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Account Questions Ireland

N.B. – Always give Causes/Aims, Main events and 1-2 results – An account is a mini overview/story

Home Rule Movement 1912-1914

 Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP) led by John Redmond – aim was to get Home Rule for Ireland
(HR = Limited Independence)
 The Liberal Party in Britain favoured Home Rule & Conservative party was opposed to it
 Liberals introduced a Home Rule Bill in 1912 (3rd HR Bill) that was expected to give Ireland
HR by 1914
 Power of Veto by Conservatives could only delay the bill for two years
 Ulster Unionists under Edward Carson and James Craig signed the Solemn League and
Covenant (400,000 people) opposing it
 Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF ) was set up as an armed force to fight against Home Rule by
 Nationalist IVF (Irish Volunteer force) was set up by Eoin MacNeill in response for the
 When World War 1 broke out the introduction of HR was postponed until after the war &
Redmond encouraged Irish to fight for Britain
 After WW1 no sign of HR and Ireland seek full independence i.e. Easter Rising & War of

1913 – Strike & Lockout

 Was led by Big Jim Larkin & James Connolly
 Larkin had a big following - A powerful speaker, with enormous energy.
They founded the Irish Labour Party to represent workers in a new Home Rule Parliament
 1908 Larkin Founded ITGWU to get better conditions for unskilled workers
 Employers (supported by police) staged the 1913 Dublin lockout and would not let workers
back to work unless they agreed not to join union
 1913 Strike and lockout lasted 5 months and workers went back without achieving aims
 Connolly founded Irish Citizen Army to protect the workers during lockout
 Supplies of food and fuel were disrupted, prices went up.
 ITGWU members and sympathisers provided a soup kitchen for women and children

 The IRB planned the 1916 rising as they saw “Britain's difficulty as Irelands opportunity”
 They set Easter Sunday 1916 as the date & persuaded James Connolly and the Irish Citizen
Army (ICA) to join them
 Roger Casement was sent to Germany to organise 20,000 rifles for the rebellion from
German ship AUD – but it was captured
 Eoin MacNeill and IVF were needed for numbers for rebellion but MacNeill was not keen
 To get his support the council tricked him by showing him a forged document Castle
document) claiming that the British were going to arrest the leaders of the Volunteers
 Mac Neill found out the Castle Document was a forgery and withdrew IVF support
 Decided to go ahead on Easter Monday INSTEAD OF SUNDAY – NOT ENOUGH PLANNING
 1500 rebels took key buildings in the city (GPO, Boland’s Mills, Jacob’s Factory, The Four
 GPO Was shelled by Helga (War ship)
 Saturday, unconditional surrender
 15 of the leaders were executed including Pearse & Connolly
 Over 500 people killed and 2,500 captured
 The Irish people were angry and began to support the Republican movement and Sinn Fein,
as SF wrongly blamed for Rising

Anglo Irish Treaty 1921

 Treaty talks between SF & British Government at end War of Independence

 Irish Delegation (group) Collins, Griffith and Robert Barton (Lawyer)
 British Delegation more experienced (Lloyd-George, Winston Churchill)
 Ireland wanted: 1. Totally Independent Irish Republic & 2. The end of Partition (division) in
Ireland (FATDAD)
 The talks lasted for nearly seven weeks and eventually a Treaty was signed under great
pressure from the British.
 A new Irish Free State was created with its own Dáil, flag and army and all British forces
would leave Ireland
 Outcome:
 Dominion status for Ireland (26 counties) – limited independence
 Irish Free State was born
 TD’s would have to swear an oath of allegiance to the king/queen
 FATDAD would stay with Britain – 6 counties
 Britain would keep “TREATY PORTS” – i.e. Cobh, Lough Swilly
 Reaction: Some saw it as a stepping stone to a republic (pro treatyites i.e. Collins), others
saw it as a betrayal of all there fallen comrades (anti treatyites - Devalera)
 SF vote result: 64 in favour, 57 against
 Anti-Treaty refuse to accept this and led by DeValera walk out…eventually Civil War

Irish Civil War 1922-23
 Terms of Anglo-Irish treaty divided members of SF & IRA (Collins V De Valera)
 Michael Collins & his forces attacked Republicans who had taken over four courts
 Lasted 1 year and was bitter and vicious war
 The Munster Republic: Limerick to Waterford – Irregular (IRA) strong hold
 Regulars (pro-treaty) attacked Irregulars (anti-treaty) in Cork and took it
 Griffith died from Brain Haemorrhage in August 12th 1922 & Collins ambushed at Beal Na
mBlath 22 August 1922 – 10 days two key figures gone
 William T. Cosgrave took over as leader of Irish Free State and brought in Special Powers Act
– 12000 imprisoned without trial
 De Velara finally got IRA to lay down arms and agree to ceasefire 1923 – End of civil War
 Over 900 people killed & over 38 million euro of damage caused to buildings
 Civil War left behind a divided Irish society
 Ireland two biggest political parties were born
 Cumann Na nGaedahl (CnaG) – Pro-treaty side (later Fine Gael) & Fianna Fail – Anti-Treaty

Irish Free State 1923-1932 Cumann Na Gaedhael

 Leader: W.T. Cosgrave
 Aims:
 Establish law and order = A
 Rebuild the economy = B
 Manage relations with Britain = C
 Achievements
 Gardai Siochana (Unarmed) established = A
 Unbiased Court system set up= A
 Public Safety Act (wide powers of arrest) = A
 Overcame threat of Army Mutiny= A
 Set up the Shannon Scheme the country’s first Hydro-electric power station (6.3 million
euro) – = B
 Gave Agricultural loans to help farmers & keeping taxes low = B
 Boundary Commission set up to deal with border with North issues = C
 1931 Statute of Westminster (allowed Ireland to change any laws made for them by the
British parliament) = C
 Reasons for Decline of C Na G
 Blamed for the failure of the Boundary Commission
 Great Depression
 Cut in pay for teachers and gardai
 Popularity of Fianna Fail


 DeV released the IRA prisoners when in power who in turn disrupted C na G meetings
(protected by Blueshirts)
 Army Comrades Association (ACA) – Set up to protect CnaG meetings from IRA
 Blueshirts were Fascist organisation with Eoin O Duffy/former Garda Commissioner as
 They used straight arm Fascist salute
 Used to yell out Hail O’Duffy
 DeV banned them (Blueshirts) after planned march on Glasnevin as he feared a coup
(government overthrow)
 They joined with C na G in 1933 to form Fine Gael and O Duffy was first leader/followed
quickly by Cosgrove.
 Duffy unpopular in 1936 so went to fight in Spanish Civil War with General Franco.
 He brought with him an Irish brigade to fight for Franco, many of whom were former
members of the Blueshirts

Ireland during World War II (the Emergency)

 Neutrality – why? Britain occupied 6 counties, it would demonstrate our independence from
Britain, we could not support Fascist Germany, we were a small nation with a small army –
we would be crushed by larger powers.
 Sean Lemass Minster for Supplies
 IRA put neutrality in danger as they tried to get help from Germany – Dev jailed the leaders
 Churchill (PM) promised to end partition if Ireland joined the war, Dev rejected it - Angered
 Aer Lingus &Irish shipping & Irish Sugar set up
 Rationing (ration books – gas/electricity)
 Farmers were ordered to grow crops to feed the population.
 Ration Books used to ensure everyone got an equal share of scarce resources.
 Glimmer men could inspect your house to see if you were using too much gas or electricity.
 Petrol only available to doctors and priests.
 50,000 Irish people fought in the British Army.
 IRA put neutrality in danger as they tried to get help from Germany – Dev jailed the leaders
 We were secretly biased in favour of British – allowed British planes to fly over Donegal –
British pilots allowed cross the border.

First Inter Party Government – 1948-51

 FF lost power under DE Valera because:

 1. People wanted a change
 2. Unemployment and emigration problems
 1948 to 1951 The First Inter-Party government. – more than one party in power
 Who made it up: Fine Gael, Labour and Clan na Poblachta (CnaP).
 Taoiseach was John A Costello. Sean MacBride (external affairs), Noel Browne (Health)
 Achievements:
 1949 A Republic Declared
 Rural electrification (country elec.) – 1950’s
 IDA set up to attract foreign industry to Ireland i.e. Pfizer
 The Mother and Child scheme (Noel Brown free healthcare for expectant mothers)
 Lost power to FF & Devalera again in 1951


 Lemass appointed younger ministers like Lynch and Haughey

 TK Whittaker drew up the First Programme for Economic Expansion, which:
 1. Got rid of Protectionism.
 2. Encouraged exports.
 3. Grants and tax concessions to attract foreign industry
 Le mass achievements
 Lemass met Terence O Neill (North Ireland PM) – first Taoiseach to do this
 New schools were built – education grants
 Free Secondary education introduced
 First shopping centres built – Stillorglin 1967
 Council housing introduced - Finglas, Ballymun, Ballyfermot etc.were built.
 RTE set up – 1961 – broadened people’s minds by showing shows outside of Ireland
 JFK arrived – Led to better relations with America – Economic advantages i.e. Pfizer

Civil Rights Movement in Northern Ireland

 Set up in 1967 NICRA (Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association).

 Hoped to end discrimination against Catholics.
 Demanded equality in voting (One man one vote), housing, education and jobs.
 Demanded the abolition of the hated Special Bs police reserve force.
 Demanded an end to gerrymandering.
 Leaders were John Hume, Gerry Fitt, Austin Currie and Bernadette Devlin.
 Unionist leaders resisted change.
 Many peaceful protests were broken up by the RUC, often with great brutality.
 Unionist paramilitary groups began a campaign of violence against Nationalists I.E. UVF.
 Pressure came from the British govt to introduce reforms. Extreme Unionists like Ian
Paisley opposed these changes.
 Tensions increased and spilled over into violence between the two communities.
 1969 would see the beginning of the Troubles and over thirty YEARS of violence

Account Questions 20th Century International history
N.B. – Always give Causes/Aims, Main events and 1-2 results – An account is a mini overview/story

1. Mussolinis Political achievements – Mussolini in power

 After WW1 Mussolini founded the Blackshirts, a Fascist party in Italy

They rose to power because
1. Italian Economy suffered badly during WW1
2. Businesses feared the growth & spread of Communist in Italy
 The Fascists got stronger as they used violence against their political enemies,
especially socialists
 The fascists (30,000) planned a MARCH ON ROME in October 1922 – to demand a
role in government
 King Victor Emanuel III did not want to use violence against the fascists & did not
want a bitter civil war so after negotiations Mussolini became PM
Domestic Achievements
 Mussolini solved Italy’s economic problems by creating a corporate state
 Unemployment was tackled by the building of Autostrada (motorways) =
created jobs
 Also Pontine Marshes (outskirts of Rome)were drained & built into agricultural
land – created jobs
 He made historic peace between the state & Catholic church (50 year
argument) by signing the Lateran Treaty
Foreign Policy
 Mussolini wanted to build an empire so in 1935 he invaded Abyssinia
 1936-1939 sent 50,000 troops to help Genral Franco in Spanish Civil War
 1936 – Mussolini made an Alliance with Adolf Hitler (Rome-Berlin Axis),
later called Pact of Steel & in 1940 Italy entered WWII on German side
 Pact Biggest mistake for MussolinI as when Germany were defeated in 1945
Mussolini was captured & killed By anti-fascists known as PARTISANS

2. Hitler’s 5 Steps to War:
Hitler's Foreign Policy aims 1933-39 =
1. To make Germany great again
2. Unite all German speaking people under his rule
3.Expand Lebensraum (living space) in Eastern Europe
 Rhineland: Hitler broke the Treaty of Versailles & sent troops to the
Rhineland – Britain & France done nothing
 Anschluss (unity): Hitler believed all German speaking people should
be part of a German Empire- invaded Austria march 1938- Britain &
France done nothing
 The Sudetenland: German speaking part of Czechoslovakia –
@Munich conference – Britain/France agree Germany can take it over
 Lebensraum: Rest of Czechoslovakia: Within 6 months of Munich
Conference Hitler took over rest of country for “Living space” for his
new super race
 Poland: Stalin & Hitler had non-aggression Nazi-soviet Pact & secretly
agreed to divide Poland. Hitler broke this and invaded Poland
September 1st 1939
 Note:: France & British policy of appeasement towards Germany (to
avoid another

3. WORLD WAR II: Start & Early German Victories

 September 1st 1939 Germany invade Poland and take over in 6 weeks using
Blitzkrieg tactics – 3 steps ( Luftwaffe planes, Panzer Tanks, infantry soldiers
take control of area)
 Marks the official start of WWII as Britain & France declare Ware
 Winter 1939 – 40 no fighting (Phoney War)
 May 1940 - Next Belgium, Holland & France – Blitzkrieg tactics to cut off
British & French forces at Dunkirk, & easily defeated Maginot Line (French
Defence) and then ruled France – Vichy rule
 Timeline
 September 1939 – Germany invaded and occupied Poland.
 April/May 1940 – Germany invaded and occupied Denmark and Norway.
 10th May 1940 – Hitler launched a Blitzkrieg against Holland and Belgium.
Both countries were occupied.
 19th May 1940 – British troops were pushed back to the beach at Dunkirk
and had to be rescued by British boats.
 22nd June 1940 – France was occupied by Germany (Vichy Rule).
 Early 1941 – Germany and Italy attacked and had successes in Yugoslavia,
Greece and North Africa.
 22nd June 1941 – Germany attacked

4. Battle of Britain 1940
 Following fall of France Britain stood alone V Nazi Germany
 Churchill ‘We shall never surrender’. – Inspiring leader
 German plan = Operation Sea Lion – an immediate invasion of Britain
 Luftwaffe would need to control skies over Britain – Luftwaffe V RAF
Spitfires & Hurricanes
 Britain gained victory through the RAF and the use of Radar, which told
them where Luftwaffe were
 Operation Sealion was followed by THE BLITZ – Hitler change of tactic to
Lutwaffe bombing attacks on cities i.e. London/Coventry
 Decisive win for Britain: They successfully defended against the Germans
– Germany first real failure in WW2

5. Operation Barbarosa June 1941

 This was the invasion of the Soviet Union by Nazi Germany - This was Hitlers
biggest mistake!!
 Hitler attacked for two reasons – 1. He hated communists & He wanted more
Lebensraum (living space)
 He used Blitzkrieg tactics (Lightening War) – 3 steps ( Luftwaffe planes,
Panzer Tanks, infantry soldiers take control of area)
 He targeted three areas 1. Leningrad 2. Moscow 3. Kiev
 Germans captured Moscow but failed to take Leningrad & Kiev
 As the Soviets were retreating they used Scorched Earth Policy – they burned
everything that might help the Nazis i.e. farms, railway lines & weapons they
could not take themselves
 The German progress was also halted by the harsh winter, their tanks froze
and many died due to the conditions
 Battle of Stalingrad the decisive battle, 1 million soviet soldiers surrounded
 The Soviets successfully defended the city – 200,000 Germans had to
 This was a huge turning point in the war as Nazis expansion East was stopped

6. Battle of Stalingrad
 This was the decisive battle in Operation Barbarossa, which was Hitler’s invasion of
Soviet Union
 It lasted from 1942-43 and if Germany one then Russia would fall
 Under Frederic Von Paulus the Luftwaffe bombed Stalingrad
 Stalin ordered ordinary Russians to fight in “Great Patriotic War” against Hitler’s
 1 million Red Army soldiers surrounded the walls of Stalingrad
 Many German tanks and artillery were destroyed by the Soviet Molotov cocktails
 200,000 German soldiers were trapped and had to surrender in the harsh weather
 In all 60,000 German soldiers killed and OVER half a million Russians
 The war was A MAJOR turning points in WW2 as NAZI’S COULD NOT CONTINUE east
& had to retreat

7. Operation overlord/D-Day – 1944

 The D-Day landings or Operation Overlord was when the US, British & Canadian
armies invaded Nazi occupied France at the beaches of Normandy
 The allies wanted to open a second front in Europe as most of the war was taking
place in the East between Germany & Soviet Union (Operation Barbarossa)
 D-Day was planned by General Eisenhower – overall commander of allied forces
 Normandy was chosen as it had larges beaches and shallow water, so easier to get
onto land
 June 6th 1944 – Allies started bombing along the coast
 24000 paratroopers were dropped in behind German lines of defence
 Soldiers were taken to Normandy in Landing crafts – Could sail in shallow water and
unload loads of soldiers
 130,000 soldiers attacked the 5 beaches
 PLUTO (Pipeline under the sea) was laid so oil could be pumped across to fuel tanks
and trucks
 There were a lot of casualties but the success of Operation Overlord was the start of
freeing Europe from Nazi control and power

8. SPECIAL TOPIC: Cold War Europe

** Know two very well

A. The Berlin Blockade 1948-49

 After WWII the allies divided Germany into 4 zones – Soviets (Russia), American, British &
 US believed a better German economy would prevent another rise of Nazism & wanted to
use Marshal aid, Soviet’s disagreed
 A new currency was set up “Deutschmark” – Soviets didn’t agree and so cut off all road, rail
& canal transport in & out of Wast Berlin (Communist area) = BERLIN BLOCKADE (June 28
 Other three – organised “OPERATION VITALS” – to fly supplies into Berlin – cargo planes flew
in food, coal, petrol & Medical supplies
 At highest point planes flying in every 90 seconds!! 26.5 planes in class
 Stalin also cut electricity into West Berlin – work suffered & 120,000 people lost jobs
 Stalin did not want another war and once he saw Truman would not back down he ended
the blockade May 12 1949 (less than one year)
 1. Tensions grew between soviets & US and early cold war victory for US.
 2. Berlin wall built 1961
 3. Berlin was now divided in two – East & West and would remain divided until 1990

b. Korean War

 After WW2 Korea divided into Communist North (Soviet supported) & Democratic South (US
 Divided by 38th parallel
 1950 Communist north invade the south
 US President Truman entered the war – policy of Containing communism – N.B.
Containment policy
 Communist government in China entered war to support North Korea – Mao Tse-Tsung
 US Led by General Douglas McArthur - fired by Truman for wanting to attack China
 War dragged on until 1953 – peace agreed and border stayed on 38th parallel
 More than 4 million died mainly civilians – widespread destruction
 Cold War had spread to Asia
 Both superpowers took part in an arms race – Developed H Bombs
 US got a new ally in Japan – who provided materials for the war effort
 Korea remains divided to this day

c. The Cuban Missile Crisis

 Fidel Castro overthrew General Batista & made Cuba a communist state in 1959
 Cuba got assistance from Soviet leader Khruschev
 John F Kennedy wanted Castro gone and set up Bay of Pigs invasion to overthrow Castro –
 U2 Spy plane spotted missile BASES being set up in Cuba – October 1962 – Khruschev said it
was for Cuban protection from US
 Kennedy decided to set up a naval blockade around Cuba – Soviet vessels could not get to
Cuba with missiles
 World was on the verge of NUCLEAR WAR
 Khrushchev agreed to take down missile bases if US promised not to invade Cuba again
 Results:
 Both Khruschev & Kennnedy were shocked at how close they came to Nuclear war – decided
to set up a “direct Hotline” to contact each other in any future crisis
 Both sides agreed to sign “Nuclear Weapon Test Ban Treaty”
 The USA also dismantled missiles it had strategically placed in Turkey