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Orient paper mills


Major vocational training

Project report on

1.chipper house
2.pulp mill
3.Tissue paper plant

Submitted to: submitted by:

Miss kriti sexena Harsh mohan pathak

The success of any project is never limited to the individual

undertaking the project.The completion of the report which is
presented here in was possible by the splendid cooperation of
many individuals .I express my deep sense of gratitude and thanx
to senior president Mr. VK Verma and vice president of human
resourses of development Mr DN Swain and all others.

I take this oppertiunity to extend my sensior thanx to all

staffs and worker of orient paper mill for rendering their
knowledge and help while the whole period of training.
Orient Paper Mills is one of India's major players in Paper with a
wide range of writing, printing, industrial and speciality papers.

Fully integrated with facilities for production of high strength pulp

combined with reafforestation, high speed paper machines and
independent power generation, Orient Paper Mills is in total
control right from raw materials to the production of a variety of
superior papers and boards.

The Orient Paper Mills plants at AMLAI, Madhya Pradesh have

manufacturing facilities to produce a variety of grades and types of
papers. Judicious deployment of new technology, abiding
commitment to total quality management systems and ingenuity in
research and product development have enabled Orient Paper
Mills to carve out an important niche not only in the Indian market
but in several other countries as well.

The Company has recently set up state-of-the-art facilities to

produce a spectrum of Soft Tissue Paper of world class quality. To
perpetuate progress, the Paper Division of Orient Paper Mills
continually improving its people, products and processes as it
marches ahead in its quest for even higher standards of excellence.
Plant layout
Chipper house

Drum chipper is the production of wood products of special

equipment, the products are widely used in particle board plants
Drum type wood chipper,wood shredder,wood logs chipping
Drum chipper is the production of wood products of special
equipment, the products are widely used in particle board plants,
medium and high-density fibreboard plant, Wo straw plant, bio-
power plants, wood chips and other plants and manufacturers of
industrial production in the preparation section before the preferred
The product mix of advanced, cutting-chip high-quality materials,
raw materials adaptive light, easy operation and maintenance.
Cutting path of the main raw material is wood, timber harvesting,
processing residues (such as, branches, slab, slab, core logs, veneer
waste, etc.), can also be used to cutting non-wood raw materials
(such as sugar cane, reed, bamboo, etc.).
Machine from the body, knife-roller, upper and lower feed roller,
conveyor, hydraulic system components.
The body using high-strength steel welded together, the whole
machine is supported by the foundation.
Knife roller is installed on two or three, four Flying with the Flying
Bolt specializes in manufacturing, through the pressure block, the
Flying roller on a fixed knife. Cutting of raw materials according
to different thickness, the feed roller assembly can make use of the
hydraulic system in a certain range of plus or minus. Cutting down
the qualified film material falling through the mesh holes, from the
bottom of discharge, the chip is expected to be carried out in the
cutting machine.
Hydraulic systems: for by the oil pump to the fuel tank, you can
start to build enclosures for easy blade replacement; can be looked
up in the maintenance of the feed roller assembly to facilitate
adjustment of Flying, at the end of the gap between the knife and
removable comb plate.

Technical specifications:

Imported materials and dimensions mm
Flying the number of
Knife roll speed
Maximum diameter of the processing of raw materials mm
Chip size mm
Production capacity
Power of main motor kw
Feed roller motor power kw
Pump motor power kw
Overall dimensionsmm
Electrical power transmission machine kw
Pulp mill

A pulp mill is a manufacturing facility that converts wood chips or

other plant fibre source into a thick fibre board which can be
shipped to a paper mill for further processing. Pulp can be
manufactured using mechanical, semi-chemical or fully chemical
methods (kraft and sulfite processes). The finished product may be
either bleached or non-bleached, depending on the customer

Wood and other plant materials used to make pulp contain three
main components (apart from water): cellulose fibres (desired for
papermaking), lignin (a three-dimensional polymer that binds the
cellulose fibres together) and hemicelluloses, (shorter branched
carbohydrate polymers). The aim of pulping is to break down the
bulk structure of the fibre source, be it chips, stems or other plant
parts, into the constituent fibres.

Chemical pulping achieves this by degrading the lignin and

hemicellulose into small, water-soluble molecules which can be
washed away from the cellulose fibers without depolymerizing the
cellulose fibres (chemically depolymerizing the cellulose weakens
the fibres). The various mechanical pulping methods, such as
groundwood (GW) and refiner mechanical (RMP) pulping,
physically tear the cellulose fibres one from another. Much of the
lignin remains adhering to the fibres. Strength is impaired because
the fibres may be cut. There are a number of related hybrid pulping
methods that use a combination of chemical and thermal treatment
to begin an abbreviated chemical pulping process, followed
immediately by a mechanical treatment to separate the fibres.
These hybrid methods include thermomechanical pulping (TMP)
and chemithermomechanical pulping (CTMP). The chemical and
thermal treatments reduce the amount of energy subsequently
required by the mechanical treatment, and also reduce the amount
of strength loss suffered by the fibres.

The mill

Much of the information about the technology in following

subsections is from the book by C.J. Biermann.. The chemistry of
the various pulping processes can be found in Sjöström's book.

Preparation of fibre source

The most common fibre source for pulp mills is pulpwood. Other
common sources are bagasse and fibre crops. The first step in all
mills using wood (trees) as the fibre source is to remove the bark.
Bark contains relatively few usable fibers and darkens the pulp.
The removed bark is burned, along with other unusable plant
material, to generate steam to run the mill. Almost all wood is then
chipped before it processed further to free the fibers.

Removal of the bark is done in a barker (or debarker). The bark

adhesion is about 3-5 kg/cm2 in the growing season (summer) and
2-3 times higher in the dormant season (winter). The bark of frozen
logs is even more difficult to remove.

In chemical pulp mills the bark is introducing unwanted

contaminants as calcium, silica and aluminum that are causing
scaling and gives an extra load for the chemical recovery system.
Birch bark contains betulin, a terpenoid that easily makes deposits
in a pulp mill.
Tissue and pilot plant

Tissue paper is a lightweight, light crêped paper. Tissue can be

made both from virgin and recycled paper pulp.


Tissue papers is used to make a huge range of products with

different properties and quality demands. Key properties are:
strength, absorbency, basis weight, thickness (bulk), brightness,
stretch, appearance and comfort.


Main article: Fourdrinier machine

Tissue paper is produced on a paper machine that has a single large

steam heated drying cylinder (yankee dryer) fitted with a hot air
hood. The raw material is paper pulp. The yankee cylinder is
sprayed with adhesives to make the paper stick. Creping is done by
the yankee's doctor blade that is scraping the dry paper off the
cylinder surface. The crinkle (crêping) is controlled by the strength
of the adhesive, geometry of the doctor blade, speed difference
between the yankee and final section of the paper machine and
paper pulp characteristics.

The properties are controlled by pulp quality, crêping and additives

(both in base paper and as coating). The wet strength is often an
important paramenter for tissue paper.

Hygienic tissue paper

Hygienic tissue paper is commonly used for facial tissue (paper

handkerchiefs), napkins, bathroom tissue and household towels.
Paper has been used for hygiene purposes for centuries, but tissue
paper as we know it today was not produced in USA before the
mid-1940s. In Western Europe large scale industrial production
started in the beginning of 1960s.

Facial tissues

Main article: Facial tissue

Facial tissue (paper handkerchiefs) refers to a class of soft,

absorbent, disposable paper that is suitable for use on the face. The
term is commonly used to refer to the type of facial tissue, usually
sold in boxes, that is designed to facilitate the expulsion of nasal
mucus from the nose although it may refer to other types of facial
tissues including napkins and wipes.

The first tissue handkerchiefs were introduced in the 1920's. They

have been refined over the years, especially for softness and
strength, but their basic design has remained constant. Today each
person in Western Europe uses about 200 tissue handkerchiefs a
year, with a variety of 'alternative' functions including the
treatment of minor wounds, the cleaning of face and hands and the
cleaning of spectacles.

The importance of the paper tissue on minimising the spread of an

infection has been highlighted in light of fears over a swine flu
epidemic. In the UK, for example, the Government ran a campaign
called “Catch it, bin it, kill it”, which encouraged people to cover
their mouth with a paper tissue when coughing or sneezing.
Paper towels

Main article: Paper towel

Paper towels are the second largest application for tissue paper in
the consumer sector. This type of paper has usually a basis weight
of 20 to 24 g/m2. Normally such paper towels are two-ply. This
kind of tissue can be made from 100% chemical pulp to 100%
recycled fibre or a combination of the two. Normally, some long
fibre chemical pulp is included to improve strength.

Wrapping Tissue

Main article: Wrapping tissue

Wrapping tissue is a type of thin, translucent paper used for

wrapping and cushioning fragile items.

Toilet Tissue

Main article: Toilet paper

Rolls of toilet paper have been available since the end of the 19th
century. Today, more than 20 billion rolls of toilet tissue are used
each year in Western Europe.[2]

Table napkins

Table napkins can be made of tissue paper. These are made from
one up to four plies and in a variety of qualities, sizes, folds,
colours and patterns depending on intended use and prevailing
fashions. The composition of raw materials varies a lot from
deinked to chemical pulp depending on quality.

The Industry

Out of the world's estimated production of 21 million tonnes of

tissue, Europe produces approximately six million tonnes.
The European tissue market is worth approximately 10 billion
Euros annually and is growing at a rate of around 3%. The
European market represents around 23% of the global market. Of
the total paper and board market tissue accounts for 10%. In North
America, people are consuming around three times as much tissue
as in Europe.

In Europe, the industry is represented by The European Tissue

Symposium (ETS), a trade association. The members of ETS
represent the majority of tissue paper producers throughout
Europe. and about 90% of total European tissue production. ETS
was founded in 1971 and is based in Brussels since 1992.


The paper tissue industry, along with the rest of the paper
manufacturing sector, has worked hard to minimise its impact on
the environment. Recovered fibres now represent some 46.5% of
the paper industry’s raw materials. The industry relies heavily on
biofuels (about 50% of its primary energy) and it is highly energy-
efficient. Its specific primary energy consumption has decreased
by 16% and the specific electricity consumption has decreased by
11%, due to measures such as improved process technology and
investment in combined heat and power (CHP). Specific carbon
dioxide emissions from fossil fuels decreased by 25% due to
process-related measures and the increased use of low-carbon and
biomass fuels. Once consumed, most forest-based paper products
start a new life as recycled material or biofuel

EDANA, the trade body for the non-woven absorbent hygiene

products industry (which includes products such as household
wipes for use in the home) has reported annually on the industry’s
environmental performance since 2005. The industry’s impact on
the environment is, in fact, relatively small. For example, less than
1% of all commercial wood production ends up as wood pulp in
absorbent hygiene products. In addition, the industry contributes
less than 0.5% of all solid waste and around 2% of municipal solid
waste (MSW) compared with paper and board, garden waste and
food waste which each comprise between 18 and 20 percent of

There has been a great deal of interest, in particular, in the use of

recovered fibres to manufacture new tissue paper products.
However, whether this is actually better for the environment than
using new fibres is open to question. A Life Cycle Assessment
study indicated that neither fibre type can be considered
environmentally preferable. In this study both new fibre and
recovered fibre offer environmental benefits and shortcomings.

Total environmental impacts vary case by case, depending on for

example the location of the tissue paper mill, availability of fibres
close to the mill, energy options and waste utilization possibilities.
There are opportunities to minimise environmental impacts when
using each fibre type.

When using recovered fibres, it is beneficial to:

• Source fibres from integrated deinking operations to

eliminate the need for thermal drying of fibre or long
distance transport of wet pulp,
• Manage deinked sludge in order to maximise beneficial
applications and minimise waste burden on society; and
• Select the recovered paper depending on the end-product
requirements and that also allows the most efficient recycling

When using new fibres, it is beneficial to:

• Manage the raw material sources to maintain legal,

sustainable forestry practices by implementing processes
such as forest certification systems and chain of custody
standards2; and
• Consider opportunities to introduce new and more renewable
energy sources and increase the use of biomass fuels to
reduce emissions of carbon dioxide.

When using either fibre type, it is beneficial to:

• Improve energy efficiency in tissue manufacturing;

• Examine opportunities for changing to alternative, non fossil
based sources, of energy for tissue manufacturing operations
• Deliver products that maximise functionality and optimize
consumption; and
• Investigate opportunities for alternative product disposal
systems that minimize the environmental impact of used

The Confederation of European Paper Industries has published

reports focusing on the industry’s environmental credentials. In
2002, it noted that “a little over 60% of the pulp and paper
produced in Europe comes from mills certified under one of the
internationally recognised eco-management schemes”. There are a
number of ‘eco-labels’ designed to help consumers identify paper
tissue products which meet such environmental standards. Eco-
labelling entered mainstream environmental policy-making in the
late seventies, first with national schemes such as the German Blue
Angel programme, to be followed by the Nordic Swan (1989). In
1992 a European eco-labelling regulation, known as the EU
Flower, was also adopted. The stated objective is to support
sustainable development, balancing environmental, social and
economical criteria.
Thanking you