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VECTORS AND TENSORS

VECTORS AND TENSORS

Contents

1 Introduction

2 Vectors Scalar Product or Dot Product Vector Product or Cross Product

3 Tensors Simple Example From Fluid Dynamics Familiar Examples from TP

4 Vector and Tensor Differential Operators The Gradient of a Scalar ﬁeld The Divergence of a Vector ﬁeld The Curl of a Vector ﬁeld The Divergence of a Tensor ﬁeld The Laplacian of a Scalar ﬁeld

Introduction

Introduction

We have seen many Physical Quantities in Transport Phenomena Course. That Physical quantities fall into three categories:

Zeroth Order Tensors(i.e. Scalars), First Order Tensors(i.e.Vectors) and Second Order Tensors.

Examples:

Scalars(s): Temperature, Pressure, Volume etc.

Vectors( v ): Velocity, Momentum, Force etc.

Tensors(τ ): Stress, Momentum Flux, Velocity Gradient Tensor etc.

Vectors

Vectors

Deﬁnition of a Vector:

A Vector v is deﬁned as a Physical Quantity having both the

magnitude and direction. The magnitude of the vector is the length of the vector and it is denoted by | v |.

If v =v 1 i

+ v 2 j + v 3 k, then | v |= v

2

1

2

+ v

2

2

+ v 3 .

Two vectors v and w are equal when their magnitudes are equal and when they point in same direction.

Unit Vector is a Vector having length equal to one(unity).

It is given by, vˆ =

−→ v

| −→ v

| , where | v | is the magnitude of the vector v .

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Vectors

Scalar Product or Dot Product

Scalar Product or Dot Product

Geometric Deﬁnition:

If a and b are two vectors, then Scalar Product is deﬁned by,

a b =| a || b | cosθ, where θ is the angle between a and b .

Figure: Dot Product

Vectors

Scalar Product or Dot Product

Note:

1)If a and b are perpendicular then a b = 0

2) a a =| a | 2

(θ = 0 o )

(θ = 90 o )

Algebraic Deﬁnition:

If a =a 1 i + a 2 j + a 3 k and b =b 1 i + b 2 j + b 3 k are two

vectors then,

a b = a 1 b 1 + a 2 b 2 + a 3 b 3

The Quantity on R.H.S is a Scalar quantity, Hence this product is also called as Scalar Product.

Vectors

Vector Product or Cross Product

Vector Product or Cross Product

The cross product of two vectors is deﬁned by the formula, a × b =| a || b | sinθnˆ , where nˆ is the unit vector perpendicular to plane containing a and b .

Figure: Cross Product

Vectors

Vector Product or Cross Product

Note:

1)If a and b are parallel then a × b = 0

2) a × a =0

(θ = 0 o )

(θ = 0 o )

Matrix Notation:

The cross product can also be expressed as the determinant,

If a =a 1 i + a 2 j + a 3 k and b =b 1 i + b 2 j + b 3 k are

two vectors then,

→− a

× b =

j

a 1 a 2 a 3 b 1 b 2 b 3

i

k

Tensors

Tensor of rank two

Tensors are simply Mathematical objects that can be used to describe physical properties,just like scalars and vectors.

Deﬁnition of a Tensor of rank two:

A tensor of rank two is deﬁned as a system that has a magnitude and two directions associated with it. It has 9 components and is typically represented by a 3 × 3 matrix

Tensor of Rank two is also called as Dyad.

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Tensors

The rank of a tensor is deﬁned by the number of directions(and hence the dimensionality of the array) required to describe it.

For Example:

Properties that require one direction(rank one) can be fully described by 3 × 1 column vector, and the properties that require two directions (second rank tensor),can be described by 9 numbers as 3 × 3 matrix.

Note: In general, n th rank tensor can be described by 3 n co-efﬁcients.

Eg:

1)Second rank Tensor will consist 3 2 components(i.e. 9 components).

2)A scalar is a zero rank tensor, and a vector is a ﬁrst rank tensor.

Tensors

Simple Example From Fluid Dynamics

Simple Example From Fluid Dynamics

The Cauchy stress tensor: It is a second order tensor representing mechanical stress with nine components that completely deﬁne the state of stress at a point inside a material. Consider the ﬁgure,

Figure: Example of Second Order Tensor

Tensors

Simple Example From Fluid Dynamics

In Terms of Tensors(Here 3 × 3 matrix), the above Situation can be described by,

σ =

σ

σ

σ

11

21

31

Kronecker Delta Function:

It is deﬁned as,

δ ij =

1

0

σ

σ

σ

12

22

32

σ

σ

σ

13

23

33

for i = j

for i

= j

Tensors

Familiar Examples from TP:

Familiar Examples from TP

1)For Incompressible ﬂuids, Generalisation of Newton’s Law of Viscosity

τ ij = µ v x j i

+ v i x j ,

2)Molecular Stress Tensor

where i, j = 1, 2 or 3

π ij = pδ ij + τ ij ,

where i, j = x, y or z

Its components,

π = [π ij ] i,j=x,y,z =

π

π

π

xx

yx

zx

π

π

π

xy

yy

zy

π
xz
π
yz
π
zz

Tensors

Familiar Examples from TP

π =

p + τ xx

τ yx

τ zx

τ xy

p + τ yy

τ zy

τ xz

τ yz

p + τ zz

3)Convective Momentum Flux

We know,

ρvv =

i j

δ i δ j ρv i v j ,

i, j = x, y or z.

ρv i v j =

ρv x v x ρv y v x ρv z v x

ρv x v y ρv y v y ρv z v y

ρv x v z
ρv y v z
ρv z v z

Tensors

Familiar Examples from TP

Note:

1)If τ ij =τ ji , then the Tensor is said to be Symmetric.

2)If τ ij =-τ ji , then the Tensor is said to be Antisymmetric.

3)A Second order Tensor gives rise to a 3 × 3 matrix.

Vector and Tensor Differential Operators

Vector and Tensor Differential Operators

The Vector differential operator , known as ’nabla’ or ’del’ is deﬁned as,

= i

x + j y + k z

in which i,j,k are unit vectors and x,y,z are variables associated to x,y,z axes.

operator cannot stand alone, it must operate on Scalar,Vector or Tensor function.

Vector and Tensor Differential Operators

The Gradient of a Scalar ﬁeld

The Gradient of a Scalar ﬁeld:

If s is the scalar function of variables x,y,z, then the operator on s is given by,

s = grad s = i

s

x + j y + k z

s

s

It is a Vector Quantity. Sometimes, it is denoted by grad s.

Note: s

= s

Vector and Tensor Differential Operators

The Gradient of a Scalar ﬁeld

The gradient of a function is a vector function tells us about the rate of change of the function. At any given point the direction given by the gradient tells us about the direction of maximum change. The magnitude of this particular vector then is the magnitude of the change.

If you place a ball at any point on an x-y plane with varying height and is deﬁned by h(x,y), then the ball will start falling in the direction described by its gradient.

Vector and Tensor Differential Operators

The Divergence of a Vector ﬁeld

The Divergence of a Vector ﬁeld:

If the vector v is a function of space variables x,y,z then a scalar product formed with operator is given by,

∇ ◦ v = div v = i

x + j y + k

z (iv 1 + jv 2 + kv 3 )

∇ ◦ v = v 1

x + v 2

y

+ v 3 z

It is a Scalar Quantity.

Vector and Tensor Differential Operators

The Divergence of a Vector ﬁeld

Divergence is a scalar that tells us about the rate at which ”stuff” ﬂows

out of a given volume. Physical interpretation of it is that it is the law of continuity or better known as Gauss’s Law. You can use divergence of

a vector ﬁeld to see how much the ﬁeld is ﬂowing outwards and use that to determine its contents or density.

A divergence of zero indicate that there is no outward ﬂux and so the

net effect seen is that there appears to be nothing inside.

Vector and Tensor Differential Operators

The Curl of a Vector ﬁeld

The Curl of a Vector ﬁeld:

∇ × v = curl v =

i

x

v

1

∇ × v = i v y 3

It is a Vector Quantity.

v 2 z

+ j v z 1

j

y

v 2

v 3

x

k

z

v

3

+ k v x 2

v 1 y

Vector and Tensor Differential Operators

The Curl of a Vector ﬁeld

The curl is probably the most difﬁcult to generalize physically. It describes magnetic ﬁelds so perfectly , and the ”opposite” of the curl, the divergence of any magnetic ﬁeld is always zero. The best way to think of it would to think of curl as the measure of the rotation-ness of the contents of the ﬁeld. This is where you get the concept of rotational and irrotational ﬁelds.

Vector and Tensor Differential Operators

The Divergence of a Tensor ﬁeld

The Divergence of a Tensor ﬁeld:

If the Tensor τ is a function of space variables x,y,z then,

∇ ◦ τ =  

i

δ

i

x i

j

k

δ j δ k τ jk    

∇ ◦ τ =

i

j

k

δ i δ j δ k τ x jk i

∇ ◦ τ =

i

j

k

δ ij δ k τ x jk i

∇ ◦ τ =

k

δ k

i

∂τ ik

x i

.

This is called as Divergence of Tensor Field τ written as div(τ ).

Vector and Tensor Differential Operators

The Laplacian of a Scalar ﬁeld

The Laplacian of a Scalar ﬁeld:

If we take divergence of gradient of a scalar function s, then

i.e.

∇ ◦ ∇s = i

2 s =

x

+ j y + k z i x + j y + k z

s

s

s

x x + y y + z z

s

s

s

Here,

2 s =

2 =

2 s

2 s

x 2 + y 2 + z 2

2 s

2

2

2

x 2 + y 2 + z 2

is called Laplacian Operator.