Sei sulla pagina 1di 6

# Swami Vivekanand Institute of Engineering & Technology

## Chandigarh-Patiala Highway, Sector-8, Ramnagar, Banur, District Patiala (Pb.)

SOM-302 Page 1 of 6
TO PERFORM COMPRESSION TEST ON UNIVERSAL TESTING MACHINE (UTM).

AIM :

## To determine the following mechanical properties of a given mild steel specimen

and plot the stress - strain curve
a) Tensile Strength
b) Tensile yield strength
c) Percentage elongation
d) Percentage reduction of area
e) True ultimate strength
f) Young's Modulus
g) Elastic Limit

APPRATUS:

## Universal testing machine, mild steel specimen

THEORY

One of the most common mechanical stress - strain tests is performed in tension. The
tension test can be used to ascertain several mechanical properties of materials that are
important in design. A specimen is deformed, usually to fracture. with a gradually increasing
tensile load i.e. applied uni-axially along the long axis of specimen. During the testing
deformation is confined to the narrow centre region which has a uniform cross-section along its
length. The universal testing machine (UTM) is designed to elongate the specimen at the constant
rate and to continuously and simultaneously measure the instantaneous applied load and the
resulting elongation.

STRESS-STRAIN CURVE ;
When a M S. Specimen is loaded, strain produced in the specimen is directly proportional to
the applied stress. This is true up to point A. After A stress and strain are not proportional to
each other but up to point B if the load is removed the specimen will regain its original
dimensions. Point B is known as point of proportionality Beyond point B when load is further
increased, Strain in the specimen increases even without any further increase is the load. This
is known as upper yield point C. Further if there is decrease in load, same behavior is observed
at point D, known as lower yield point. Again, when Ioad is further increased the strain
increases. It reaches to a maximum value at point E known as ultimate stress. Then if the
specimen is further loaded there is abrupt change in the specimen diameter known as
necking. After this upon further increase in the load the specimen breaks at a low value of load.
The stress point is known as breaking stress F.

## LAB ASSISTANT LAB INCHARGE H.O.D

Swami Vivekanand Institute of Engineering & Technology
Chandigarh-Patiala Highway, Sector-8, Ramnagar, Banur, District Patiala (Pb.)

SOM-302 Page 2 of 6
TO PERFORM COMPRESSION TEST ON UNIVERSAL TESTING MACHINE (UTM).

A = Limit of proportionality
B = Elastic Limit
C = Upper yield point
D = Lower yield point
E = Ultimate Stress
F = Breaking Stress

## LAB ASSISTANT LAB INCHARGE H.O.D

Swami Vivekanand Institute of Engineering & Technology
Chandigarh-Patiala Highway, Sector-8, Ramnagar, Banur, District Patiala (Pb.)

SOM-302 Page 3 of 6
TO PERFORM COMPRESSION TEST ON UNIVERSAL TESTING MACHINE (UTM).

VARIOUS DEFINITIONS:

## a) Tensile Strength: It is stress at the maximum on the stress - strain curve.

This corresponds to the maximum stress that can be sustained by a structure
in tension. If this stress is applied and maintained fracture will result.

## b) Tensile yield strength: The stress below which the deformation is

essentially, entirely elastic is known as yield strength of material.

## Yield Strength = Yield Load

Original Area of Cross-Section
PREPARED BY CHECKED BY APPROVED BY EFFECTIVE DATE

## LAB ASSISTANT LAB INCHARGE H.O.D

Swami Vivekanand Institute of Engineering & Technology
Chandigarh-Patiala Highway, Sector-8, Ramnagar, Banur, District Patiala (Pb.)

SOM-302 Page 4 of 6
TO PERFORM COMPRESSION TEST ON UNIVERSAL TESTING MACHINE (UTM).

c) Percentage Elongation:

## P.E. = (Final Length (at fracture) - original length

Original length
The magnitude of % EL will depend on specimen gauge length.

## PR = [Original Area - Area at Fracture] Original

Area

e) True ultimate Strength: It is the ratio of load on the specimen to original cross-
sectional area.

## US = Maximum tensile load Original Area of

Cross-section
f) Young's Modulus: It is the ratio of stress to strain

## YM = Stress below proportionality limit

Corresponding Strain

g) Elastic Limit: The point up to which stress and strain are proportional in
stress strain curve and the material is recoverable immediately after

## EL = Load at plastic limit

Original Area of Cross-Section

## OBSERVATION TABLE FOR TENSILE TEST :

Original Dimensions
Length=.......................
Diameter =..................
Area =...........................

Final Dimensions
Length=.......................
PREPARED BY CHECKED BY APPROVED BY EFFECTIVE DATE

## LAB ASSISTANT LAB INCHARGE H.O.D

Swami Vivekanand Institute of Engineering & Technology
Chandigarh-Patiala Highway, Sector-8, Ramnagar, Banur, District Patiala (Pb.)

SOM-302 Page 5 of 6
TO PERFORM COMPRESSION TEST ON UNIVERSAL TESTING MACHINE (UTM).

Diameter=……………
Area =........…………

## S.No. Load(N Extension Origina Stress = Load / Area (N / Strain = Increase in

) (mm) l gauge mm2) Length / Original Length
length
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

RESULT:
Tensile Strength=……………
Yield Strength=………………
%age elongation=………………..
%reduction of area=………………….
True ultimate stress=……………….
Young modulus=…………………..
Elastic Limit=………………………

PROCEDURE:

1)Clean the machine carefully and grease the various parts of it.
2)Take the specimen and measure its various dimensions carefully.
3)Measure the original length and diameter of the specimen.
4)Insert the specimen into grips of the test machine and attach strain measuring
device to it.
6)Take readings more frequently as yield point is approached.
7)Measure the elongation values with the help of dividers and rulers.
8)Continue the test till fracture occurs.
PREPARED BY CHECKED BY APPROVED BY EFFECTIVE DATE

## LAB ASSISTANT LAB INCHARGE H.O.D

Swami Vivekanand Institute of Engineering & Technology
Chandigarh-Patiala Highway, Sector-8, Ramnagar, Banur, District Patiala (Pb.)

SOM-302 Page 6 of 6
TO PERFORM COMPRESSION TEST ON UNIVERSAL TESTING MACHINE (UTM).

9)By joining the two broken halves of the specimen together measure the final
length and diameter of the specimen.

PRECAUTIONS:

1) Never change the measuring range or shift handle M during the experiment
2) Top and bottom surfaces of a tension test piece which comes in contact with
tension plates should be checked to be parallel.
3) The tension test piece should be placed on the centre of lower tension plate
as far as possible