 )
T= (110)(20)
= 13.8℉

• Raw Water Temperature = 80.6°F (27°C)
• Freezing Temperature = 32°F (0°C)
• Brine Temperature = 13.8°F (-10.11°C)
• Ice Temperature = 23.8°F (-4.56 °C)
Total heat load can be completed using

QT= Q1 + Q2 + Q3
Page | 7
Where:
Q1 = sensible heat required to lower temperature of water from its raw temperature to its
freezing temperature.

## = (mass) (specific heat of water) (temperature difference)

= (30,000 kg/day) (4.187 KJ/kg-°k) (27-0) (1/24) (1/3600)
= 39.253 KW

Q2 = changing the latent heat of water at its freezing temperature from liquid to solid
= (mass) (latent heat of water)
=(30,000 kg/day) (355 KJ/kg) (1/24)(1/3600)
= 123.264 KW

Q3 = raising the temperature of water from its freezing temperature to the brine
temperature
= (mass) (specific heat of water) (temperature difference)
= (30,000 kg/day) (2.093 KJ/kg-°k) (0+10.11) (1/24) (1/3600)
= 7.35 KW

= 169.867 KW

## For typical ice plant there is 15% allowance, therefore

Qt = Qt + Qt (.15)
= 169.867 + 169.867(.15)
= 195.35 KW
NUMBER OF TUBE REQUIRED:
Use a tube made of B.I. Pipe, 1”D. the area of one length of the B.I. Pipe 1”D is 6.89 ft2. In
determining the surface area of the condenser, using the equation from the book Principles
Page | 8
of Refrigeration by R. J. Dossat, 2nd Editon page 316,

Q=AxUxD
where:
Q = condenser capacity, Btu / hr; use 837,130.401 Btu/hr
A = surface area of the condenser, ft2
D = temperature difference between the condensing refrigerant and the condensing
medium, °F; use 10 °F
U = overall heat transfer coefficient in Btu/hr-ft2-°F
from the book Design Values of U for Metallic Surfaces of Refrigeration Engineering by
Macintire & Hutchinson, page 263,
the overall conductance factor for shell-and-tube condenser is 150 to 300 Btu/hr-ft2-°F. Use
225 Btu/hr-ft2-°F

A=Q/UxD
= 837,130.401 Btu/hr-ft2-°F/225(10°F)
= 372.057 ft2

## A = 372.057 + 15% allowance

= 372.057 + 372.057(.15)
= 427.867 ft2

m = .233 kg/s

## Volume flow rate, f

F = m/ρof ammonia = 681.92 kg/m3
f = (0.233kg/s) / (681.92 kg/m3)
f = 3.415x10-4 m3/s
PIPE SIZE
Q = AV
(use velocity of 2 m/s from INDUSTRIAL REFRIGERATION HANDBOOK,
Page | 9
CHAPTER 9 PIPE SIZING, page 349.)

## 3.415x10-4 m3/s = [πD2 (2 m/s)]/ 4

D = 0.0147 m
= 0.557 in (use B.I pipe with nominal diameter of 1 in)
use 1.315in diameter from (http://gotocfr.com/tools/pipe-schedule.pdf)
= (1.315in) (1 ft/12 in) (20 ft)
= 6.89 ft2 per length of B.I. Pipe
= 427.867 ft2 / 6.89 ft2/ length
= 62.14 length of B.I. pipe
= 63 length of B.I. Pipe 1” D

EXPANSION PIPE

Use:

## At 15° 𝐵𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑒 ft of pipe= 400

4000𝑓𝑡
No. of coils = 30 ton x = 12000ft
𝑡𝑜𝑛

12000 𝑓𝑡
= 3.28 𝑓𝑡
𝑏𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑘𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ(15𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑥 )
1𝑚

## Header-use 6 in. diameter header with 4 coils in each section

ENTHALPIES
The enthalpies can be calculated by knowing this two
temperatures from the compressor model # VZ6AVT(HASEGAWA), the Evaporating
temperature (-15°C) and the Condensing temperature (40°C). The refrigerant is ammonia;
we can refer to the table A-3 page 420 RAC by Stoecker & Jones. Page | 10

By interpolation:
h1 = 1443.9 kJ / kg
h3 = hf @ 40°C = 390.587 kJ / kg
S1 = S2 = Sg @ -15 °C = 5.827 kJ/kg K
h2 = h1 = 1,557 kpa = 1720 kJ/ kg
h4 = h3

CONDENSER
Qr = mr ( h2 – h3 )
where:
Qr = heat rejected
Qa = mr ( h1 – h2 )
mr = Qa / ( h1-h3 )
= 195.35 / (1443.9 – 390.587)
= .1855 kg/s

= 246.606 KW

## Mass of cooling water

Assuming:
Water outlet temperature = 30 - 32°C
Water inlet temperature = 26 - 28°C

mw = Qr / cp ( T )
= 246.606 / 4.187 kJ/kg – K) ( 31 – 27)
= 14.72 kg/s
FLOW RATE

f = Mw/Pw
Page | 11
= 14.72 kg/s / 1000 kg/m3
= .01472 m3/s

## Based on the specification of the Model HVU-VZ6AMT(HASEGAWA) is appropriate in

this design with a capacity of 217 kW and operates at a maximum speed of 1075 RPM.
Other data from the manufacturer’s specification are listed below.

Capacity = 216.98 kW
No. of cylinder = 6
Cylinder: Bore mm) = 132
Stroke (mm) = 106
Speed = 1075 RPM
Piston Displacement = 561.38 m3/hr

Refrigerant Connection
Suction (mm) = 100
Discharge (mm) = 75
Standard Motor = 45 kW

COMPRESSOR
The compressor used in this design is a flanged motor compressor,
single stage and the refrigerant used is ammonia. The selection of the compressor is based
Q = 195.35 kW

## FOR TYPE OF BELT

Power transmitted = 60.35 hp (45 kW)
Speed of Motor = 1075 rpm
Design Power = power transmitted x normal torque
Normal torque = 1.2 from table 7.1 machine elements in
mechanical engineering by Robert L. Mott
Design Power = (60.35) (1.2)
= 72.42 hp
For sheave pulley
Most commercial available sheaves are cast iron,
which should be limited to 6500 ft/min Belt speed. Page | 12

## In this design use belt = 4000 ft/min

Vd = belt speed
Dd = Driver sheave
= 12 Vd/ n= 12(4000) / 3.1416(1075)
= 14.21

## For length of V belt

From table 7-8 Machine Elements in Mechanical Design by
Robert L. Mott the center distance is ranging
D2 < C < 3 (D2 + D1)
D2 < C < 3 (21.1 + 13.9)
21.1 < C > 105

## For the interest of conserving speed use C = 30

From the book Machine Elements in Mechanical Design by Robert L. Mott, equation 7-3

L = 2C + /2 (D2 + D1) + ( D2 – D1 )/ 4
= 2(30) + ( /2) (21.1 + 13.9) + (21.1 – 13.9/4(105))
= 136.04 inches
FOR ACTUAL CENTER DISTANCE
The center distance assumed earlier is just for the purpose of solving L,
now that we have L, we can calculate the actual center distance by the equation 7-4 and 7-5
from the book Machine Elements in Mechanical Design by Robert L. Mott
Page | 13
𝐵+√𝐵2 −32(𝐷2− 𝐷1 )
C= 16

B = 4L – 6.28 ( D2 + D1 )
= 4(136.04) – 6.28 (21.1 + 13.9)
= 324.36

Solving for C
324.36+√324.362 −32(21.1−13.9)
C= 16
C= 40.52

Number of Belts
Ө1 = 180°– 2 sin-1 [(D2 – D1) / 2C]
= 180°– 2 sin-1 [(21.1 – 10.8) / 40.38]
= 150.55°

Determine the correction factors from Figure 7-14 and Figure 7-15
Elements in Mechanical Design by Robert L. Mott
For Ө1 = 150.55°
CӨ = 0.93; For L = 140 in; CL = 1.0

Corrected Power = CӨ x L x CL
= (0.93) (27.69) (1.0)
= 25.75 hp
Number of Belts = 439.94 / 19.32
= 2.8 (use 3 belts)
LIQUID RECIEVER

## TOTAL CAPACITY = ICE MAKING + COLD STORAGE+ CONTACT

FREEZER Page | 14

= 17.98 ft3

## For ice making plant

The size of the liquid receiver is such that it
can store the total volume of the refrigerant when pumping down the system. From the
compressor capacity

## Compressor Capacity = m (h2 – h3)

Compressor capacity = 195.35 kW
m = mass flow rate
m = 195.35/ (1720 – 390.5870)
m = .1469 kg/s
total required mass of ammonia refrigerant system is
= .1469 kg/s (15 min) (60sec/min)
= 132.21 kg
= 290.86 lb
V = m / ρ brine
ρ brine = 39.96 lbs/ ft3 from table RAC by Stoecker & Jones
V = 290.86 lb / 39.96 lbs/ft3
V=7.28 ft3

ACCUMULATOR
Normally accumulator is should be less than 30% to 40% of
the total evaporator capacity. (use 35% allowance).
D = .08 ft
R = .04 ft
V = Volume of evaporator coil
V = π (.04)2 (400)
= 2.01 ft3 x (.35)
= 0.7 ft3

Page | 15
BRINE AGITATOR
The brine agitator is installed in the end
portion of the brine tank because it is more convenient when removal is required for repair.
The brine agitator should have the capacity of 60 to 70 gallons/ton/min. (use
65gallons/ton/min).

P = ϒ Qb H
Qb = 65 gallons/ton/min (30 tons)
= 1950 gallons/min (1/60)
= 32.5 gal/s or .123 m3/s
P = (1.755)(9.81)(.123)(1)
= 2.117 kW or 2.84 hp

## Use 3 hp having 2 agitators based on Handbook of Mechanical Refrigeraetion by II.J

Macintre table 90 p.394

Blower power

Air agitation power due to brass drop tube using compressed air supply by blower is
required for each ice can until crystal clear ice has formed on inside walls of ice can.

Low pressure air agitation is recommended by McIntire. For this, approximately 0.25
cfm of free air is supplied at about 0.75 psi per 110 lb can. Using individual power for each
freezing tank:

## 𝑉𝑎𝑖𝑟= 0.25 𝑐𝑓𝑚𝑥600𝑐𝑎𝑛𝑠

𝑐𝑎𝑛

𝑉𝑎𝑖𝑟=150 𝑐𝑓𝑚
𝑙𝑏 𝑖𝑛2 𝑓𝑡 3
(0.75 𝑖𝑛2 ) (144 𝑓𝑡 2 ) (150 𝑚𝑖𝑛)
𝐴𝑖𝑟 𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 = 𝑓𝑡−𝑙𝑏𝑓
33000 ℎ𝑝−𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝑒𝑏𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟=𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡
𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡

0.5ℎ𝑝
𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 =
0.9

## Use 0.75 hp motor power

FREEZING TANK
Freezing tank or brine tank is provided with a race way,
which the evaporator coil is installed. In this design the coil race way has a width of 39.37
inches.

## Width = (20x220mm)+12.7mm gap x 18 + 200mm(can

holder)+60mm(allowance)+1000mm(coil allowance)+654mm(insulation)
= 6542 mm
Length =430mm x 30 blocks + 25.4mm gap x 29
gaps+600mm(agitator)+654mm(insulation)
= 14890.6mm say 15m
Height of Freezing Tank

The height of freezing tanks with a total of 1301.75 mm includes the following;

## PUSH TROLLEY AND ELECTRIC HOIST

Ice blocks are too heavy for human labor to remove it from
brine tank so an electric hoist is needed.
Weight of ice block = 50 kg
Number of ice can per row = 20
Total weight per row = 50 (20)
= 1000 kg
= 1000 kg x 1.15
= 1150 kg
Therefore,
Use a 1.5 ton hoist
Page | 18

COOLING TOWER

The selection of cooling tower is based on the computed quantity of the condensing
medium, which is water.

## Quantity of condensing medium = flow rate of water in condenser

= .01472 m3/ s
= 53 m3/ hr

From AOSUA table of specification model AB-60 is selected with the following
specifications:
Nominal flow = 60 m3 / hr
Page | 19
Motor = 1.5kW (2hp)
Fan diameter = 990 mm
Net weight = 368 kg

## Pump and piping for cooling tower

Water is often needed in part of refrigerating system serving as the cooling medium for
condenser . It is customary to use steel pipes with water velocity of 10 fps with pumping .

## Pump and piping for cooling tower

Water is often needed in part of refrigerating system serving as the cooling medium for
condenser . It is customary to use steel pipes with water velocity of 10 fps with pumping .
Page | 20

Pipe Lengths:

## Static Head = 7.5 m = 24.6 ft

𝑓𝑡
𝑉2 10( )2
𝑓𝑡
2𝑔 2(32.2 2 )
𝑠

= 1.55 ft
 Friction Loss on the suction side of the pump
Page | 21
Friction Loss = 6.56ft x 0.084 = 0.55 ft

## Fittings Friction Loss

say 30% of pipe friction head loss

= 9.472 ft

## =24.6 ft + 9.472 ft + 1.55 ft

= 35.62 ft = 10.86 m
Pump = Q&H

𝑚3 1 ℎ𝑟 𝐾𝑁
Water Power = (60 ℎ𝑟 ) (3600 𝑠𝑒𝑐) (9.81 𝑚3 ) (10.86𝑚)
Page | 22
=1.78 KW

Say e= 85%
1.7𝑘𝑤
Wp= 0.85

## = 2KW(1.5hp) , Use 1.5 hp pump

Page | 23

COLD STORAGE
COLD STORAGE
I. Structural Cooling Load Page | 24
1.1 Design Criteria
1.1.1 Composition of Wall
1.1.2 Composition of Roof
1.1.3 Composition of Floor
1.1.4 Composition of Door

## VII. Refrigeration in System Component Design

7.1 Evaporator Design
7.2 Refrigeration Compansion Design
7.3 Condenser Design
7.4 Expansion Value Design

VIII. Recommendation
IX. Conclusion
X. References
XI. Curriculum Vitae
Page | 25

1.1 Design Criteria
1.1.1 Compsition of Wall(12inches)
Material Used Thermal Conductivity

## Inside Convection Coefficient hi = 1.65 Btu/hr-ft2-℉

Page | 26
4.7475in. Brickwork, Common k1 = 49.968Btu-in/hr-ft2-℉

## Outside Convection Coefficient ho = 4.0 Btu/hr-ft2-℉

1 1
𝑈= 1 𝑥1 𝑥2 𝑥3 𝑥4 1 = 1 4.7475 3.0475 2.0475 2.1575 1
+ + + + + + + + + +
ℎ𝑖 𝑘1 𝑘2 𝑘3 𝑘4 ℎ𝑜 1.65 49.968 109.097 59.13 2.498 4.0

𝑈 = 0.533 BTU/hr-ft2-℉

## 1.1.2 Composition of Roof

(http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/convective-heat-transfer-d_430.html)
(http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/thermal-conductivity-d_429.html)
Material Used Thermal Conductivity

## Outside Convection Coefficient ho = 4.0 Btu/hr-ft2-℉

1 1
𝑈= 1 𝑥1 𝑥2 𝑥3 1= 1 2.75 2.0475 1.348 1
+ + + + + + + +
ℎ𝑖 𝑘1 𝑘2 𝑘3 ℎ𝑜 1.65 109.097 59.13 2.498 4.0

𝑈 = 0.687 BTU/hr-ft2-℉

## 1.1.3 Composition of Floor

(http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/convective-heat-transfer-d_430.html)
(http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/thermal-conductivity-d_429.html)

## Material Used Thermal Conductivity

Page | 28
Inside Convection Coefficient hi = 1.65 Btu/hr-ft2-℉

## 1 in. Granite k3 = 16.39 Btu/hr-ft2-℉

1 1
𝑈= 1 1 1= 1 8 2.0475
+ + + +
ℎ𝑖 𝐶1 𝐶2 1.65 13.88 16.39

𝑈 = 0.765 BTU/hr-ft2-℉

ho
1.1.4 Composition of Door
(http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/convective-heat-transfer-d_430.html)
(http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/thermal-conductivity-d_429.html)
Material Used Thermal Conductivity
Page | 29
Inside Convection Coefficient 2
hi = 1.65 Btu/hr-ft -℉

## Outside Convection Coefficient ho = 4.0 Btu/hr - ft² - °F

1 1
𝑈= 1 𝑥1 𝑥2 1= 1 2 2 1
+ + + + + +
ℎ𝑖 𝑘1 𝑘2 ℎ𝑜 1.65 13.325 2.221 4.0

𝑼 = 𝟎. 𝟓𝟐𝟒 BTU/hr-ft2-℉
Inside Temp.( 0F)
Mechanical
Outside Normal Wall Temp.
Legend Engineering
Temp.( 0F) Difference(0F)
Table and Charts
5th Edition (p.105) Page | 30

## 1.2 Storage Room Structural Cooling Load

The wall leakage load is a measure of the heat flow rate by conduction through the
walls of refrigerated space form the outside to the inside.

Where: Q = AUTD
Q = rate of heat transfer in (Btu/hr)
A = outside surface area of the wall in (ft2)
U = overall coefficient of heat transfer in (Btu/hr-ft2-℉)
TD = Temp. difference across the wall in ℉
Outside surface Overall Temperature Rate of Heat
Area of the wall coefficient of difference across Transfer
Legend heat transfer the wall (℉) Page | 31
(ft2) (Btu/hr-ft2-℉)
(Btu/hr)

## 1.3 TOTAL STRUCTURAL COOLING LOAD

= (Total Cooling load of structure)(24hours/day)
= (194,036.3 Btu/hr) x (24hour/day)
TOTAL STRUCTURAL COOLING LOAD = 3,576,871.2 Btu/day
Page | 32
TOMATO
Specific Heat before freezing = 0.96 Btu/lb℉
Specific Heat after freezing = 0.42 Btu/lb℉
Freezing Temperature = 31.1 ℉
Storage Temperature = 45.05℉
Latent Heat of Tomato = 74.8Btu/lb℉
Total Packaging inside the Storage Room = 4 groups containing 9
packaging with stack
of 20
Total Package inside the Storage Room = 720 Packages

Total Mass of Tomato = (Total Package inside the Storage Room) x (No. of
pieces/package) x (Mass of tomato/pieces)
= (720) x (20 pieces/package) x (0.625lbs/piece)

## Total Mass of Tomato = (90,000 lbs/week) x (week/7days)

= 1285.71 lbs/day

Qtomato = mCp∆T
= (0.625 lbs/piece)(0.96 Btu/lb℉) (97.5°F–41.05°F)
Qtomato = 33.87Btu/package

## Qpackage = (2.8125 lbs/package) (0.42 Btu/lb℉) (97.5°F–41.05°F)

Qpackage = 66.68 Btu/package

## Qproductload = (Qtomato + Qpackage)(Total Package)

= (33.87 Btu/package + 66.68 Btu/package)(720packages)

Page | 33

## Source: HeatCraft Engineering Manual (June 1990)

Figure: Average Air Changes per hour for storage room below 32 ℉ ( 0 ℃) due to door
openings and infiltration

## Air Change Load = Inside Volume x Air Change Factor

L = 20 m – 2 (0.25 m) = 19.5 m
W = 20 m – 2 (0.25 m) = 19.5 m

H = 8 m – 0.25 m = 7.75 m

## Inside Volume =LxWxH

= (19.5m)(19.5m)(7.75m) Page | 34
= 2,946.9375 m3 (1ft/0.3048m)3
Inside Volume = 9,668.430 ft3

(http://www.hvacrinfo.com/pdf_misc/heatcraft_eng_manual.pdf)

Table 5 Average Air Changes per 24 Hours for Storage above 320F

## Volume ft3 Air Change per day

8,000 5.5

9,668.430 ft3 X

10,000 4.9

By Interpolation:

8000 15.3

9,668.430 ft3 x

10000 13.5

## x = 5.401 per day

(http://www.hvacrinfo.com/pdf_misc/heatcraft_eng_manual.pdf)

## Storage Room Temp. 0F Inlet Air Temp. 0F Relative Humidity 60%

45 95 x

47 95 2.021

50 95 1.9
By interpolation:

Page | 35
45 x

47 2.021

50 1.9

x = 2.102Btu/ft3

Air change load = Inside Volume x Air change x Air Change Factor
= (9,668.430 ft3) (5.401 per day) (2.102 Btu/ft3)
Air Change Load = 109,764.7383 Btu/day

## (𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝐸𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑡/𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑜𝑛) 𝑥 (𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑒𝑜𝑝𝑙𝑒)

𝑄𝑝𝑒𝑜𝑝𝑙𝑒 =
𝐿𝑜𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟𝑠/24 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟

## (18,705.6 𝐵𝑡𝑢/24ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟) 𝑥 (4 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑜𝑛)

𝑄𝑝𝑒𝑜𝑝𝑙𝑒 = = 𝟐𝟒, 𝟗𝟒𝟎. 𝟖 𝑩𝒕𝒖/𝒅𝒂𝒚
8ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟/24ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟
Lights
No. of 16Watts Lights (LED Tube Light) = 12 Lights
Qlight = (16W/light) (12Lights) (3.4Btu/watt-hr) (8hour/24hour) Page | 36
QLight = 5,222.4 Btu/day

## Electric Motor (1Hp)

Working Hours of Motor = 8 hour/day
Qmotor = (Heat Equivalent of Electric Motor) (Horse Power) (Working Hourmotor)
= (3650 Btu/hp-hr) (1Hp) (8hour/day)
Qmotor= 29,200B Btu/day

## Total Miscellaneous Load = Qpeople + QLight + Qmotor

= (24,940.8 + 5,222.4 + 29,200) Btu/day
TOTAL MISCELLANEOUS LOAD = 59,363.2 Btu/day

## Total Cooling Load = QStructure + QProductload + Air Change + QMiscellaneous

= (3,576,871.2+ 72,396+ 109,764.7383 + 59,363.2)Btu/day

## Safety Factor (10%)

Qallowance = (Total Cooling Load) ( Factor Safety of 10%)
= (4,037,872.74Btu/day) ( 0.10)
Qallowance = 381,839.51 Btu/day

= (3,818,395.14+381,839.51) Btu/day
Design Cooling Load = 4,200,234.65 Btu/day
Refrigeration Equipment Operating Time (16 hours/day)

𝑄𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙
Require Equipment Capacity =
𝑂𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟𝑠/𝑑𝑎𝑦
4,200,234.65 𝐵𝑡𝑢/𝑑𝑎𝑦
= Page | 37
16ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟𝑠/𝑑𝑎𝑦
Require Equipment Capacity = 262,514.67 Btu/hour
1.055𝑘𝐽 1 ℎ𝑟
= 262,514.67Btu/hr x x
𝐵𝑡𝑢 3600𝑠
𝑇𝑂𝑅
= 76.93 kW x
3.516𝑘𝑊

## VII. SELECTION OF REFRIGERATION SYSTEM

COMPONENTS

EVAPORATOR SELECTION

## Evaporator is an important component together with other major

components in a refrigeration system such as compressor, condenser and expansion
device. The reason for refrigeration is to remove heat from air, water or other
substance. It is here that the liquid refrigerant is expanded and evaporated. It acts as
a heat exchanger that transfers heat from the substance being cooled to a boiling
temperature.

## EVAPORATOR DESIGN (LMTD)

Used 10% Factor of Safety
Qe = Structural Cooling Load / Operating Time
4,200,234.65𝐵𝑡𝑢/ℎ𝑟
Q e=
16 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟𝑠
Qe= 262,514.67Btu/hour (1.055 𝑘𝐽/𝐵𝑡𝑢)(1ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟/3600𝑠)
Qe = 76.93 kW
(http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/thermal-conductivity-metals-d_858.html)
Ri=Ro= 0.044 m2-K/W
Kcopper= 386 W/m-K
Dimension of Copper Tube
(Reference: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Stoecker & Jones Table 2 pp. 25)

OD = 31.75mm = 0.03175 m
ID = 29mm = 0.029 m Page | 38
Thickness = OD – ID = 0.03175 m - 0.029 m = 0.00275 m

Assume that:
Te = ℉
Tl = 19 ℉
Tr = 17 ℉

## T-S Diagram of Evaporator

(𝑇𝑒 − 𝑇𝑟 ) − (𝑇𝑙 − 𝑇𝑟 )
𝐿𝑀𝑇𝐷 = (𝑇 −𝑇 )
𝑙𝑛 (𝑇𝑒−𝑇𝑟)
𝑙 𝑟
(280.25 − 264.67) − (265.78 − 264.67)
𝐿𝑀𝑇𝐷 = (280.25−264.67)
𝑙𝑛 (265.78−264.67)
𝐿𝑀𝑇𝐷 = 5.48K
1
Ue 
t
Ri   Ro
K copper
1
 Page | 39
0.00275
0.044   0.044
386
U e  11.36 W m 2  K

Qe  Ae  U e  LMTD
Qe    D  L  U e  LMTD
Qe
L 
  D  U e  LMTD
76.93 kW (1000W kW )

 (0.029 m)(11.36 W m 2  K )(5.58)(5)
L  2,664.19m

Ae = 𝜋𝑑𝐿
Ae = (3.1416)(0.029)(2664.19)
Ae = 242.72m2
Qe = 76.93kW (1 Btu/1.055 kJ) (3600s/hour)
Qe= 262,514.67 Btu/hr
CapacityEvaporator = Qe / LMTD
CapacityEvaporator = (262,514.67Btu/hr) / (5.58)
CapacityEvaporator = 47,045.64 Btu/hr-F
SUGGESTED SELECTION FOR EVAPORATOR BASED ON THIS
DESIGN

Page | 40

## DL Series Air Cooler/Evaporator for Refrigeration Cold Room

http://sd-lt.en.alibaba.com/product/527949950-
213202882/DL_Series_Air_Cooler_Evaporator_for_Refrigeration_Cold_Room.html

Product Description
D series Air Cooler/Evaporator is a kind of cooling equipments which used
with refrigerant units application for different cold rooms. It is clasified three
category including DL, DD, DJ by different cold room temperature. DL series
applied for 0°Cpreservation cold room; DD series applied for about -18°C cold
storage; DJ series applied for -25°C frozen storage.

Technical Description
1. Unit Outcovering adopts high-quality steel, spraied the surface and corrosion resistance;Good appearance
2. Coil adopted staggered permutation,and tighted to fit with Aluminum sheet to ensure high efficiency heat
exchange
3. Stainless steel electric heating tubes are uniformly distributed in the coil pipes, good defrosting efficiency
4. Double water disk structure, which can effectively prevent the water tray freeze
Model Specification
D L 19/45 3 A
Page | 41
D: Products Series Code
L:Temperature(L:-5°C~5°C)
19:Nominal heat exchange
45:Fan Diameter
3: Fan Quantity
A:380V/3P/50HZ;B:220V/1P/50HZ;C:220V/3P/60HZ;D:220V/1P/60HZ;E:110
V/1P/60HZ(D,E Fan Diameter≤500mm)
Cooling Capacity KW Fan
Area Tube volume Air Flow Range Defrosting Power(KW)
Model DT=7K T0=-7°C Power

## DL103/604A 103 108.2 371 70.9 42000 25 3120 20.8 2.6

DL112/634A 112 117.6 390 77.3 46000 25 3200 23.4 5.2

## DL122/634A 122 128.1 463 83.7 46000 28 3200 26 5.2

Ammonia Refrigerant
Based on
Table and Charts
Reference Page | 42
http://www.linde-gas.ro/internet.lg.lg.rou/ro/images/R71754_138674.pdf?v=2.0
evaporating temperature = -15 ℃
condensing temperature = 40 ℃
h1 = 1587.5kj/kg
h2 = 1633.1kj/kg
h3=h4 = 533.79kj/kg

Qe= mr(h1-h4)
mr = Qe / (h1-h4)
mr = 76.93kW / (1587.5 – 533.79)
mr = 0.073 kg/s

Condenser Selection
In a cooling cycle of a refrigeration system, heat is absorbed by the vapor
refrigerant in the evaporator followed by the compression of the refrigerant by the
compressor. The high pressure and high temperature state of the vapor refrigerant is
then converted to liquid at the cond. It is designed to condense effectively the
compressed refrigerant vapor.

There are basically three types of condensing unit depending on how the heat
is removed by the condensing medium which is usually water, air or a combination
of both

 Air-Cooled types are usually used in the residential and small offices applications.
They are used in small capacity systems below 20 tons. The advantages of using this
design include not having to do water piping, not necessary to have water disposal
system, saving in water costs and not much scaling problems caused by the mineral
content of the water. It is also easier to install and has lower initial cost. There isn't
much maintenance problems.The disadvantages are that it requires higher power per
ton of refrigeration, has shorter compressor life and on days when most cooling is
required, the least is available.
 Water-Cooled There are 3 types commonly being used. They are shell and tube, shell
and coil, and double tube. The most commonly used is the shell and tube type and
are usually available from two tons up to couple of hundred tons. This design has
lower power requirements per ton of refrigeration and the compressors can last Page | 43
longer compared to the air-cooled type. A water cooling tower is frequently used for
higher capacity application.
 Evaporative type which is a combination of water and air-cooled.
Qc = mr (h2 – h3)
Qc = 0.073 (1633 – 533.79)
Qc = 80.24kW
Ri = Ro = 0.044 m2-K/W
Kcopper = 386 W/m-K
Te = 40oC
Assume:
Tl = 50oC
Tr = 60oC

(Tr  Tl )  (Tr  Te )
LMTD 
(T  T )
ln r l
(Tr  Te )
(333  323)  (333  313)

(333  323)
ln
(333  313)
LMTD  14.43K
(http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/material-dimensions-d_433.html)
OD = 79.03 mm (1 m/1000 mm) = 0.07903 m
ID = 74.8 mm (1 m/1000 mm) = 0.0748 m
t = OD – ID = 0.07903 m - 0.0748 m = 0.00423 m
1
Ue 
t
Ri   Ro
K copper
1
 Page | 44
0.00275
0.044   0.044
386
U e  11.36 W m 2  K

Qe  Ae  U e  LMTD
Qe    D  L  U e  LMTD
Qe
L 
  D  U e  LMTD
76.93 kW (1000W kW )

 (0.0748 m)(11.36 W m 2  K )(14.42)( 2)
L  999.24 m
Ac = ΠdL
=(3.1416)(0.087)(999.24)
Ac = 273.11m²

LIQUID RECIEVER
The size of the liquid receiver is such that it
can store the total volume of the refrigerant when pumping down the system. From the
compressor capacity

## Compressor Capacity = m (h2 – h3)

Compressor capacity = 76.93 kW
m = mass flow rate
m = 76.93/ (1633– 533.79)
m = 0.07 kg/s
total required mass of ammonia refrigerant system is
= .0.07 kg/s (15 min) (60sec/min)
= 63 kg
= 138.6lb
V = m / ρ brine
ρ brine = 39.96 lbs/ ft3 from table RAC by Stoecker & Jones
V = 138.6 lb / 39.96 lbs/ft3
V=3.47 ft3 Page | 45

Compressor Selection
Air conditioner compressor is used to remove the heat-laden vapor
refrigerant from the evaporator of the air conditioning systems. In layman term, the
compressor compresses or squeezes the vapor into a smaller volume at high
temperature. The external-drive compressor has a crankshaft that is driven by a
pulley and belt system.

Compressor
Wc = mr (h2 – h1)
Wc = 0.073(1633.1– 1587.5)
Wc = 3.33 kW (1 TOR/3.516 kW)
Wc = 1 TOR

## THERMAL EXPANSION VALVE SELECTION

Expansion valves are devices used to control the refrigerant flow in a refrigeration
system. They help to facilitate the change of higher pressure of liquid refrigerant in the
condensing unit to lower pressure gas refrigerant in the evaporator.

The term "low side" is used to indicate the part of the system that operates under low
pressure, in this case the evaporator. The "high side" is used to indicate the part of the system
that operates under high pressure, in this case the condenser.

## TYPES OF EXPANSION VALVES

There are basically four types of valves that are in used. These valves are also refer to as
metering devices.

##  Automatic Exp. Valves

 Thermostatic Exp. Valves
 Capillary Tubes
 Float Valves

## Selection of Thermal Expansion Valve Page | 46

Expansion valves are flow-restricting devices that cause a pressure drop of the
working fluid. The valve needle remains open during steady state operation. The size of
the opening or the position of the needle is related to the pressure and temperature of
the evaporator. There are three main parts of the expansion valve that regulate the
position of the needle. A sensor bulb, at the end of the evaporator, monitors the
temperature change of the evaporator. This change in temperature creates a change in
pressure on the diaphragm.
For example, if the temperature in the evaporator increases, the pressure in the
diaphragm increases causing the needle to lower. Lowering the needle allows more of the
working fluid into the evaporator to absorb heat. The pressure at the inlet of the
evaporator affects the position of the needle and prevents the working fluid from
flowing back into the compressor. Since the pressure before the valve is higher than the
pressure after the valve, the working fluid naturally flows into the evaporator. The
pressure at the inlet of the evaporator acts on the diaphragm. There is also a spring
providing a constant pressure closing the valve needle. The spring constantly restricts the
amount of working fluid entering the evaporator.
The pressure spring can be adjusted to increase or decrease pressure based on
temperature needs. The pressure created by the spring acts on the opening of the valve.
When the pressure of the sensor bulb acting on the diaphragm is greater than the
combined pressure of the evaporator and spring, the valve opens to increase the flow
rate of the working fluid. An increase of flow rate lowers the temperature of the
evaporator and allows for more heat absorption.
Tc = 41oC
Pc = 984.51 kPa (14.7 psi/101.325 Kpa) = 142.83 psi
Qe = 81.51 kW (1 TOR/3.516 kW) = 23.18TOR
Te = -9.44oC
Pe = 223.52 Kpa (14.7 psi/101.325 Kpa) = 32.43 psi
Pressure Difference across Valve = 142.83 psi – 32.43 psi = 110.4 psi

Features
• Stainless steel shut out
Corrosion and prevents valve failure
power element

Page | 47

Specifications
 Maximum working Pressure = 450psig

## TFE Nominal* Capacity Table in Tons

R-134a R-22/R-40.7℃ R-502, R-404a/R-507
6 8 5
8 10 7
10 12 9
15 20 14
20 25 18
25 30 20

## • Replaceable power element

• ODF connections
• Balanced port construction compensates for changes in
operating pressures due to varying ambients, or widely
• Bi-Directional control capacity
• External equalizer
Page | 48

CONTACT FREEZER

Page | 49

The individual items to be taken into account in a refrigeration load calculation depend on
the type of freezer. It would be impossible to include all the eventualities in one sample
calculation; therefore, a relatively simple one is given below for a HPF and some notes have
been added to help with other freezer calculations.

Specification

## 50 mm thick trays of fish each weighting 7.5 kg (6 trays per plate)

Capacity (30t/day)

## Freezing time (1 3/4 h)

I. Number of freezers

## 30000 ÷ 7.5 = 4000blocks/day

24 ÷ 2 = 12 cycles/day

## Heat to be removed = 1 250 x 81.3 = 101 625kcal/h

The change in enthalpy value (the heat to be removed from the fish during freezing) used in
the calculation is obtained from Table 29 or Figure 49 and this is a true measured value for
cod.

## H1= 1587.5 kj/kg

H2=1633.1kj/kg

H3=h4=533.79kj/kg
NUMBER OF TUBE REQUIRED:
Use a tube made of B.I. Pipe, 1”D. the area of one length of the B.I. Pipe 1”D is 6.89 ft2. In
determining the surface area of the condenser, using the equation from the book Principles
Page | 51
of Refrigeration by R. J. Dossat, 2nd Editon page 316,
Q=AxUxD
where:
Q = condenser capacity, Btu / hr; use 837,130.401 Btu/hr
A = surface area of the condenser, ft2
D = temperature difference between the condensing refrigerant and the condensing
medium, °F; use 10 °F
U = overall heat transfer coefficient in Btu/hr-ft2-°F
from the book Design Values of U for Metallic Surfaces of Refrigeration Engineering by
Macintire & Hutchinson, page 263,
the overall conductance factor for shell-and-tube condenser is 150 to 300 Btu/hr-ft2-°F. Use
200 Btu/hr-ft2-°F

A=Q/UxD
= 837,130.401 Btu/hr-ft2-°F/225(10°F)
= 372.057 ft2
A = 372.057 + 15% allowance
= 372.057 + 372.057(.15)
= 427.867 ft2
no. of tubes = A / surface area of the tube used
m = Qr/ (h1 – h3) = 245.277KW / 1603.2 kJ/kg – 533.79 kJ/kg
m = 0.229 kg/s

## Volume flow rate, f

F = m/ρof ammonia = 681.92 kg/m3
f = (0.229kg/s) / (681.92 kg/m3)
f = 3.358 x 10-4 m3/s

Pipe Size
Q = AV
(use velocity of 2 m/s from INDUSTRIAL REFRIGERATION HANDBOOK,
CHAPTER 9 PIPE SIZING, page 349.)
3.358 x 10-4 m3/s = [πD2 (2 m/s)]/ 4
D = 0.0146 m
= 0.574 in (use B.I pipe with nominal diameter of 1 in)
use 1.315in diameter from (http://gotocfr.com/tools/pipe-schedule.pdf) Page | 52
= (1.315in) (1 ft/12 in) (20 ft)
= 6.89 ft2 per length of B.I. Pipe
= 427.867 ft2 / 6.89 ft2/ length
= 62.14 length of B.I. pipe
= 63 length of B.I. Pipe 1” D

ENTHALPIES
The enthalpies can be calculated by knowing this two
temperatures from the compressor model # VZ6AVT(HASEGAWA), the Evaporating
temperature (-15°C) and the Condensing temperature (40°C). The refrigerant is ammonia;
we can refer to the table A-3 page 420 RAC by Stoecker & Jones.

By interpolation:
h1 = 1603.2 kJ / kg
h3 = hf @ 40°C = 533.79 kJ / kg
S1 = S2 = Sg @ -15 °C = 6.3005 kJ/kg K
h2 = h1 = 1,557 kpa = 1633.1 kJ/ kg
h4 = h3

CONDENSER
Qr = mr ( h2 – h3 )
where:
Qr = heat rejected
Qa = mr ( h1 – h2 )
mr = Qa / ( h1-h3 )

## = 194.52 / (1603.2 – 533.79)

= 0.182 kg/s
Qr = 0.182 kg/s (1633.1 -533.79 )
= 200.074 KW
Evaporator Design

## Thermal conductivity for ammonia at 50 C = 0.5w/mk

Temperature = -30°C
Page | 53
Outer Diameter = 3/8 inch

## Therefore, U = 40.56 W/m²K

Q = U x A x LMTD

Therefore, A = 0.25x10ᶟ/40.56(28.8)

A = 0.214 m²

Length of pipe = A / π x D

= 0.214 / π (9.52x10-3)

= 7.62 m or 25 ft

LIQUID RECIEVER
The size of the liquid receiver is such that it
can store the total volume of the refrigerant when pumping down the system. From the
compressor capacity

## Compressor Capacity = m (h2 – h3)

Compressor capacity = 160 kW
m = mass flow rate
m = 160/ (1633 – 533.79)
m = .1456 kg/s
total required mass of ammonia refrigerant system is
= .1456 kg/s (15 min) (60sec/min)
= 131.04 kg
Page | 54
= 288.288 lb
V = m / ρ brine
ρ brine = 39.96 lbs/ ft3 from table RAC by Stoecker & Jones
V = 288.288 lb / 39.96 lbs/ft3
V=7.23 ft3

REFERENCES

## 1. Heating, Ventilation, and Air conditioning Fifth Edition a. Faye Mcquiston b.

Jerald Parker c. Jeffrey Spilter
2. Table 5-1a Typical Thermal Properties of Common Building and Insulating
Materials – Design Values(a)
3. www.anwers.com, for ground Temperature
4. Mechanical Engineering Tables and Charts Third Edition a. Manila Review I
nstitute Inc. i. Design Data for Meat Storage pg.86
5. http://www.alibaba.com (for selection of equipments)