Sei sulla pagina 1di 25

VECTORS AND TENSORS

VECTORS AND TENSORS Ankush Raje (VNIT, Nagpur) VECTORS AND TENSORS 1 / 25

VECTORS AND TENSORS

VECTORS AND TENSORS Ankush Raje (VNIT, Nagpur) VECTORS AND TENSORS 2 / 25

Contents

1 Introduction

2 Vectors Scalar Product or Dot Product Vector Product or Cross Product

3 Tensors Simple Example From Fluid Dynamics Familiar Examples from TP

4 Vector and Tensor Differential Operators The Gradient of a Scalar field The Divergence of a Vector field The Curl of a Vector field The Divergence of a Tensor field The Laplacian of a Scalar field

Divergence of a Tensor field The Laplacian of a Scalar field Ankush Raje (VNIT, Nagpur) VECTORS

Introduction

Introduction

We have seen many Physical Quantities in Transport Phenomena Course. That Physical quantities fall into three categories:

Zeroth Order Tensors(i.e. Scalars), First Order Tensors(i.e.Vectors) and Second Order Tensors.

Examples:

Scalars(s): Temperature, Pressure, Volume etc.

Vectors( v ): Velocity, Momentum, Force etc.

Tensors(τ ): Stress, Momentum Flux, Velocity Gradient Tensor etc.

τ ): Stress, Momentum Flux, Velocity Gradient Tensor etc. Ankush Raje (VNIT, Nagpur) VECTORS AND TENSORS

Vectors

Vectors

Definition of a Vector:

A Vector v is defined as a Physical Quantity having both the

magnitude and direction. The magnitude of the vector is the length of the vector and it is denoted by | v |.

If v =v 1 i

+ v 2 j + v 3 k, then | v |= v

2

1

2

+ v

2

2

+ v 3 .

Two vectors v and w are equal when their magnitudes are equal and when they point in same direction.

Unit Vector is a Vector having length equal to one(unity).

It is given by, vˆ =

−→ v

| −→ v

| , where | v | is the magnitude of the vector v .

Ankush Raje (VNIT, Nagpur)

→ − v | is the magnitude of the vector → − v . Ankush Raje

VECTORS AND TENSORS

5 / 25

Vectors

Scalar Product or Dot Product

Scalar Product or Dot Product

Geometric Definition:

If a and b are two vectors, then Scalar Product is defined by,

a b =| a || b | cosθ, where θ is the angle between a and b .

is the angle between → − a and → − b . Figure: Dot Product Ankush

Figure: Dot Product

→ − a and → − b . Figure: Dot Product Ankush Raje (VNIT, Nagpur) VECTORS

Vectors

Scalar Product or Dot Product

Note:

1)If a and b are perpendicular then a b = 0

2) a a =| a | 2

(θ = 0 o )

(θ = 90 o )

Algebraic Definition:

If a =a 1 i + a 2 j + a 3 k and b =b 1 i + b 2 j + b 3 k are two

vectors then,

a b = a 1 b 1 + a 2 b 2 + a 3 b 3

The Quantity on R.H.S is a Scalar quantity, Hence this product is also called as Scalar Product.

quantity, Hence this product is also called as Scalar Product. Ankush Raje (VNIT, Nagpur) VECTORS AND

Vectors

Vector Product or Cross Product

Vector Product or Cross Product

The cross product of two vectors is defined by the formula, a × b =| a || b | sinθnˆ , where nˆ is the unit vector perpendicular to plane containing a and b .

to plane containing → − a and → − b . Figure: Cross Product Ankush Raje

Figure: Cross Product

→ − a and → − b . Figure: Cross Product Ankush Raje (VNIT, Nagpur) VECTORS

Vectors

Vector Product or Cross Product

Note:

1)If a and b are parallel then a × b = 0

2) a × a =0

(θ = 0 o )

(θ = 0 o )

Matrix Notation:

The cross product can also be expressed as the determinant,

If a =a 1 i + a 2 j + a 3 k and b =b 1 i + b 2 j + b 3 k are

two vectors then,

→− a

× b =

j

a 1 a 2 a 3 b 1 b 2 b 3

i

k

a × → − b = j a 1 a 2 a 3 b 1 b

Tensors

Tensor of rank two

Tensors are simply Mathematical objects that can be used to describe physical properties,just like scalars and vectors.

Definition of a Tensor of rank two:

A tensor of rank two is defined as a system that has a magnitude and two directions associated with it. It has 9 components and is typically represented by a 3 × 3 matrix

Tensor of Rank two is also called as Dyad.

Ankush Raje (VNIT, Nagpur)

by a 3 × 3 matrix Tensor of Rank two is also called as Dyad. Ankush

VECTORS AND TENSORS

10 / 25

Tensors

The rank of a tensor is defined by the number of directions(and hence the dimensionality of the array) required to describe it.

For Example:

Properties that require one direction(rank one) can be fully described by 3 × 1 column vector, and the properties that require two directions (second rank tensor),can be described by 9 numbers as 3 × 3 matrix.

Note: In general, n th rank tensor can be described by 3 n co-efficients.

Eg:

1)Second rank Tensor will consist 3 2 components(i.e. 9 components).

2)A scalar is a zero rank tensor, and a vector is a first rank tensor.

is a zero rank tensor, and a vector is a first rank tensor. Ankush Raje (VNIT,

Tensors

Simple Example From Fluid Dynamics

Simple Example From Fluid Dynamics

The Cauchy stress tensor: It is a second order tensor representing mechanical stress with nine components that completely define the state of stress at a point inside a material. Consider the figure,

stress at a point inside a material. Consider the figure, Figure: Example of Second Order Tensor

Figure: Example of Second Order Tensor

Consider the figure, Figure: Example of Second Order Tensor Ankush Raje (VNIT, Nagpur) VECTORS AND TENSORS

Tensors

Simple Example From Fluid Dynamics

In Terms of Tensors(Here 3 × 3 matrix), the above Situation can be described by,

σ =

σ

σ

σ

11

21

31

Kronecker Delta Function:

It is defined as,

δ ij =

1

0

σ

σ

σ

12

22

32

σ

σ

σ

13

23

33

for i = j

for i

= j

σ 12 22 32 σ σ σ 13 23 33 for i = j for i

Tensors

Familiar Examples from TP:

Familiar Examples from TP

1)For Incompressible fluids, Generalisation of Newton’s Law of Viscosity

τ ij = µ v x j i

+ v i x j ,

2)Molecular Stress Tensor

where i, j = 1, 2 or 3

π ij = pδ ij + τ ij ,

where i, j = x, y or z

Its components,

π = [π ij ] i,j=x,y,z =

π

π

π

xx

yx

zx

π

π

π

xy

yy

zy

 π xz  π yz π zz
π
xz
π
yz
π
zz

Tensors

Familiar Examples from TP

π =

p + τ xx

τ yx

τ zx

τ xy

p + τ yy

τ zy

τ xz

τ yz

p + τ zz

3)Convective Momentum Flux

We know,

ρvv =

i j

δ i δ j ρv i v j ,

i, j = x, y or z.

ρv i v j =

ρv x v x ρv y v x ρv z v x

ρv x v y ρv y v y ρv z v y

 ρv x v z ρv y v z ρv z v z 
ρv x v z
ρv y v z
ρv z v z

Tensors

Familiar Examples from TP

Note:

1)If τ ij =τ ji , then the Tensor is said to be Symmetric.

2)If τ ij =-τ ji , then the Tensor is said to be Antisymmetric.

3)A Second order Tensor gives rise to a 3 × 3 matrix.

3)A Second order Tensor gives rise to a 3 × 3 matrix. Ankush Raje (VNIT, Nagpur)

Vector and Tensor Differential Operators

Vector and Tensor Differential Operators

The Vector differential operator , known as ’nabla’ or ’del’ is defined as,

= i

x + j y + k z

in which i,j,k are unit vectors and x,y,z are variables associated to x,y,z axes.

operator cannot stand alone, it must operate on Scalar,Vector or Tensor function.

alone, it must operate on Scalar,Vector or Tensor function. Ankush Raje (VNIT, Nagpur) VECTORS AND TENSORS

Vector and Tensor Differential Operators

The Gradient of a Scalar field

The Gradient of a Scalar field:

If s is the scalar function of variables x,y,z, then the operator on s is given by,

s = grad s = i

is called as Gradient.

s

x + j y + k z

s

s

It is a Vector Quantity. Sometimes, it is denoted by grad s.

Note: s

= s

Sometimes, it is denoted by grad s. Note: ∇ s = s ∇ Ankush Raje (VNIT,

Vector and Tensor Differential Operators

The Gradient of a Scalar field

The gradient of a function is a vector function tells us about the rate of change of the function. At any given point the direction given by the gradient tells us about the direction of maximum change. The magnitude of this particular vector then is the magnitude of the change.

If you place a ball at any point on an x-y plane with varying height and is defined by h(x,y), then the ball will start falling in the direction described by its gradient.

will start falling in the direction described by its gradient. Ankush Raje (VNIT, Nagpur) VECTORS AND

Vector and Tensor Differential Operators

The Divergence of a Vector field

The Divergence of a Vector field:

If the vector v is a function of space variables x,y,z then a scalar product formed with operator is given by,

∇ ◦ v = div v = i

x + j y + k

z (iv 1 + jv 2 + kv 3 )

∇ ◦ v = v 1

x + v 2

y

+ v 3 z

It is a Scalar Quantity.

∂ v 2 ∂ y + ∂ v 3 ∂ z It is a Scalar Quantity.

Vector and Tensor Differential Operators

The Divergence of a Vector field

Divergence is a scalar that tells us about the rate at which ”stuff” flows

out of a given volume. Physical interpretation of it is that it is the law of continuity or better known as Gauss’s Law. You can use divergence of

a vector field to see how much the field is flowing outwards and use that to determine its contents or density.

A divergence of zero indicate that there is no outward flux and so the

net effect seen is that there appears to be nothing inside.

the net effect seen is that there appears to be nothing inside. Ankush Raje (VNIT, Nagpur)

Vector and Tensor Differential Operators

The Curl of a Vector field

The Curl of a Vector field:

∇ × v = curl v =

i

x

v

1

∇ × v = i v y 3

It is a Vector Quantity.

v 2 z

+ j v z 1

j

y

v 2

v 3

x

k

z

v

3

+ k v x 2

v 1 y

∂ z v 3 + k ∂ v ∂ x 2 − ∂ v 1 ∂

Vector and Tensor Differential Operators

The Curl of a Vector field

The curl is probably the most difficult to generalize physically. It describes magnetic fields so perfectly , and the ”opposite” of the curl, the divergence of any magnetic field is always zero. The best way to think of it would to think of curl as the measure of the rotation-ness of the contents of the field. This is where you get the concept of rotational and irrotational fields.

you get the concept of rotational and irrotational fields. Ankush Raje (VNIT, Nagpur) VECTORS AND TENSORS

Vector and Tensor Differential Operators

The Divergence of a Tensor field

The Divergence of a Tensor field:

If the Tensor τ is a function of space variables x,y,z then,

∇ ◦ τ =  

i

δ

i

x i

j

k

δ j δ k τ jk    

∇ ◦ τ =

i

j

k

δ i δ j δ k τ x jk i

∇ ◦ τ =

i

j

k

δ ij δ k τ x jk i

∇ ◦ τ =

k

δ k

i

∂τ ik

x i

.

This is called as Divergence of Tensor Field τ written as div(τ ).

as Divergence of Tensor Field τ written as div( τ ). Ankush Raje (VNIT, Nagpur) VECTORS

Vector and Tensor Differential Operators

The Laplacian of a Scalar field

The Laplacian of a Scalar field:

If we take divergence of gradient of a scalar function s, then

i.e.

∇ ◦ ∇s = i

2 s =

x

+ j y + k z i x + j y + k z

s

s

s

x x + y y + z z

s

s

s

Here,

2 s =

2 =

2 s

2 s

x 2 + y 2 + z 2

2 s

2

2

2

x 2 + y 2 + z 2

is called Laplacian Operator.

+ ∂ y 2 + ∂ z 2 is called Laplacian Operator. Ankush Raje (VNIT, Nagpur)