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Assessing Students for Instruction

Stages of Learning
* Acquisition Stage
Gaining knowledge-Learner performance ranges from 0% accuracy to 90-100%
accuracy-A student who learning to say the alphabet

* Proficiency Stage
Student is almost at the automatic level-The student can identify letters of
the alphabet accurately, but not very quickly (fluently)

* Maintenance Stage
After the Proficiency stage, Need to maintain accuracy -A student needs to
practice identifying the letters of the alphabet, so they can continue to be
accurate and quick (fluent)

* Generalization Stage
Learner performs the skill in different times and situations-The student is
able to identify the letters in their name- can recite the alphabet at home
with family

* Adaption Stage
The student applies a previously learned skill in a new area of application
without direction or guidance.-The student can identify letters of words as
they start to read sight words

Observational Recording Techniques

* event recording- record of behavior on a specific event- Ex- Count the

number of times a student completed assignments for 5 school days
* interval recording-document behaviors of a student in specific intervals-
(every 30 seconds) –record where or not a student was attending to the
seatwork materials at some time during the interval
* time sampling- record of behavior during a certain period of time- document
at the end of every 5 minutes- Record whether or not a student was on task
during a certain class period
* duration recording-record duration of behavior- record of the amount a time
a student is engaged with the math assignment
* latency recording- record duration of latency behavior
* anecdotal recording- complete description of student’s behavior-record
behaviors of student during science lab period
* permanent product recording-student outcomes that result in a permanent
product- correct spelling papers and return with percentage at the top

Individually Referenced Data Systems

* direct measurement- direct, continuous, and precise measurement of

behavior- recording the oral reading rate or math computation rate
* repeated measurement- behavior is counted and recorded over a period of
time-recording a student’s reading rate daily for a week and measuring for
* graphing data- records are displayed in an easy to read format-visual display
of a student’s progress over a month in reading fluency
* long-range goal performance monitoring-charts that display progress toward a
long-range instructional goal-use a baseline and records to show progress at
the end of the year IEP goal
* short-range goal performance monitoring-used to measure progress on a
short-term goal- short-term goals are usually determined by probe sheet for
a specific academic task- monitoring a students rate of incorrect and correct
math computation
* data analysis- charting progress by using correct, not correct, and
instructional measurements- teachers can chart these together to see if the
student is making accurate progress for academic tasks
* instructional decisions-using instructional goals provide the student and
teacher with a framework- using % and rate helps with precision of
Grading Alternatives

* Individualized educational program grading approach-grades are

determined on the student’s progress on goals and objectives- Student
on an IEP
* Pass/fail systems-meet the minimum requirement for Pass, if not you
fail- Physical Education grading
* Mastery level/criterion systems-content or skill is divided into
subcomponents- Student completes one section and passes test to move
on to the next section
* Point systems-points are earned for specific activities- the amount of
points depends on the final grade- A unit in science that requires several
* Contract grading-the student and teacher sign a contract that
determines time and effort for grading- a student with behavior issues
that has fallen behind
* Multiple grading-student is graded in ability, effort, and achievement- A
student with a cognitive disability in reading
* Shared grading-two or more teachers assign a grade together- A student
receiving special education services in the Gened class and RR
* Student self-comparison- student and teacher meet to determine grade
on instructional goals within curriculum- A student that is referred for
SPED but hasn’t been evaluated yet (RTI)
* Level grading-A grade is given with a note of difficulty- a student in PE
that has a physical disability
* Descriptive grading-teachers write a description of effort, ability,
behavior- a sped student being graded on a functional task.

Works Cited: Teaching Students with Learning Problems, 8th Edition, Cecil D.
Mercer; Ann R. Mercer; Paige C. Pullen (2011)