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COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

Page | 1

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

REFRIGERATION SYSTEM

SATURDAY CLASS

10:00 AM – 1:00 PM

PROFESSOR

.

Page | 2

I. TERMS OF REFERENCE

Page | 3

DESIGN CAPACITY IS 30 Tons per day

Refrigerant is Ammonia

FISHING BOAT ARRIVAL Page | 4

• Last April to August ,Fish Catch is approximately 26 Tons per Day .

• Outside Buyer of Ice from neighbouring areas are approximately 2 tons

• Local Wet Market Requirement is approximately 1.5 Tons everyday

• And ,according to FAO, STANDARD IS IKG OF FISH NEEDS 1 KG OF

ICE;therefore 30 Tons per day of Ice Making Plant is required to build in Iloilo City.

design.

METHODOLOGY

The plant can produce 30 tons of ice per day.

= 30000kg / 50kg/block

= 600 blocks/day

Ice cube specification

The design will use the international standard size of ice can, 210mm Long, (410mm) Page | 5

Wide, (890m) High. The actual weight of the ice block is approximately 110lbs

(50kg). The gage of ice can metal to be used are 18(sides) and 16(bottom).Based on

kents Mechanical Engineering Handbook section 11-48(Power Volume).

lbs. kgs. L, mm W, mm H, mm hours

55 25 270 150 890 15

110 50 410 210 890 21

220 100 510 260 1200 30

300 135 580 300 1140 44

BRINE TEMPERATURE

The brine temperature may be computed by using the equation Page | 6

32−582𝑎2

T=

𝑊𝑛

Where:

T = brine temperature, °F

a = thickness of ice block, inches

n = no. of ice can / ton of ice / day

W = mass of ice block, (lbs); use 110lbs

32−582(8.32 )

T= (110)(20)

= 13.8℉

• Raw Water Temperature = 80.6°F (27°C)

• Freezing Temperature = 32°F (0°C)

• Brine Temperature = 13.8°F (-10.11°C)

• Ice Temperature = 23.8°F (-4.56 °C)

Total heat load can be completed using

QT= Q1 + Q2 + Q3

Page | 7

Where:

Q1 = sensible heat required to lower temperature of water from its raw temperature to its

freezing temperature.

= (30,000 kg/day) (4.187 KJ/kg-°k) (27-0) (1/24) (1/3600)

= 39.253 KW

Q2 = changing the latent heat of water at its freezing temperature from liquid to solid

= (mass) (latent heat of water)

=(30,000 kg/day) (355 KJ/kg) (1/24)(1/3600)

= 123.264 KW

Q3 = raising the temperature of water from its freezing temperature to the brine

temperature

= (mass) (specific heat of water) (temperature difference)

= (30,000 kg/day) (2.093 KJ/kg-°k) (0+10.11) (1/24) (1/3600)

= 7.35 KW

= 169.867 KW

Qt = Qt + Qt (.15)

= 169.867 + 169.867(.15)

= 195.35 KW

NUMBER OF TUBE REQUIRED:

Use a tube made of B.I. Pipe, 1”D. the area of one length of the B.I. Pipe 1”D is 6.89 ft2. In

determining the surface area of the condenser, using the equation from the book Principles

Page | 8

of Refrigeration by R. J. Dossat, 2nd Editon page 316,

Q=AxUxD

where:

Q = condenser capacity, Btu / hr; use 837,130.401 Btu/hr

A = surface area of the condenser, ft2

D = temperature difference between the condensing refrigerant and the condensing

medium, °F; use 10 °F

U = overall heat transfer coefficient in Btu/hr-ft2-°F

from the book Design Values of U for Metallic Surfaces of Refrigeration Engineering by

Macintire & Hutchinson, page 263,

the overall conductance factor for shell-and-tube condenser is 150 to 300 Btu/hr-ft2-°F. Use

225 Btu/hr-ft2-°F

A=Q/UxD

= 837,130.401 Btu/hr-ft2-°F/225(10°F)

= 372.057 ft2

= 372.057 + 372.057(.15)

= 427.867 ft2

m = .233 kg/s

F = m/ρof ammonia = 681.92 kg/m3

f = (0.233kg/s) / (681.92 kg/m3)

f = 3.415x10-4 m3/s

PIPE SIZE

Q = AV

(use velocity of 2 m/s from INDUSTRIAL REFRIGERATION HANDBOOK,

Page | 9

CHAPTER 9 PIPE SIZING, page 349.)

D = 0.0147 m

= 0.557 in (use B.I pipe with nominal diameter of 1 in)

use 1.315in diameter from (http://gotocfr.com/tools/pipe-schedule.pdf)

= (1.315in) (1 ft/12 in) (20 ft)

= 6.89 ft2 per length of B.I. Pipe

= 427.867 ft2 / 6.89 ft2/ length

= 62.14 length of B.I. pipe

= 63 length of B.I. Pipe 1” D

EXPANSION PIPE

Use:

4000𝑓𝑡

No. of coils = 30 ton x = 12000ft

𝑡𝑜𝑛

12000 𝑓𝑡

= 3.28 𝑓𝑡

𝑏𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑘𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ(15𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑥 )

1𝑚

ENTHALPIES

The enthalpies can be calculated by knowing this two

temperatures from the compressor model # VZ6AVT(HASEGAWA), the Evaporating

temperature (-15°C) and the Condensing temperature (40°C). The refrigerant is ammonia;

we can refer to the table A-3 page 420 RAC by Stoecker & Jones. Page | 10

By interpolation:

h1 = 1443.9 kJ / kg

h3 = hf @ 40°C = 390.587 kJ / kg

S1 = S2 = Sg @ -15 °C = 5.827 kJ/kg K

h2 = h1 = 1,557 kpa = 1720 kJ/ kg

h4 = h3

CONDENSER

Qr = mr ( h2 – h3 )

where:

Qr = heat rejected

Qa = mr ( h1 – h2 )

mr = Qa / ( h1-h3 )

= 195.35 / (1443.9 – 390.587)

= .1855 kg/s

= 246.606 KW

Assuming:

Water outlet temperature = 30 - 32°C

Water inlet temperature = 26 - 28°C

mw = Qr / cp ( T )

= 246.606 / 4.187 kJ/kg – K) ( 31 – 27)

= 14.72 kg/s

FLOW RATE

f = Mw/Pw

Page | 11

= 14.72 kg/s / 1000 kg/m3

= .01472 m3/s

this design with a capacity of 217 kW and operates at a maximum speed of 1075 RPM.

Other data from the manufacturer’s specification are listed below.

Capacity = 216.98 kW

No. of cylinder = 6

Cylinder: Bore mm) = 132

Stroke (mm) = 106

Speed = 1075 RPM

Piston Displacement = 561.38 m3/hr

Refrigerant Connection

Suction (mm) = 100

Discharge (mm) = 75

Standard Motor = 45 kW

COMPRESSOR

The compressor used in this design is a flanged motor compressor,

single stage and the refrigerant used is ammonia. The selection of the compressor is based

on the heat load.

Q = 195.35 kW

Power transmitted = 60.35 hp (45 kW)

Speed of Motor = 1075 rpm

Design Power = power transmitted x normal torque

Normal torque = 1.2 from table 7.1 machine elements in

mechanical engineering by Robert L. Mott

Design Power = (60.35) (1.2)

= 72.42 hp

For sheave pulley

Most commercial available sheaves are cast iron,

which should be limited to 6500 ft/min Belt speed. Page | 12

Vd = belt speed

Dd = Driver sheave

= 12 Vd/ n= 12(4000) / 3.1416(1075)

= 14.21

From table 7-8 Machine Elements in Mechanical Design by

Robert L. Mott the center distance is ranging

D2 < C < 3 (D2 + D1)

D2 < C < 3 (21.1 + 13.9)

21.1 < C > 105

From the book Machine Elements in Mechanical Design by Robert L. Mott, equation 7-3

L = 2C + /2 (D2 + D1) + ( D2 – D1 )/ 4

= 2(30) + ( /2) (21.1 + 13.9) + (21.1 – 13.9/4(105))

= 136.04 inches

FOR ACTUAL CENTER DISTANCE

The center distance assumed earlier is just for the purpose of solving L,

now that we have L, we can calculate the actual center distance by the equation 7-4 and 7-5

from the book Machine Elements in Mechanical Design by Robert L. Mott

Page | 13

𝐵+√𝐵2 −32(𝐷2− 𝐷1 )

C= 16

B = 4L – 6.28 ( D2 + D1 )

= 4(136.04) – 6.28 (21.1 + 13.9)

= 324.36

Solving for C

324.36+√324.362 −32(21.1−13.9)

C= 16

C= 40.52

Number of Belts

Ө1 = 180°– 2 sin-1 [(D2 – D1) / 2C]

= 180°– 2 sin-1 [(21.1 – 10.8) / 40.38]

= 150.55°

Determine the correction factors from Figure 7-14 and Figure 7-15

Elements in Mechanical Design by Robert L. Mott

For Ө1 = 150.55°

CӨ = 0.93; For L = 140 in; CL = 1.0

Corrected Power = CӨ x L x CL

= (0.93) (27.69) (1.0)

= 25.75 hp

Number of Belts = 439.94 / 19.32

= 2.8 (use 3 belts)

LIQUID RECIEVER

FREEZER Page | 14

= 17.98 ft3

The size of the liquid receiver is such that it

can store the total volume of the refrigerant when pumping down the system. From the

compressor capacity

Compressor capacity = 195.35 kW

m = mass flow rate

m = 195.35/ (1720 – 390.5870)

m = .1469 kg/s

total required mass of ammonia refrigerant system is

= .1469 kg/s (15 min) (60sec/min)

= 132.21 kg

= 290.86 lb

V = m / ρ brine

ρ brine = 39.96 lbs/ ft3 from table RAC by Stoecker & Jones

V = 290.86 lb / 39.96 lbs/ft3

V=7.28 ft3

ACCUMULATOR

Normally accumulator is should be less than 30% to 40% of

the total evaporator capacity. (use 35% allowance).

D = .08 ft

R = .04 ft

V = Volume of evaporator coil

V = π (.04)2 (400)

= 2.01 ft3 x (.35)

= 0.7 ft3

Page | 15

BRINE AGITATOR

The brine agitator is installed in the end

portion of the brine tank because it is more convenient when removal is required for repair.

The brine agitator should have the capacity of 60 to 70 gallons/ton/min. (use

65gallons/ton/min).

P = ϒ Qb H

Qb = 65 gallons/ton/min (30 tons)

= 1950 gallons/min (1/60)

= 32.5 gal/s or .123 m3/s

P = (1.755)(9.81)(.123)(1)

= 2.117 kW or 2.84 hp

Macintre table 90 p.394

Blower power

Air agitation power due to brass drop tube using compressed air supply by blower is

required for each ice can until crystal clear ice has formed on inside walls of ice can.

Low pressure air agitation is recommended by McIntire. For this, approximately 0.25

cfm of free air is supplied at about 0.75 psi per 110 lb can. Using individual power for each

freezing tank:

𝑐𝑎𝑛

𝑉𝑎𝑖𝑟=150 𝑐𝑓𝑚

𝑙𝑏 𝑖𝑛2 𝑓𝑡 3

(0.75 𝑖𝑛2 ) (144 𝑓𝑡 2 ) (150 𝑚𝑖𝑛)

𝐴𝑖𝑟 𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 = 𝑓𝑡−𝑙𝑏𝑓

33000 ℎ𝑝−𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝑒𝑏𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟=𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡

𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡

0.5ℎ𝑝

𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 =

0.9

FREEZING TANK

Freezing tank or brine tank is provided with a race way,

which the evaporator coil is installed. In this design the coil race way has a width of 39.37

inches.

holder)+60mm(allowance)+1000mm(coil allowance)+654mm(insulation)

= 6542 mm

Length =430mm x 30 blocks + 25.4mm gap x 29

gaps+600mm(agitator)+654mm(insulation)

= 14890.6mm say 15m

Height of Freezing Tank

The height of freezing tanks with a total of 1301.75 mm includes the following;

Ice blocks are too heavy for human labor to remove it from

brine tank so an electric hoist is needed.

Weight of ice block = 50 kg

Number of ice can per row = 20

Total weight per row = 50 (20)

= 1000 kg

Add 15% for the additional load

= 1000 kg x 1.15

= 1150 kg

Therefore,

Use a 1.5 ton hoist

Page | 18

COOLING TOWER

The selection of cooling tower is based on the computed quantity of the condensing

medium, which is water.

= .01472 m3/ s

= 53 m3/ hr

From AOSUA table of specification model AB-60 is selected with the following

specifications:

Nominal flow = 60 m3 / hr

Page | 19

Motor = 1.5kW (2hp)

Fan diameter = 990 mm

Net weight = 368 kg

Water is often needed in part of refrigerating system serving as the cooling medium for

condenser . It is customary to use steel pipes with water velocity of 10 fps with pumping .

Water is often needed in part of refrigerating system serving as the cooling medium for

condenser . It is customary to use steel pipes with water velocity of 10 fps with pumping .

Page | 20

Pipe Lengths:

𝑓𝑡

𝑉2 10( )2

Velocity Head = = 𝑠

𝑓𝑡

2𝑔 2(32.2 2 )

𝑠

= 1.55 ft

Friction Loss on the suction side of the pump

Page | 21

Friction Loss = 6.56ft x 0.084 = 0.55 ft

say 30% of pipe friction head loss

= 9.472 ft

Total Head = static head + friction head + velocity head+ velocity head

= 35.62 ft = 10.86 m

Pump = Q&H

𝑚3 1 ℎ𝑟 𝐾𝑁

Water Power = (60 ℎ𝑟 ) (3600 𝑠𝑒𝑐) (9.81 𝑚3 ) (10.86𝑚)

Page | 22

=1.78 KW

Say e= 85%

1.7𝑘𝑤

Wp= 0.85

Page | 23

COLD STORAGE

COLD STORAGE

I. Structural Cooling Load Page | 24

1.1 Design Criteria

1.1.1 Composition of Wall

1.1.2 Composition of Roof

1.1.3 Composition of Floor

1.1.4 Composition of Door

7.1 Evaporator Design

7.2 Refrigeration Compansion Design

7.3 Condenser Design

7.4 Expansion Value Design

VIII. Recommendation

IX. Conclusion

X. References

XI. Curriculum Vitae

Page | 25

1.1 Design Criteria

1.1.1 Compsition of Wall(12inches)

Material Used Thermal Conductivity

Page | 26

4.7475in. Brickwork, Common k1 = 49.968Btu-in/hr-ft2-℉

1 1

𝑈= 1 𝑥1 𝑥2 𝑥3 𝑥4 1 = 1 4.7475 3.0475 2.0475 2.1575 1

+ + + + + + + + + +

ℎ𝑖 𝑘1 𝑘2 𝑘3 𝑘4 ℎ𝑜 1.65 49.968 109.097 59.13 2.498 4.0

𝑈 = 0.533 BTU/hr-ft2-℉

(http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/convective-heat-transfer-d_430.html)

(http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/thermal-conductivity-d_429.html)

Material Used Thermal Conductivity

1 1

𝑈= 1 𝑥1 𝑥2 𝑥3 1= 1 2.75 2.0475 1.348 1

+ + + + + + + +

ℎ𝑖 𝑘1 𝑘2 𝑘3 ℎ𝑜 1.65 109.097 59.13 2.498 4.0

𝑈 = 0.687 BTU/hr-ft2-℉

(http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/convective-heat-transfer-d_430.html)

(http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/thermal-conductivity-d_429.html)

Page | 28

Inside Convection Coefficient hi = 1.65 Btu/hr-ft2-℉

1 1

𝑈= 1 1 1= 1 8 2.0475

+ + + +

ℎ𝑖 𝐶1 𝐶2 1.65 13.88 16.39

𝑈 = 0.765 BTU/hr-ft2-℉

ho

1.1.4 Composition of Door

(http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/convective-heat-transfer-d_430.html)

(http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/thermal-conductivity-d_429.html)

Material Used Thermal Conductivity

Page | 29

Inside Convection Coefficient 2

hi = 1.65 Btu/hr-ft -℉

1 1

𝑈= 1 𝑥1 𝑥2 1= 1 2 2 1

+ + + + + +

ℎ𝑖 𝑘1 𝑘2 ℎ𝑜 1.65 13.325 2.221 4.0

𝑼 = 𝟎. 𝟓𝟐𝟒 BTU/hr-ft2-℉

Inside Temp.( 0F)

Mechanical

Outside Normal Wall Temp.

Legend Engineering

Temp.( 0F) Difference(0F)

Table and Charts

5th Edition (p.105) Page | 30

The wall leakage load is a measure of the heat flow rate by conduction through the

walls of refrigerated space form the outside to the inside.

Where: Q = AUTD

Q = rate of heat transfer in (Btu/hr)

A = outside surface area of the wall in (ft2)

U = overall coefficient of heat transfer in (Btu/hr-ft2-℉)

TD = Temp. difference across the wall in ℉

Outside surface Overall Temperature Rate of Heat

Area of the wall coefficient of difference across Transfer

Legend heat transfer the wall (℉) Page | 31

(ft2) (Btu/hr-ft2-℉)

(Btu/hr)

TOTAL STRUCTURAL COOLING LOAD

= (Total Cooling load of structure)(24hours/day)

TOTAL STRUCTURAL COOLING LOAD

= (194,036.3 Btu/hr) x (24hour/day)

TOTAL STRUCTURAL COOLING LOAD = 3,576,871.2 Btu/day

II. Product Cooling Load

From (http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/product-cooling-load-d_429.html)

Page | 32

TOMATO

Specific Heat before freezing = 0.96 Btu/lb℉

Specific Heat after freezing = 0.42 Btu/lb℉

Freezing Temperature = 31.1 ℉

Storage Temperature = 45.05℉

Latent Heat of Tomato = 74.8Btu/lb℉

Total Packaging inside the Storage Room = 4 groups containing 9

packaging with stack

of 20

Total Package inside the Storage Room = 720 Packages

Total Mass of Tomato = (Total Package inside the Storage Room) x (No. of

pieces/package) x (Mass of tomato/pieces)

= (720) x (20 pieces/package) x (0.625lbs/piece)

= 1285.71 lbs/day

Product Load

Qtomato = mCp∆T

= (0.625 lbs/piece)(0.96 Btu/lb℉) (97.5°F–41.05°F)

Qtomato = 33.87Btu/package

Qpackage = 66.68 Btu/package

= (33.87 Btu/package + 66.68 Btu/package)(720packages)

Qproductload = 72,396 Btu

III. Air Change Load

Page | 33

Figure: Average Air Changes per hour for storage room below 32 ℉ ( 0 ℃) due to door

openings and infiltration

L = 20 m – 2 (0.25 m) = 19.5 m

W = 20 m – 2 (0.25 m) = 19.5 m

H = 8 m – 0.25 m = 7.75 m

= (19.5m)(19.5m)(7.75m) Page | 34

= 2,946.9375 m3 (1ft/0.3048m)3

Inside Volume = 9,668.430 ft3

(http://www.hvacrinfo.com/pdf_misc/heatcraft_eng_manual.pdf)

Table 5 Average Air Changes per 24 Hours for Storage above 320F

8,000 5.5

9,668.430 ft3 X

10,000 4.9

By Interpolation:

8000 15.3

9,668.430 ft3 x

10000 13.5

(http://www.hvacrinfo.com/pdf_misc/heatcraft_eng_manual.pdf)

45 95 x

47 95 2.021

50 95 1.9

By interpolation:

Page | 35

45 x

47 2.021

50 1.9

x = 2.102Btu/ft3

Air change load = Inside Volume x Air change x Air Change Factor

= (9,668.430 ft3) (5.401 per day) (2.102 Btu/ft3)

Air Change Load = 109,764.7383 Btu/day

𝑄𝑝𝑒𝑜𝑝𝑙𝑒 =

𝐿𝑜𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟𝑠/24 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟

𝑄𝑝𝑒𝑜𝑝𝑙𝑒 = = 𝟐𝟒, 𝟗𝟒𝟎. 𝟖 𝑩𝒕𝒖/𝒅𝒂𝒚

8ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟/24ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟

Lights

No. of 16Watts Lights (LED Tube Light) = 12 Lights

Qlight = (16W/light) (12Lights) (3.4Btu/watt-hr) (8hour/24hour) Page | 36

QLight = 5,222.4 Btu/day

Working Hours of Motor = 8 hour/day

Qmotor = (Heat Equivalent of Electric Motor) (Horse Power) (Working Hourmotor)

= (3650 Btu/hp-hr) (1Hp) (8hour/day)

Qmotor= 29,200B Btu/day

= (24,940.8 + 5,222.4 + 29,200) Btu/day

TOTAL MISCELLANEOUS LOAD = 59,363.2 Btu/day

= (3,576,871.2+ 72,396+ 109,764.7383 + 59,363.2)Btu/day

Qallowance = (Total Cooling Load) ( Factor Safety of 10%)

= (4,037,872.74Btu/day) ( 0.10)

Qallowance = 381,839.51 Btu/day

Design Cooling Load = (Total Cooling Load) + (Qallowance)

= (3,818,395.14+381,839.51) Btu/day

Design Cooling Load = 4,200,234.65 Btu/day

Refrigeration Equipment Operating Time (16 hours/day)

𝑄𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙

Require Equipment Capacity =

𝑂𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟𝑠/𝑑𝑎𝑦

4,200,234.65 𝐵𝑡𝑢/𝑑𝑎𝑦

= Page | 37

16ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟𝑠/𝑑𝑎𝑦

Require Equipment Capacity = 262,514.67 Btu/hour

1.055𝑘𝐽 1 ℎ𝑟

= 262,514.67Btu/hr x x

𝐵𝑡𝑢 3600𝑠

𝑇𝑂𝑅

= 76.93 kW x

3.516𝑘𝑊

COMPONENTS

EVAPORATOR SELECTION

components in a refrigeration system such as compressor, condenser and expansion

device. The reason for refrigeration is to remove heat from air, water or other

substance. It is here that the liquid refrigerant is expanded and evaporated. It acts as

a heat exchanger that transfers heat from the substance being cooled to a boiling

temperature.

Used 10% Factor of Safety

Qe = Structural Cooling Load / Operating Time

4,200,234.65𝐵𝑡𝑢/ℎ𝑟

Q e=

16 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟𝑠

Qe= 262,514.67Btu/hour (1.055 𝑘𝐽/𝐵𝑡𝑢)(1ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟/3600𝑠)

Qe = 76.93 kW

(http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/thermal-conductivity-metals-d_858.html)

Ri=Ro= 0.044 m2-K/W

Kcopper= 386 W/m-K

Dimension of Copper Tube

(Reference: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Stoecker & Jones Table 2 pp. 25)

OD = 31.75mm = 0.03175 m

ID = 29mm = 0.029 m Page | 38

Thickness = OD – ID = 0.03175 m - 0.029 m = 0.00275 m

Assume that:

Te = ℉

Tl = 19 ℉

Tr = 17 ℉

(𝑇𝑒 − 𝑇𝑟 ) − (𝑇𝑙 − 𝑇𝑟 )

𝐿𝑀𝑇𝐷 = (𝑇 −𝑇 )

𝑙𝑛 (𝑇𝑒−𝑇𝑟)

𝑙 𝑟

(280.25 − 264.67) − (265.78 − 264.67)

𝐿𝑀𝑇𝐷 = (280.25−264.67)

𝑙𝑛 (265.78−264.67)

𝐿𝑀𝑇𝐷 = 5.48K

1

Ue

t

Ri Ro

K copper

1

Page | 39

0.00275

0.044 0.044

386

U e 11.36 W m 2 K

Qe Ae U e LMTD

Qe D L U e LMTD

Qe

L

D U e LMTD

76.93 kW (1000W kW )

(0.029 m)(11.36 W m 2 K )(5.58)(5)

L 2,664.19m

Ae = 𝜋𝑑𝐿

Ae = (3.1416)(0.029)(2664.19)

Ae = 242.72m2

Qe = 76.93kW (1 Btu/1.055 kJ) (3600s/hour)

Qe= 262,514.67 Btu/hr

CapacityEvaporator = Qe / LMTD

CapacityEvaporator = (262,514.67Btu/hr) / (5.58)

CapacityEvaporator = 47,045.64 Btu/hr-F

SUGGESTED SELECTION FOR EVAPORATOR BASED ON THIS

DESIGN

Page | 40

http://sd-lt.en.alibaba.com/product/527949950-

213202882/DL_Series_Air_Cooler_Evaporator_for_Refrigeration_Cold_Room.html

Product Description

D series Air Cooler/Evaporator is a kind of cooling equipments which used

with refrigerant units application for different cold rooms. It is clasified three

category including DL, DD, DJ by different cold room temperature. DL series

applied for 0°Cpreservation cold room; DD series applied for about -18°C cold

storage; DJ series applied for -25°C frozen storage.

Technical Description

1. Unit Outcovering adopts high-quality steel, spraied the surface and corrosion resistance;Good appearance

2. Coil adopted staggered permutation,and tighted to fit with Aluminum sheet to ensure high efficiency heat

exchange

3. Stainless steel electric heating tubes are uniformly distributed in the coil pipes, good defrosting efficiency

4. Double water disk structure, which can effectively prevent the water tray freeze

Model Specification

D L 19/45 3 A

Page | 41

D: Products Series Code

L:Temperature(L:-5°C~5°C)

19:Nominal heat exchange

45:Fan Diameter

3: Fan Quantity

A:380V/3P/50HZ;B:220V/1P/50HZ;C:220V/3P/60HZ;D:220V/1P/60HZ;E:110

V/1P/60HZ(D,E Fan Diameter≤500mm)

Cooling Capacity KW Fan

Area Tube volume Air Flow Range Defrosting Power(KW)

Model DT=7K T0=-7°C Power

DL112/634A 112 117.6 390 77.3 46000 25 3200 23.4 5.2

Ammonia Refrigerant

Based on

Table and Charts

Reference Page | 42

http://www.linde-gas.ro/internet.lg.lg.rou/ro/images/R71754_138674.pdf?v=2.0

evaporating temperature = -15 ℃

condensing temperature = 40 ℃

h1 = 1587.5kj/kg

h2 = 1633.1kj/kg

h3=h4 = 533.79kj/kg

Qe= mr(h1-h4)

mr = Qe / (h1-h4)

mr = 76.93kW / (1587.5 – 533.79)

mr = 0.073 kg/s

Condenser Selection

In a cooling cycle of a refrigeration system, heat is absorbed by the vapor

refrigerant in the evaporator followed by the compression of the refrigerant by the

compressor. The high pressure and high temperature state of the vapor refrigerant is

then converted to liquid at the cond. It is designed to condense effectively the

compressed refrigerant vapor.

There are basically three types of condensing unit depending on how the heat

is removed by the condensing medium which is usually water, air or a combination

of both

Air-Cooled types are usually used in the residential and small offices applications.

They are used in small capacity systems below 20 tons. The advantages of using this

design include not having to do water piping, not necessary to have water disposal

system, saving in water costs and not much scaling problems caused by the mineral

content of the water. It is also easier to install and has lower initial cost. There isn't

much maintenance problems.The disadvantages are that it requires higher power per

ton of refrigeration, has shorter compressor life and on days when most cooling is

required, the least is available.

Water-Cooled There are 3 types commonly being used. They are shell and tube, shell

and coil, and double tube. The most commonly used is the shell and tube type and

are usually available from two tons up to couple of hundred tons. This design has

lower power requirements per ton of refrigeration and the compressors can last Page | 43

longer compared to the air-cooled type. A water cooling tower is frequently used for

higher capacity application.

Evaporative type which is a combination of water and air-cooled.

Qc = mr (h2 – h3)

Qc = 0.073 (1633 – 533.79)

Qc = 80.24kW

Ri = Ro = 0.044 m2-K/W

Kcopper = 386 W/m-K

Te = 40oC

Assume:

Tl = 50oC

Tr = 60oC

(Tr Tl ) (Tr Te )

LMTD

(T T )

ln r l

(Tr Te )

(333 323) (333 313)

(333 323)

ln

(333 313)

LMTD 14.43K

(http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/material-dimensions-d_433.html)

OD = 79.03 mm (1 m/1000 mm) = 0.07903 m

ID = 74.8 mm (1 m/1000 mm) = 0.0748 m

t = OD – ID = 0.07903 m - 0.0748 m = 0.00423 m

1

Ue

t

Ri Ro

K copper

1

Page | 44

0.00275

0.044 0.044

386

U e 11.36 W m 2 K

Qe Ae U e LMTD

Qe D L U e LMTD

Qe

L

D U e LMTD

76.93 kW (1000W kW )

(0.0748 m)(11.36 W m 2 K )(14.42)( 2)

L 999.24 m

Ac = ΠdL

=(3.1416)(0.087)(999.24)

Ac = 273.11m²

LIQUID RECIEVER

The size of the liquid receiver is such that it

can store the total volume of the refrigerant when pumping down the system. From the

compressor capacity

Compressor capacity = 76.93 kW

m = mass flow rate

m = 76.93/ (1633– 533.79)

m = 0.07 kg/s

total required mass of ammonia refrigerant system is

= .0.07 kg/s (15 min) (60sec/min)

= 63 kg

= 138.6lb

V = m / ρ brine

ρ brine = 39.96 lbs/ ft3 from table RAC by Stoecker & Jones

V = 138.6 lb / 39.96 lbs/ft3

V=3.47 ft3 Page | 45

Compressor Selection

Air conditioner compressor is used to remove the heat-laden vapor

refrigerant from the evaporator of the air conditioning systems. In layman term, the

compressor compresses or squeezes the vapor into a smaller volume at high

temperature. The external-drive compressor has a crankshaft that is driven by a

pulley and belt system.

Compressor

Wc = mr (h2 – h1)

Wc = 0.073(1633.1– 1587.5)

Wc = 3.33 kW (1 TOR/3.516 kW)

Wc = 1 TOR

Expansion valves are devices used to control the refrigerant flow in a refrigeration

system. They help to facilitate the change of higher pressure of liquid refrigerant in the

condensing unit to lower pressure gas refrigerant in the evaporator.

The term "low side" is used to indicate the part of the system that operates under low

pressure, in this case the evaporator. The "high side" is used to indicate the part of the system

that operates under high pressure, in this case the condenser.

There are basically four types of valves that are in used. These valves are also refer to as

metering devices.

Thermostatic Exp. Valves

Capillary Tubes

Float Valves

Expansion valves are flow-restricting devices that cause a pressure drop of the

working fluid. The valve needle remains open during steady state operation. The size of

the opening or the position of the needle is related to the pressure and temperature of

the evaporator. There are three main parts of the expansion valve that regulate the

position of the needle. A sensor bulb, at the end of the evaporator, monitors the

temperature change of the evaporator. This change in temperature creates a change in

pressure on the diaphragm.

For example, if the temperature in the evaporator increases, the pressure in the

diaphragm increases causing the needle to lower. Lowering the needle allows more of the

working fluid into the evaporator to absorb heat. The pressure at the inlet of the

evaporator affects the position of the needle and prevents the working fluid from

flowing back into the compressor. Since the pressure before the valve is higher than the

pressure after the valve, the working fluid naturally flows into the evaporator. The

pressure at the inlet of the evaporator acts on the diaphragm. There is also a spring

providing a constant pressure closing the valve needle. The spring constantly restricts the

amount of working fluid entering the evaporator.

The pressure spring can be adjusted to increase or decrease pressure based on

temperature needs. The pressure created by the spring acts on the opening of the valve.

When the pressure of the sensor bulb acting on the diaphragm is greater than the

combined pressure of the evaporator and spring, the valve opens to increase the flow

rate of the working fluid. An increase of flow rate lowers the temperature of the

evaporator and allows for more heat absorption.

Tc = 41oC

Pc = 984.51 kPa (14.7 psi/101.325 Kpa) = 142.83 psi

Qe = 81.51 kW (1 TOR/3.516 kW) = 23.18TOR

Te = -9.44oC

Pe = 223.52 Kpa (14.7 psi/101.325 Kpa) = 32.43 psi

Pressure Difference across Valve = 142.83 psi – 32.43 psi = 110.4 psi

Features

• Stainless steel shut out

Corrosion and prevents valve failure

power element

Page | 47

Specifications

Maximum working Pressure = 450psig

R-134a R-22/R-40.7℃ R-502, R-404a/R-507

6 8 5

8 10 7

10 12 9

15 20 14

20 25 18

25 30 20

• External superheat adjustment

• ODF connections

• Balanced port construction compensates for changes in

operating pressures due to varying ambients, or widely

varying evaporator loads

• Bi-Directional control capacity

• External equalizer

Page | 48

CONTACT FREEZER

Calculationof freezer refrigeration load

Page | 49

The individual items to be taken into account in a refrigeration load calculation depend on

the type of freezer. It would be impossible to include all the eventualities in one sample

calculation; therefore, a relatively simple one is given below for a HPF and some notes have

been added to help with other freezer calculations.

Specification

Capacity (30t/day)

Load calculation

I. Number of freezers

24 ÷ 2 = 12 cycles/day

II. Fish load

The change in enthalpy value (the heat to be removed from the fish during freezing) used in

the calculation is obtained from Table 29 or Figure 49 and this is a true measured value for

cod.

H2=1633.1kj/kg

H3=h4=533.79kj/kg

NUMBER OF TUBE REQUIRED:

Use a tube made of B.I. Pipe, 1”D. the area of one length of the B.I. Pipe 1”D is 6.89 ft2. In

determining the surface area of the condenser, using the equation from the book Principles

Page | 51

of Refrigeration by R. J. Dossat, 2nd Editon page 316,

Q=AxUxD

where:

Q = condenser capacity, Btu / hr; use 837,130.401 Btu/hr

A = surface area of the condenser, ft2

D = temperature difference between the condensing refrigerant and the condensing

medium, °F; use 10 °F

U = overall heat transfer coefficient in Btu/hr-ft2-°F

from the book Design Values of U for Metallic Surfaces of Refrigeration Engineering by

Macintire & Hutchinson, page 263,

the overall conductance factor for shell-and-tube condenser is 150 to 300 Btu/hr-ft2-°F. Use

200 Btu/hr-ft2-°F

A=Q/UxD

= 837,130.401 Btu/hr-ft2-°F/225(10°F)

= 372.057 ft2

A = 372.057 + 15% allowance

= 372.057 + 372.057(.15)

= 427.867 ft2

no. of tubes = A / surface area of the tube used

m = Qr/ (h1 – h3) = 245.277KW / 1603.2 kJ/kg – 533.79 kJ/kg

m = 0.229 kg/s

F = m/ρof ammonia = 681.92 kg/m3

f = (0.229kg/s) / (681.92 kg/m3)

f = 3.358 x 10-4 m3/s

Pipe Size

Q = AV

(use velocity of 2 m/s from INDUSTRIAL REFRIGERATION HANDBOOK,

CHAPTER 9 PIPE SIZING, page 349.)

3.358 x 10-4 m3/s = [πD2 (2 m/s)]/ 4

D = 0.0146 m

= 0.574 in (use B.I pipe with nominal diameter of 1 in)

use 1.315in diameter from (http://gotocfr.com/tools/pipe-schedule.pdf) Page | 52

= (1.315in) (1 ft/12 in) (20 ft)

= 6.89 ft2 per length of B.I. Pipe

= 427.867 ft2 / 6.89 ft2/ length

= 62.14 length of B.I. pipe

= 63 length of B.I. Pipe 1” D

ENTHALPIES

The enthalpies can be calculated by knowing this two

temperatures from the compressor model # VZ6AVT(HASEGAWA), the Evaporating

temperature (-15°C) and the Condensing temperature (40°C). The refrigerant is ammonia;

we can refer to the table A-3 page 420 RAC by Stoecker & Jones.

By interpolation:

h1 = 1603.2 kJ / kg

h3 = hf @ 40°C = 533.79 kJ / kg

S1 = S2 = Sg @ -15 °C = 6.3005 kJ/kg K

h2 = h1 = 1,557 kpa = 1633.1 kJ/ kg

h4 = h3

CONDENSER

Qr = mr ( h2 – h3 )

where:

Qr = heat rejected

Qa = mr ( h1 – h2 )

mr = Qa / ( h1-h3 )

= 0.182 kg/s

Qr = 0.182 kg/s (1633.1 -533.79 )

= 200.074 KW

Evaporator Design

Temperature = -30°C

Page | 53

Outer Diameter = 3/8 inch

Q = U x A x LMTD

Therefore, A = 0.25x10ᶟ/40.56(28.8)

A = 0.214 m²

Length of pipe = A / π x D

= 0.214 / π (9.52x10-3)

= 7.62 m or 25 ft

LIQUID RECIEVER

The size of the liquid receiver is such that it

can store the total volume of the refrigerant when pumping down the system. From the

compressor capacity

Compressor capacity = 160 kW

m = mass flow rate

m = 160/ (1633 – 533.79)

m = .1456 kg/s

total required mass of ammonia refrigerant system is

= .1456 kg/s (15 min) (60sec/min)

= 131.04 kg

Page | 54

= 288.288 lb

V = m / ρ brine

ρ brine = 39.96 lbs/ ft3 from table RAC by Stoecker & Jones

V = 288.288 lb / 39.96 lbs/ft3

V=7.23 ft3

REFERENCES

Jerald Parker c. Jeffrey Spilter

2. Table 5-1a Typical Thermal Properties of Common Building and Insulating

Materials – Design Values(a)

3. www.anwers.com, for ground Temperature

4. Mechanical Engineering Tables and Charts Third Edition a. Manila Review I

nstitute Inc. i. Design Data for Meat Storage pg.86

5. http://www.alibaba.com (for selection of equipments)

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