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Issued by : Approved : Ship Board Manual Vol.

2
Charts and Nautical Publications
Name : N. Padhi Name : V. Rangroo Doc.Nbr.:NAV-0080 Rev. Nbr : 0007
Position : SQM Position : MD Date : 03/31/17 Page : 1 of 48

0080 CHARTS AND NAUTICAL PUBLICATIONS

1. ELECTRONIC CHART DISPLAY AND INFORMATION SYSTEM (ECDIS)

 Purpose
To specify requirements for ECDIS

 Application
MTM Offices
All Fully Managed Vessels

 Responsibility
Master
Navigating Officers
Watch standers

(a) INTRODUCTION OF ECDIS


The SOLAS Convention includes a requirement for all ships to carry to up-to-date
nautical charts and publications for the intended voyage. The nautical Charts can be
Paper based and/or Electronic.

The Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS) means a navigation
information system which, with adequate back up arrangements, can be accepted as
complying with the up-to-date chart required by regulation V/19 & V/27 of the 1974
SOLAS Convention. There is a transition phase when the ECDIS comes into force
dependent on types of ships. The company endeavours to meet the deadlines as per the
regulations.

After the amendment of SOLAS regulations 1 July 2002 it is allowed to replace the
paper charts and publications by electronic means if a suitable back up is provided.

IMO Performance Standards require that the “overall system” includes ECDIS and an
adequate independent back up arrangement that provides:

 Independent facilities enabling a safe takeover of the ECDIS functions in order


to ensure that a system failure does not result in a critical situation; and
 A means to provide for safe navigation for the remaining part of the voyage in
case of ECDIS failure

The company has carried out detailed risk assessment for ECDIS failure which could
be envisaged in ECDIS navigation. The Company Risk Assessment and Management
of Change documents are provided in Annex VI and Annex VII of this Manual.
Issued by : Approved : Ship Board Manual Vol.2
Charts and Nautical Publications
Name : N. Padhi Name : V. Rangroo Doc.Nbr.:NAV-0080 Rev. Nbr : 0007
Position : SQM Position : MD Date : 03/31/17 Page : 2 of 48

There are two options exist to meet these requirements:


 A second ECDIS connected to an independent power supply and independent
inputs
 An appropriate up-to-date folio of official paper charts for the intended voyage;
Different Back up arrangements is acceptable by different national maritime
administrations and this should be verified with the Flag State of the vessel.

(b) GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

i) Limitations of Electronic Charts


Electronic Navigational Charts (ENCs) are vector electronic charts that conform to
International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) specifications. They are compiled
from a database of individual items (objects) of digitized chart data which can be
displayed as a seamless chart. When used in an Electronic Chart Display and
Information System ECDIS, the data is re-assembled to display either the entire chart
image or a user-selected combination of data. ENCs are intelligent such that they can
be set up to give warning of impending danger in relation to the vessel’s position and
movement.

ENC Updates are issued for all Permanent Chart Updating Notices to Mariners and all
chart-specific temporary and preliminary Notices to Mariners. The User should be
aware that it may not always be possible to issue updates for temporary and
preliminary Notices to Mariners that are not chart specific. OOW / user should consult
the weekly Notices to Mariners booklet and AIO where available.

Where ENC are not available, the use of Raster navigation charts (RNC) and/or any
needed paper charts will be used.

OOW / user should be aware of the significant changes in navigational practice


required by the introduction of ECDIS and of the need to manage these changes in a
careful and prudent manner.

The limitations of electronic charts are as follow:


 T & P notices may not be updated
 Appearance and content of data may differ substantially from similar data in
paper chart form
 No data from nautical publication imposed
 Rely on accuracy of GPS
 Without selecting different scale charts, the look ahead capability may be
limited. This may lead to inconvenience when determining range or bearing of
distance objects.
Issued by : Approved : Ship Board Manual Vol.2
Charts and Nautical Publications
Name : N. Padhi Name : V. Rangroo Doc.Nbr.:NAV-0080 Rev. Nbr : 0007
Position : SQM Position : MD Date : 03/31/17 Page : 3 of 48

ii) Approved ECDIS


Use of ECDIS as a stand-alone navigation system without paper charts requires two
fully independent, IMO type approved vector chart systems. Appropriate entries
should be made in Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate Form E, Section 3, Details
of navigation systems and equipment. All navigation officers should undergo an
appropriate training course.

Before a watch keeping officer or master intends to use a compliant ECDIS as the
primary means of navigation they should complete a generic ECDIS Operators Course
complying with IMO Model Course 1.27 The Operational Use of Electronic Chart
Display and Information Systems (ECDIS) as well as equipment type specific training.

(c) RISK ASSESSMENT FOR USE OF ECDIS


The company has carried out a Risk Assessment and Management of Change for
failures in ECDIS. This is available in Annex VI and Annex VII of this Manual.

(d) ELECTRONIC CHARTS

Digital Charts
There are two kinds of official digital charts available; Electronic Navigational Charts
(ENC) and Raster Navigational Charts (RNC).

ENC stands for “Electronic Navigational Chart”. By IMO definition ENCs can
only be produced by or on the authority of a government authorized Hydrographic
Office or other relevant government institution.

Official ENCs are vector charts compiled from a database of individual geo-referenced
objects from Hydrographic Office’s archives including existing paper charts.

When used in an ECDIS, the ENCs content can be displayed as a seamless pattern in
user selected scales presenting user selected chart items. Due to the limited physical
size and the limited resolution of computer monitors the chart image generated from
ENCs does not fully imitate the known appearance of the paper chart. This apparent
disadvantage is compensated by the ENC being a database: special ECDIS operational
functions continuously retrieve the ENC content to give warning of impending danger
in relation to the vessel’s position and its movement.

RNC means “Raster Navigational Chart”. Official RNCs are digital raster copies of
official paper charts.

Only E Where ENCs are not available at all or are not of an appropriate scale for the
planning and display of the ship’s voyage plan, RNC and / or needed paper
charts should be carried.
Issued by : Approved : Ship Board Manual Vol.2
Charts and Nautical Publications
Name : N. Padhi Name : V. Rangroo Doc.Nbr.:NAV-0080 Rev. Nbr : 0007
Position : SQM Position : MD Date : 03/31/17 Page : 4 of 48

Informatively, when an ECDIS system does not have an ENC for the area being
navigated, and paper charts are not available and an RNC is used in its place, it is
said to be operated as a Raster Chart Display System (RCDS).

The following limitations significantly reduce the functionality expected from


the ECDIS.

 Unlike within the ECDIS where the ENCs are seamless in nature, RNCs are
based on paper charts and as such have boundaries which are evident when
passing from one chart to the next. This may cause confusion or distract the user
at areas on or near to chart boundaries.

 RNCs will not trigger automatic alarms (e.g. Anti-grounding). However, some
alarms and indications can be generated with the manual addition, during passage
planning, by the user (example: clearing lines, ship safety contour lines, isolated
danger markers and danger areas). To recover some of the safety functionality of
the ECDIS system and mitigate these limitations a significant amount of data set-
up is required.

 Horizontal datum and chart projections may not be based on WGS 84, which is
the datum used in GPS. Mariners should understand how a chart’s horizontal
datum relates to the datum of the position fixing system in use. In some instances,
this may appear as a shift in position. This difference may be most noticeable at
grid intersections and during route monitoring.

 Some raster charts cannot be referenced to WGS-84. If any electronic chart


cannot be referenced to a WGS-84 chart datum the ECDIS equipment should
give a continuous indication of this inaccuracy in order to highlight the position
error.

 The display of RNCs features cannot be simplified by the removal of data and
features to suit a particular navigational circumstance or task at hand. When you
zoom in or out on scale within the system the raster chart image is only
magnified, it does not jump step the available information and provide clear
display detail to suit the scale as with an ENC. This could affect the
superimposition of radar/ARPA and overload the amount of data being displayed.

 Without selecting different scale charts the look-ahead capability may be limited.
This may lead to inconvenience when determining range and bearing or the
identity of distant objects.

 Raster charts are drawn in the north-up orientation and the information is written
on the chart in that same orientation. When the orientation of RNC within the
RCDS display is arranged in anything other than north-up the readability of
chart text and symbols may be affected (e.g. when in course-up, route-up
display modes).
Issued by : Approved : Ship Board Manual Vol.2
Charts and Nautical Publications
Name : N. Padhi Name : V. Rangroo Doc.Nbr.:NAV-0080 Rev. Nbr : 0007
Position : SQM Position : MD Date : 03/31/17 Page : 5 of 48

 It is not possible to interrogate RNC features to gain additional information about


charted objects.

 With RNC it is not possible to display a ship’s safety contour or safety depth and
highlight it on the display, unless these features are manually entered during
route planning.

 ECDIS systems using ENCs apply prescribed colour and intensity regimes for
day, dusk and night time so as to not impair the night vision of the user.
Depending on the source of the RNC, different colours may be used to show
similar chart information and these may again vary within the day and a night
regime from what the user is used to.

 An RNC is intended to be used at the scale of the equivalent paper chart.


Excessive zooming in or zooming out can seriously degrade the displayed image
or overload the display with too much unreadable data. If the RNC is displayed
at a larger scale than the equivalent paper chart, the ECDIS will provide an
indication.

 ECDIS can provide an indication of the quality of Hydrographic data used in the
ENC. When using RNCs, mariners are require to consult the source diagram or
the zone of confidence diagram, if available, to gain this data.

 Lastly, when a Pilot boards a vessel they need to interface with the bridge
equipment and bridge team as quickly and seamlessly as possible. The
standardized nature of ECDIS greatly assists in this, However, it is important to
notify the Pilot when the system is in RCDS mode so that incorrect assumptions
about available functionality are avoided.

(e) GUIDANCE ON IHO COMPATIBILITY CHECKS FOR EQUIPMENT IN


USE
ECDIS comprises of hardware, software and data. It is important for the safety of
navigation that the application software within the ECDIS works fully in accordance
with the Performance Standards and is capable of displaying all the relevant digital
information contained within the ENC. Any ECDIS which has not been upgraded to be
compliant with the latest version of the ENC Product Specification or the S-52
Presentation Library may be unable to correctly display the latest charted features.
Additionally the appropriate alarms and indications may not be activated even though
the features have been included in the ENC. Similarly any ECDIS which is not
updated to be fully compliant with the S-63 Data Protection Standards may fail to
decrypt or to properly authenticate some ENCs, leading to failure to load or install.
ECDIS that is not updated for the latest version of IHO Standards may not meet the
chart carriage requirements as set out in SOLAS regulation V/19.2.1.4. The IHO
Issued by : Approved : Ship Board Manual Vol.2
Charts and Nautical Publications
Name : N. Padhi Name : V. Rangroo Doc.Nbr.:NAV-0080 Rev. Nbr : 0007
Position : SQM Position : MD Date : 03/31/17 Page : 6 of 48

Standards (as on 15th April 2016) that relate to ECDIS, ENC production and
distribution, are listed below:

Title Edition in Force

Transfer Standard for Digital Hydrographic Data S-57 Edition 3.1 (November 2000)

Chart Content and Display Aspects of ECDIS S-52 Edition 6.0 (March 2010)
PresLib Edition 3.4 (Annex A to S-52 - January
Presentation Library for ECDIS 2008)

Test Data Sets for ECDIS S-64 Edition 2.0.0 (May 2012)

Chart Content and Display Aspects of ECDIS S-52 Edition 6.1 (.1)
PresLib Edition 4.0 (.1) (Annex A to S-52)
(October 2014 - With Clarifications up to June
Presentation Library for ECDIS 2015)

Test Data Sets for ECDIS S-64 Edition 3.0.1 (June 2015)

ENC Validation Checks S-58 Edition 5.0.0 (June 2014)


Product Specification for Raster Navigation Chart
(RNC)
(only if ECDIS software supports RCDS mode) S-61 Edition 1.0 (January 1999)

Data Producer Codes S-62 Current Edition

Data Protection scheme S-63 Edition 1.2.0 (January 2015)


ENCs: Production, Maintenance and Distribution
Guidance S-65 Edition 2.0.0 (April 2012)

These Standards are subject to changes as and when there are upgrades in the editions.

ECDIS Standards
The Master must verify via the vessel’s superintendent once on installation and
commissioning and then every time the system is upgraded – (concurrence with the
performance test described below) that the ECDIS software installed is the latest
version and is in compliance with the latest standards of IHO. The vessel
superintendent is to seek clarification with the ECDIS manufacturer where deemed
necessary. A record of all software updates of the ship’s ECDIS will be maintained
with the ship’s Master in the certificate file.

IHO Data Presentation and Performance


The IHO has designed data sets that can help determine if the ECDIS software has
any short comings or require upgrading. The IHO data presentation and performance
checks must be carried out as mentioned above on all the ECDIS sets after
Issued by : Approved : Ship Board Manual Vol.2
Charts and Nautical Publications
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installation and at every upgrade. The IHO checks must be done in the any case at an
interval not exceeding 3 months. Records of the tests to be maintained and filed on
board.

In case the results of the ECDIS sets do not match the requirements set by IHO, the
test results should be documented by filling up the form “ECDIS Check reporting
form” which is provided separately and should be sent by the vessel to the office. This
form requires to be submitted by the vessel’s superintendent to IHO.

In case the vessel determines that the Underwater features and isolated dangers are not
displayed properly the vessel must inform the office and action must be taken to
supplement the planning and monitoring of the route. This could be done by
consulting other sources of information such as paper charts and publications to ensure
that the watch keepers can identify all underwater dangers and isolated dangers. These
additional hazards can then be added manually in the ECDIS as a "manual update".
The vessel can do this by using an appropriate mariner's data / mariner's note or
mariner's information functions of ECDIS.

Guidance for the IHO test and the reporting form can be found in Section 3 below.

(f) CORRECTIONS ON ECDIS


Keeping the ECDIS fully up to date should be a high priority for the bridge team and
should be treated as equally important as normal paper chart corrections.
The Master must ensure that all ENC charts are operating under the latest updates vide
weekly updates and / or regular CD/DVDs received from nominated vendors of the
company (or owners).

ENCs can be updated by three ways, they are:

1. Email updates: (also referred to as internet updates): These are received weekly
on board and have to be applied in the proper sequence as received.

2. Update CD/DVD: These are also prepared weekly but are sent to the ships as per
the ship’s itinerary. Hence these are not received weekly and at times with much
delays.

However if the updating by the above two methods is not possible due to any
problem the updating has to be done by:

3. Manual Corrections: The weekly Notices to Mariners have to be consulted and


they are to be applied manually by the navigator by means of the ‘Manual
Correction/Update’ or Marine Information Objects (MIO) layers facility provided
in the ECDIS. This is only a temporary measure and updating by the first two
methods has to be restored at the earliest.
Issued by : Approved : Ship Board Manual Vol.2
Charts and Nautical Publications
Name : N. Padhi Name : V. Rangroo Doc.Nbr.:NAV-0080 Rev. Nbr : 0007
Position : SQM Position : MD Date : 03/31/17 Page : 8 of 48

Temporary & Preliminary Notices (T&P): All hydrographic offices do not provide
'T&P' notices in the weekly ENC updates. Thus, the AIO layer must be checked for
applicable T&P notices. If the AIO layer is not supported, T&P notices may be
obtained by checking the weekly NTMs, as for paper charts. All T&P notices
applicable to the voyage shall be manually inserted into the ECDIS using 'Manual
Correction/Updates’ or ‘MIO' facility.

Nav area, Navtex and locally broadcasted Warnings: Nav warnings transmitted by
satellite, Navtex receiver are by nature more short term and urgent than T&P notices.
Such notices shall be immediately plotted on ENCs, as above. Navtex where
interfaced with the ECDIS will highlight the affected areas which will have to be
manually updated using ‘Manual Correction/Update’ or ‘MIO’facility.

The Correction Procedures


In case the corrections are being received directly via the communication computer
from the provider then these corrections should be received once per week and a Base
DVD will be received at regular intervals. In the event of not receiving the weekly
updates from the provider directly via communication computer or through
CD/ROM, Master must immediately contact the Technical Department and/or the
Admiralty Supplier.

The weekly updates must be uploaded in sequential manner otherwise the system will
show an error. Base DVDs also must be loaded as and when received.

It is important that the Master checks the expiry date of all permits/licenses and
records them, to avoid unplanned and dangerous situations such as losing the chart’s
display of an ENC along the route.

Once the latest update CD is received on board, transferring and updating procedure
should be carried out immediately as described in Operator’s Manual.

On Vessels equipped with full ECDIS (two fully independent ECDIS provided) the
requirement for the reception of weekly NTM, including all corrections applicable to
chart folios in use, must be met. If, for whatever reason, this requirement is not met,
such as corrections are not received timely, or a technical failure to upload the
corrections is experienced, the Master must immediately notify the Technical
Superintendent and Purchaser.

Temporary and preliminary notices have not yet been fully integrated into ENC data
by all National Hydrographic Offices. Caution must be exercised when navigating
solely with ECDIS as some ENC data may not take account of temporary or
preliminary notices.

The only guaranteed sources for T&P information at present are Notices to Mariners
issued by National Hydrographic Offices. Depending on vessel’s route and ENCs
used, it should be confirmed whether on board ENCs include T&P NTM or not. If on
Issued by : Approved : Ship Board Manual Vol.2
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Name : N. Padhi Name : V. Rangroo Doc.Nbr.:NAV-0080 Rev. Nbr : 0007
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board ENCs do NOT include T&P NTM, manual means for correction of T&P NTM
should be done through relevant NTM strictly in accordance with the procedure
described in Manufacturer’s Operator’s Manual.

Navigational warnings transmitted by satellite communications (for example, SAT C


telex), NAVTEX receiver and radio-broadcasted warnings are by nature more short
term and urgent than temporary or preliminary notices. Navigators using ECDIS
should be aware of the ability to plot new dangers on electronic charts through the use
of the Marine Information Objects (MIO) capability. The purpose of the MIO is to
highlight navigational warning information on the electronic chart.
Navigational warnings should be marked on the charts relevant to the voyage.

Since T&Ps are corrections with expiry dates, some of these corrections when applied
will not be cancelled by themselves for the corrections made manually; hence
another remark instead of the actual plotting of the T&P’ notice should be made.
When the ECDIS has auto update facility for the T&P Notices, this does not apply.

All ENC updating and AIO installing should be done in port or in open waters and
preferably one ECDIS at a time. At times it has been observed that some errors in the
ECDIS functioning take place during updating.

(g) MAIN COMPONENTS OF ECDIS

i) An ECDIS has four main components:


1. A computer system or processing unit, along with the necessary software
programs to run the system or unit.

2. Electronic charts in the form of a digital database or library of either ENC’s


(Officially approved vector charts) or, where these are not available, RNCs
(Officially approved raster charts).

3. A colour display screen.

4. A control panel or operator interface which enables the mariner to operate the
system.

Additionally, an ECDIS can accept inputs and display data from navigational sensors.
The mandatory inputs are those from GPS, Gyro and Speed Log. Inputs from radar,
ARPA, AIS, echo sounder and navtex are optional.

The three most important operating features of ECDIS are the clarity of its screen, ease
of use of the controls and the quality and versatility of the navigational information
displayed on its screen.
Issued by : Approved : Ship Board Manual Vol.2
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Name : N. Padhi Name : V. Rangroo Doc.Nbr.:NAV-0080 Rev. Nbr : 0007
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There are three levels of information which can be displayed on an ECDIS Screen:

1. The Display Base is the basic display provided by the SENC and is required
for all charts. It is unchangeable basic data which cannot be altered by the
operator. The Display Base contains information on coastlines, safety
contours, danger indications, traffic routing, scale, range, orientation and
display mode, as well as units of depth and height. The Display Base is not
intended to provide enough information for safe navigation just by itself and
hence should not be used for navigation.

2. The Standard Display, which is also a pre-arranged chart display, but which
can be modified by the operator, and which is automatically shown when the
ECDIS is first switched on. It contains the Display Base, plus boundaries of
channels etc., conspicuous features, restricted areas, chart scale
boundaries and cautionary notes. The operator can modify the
amount of information displayed for the purposes of route planning and
navigational monitoring. The operator decides what level of information is
displayed during any particular situation or task. However, when working
with these other levels of information display, an operator must immediately
be able to return to the Standard Display with just one single action of the
controls.
Please note that Standard display is the minimum display mode for safe
navigation. However, it does not contain other important layers / information
e.g. ‘spot soundings’ and ‘submarine cables and pipelines’ which MUST
additionally be activated, especially in all coastal waters.

3. ‘All Other Information’ Levels. After the first two main levels of chart
display mentioned above, extra layers of information known as 'All Other
Information' can be called up on the ECDIS and added to the Standard
Display when required by the operator. These may show spot soundings,
undersea cables and pipelines, ferry routes, lines of magnetic variation, the
chart graticule, place names, extra details of navigation aids, hazards and
notes.

ii) Standard ECDIS functions


As per the IMO Performance Standards an approved ECDIS has to be able to carry out
the following Functions / Operations (1-4 are the main functions):

1. ENC Display - install, update, set layers, scale, symbols, safety contour / depth
2. Route Planning
3. Route Monitoring
4. Safety Guard Zones and Alarms to be properly set and activated
5. Interfaces – the mandatory 3 are GPS, Gyro and Log.
Additional interfaces are permitted.
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6. Overlay (Optional): Radar, ARPA, AIS, AIO, Navtex


7. ECDIS to work in TM and North-up mode (other modes are permitted)
8. Recording: Logbooks, Alarms, Past Positions and Tracks
9. Calculations: a) Range, Bearing from Own ship
b) Range, Bearing from any point to any point
c) Course, Distance between waypoints
10. Back up: a) for power - minimum 45 seconds
b) For ECDIS itself – paper charts or an electronic device (which usually
comprises of a 2nd ECDIS)

iii) Display of SENC Information


 ECDIS should be capable of displaying all SENC information.
 SENC information available for display during route planning and route
monitoring should be subdivided into three categories, display base, standard
display, and all other information
 ECDIS should present the standard display at any time by a single operator action.
 When a chart is first displayed on ECDIS, it should provide the standard display at
the largest scale available in the SENC for the displayed area.
 It should be easy to add or remove information from the ECDIS display.
 It should not be possible to remove information contained in the display base.
 It should be possible for the mariner to select a safety contour from the
depth contours provided by the SENC. ECDIS should give the safety contour more
emphasis than other contours on the display.
 It should be possible for the mariner to select a safety depth. ECDIS should
emphasize soundings equal to or less than the safety depth whenever spot
soundings are selected for display
 The ENC and all updates to it should be displayed without any degradation of their
information content
 ECDIS should provide a means of ensuring that the ENC and all updates to it have
been correctly loaded into the SENC

SCALE
All ENCs are prepared on a particular scale called as the Compilation Scale. ECDIS
should provide an indication of the scale in use. On zooming in or zooming out the
ECDIS should give an ‘Over scale’ or ‘Larger scale Available’ indication to warn the
navigator about the improper scale in use. Refer to (k, i, ii) for more details.
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DISPLAY OF OTHER NAVIGATIONAL INFORMATION


Radar information or other navigational information may be added to the ECDIS
display.

However, it should not degrade the SENC information, and should be clearly
distinguishable from the SENC information.

COLOURS AND SYMBOLS DISPLAY REQUIREMENTS


ECDIS should be capable of displaying information as per IHO Special Publication S-
52.
The symbols in ECDIS are either:
1. Simplified – IHO ENC symbols
2. Traditional or Paper like symbols

Refer to NP 5012 for the details. Below are a couple of examples

Caution:
1. The users should be aware of the symbols in use
2. The area symbols selected should be in ‘Symbolized’ mode and not in ‘Plain’
mode
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BACK-UP
Purpose of an ECDIS back–up system is to ensure that safe navigation is not
compromised in the event of ECDIS failure. This should include a timely transfer to
the backup system during critical navigation situations. The backup system shall
allow the vessel to be navigated safely until the termination of the voyage.

Interpretation of these back-up requirements can be as follows:


 A fully-updated folio of paper charts for the remainder of the voyage
 A second ENC-fuelled ECDIS, powered from the main & emergency power
supply and is capable of operating independent of the main ECDIS. This is also
connected to an independent GPS Input. The back-up ECDIS will have ENC
chart database & voyage plan loaded before commencement of voyage and
must be operational at all times.

iv) Operating ECDIS


It is important that the operators familiarize themselves thoroughly with their own
vessel’s ECDIS to become fully proficient with its controls and operation. Proficiency
in using ECDIS is now recognized as an important watch keeping requirement. The
master and any watch-officer must be fully familiarized with the ECDIS installed on
board before the officer stands his own watch.

Although all ECDIS and ENCs conform to the same official standards, there may be
some differences in how a particular ECDIS system interfaces with some charts and
sensors. The operator must know the characteristic operational features of their
vessel's ECDIS, along with the ENCs and RNCs they will be using, as well as its other
sensor inputs.
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Although the ECDIS should already be programmed with vessel's performance and
manoeuvring data this must still be checked when it is first switched on. The operator
must also check that previously set display features are all still appropriate to present
requirements. If not, then these parameters are to be re-entered.

These must include:


 Safety frame/guard zone
 Safety depth
 Safety contour
 Chart orientation
 Customise chart layers in addition to the Standard Display
 Symbols
 Alarm Settings
 Overlays eg. Radar, ARPA, AIS, Navtex
 Other relevant on-screen data.

v) ECDIS Safety
Navigating Officers must take precautions to make sure they are not only getting
accurate information from their ECDIS, but are also prepared for any unforeseen
difficulties which may arise. Ensure that the ECDIS must always have an appropriate
back-up system.

The accuracy of vessel's position, as displayed on the ECDIS screen, must not be
considered to be exactly correct. Some systems claim an accuracy of position to
within 20m. This can mean that the true position of the vessel may actually be
more than 20m away from that shown on the ECDIS screen. Such a margin of
error can have serious consequences. Never accept the displayed position as being
always completely accurate. Only believe what can be visually observed from the
bridge. The quality of information deteriorates when relying on less sensitive sensors.

For example, when one switches from DGPS to GPS the accuracy of the vessel's
indicated position can possibly fall from being within 10m to perhaps anywhere
between 20m to 100m. Be aware of these changing circumstances calculated values
such as ETA at the next waypoint depend on the accuracy of the sensors. Accuracy of
vessel positions on ECDIS are thus to be doubled checked by visual observations
and calculations.

In coastal waters visual bearings and radar distances must be used to verify the
position obtained from ECDIS. Record of vessel’s position during the voyage must be
retained so that it is possible to re- create the track followed, if required, at a later date.
Issued by : Approved : Ship Board Manual Vol.2
Charts and Nautical Publications
Name : N. Padhi Name : V. Rangroo Doc.Nbr.:NAV-0080 Rev. Nbr : 0007
Position : SQM Position : MD Date : 03/31/17 Page : 15 of 48

(h) GUIDANCE ON SAFETY PARAMETERS AND THEIR SETTINGS


Safety Frame: The safety frame is intended for setting the size of the frame which
will be used for the chart data analysis and for the generation of the anti-grounding
alarms, alert areas and navigational alarms.

Look Ahead – window for the input of advance time for alarm / warning generation.
This would need to be determined by the master and is depending on the ship’s speed,
traffic situation, geographical limitations and manoeuvrability.

Port and Starboard width – This also would need to be determined by the Master as
it is depending on expected traffic situation, ship particulars and geographical
limitations (channels, fairways, etc.).

Recommended Safety Frame (Safety Guard Zone) Settings


The Safety Frame or the Safety Guard Zone area set on ECDIS differs depending on
the Make of the ECDIS and are named differently for different makes eg: safety frame,
safety vector, safety sector, safety zone, guard zone etc.

The SGZ area has to be set as well as activated when monitoring. The SGZ will detect
dangers, hazards or unsafe waters. The following settings of the SGZ are
recommended as a minimum. The OOW however may change it based on the
geographic location and the prevailing conditions and situations of the own ship.

SGZ Settings Pilotage and Coastal Open Sea


Confined Waters
Waters
Ahead (mins) 5-10 mins 10 - 20 mins 20 - 30 mins
Port (nm) 50 m 0.5 nm 2.0 nm
Stbd (nm) 50 m 0.5 nm 2.0 nm
Sector 5 - 10 deg 10 - 20 deg 270 - 360 deg

Safety Depth: It is the sum of vessel’s draft, dynamic squat, ZOC and the safety
margin (UKC). This is the Value set by the user such that it is used by ECDIS to
portray soundings as black if they are equal to or shallower than the value and grey if
they are deeper.

Safety Contour: A specific depth contour set by ECDIS. It demarks the boundary
between “safe-water” and shallow water with an extra wide isoline and is used to give
an alarm if the ship, within a time specified by the mariner, is going to cross the safety
contour. It is also used to determine the shades used for depth areas.
This is a Value set by the user such that it is used by ECDIS to select a “Safety
Contour” from among the depth contours available in the SENC that is equal to or
deeper than the input value.
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Settings:
The detailed Table for the calculation is given in Section (j) below

Safety Depth:
Safety Depth = Vessel Draft + Dynamic Squat + Safety Margin (UKC) + ZOC

The safety depth is determined by the company UKC procedures and must follow the
requirements Stipulated in the Navigation Manual, Section NAV-0030, para 6.

The Safety Depth and the Safety Contour input values must be same.

Effect of the Safety Contour Value set by the user is illustrated with an example:
Assume the vessel’s maximum draft is 12 mtrs, and the safety contour and depth are to
be calculated to be set at 15 mtrs. Let us assume that the ENC Cell has contour lines of
10 and 20 mtrs.

As the safety contour setting is 15 mtrs, the safety contour line should be at 15 mtrs.
However, as the chart does not have a 15 mtr contour line, the safety contour will be
set at 20 mtrs (the next higher safety contour line of the ENC cell), while the safety
depth value remains unchanged at 15 mtrs.

Shallow Contour: It is the next contour shallower than the Safety Contour. It
highlights the gradient of the seabed adjacent to the Safety Contour.
For Shallow Contour the input value to be Draft (max) + squat

Deep Contour: It is the next contour deeper than the Safety Contour. It is normally
twice the vessel’s draft.

Safety Height: It is the input value to be air draft + 10m (which is the SMS
requirement for power cables)

Amending the Safety parameters (other than safety frame)


The safety parameters as required by the Master’s orders must not be changed by the
watch officer. Under no circumstances are these to be altered without the express order
of the Master. Should the safety parameters stipulated by the master in the passage
plan be amended during the voyage on the Master’s request, then this must be
recorded in the deck log book.
Issued by : Approved : Ship Board Manual Vol.2
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Name : N. Padhi Name : V. Rangroo Doc.Nbr.:NAV-0080 Rev. Nbr : 0007
Position : SQM Position : MD Date : 03/31/17 Page : 17 of 48

Above illustration is for Safety Depth, Safety Contour,


Shallow Contour and Deep Contour (in 4 shades mode)

Isloted Dangers: There are isolated dangers like rocks, wrecks and obstructions which
exist on the sea bed in the ‘Safe’ and ‘Únsafe’ waters. The isolated points lie on a sea
bed surrounded by relatively deeper waters. All isolated points may not be dangerous.
However those isolated points which are dangerous or of unknown depth are denoted
by below symbol.

The Isolated dangers are based on the Safety Depth Input Value.
All those isolated points whose depths are less than or equal to the Safety Depth Input
Value are displayed on the ECDIS with the above symbol. The isolated dangers with
the above symbol will be dispalyed in the “Safe” waters. The isolated dangers which
are in the “Únsafe” waters will also be highlighted with the above symbol but only
when “Dangers in Shallow Water” layer is activated.

Below is an illustration of the display of isloated rocks (in full display mode). The
display is set to 4 depth shades and isolated dangers in shallow water are turned off.
The Safety Contour and Safety Depth input values are 8 m. The Safety Contour
selected and displayed is 10 m.
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Correct Contour Settings

As Depth Contours on an ENC are normally only drawn at fixed intervals, the ECDIS
automatically uses the deeper (higher) contour when the selected Safety, Shallow, Deep
Contour input value lies between contours.

The Safety Depth applies to spot soundings, the depth of which is insufficient for a vessel
to safely pass over. Spot soundings less than the safety depth are displayed in bold type to
provide a more accurate representation of a vessel’s ‘no-go’ area than the Safety Contour.

The Shallow and Deep Contours are utilized when the multi-colour (4 colour) depth
display is selected. The Deep Contour is normally set at twice a vessel’s draught to
indicate when squat is likely to be experienced. The area between the 0m contour and the
Shallow Contour is coloured dark blue, the area between the Shallow and Safety Contour
is coloured light blue, and the area between the Safety Contour and the Deep Contour is
coloured grey. The area deeper than the Deep Contour is white. This allows the gradient of
the seabed to be graphically displayed. All of the area between the 0m contour and the
Safety Contour is also hatched if Shallow Water Pattern layer is activated.

Below illustration for:


 Two Depth Shades is with Safety Contour input value as 16 m and the selected
display is 30 m.

 Four Depth Shades is with Safety Contour input value is 9 m and the Safety
Contour selected display is 10 m.
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Alarm setting adjustments:


New Passage Plan: It should be noted that the alarm parameters may require to
be amended from their previous settings when beginning a new voyage. Changes
to the alarm settings are to be done with the Master’s consent. Only the
Master is authorized to disable alarms when entering shallow waters to
adjust the Safety Contour etc.

At Change of Watch: The handing over officer must inform the taking over
officer using the handover checklist of the Settings of the Alarm & Safety
parameters at that time. The taking over officer is not to change the Safety
parameters without the consent of the Master.

During Voyage: It is further recommended that Alarm parameters are adjusted


by the Master throughout the voyage to ensure that they are optimised for the
prevailing circumstances and conditions. Checks should be made to ensure
that user defined limiting parameters, such as the Safety Contour, are not
violated when the passage plan is adjusted after departure.
Issued by : Approved : Ship Board Manual Vol.2
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(i) ALARMS AND ALARM MANAGEMENT


Alarms and Indications
While operating in RCDS mode the electronic chart system is not capable of
automatically triggering an alarm about events such as possible grounding, passing
safety lines or approaching danger areas. Such alarms can only be pre-set when using
RNCs in RCDS mode if the mariner first identifies all the hazards concerned during
his passage planning process, and then manually enters each of them as individual
electronic markers on the RNC. These alarms can include:
 clearing lines vessel safety contour lines
 Isolated dangers
 Danger areas

In full ECDIS mode when using ENCs, however, the system can automatically trigger
such alarms. In full ECDIS mode the system is also capable of triggering alarms based
on notes entered earlier during passage planning.

In this regard, the Master and all deck officers on board are to be familiar with:

 The types of alarms available on their ECDIS


 The types of warning (visual, audible or a combination of both) associated with
each alarm
 The procedure to switch on and set alarm parameters
The vessel / voyage specific parameters / alarms should be set during the
appraisal stage of passage planning and must be approved by the Master. The picture
above gives guidance on the Safety Contour setting.

Types of Alarms & warning indications:


The ECDIS will have a means of warning if something is wrong with either the
ECDIS itself developing a fault, or if it has detected an approaching navigation
problem.

There are three categories of problems which can trigger warnings:

1. Navigational hazards, alerting the operator to a potential navigational


hazard during route planning or monitoring, such as the ship crossing a safety
contour.
2. Information in-put malfunction, indicating the breakdown of a sensor, such as
the failure of the GPS or of the ECDIS itself.
3. Information conflict, indicating a datum or chart mis-match, such as a
changed horizontal geodetic datum or a wrong scale setting which could cause
a miscalculation of distances.
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An ECDIS uses two levels of warning signal to alert the operator that something needs
his immediate attention. These are “an indication” and “an alarm”. The IMO
publication (Code on Alarms and Indicators. (IMO-867E) applies for identification of
the Alarm System for an ECDIS.

In accordance with this Code:


Alarm: means an alarm or alarm system which activates an audible signal, or a
combination of audible and visual signals, indicating that a condition exists requiring
attention by the user.

Indication: means a visual display which provides information concerning the


condition of a system or piece of equipment.

The following items should be detected by an ECDIS system automatically.

When detected, an alarm and an indicating display should be activated for the
following:
Alarm & Indication
Traffic separation zone Cautionary area Pipeline area
Traffic routeing scheme crossing or Offshore production area Cable area
roundabout
Offshore wind farm Anchorage area
Traffic routeing scheme precautionary area
Areas to be avoided Anchoring prohibited area
Two-way traffic route
Military practice area Dumping ground
Deep water route
Seaplane landing area Spoil ground
Recommended route
Submarine transit lane Dredged area
Inshore traffic zone
Ice area Cargo trans-shipment area
Fairway
Channel Incineration area
Restricted area
Fishing ground Specially protected areas
Fishing prohibited area

Alarms or indications should be activated for the following:


Alarm Indications
"Largest Scale For" alarm Information over-scale
Off-Track alarm Larger scale ENC available
Crossing safety contour Different reference system
Deviation from route Route planning across safety contour
Positioning system failure Route planning across specified area
Approaching a critical point System test failure
Change of geodetic datum
Alarm and/or Indicator
Area with special conditions applying
Malfunction of ECDIS
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(j) GUIDANCE ON CATZOC (CATEGORY OF ZONE OF CONFIDENCE)

The sea ground is always liable to change. Changes depend on sea bed structure or on
tidal influences.

The images below present possible variations of the sea ground between two surveys.
Survey old Survey new

Survey Accuracy of ENC Sources & CATZOC (Categorization of Zone of Confidence)

The accuracy of a survey data depends on survey frequency, time and method and can
vary from very accurate to unassessed.

The CATZOC overlay indicates the quality of the ENC, as it gives confidence when
using. This is available as required as an M-Qual overlay facility of the ECDIS. The
M_QUAL button that can be switched on or off as required. This should be used to check
chart quality and then switched off as it may cause excessive clutter.

CATZOC allows a hydrographic authority to encode data against five categories (ZOC
A1, A2, B, C, D) with a sixth category (U) for data which has not been assessed. The
categorization of data is based on three factors (Position accuracy, depth accuracy and sea
floor coverage) as shown in the following table which gives a brief overview of chart
symbols for different zones of confidence and the related accuracies.

As the information displayed on an ECDIS screen is derived from vector data the
presentation of information is always sufficiently accurate.

For further details the Standard should be consulted.


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The Safety Depth is selected by the navigator taking into account:

Ship’s draught + required UKC + dynamic components (tidal range, squat, salinity, etc.)
+ Zone of Confidence data

Table for Zone of Confidence data:


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The image below shows how the presentation of the relevant Zones of Confidence in
ECDIS is presented.

During Route Planning due consideration is to be given to CATZOC and the safety
parameters such as Safety Depth / contour and XTD are adjusted based on the CATZOC
along the route (i.e. make it specific to the CATZOC of the best scale chart available for
each waypoint).

1) While calculating Safety depth / contour depth accuracy per ZOC in table above is
also to be added.

i. For the Planning stage, the calculation of Safety Depth and Safety Contour is
as per the below table. The points at which the values are to be changed have
to be clearly marked in the passage plan and have to be changed accordingly
in the ECDIS

ii. During the monitoring stage if the ship experiences different conditions
these values should be changed accordingly:
a. Height of tide can be used to advantage (i.e. reduction in the input values) in
the coastal waters, as in some cases it can be a significant amount.
b. Actual squat can be reduced if vessel is on slower speed than planned
c. Actual dynamic values to be changed if different than what was planned
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Table for Calculation of Safety Depth and Safety Contour Input Value

For Depths less than 50m (in m) For Depths more than 50m (in m)

Max Draft (static) Max Draft (static)

+ UKC = 10% of draft + UKC = twice the draft

+ Squat (for shallow waters and + Squat (for deep waters and at
at max speed estimated for the max speed estimated for the
voyage) voyage)

+ DWA (density correction) + DWA (density correction)

+ dynamic effects expected in the + dynamic effects expected in the


coastal waters (Rolling, pitching, coastal waters (Rolling, pitching,
heel due to turning, sea and swell) heel due to turning, sea and swell)

+ CatZOC (worst ZOC enroute, + CatZOC (worst ZOC enroute,


except D and U where RA also except D and U where RA also
required to be carried out) required to be carried out)

- Ht of tide (Only during


monitoring as per actual tide
height)

Total Safety Depth and Safety Safety Depth and Safety


Contour Input Value Contour Input Value

2) However, for ZOC D: the position accuracy and depth accuracy have not been
defined with any accuracy figures, but stated as “more than 500m” for position and
>2.0m + 5% of depth for depth accuracy respectively.
Similarly, for ZOC U: the position accuracy and depth accuracy have also not been
defined with any accuracy figures, but stated as “Unassessed, the quantity of
bathymetric data has not be assessed”.

If encountering ZOC D & U, during Route planning and also during monitoring when
any changes are made, please follow the following Company Guidelines:

Risk Assessment to be undertaken and followed. This Risk Assessment to include


amongst the control measures, monitoring of depth by continuous use of echo
sounder throughout such areas.
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(k) ZOOMING IN / OUT LIMITATIONS


i) ENC scales and Radar ranges
The user must not zoom in and out too much and should use the ENC at its
compilation scale (as this reduces clutter as required). The auto load feature (where
applicable) is to be ON so that the largest scale ENCs are always in use and the most
relevant ENC is loaded at all times.

ECDIS will be able to overlay the chart display with radar image, where this feature is
available. To harmonize both displays with reasonable accuracy, Hydrographic Offices
are encouraged to adjust their ENC scales with the usually used Radar ranges. The
table below gives an overview and compares both:

Radar Range ENC Scale


200 nm 1:3 000 000
96 nm 1:1500 000
48 nm 1:700 000
24 nm 1:350 000
12 nm 1:180 000
6 nm 1:90 000
3 nm 1:45 000
1,5 nm 1:22 000
0,75 nm 1:12 000
0,5 nm 1:8 000
0,25 nm 1:4 000
Usage Band
ENCs are created and designed for different scale ranges (Usage Bands). The table
provides an overview about the common scale ranges for each Usage Band:

Number Usage Band Scale Range


6 Berthing 1:2 000 to 1:5 000
5 Harbour 1:2 000 to 1:25 000
4 Approach 1:20 000 to 1:50 000
3 Coastal 1:50 000 to 1: 150 000
2 General 1:150 000 to 1:400 000
1 Overview smaller than 1:300 000
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ENC cells are named using a unique eight alpha numeric character as explained below:
CC P 12345

CC = producer
code
of HO
descri
bed in
S-62 12345 = individual cell name. Each
ENC producer has its own policy on
P = Usage Band. Number
naming of individual cells.
representing the Navigational
Purpose depending on the
intended use as described
above

The ’P’ value is the most important of them for the user while navigating, as it denotes the
navigational purpose that that ENC has to be used for. E.g. if a ship is in the approach
waters of a port the user should be using ‘4’ and if they are using a chart of any other
value it can be seen that the scale in use is incorrect.

The band of the ENC is denoted in the ENC cell number e.g. HK312798. The first 2
alphabets denote the HO is Hong Kong. The next number ‘3’ denotes the scale usage band
which in this case suggests that chart is suitable for coastal navigation.

ii) ENC Overlapping


ENCs like paper charts also overlap each other. This overlapping can be of ENCs of
the same scale or of different scales or of different usage bands. However since ENCs
are of seamless nature there will normally be no mismatch of the displayed area or
information. However where the overlapping ENCs are from different National
Hydrographic surveys there could be a mismatch.

The below illustration shows the overlapping of ENCs with different scales and
different usage bands.
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Caution: Over scale Pattern shown by vertical lines (like “Jailbars”) is an indication warning
that there exists a larger scale ENC for that area which must be used for navigation by zooming in.

(l) RADAR OVERLAY ON ECDIS – BENEFITS AND LIMITATIONS


The presentation of Hydrographic and traffic information on one screen is one of the
great advantages when navigating with ECDIS.

The advantages are:


 All data for navigating in difficult situations is available at any time.
 The GPS/DGPS position can be checked by radar image.
 Differences of reference systems and sensor data can be detected.
 Radar echoes can be better identified.
 Anomalies with floating aids to navigation (e.g. buoys in strong currents or
adrift) can be easily detected.
 Radar specific limitations can be compensated for to some degree.
 Transfer of Radar bearings and distances on a sea chart becomes superfluous
and human error can be limited.
Overlaying hydrographic data with Radar/ARPA information can produce
problems. These are:

 Cluttering the ENC due to sea and other clutter of the Radar.
 Information overflows.
 Mutual coverage of information.
 Priority of presented data MUST always be given to ENC data.
 System failure e.g. "black out" will affect two navigation systems.
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 Only ARPA overlay may be selected rather than the entire Radar overlay. In
which case only the targets selected on the Radar will be displayed on the
ECDIS. The other Radar echoes will not be displayed.
 The ECDIS CPU may slow down if the overlay is used continuously
For safe navigation, OOWs must use the radar overlay sparingly only to check
position of charted objects on the ENC vis a vis the radar. The radar overlay may
cause too much clutter.

The radar uses speed through water while the ECDIS uses Speed over Ground.
Therefore radar is best suited for collision avoidance while the ECDIS replaces the
paper chart and is to be used for safe navigation as an anti-grounding equipment.

A radar range and bearing (the user is not to take radar range and bearing from the
ENC overlay, but from the actual radar) should be used to fix a vessels position on the
ECDIS to compare with the GPS position that is input on the ENC.

(m) ECDIS FAILURES OR MALFUNCTIONS

Be sure in particular that you know the signals that indicate if your ECDIS system has
developed a fault or even that it has failed entirely. You must practice the failure of
your primary ECDIS and how to quickly get it back into action. Also practice how you
would quickly be able to bring into operation your back-up system. This should be
done as a table top mock-up drill once every quarter.

Sensory input failure:


In the event of sensory input failure to ECDIS, the safe navigation of the ship may be
affected. The below items should be checked in order to deal with the emergency:
• Inform Master
• Identify the failed sensory input to ECDIS
• Master to determine if the failed sensory input affects the safe navigation of
the ship. Advise office.
• Master to decide if an additional navigation officer requires need to take
over the watch?
• Determine if the failed sensory input affects any other electronic systems?
• Determine if the backup ECDIS can be used
• Commence traditional position fixing methods.
• Try to identify the failed sensor. Determine if it is possible to rectify/ repair
the sensory input?
• In the event of failure of single ECDIS (on ships with back up arrangement
of paper charts), changeover to paper charts. These paper charts are kept
corrected and kept up-to-date.
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• In the event of failure of both ECDIS, change over to the “take me home
charts”. (Company has established a list of “Take me home Charts” for use
in Emergency situation when both ECDISs fail. Ships are supplied with
paper charts only for the area of trading from this list based on Master’s
request to Office. These paper charts are kept corrected and kept up-to-
date). Office is to be informed and office approval must be taken and a
fresh risk assessment undertaken. A generic fleet-wide Risk Assessment by
the Office for various scenarios of ECDIS failure is available on board and
is available in Annex VI and Annex VII of this Manual.

Power failure:
Check on how the ECDIS gets its power supply, and how you can quickly connect it to an
emergency power supply if the main supply fails. If the primary power source fails
then regulations (SOLAS Regulation II-I, 43.2.4.2) require that the emergency power
supply can keep the ship borne navigation equipment functioning (as required under
SOLAS V/12) for a period of 18 hours. You must also check with the manufacturer’s
manual whether in the event of your ECDIS failing it would automatically switch
over to an alternative back-up power supply, or whether you would have to do it
manually. There is a slim possibility that an interruption in the power supply to the
ECDIS, or an unusually strong power surge going into it, for example generated by a
lightning strike on the vessel, might cause the ECDIS to fail and that you would then
have to re-install its software. Again, check with the manufacturer’s manual
whether this is a possibility. If it is, you should learn how to re-install the software. Office
to be consulted when in doubt.

ACTIONS IN THE EVENT OF FAILURES OR MALFUNCTIONS


Failures / Malfunction
Sensor failures
Any sensor fed into the ECDIS is only useful to the degree of accuracy to which it has
been set up in relation to the vessel.

Below table details the effects and the actions required during failure of any of the
mandatory sensor input to ECDIS.

Master shall be promptly notified by the OOW in case of failure of any sensor input to the
ECDIS, risk assessment carried out and contingency measures implemented for safe
navigation, including amendment of the voyage plan, posting additional watch keepers on
bridge, as may be required. Company shall be informed with details for assisting in
troubleshooting through ECDIS makers.
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Sensor
Effect Actions
Failure
 Use the next best means for position
fixing for navigation – secondary GPS,
visual and Radar, and lastly electronically
GPS  Loss of position input to ECDIS.
generated DR/EP.
Failure
 Manually fixing position on ECDIS
requires skill which develops with
practice similar to paper charts.

 Ships heading information changes.


The system will continue to provide
a correct COG vector but the  Switch to transmitting magnetic compass
heading marker will be incorrect, if fitted, or
which in turn will affect:
Gyro  Manually input the ships True heading
Compass - Bearing information extracted derived from magnetic compass or
Failure from ECDIS, eg a bearing of a referring to GPS COG and estimated set
navigational object and drift.

- The picture of feeds that are  Disconnect Radar feed


linked to the gyro, eg radar,
including contacts.

 Set the speed through water to manual


and update the speed that corresponds to
Speed log input is required in the GPS speed.
Speed ECDIS to determine the set and
Log drift and provide backup facility  Enter set and drift manually – ECDIS
should the GPS fail. calculations of set and drift are
failure
compromised with loss of gyro and/or
log.

 Investigate the cause of speed log failure.

AIS
Loss of AIS target overlay  No specific action necessary on ECDIS.
failure

 Verification of ECDIS position accuracy


Radar and by comparing RADAR overlay and Chart
ARPA  Loss of Radar target over lay features will not be possible. Also ECDIS
failure cannot be used for target identification
and collision avoidance.
Issued by : Approved : Ship Board Manual Vol.2
Charts and Nautical Publications
Name : N. Padhi Name : V. Rangroo Doc.Nbr.:NAV-0080 Rev. Nbr : 0007
Position : SQM Position : MD Date : 03/31/17 Page : 32 of 48

GPS POSITION ERROR

In case of error in GPS position


a. Change over to second GPS if interfaced
b. If both have error, plot observed position. Apply offset to the GPS position to
match the observed position. Ensure ECDIS is changed to DR mode
c. Plot observed positions regularly and do Parallel indexing on Radar

GYRO ERROR
Once the gyro is correctly set up with the ECDIS, it can be an ideal tool to monitor gyro
error, particularly with radar overlay. If there is a gyro error - do not correct the ECDIS,
correct the gyro.

ECDIS POWER FAILURE


a. OOW to call Master and maintain safe navigational watch
b. Changeover to the back-up ECDIS
c. In the event of power failure and both ECDIS reverting to UPS, consider a
controlled shutdown of one ECDIS to save available UPS power.
d. Consider increasing Bridge manning
e. Prepare paper charts for use. Plot vessel’s position and remaining passage on best
scale of paper charts available.

COMPLETE ECDIS FAILURE

The 'Officer of the Navigational Watch (OOW) shall immediately:

a. Call the Master and inform the Engine Officer on duty


b. Put M/Engines on notice and reduce speed
c. Refer to available paper chart, plot vessel's position
d. Activate Radar Maps if available
e. Contact office and carry out Navigational Risk Assessment to decide next course
of action.
Issued by : Approved : Ship Board Manual Vol.2
Charts and Nautical Publications
Name : N. Padhi Name : V. Rangroo Doc.Nbr.:NAV-0080 Rev. Nbr : 0007
Position : SQM Position : MD Date : 03/31/17 Page : 33 of 48

(n) PASSAGE PLANNING

i) Planning passage using ECDIS


ECDIS can be a great help with passage planning, but you need to follow certain rules
and guidelines to ensure the plan is correctly drawn up and entered into the ECDIS
with proper regard to safety and accuracy. Subsequent monitoring of the progress of
the voyage using the ECDIS must also be done safely. In order to check the passage
plan for all required information, Company’s form B018 is to be used by the
responsible officer and to be counter signed by the master after the passage plan was
reviewed.

ii) Essential information needed to prepare a plan


When using an ECDIS to prepare your passage plan, or even when using paper charts
the IMO has specified essential information a ship must carry the following to be able
to do it safely. This includes:
 Up-to-date charts of an appropriate scale
 Up-to-date sailing directions, pilot books and lists of lights
 T&P notices and Navigation Warning
 Passage planning charts
 Current tide atlases and tide tables
 Notices to mariners
 Radio signal information
 Load line charts
 Own vessel's manoeuvring data
 Your own company's procedures manual
You need to understand how your ECDIS can use and display such information; start
by reading its operating manual. Also, you must check that your ECDIS operates
in accordance with IMO's more extensive guidelines to route planning (IMO
Resolution A.893). This is available at the end of Nav-0080.

iii) Order of Chart Type selection:


 ENC’s covering the entire berth to berth passage plan
 ENC’s covering the majority of the berth to berth passage plan while additional
chart licenses being sought on a short term or long term basis.

Note: The vessel should not proceed on the intended passage until the permits are
obtained and loaded. Every effort should be made to ensure they are fully corrected
and up to date. Once the berth to berth passage plan is concluded the plan should be
Issued by : Approved : Ship Board Manual Vol.2
Charts and Nautical Publications
Name : N. Padhi Name : V. Rangroo Doc.Nbr.:NAV-0080 Rev. Nbr : 0007
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saved and stored for later use. All the voyage ENCs must be kept updated as and when
the updates are supplied.

iv) Using unofficial charts


The use of unofficial charts is PROHIBITED & not permitted on Company’s vessels.

v) Preparing the passage plan


The procedures for passage planning are given in Navigation & Bridge Manual
Section NAV-0030.

During the passage planning process that you must check and confirm that all of the
electronic charts loaded onto the ECDIS, and which are going to be needed during the
voyage, are official.

Any sections of the passage plan for which official charts are not loaded, must be
clearly identified. It should be noted alongside the appropriate waypoints where the
unofficial chart will be in use, along with an instruction that an official paper chart
must be the primary method of navigation during that stage of the voyage.
You can easily add or remove waypoints on a selected route. Most ECDIS will allow
you to store sufficient number of waypoints, and should enable you to make notes
alongside each of them.

All the usual Passage Planning markings e.g. No Go Areas, Call Master, Call
Pilots/VTS/Reporting points are required to be done in the ECDIS.

With the appropriate software programs and other necessary equipment, your
ECDIS can be programmed with information on your vessel's status, performance
and ability to perform manoeuvres. It can also take into account information on the
cargo weight, the vessel's engine data, speed, rates of acceleration, stopping
characteristics and turning circle. All these can be used to help plan and monitor the
vessel’s passage. Much of this information should already have been
programmed into your ECDIS. Check it is still there and is still accurate.

Once you have completed your passage plan on the ECDIS you should save it on the
ECDIS. Taking a back-up on an external drive is recommended. When completed, you
must print out a paper hard copy of the plan and keep it as a back-up in case the
ECDIS later develops a fault. This print-out should be signed by all the Navigating
Officers after they have been familiarized with the passage plan.

vi) Appraisal and planning tips:


 Consider which electronic charts will be used for the passage
 Check that electronic charts have been updated to the most recent version and chart
permit licences have been bought and being valid for the duration of the intended
voyage.
Issued by : Approved : Ship Board Manual Vol.2
Charts and Nautical Publications
Name : N. Padhi Name : V. Rangroo Doc.Nbr.:NAV-0080 Rev. Nbr : 0007
Position : SQM Position : MD Date : 03/31/17 Page : 35 of 48

 Route check previous passage plans after chart updating to ensure that any new
dangers added don’t present a risk to the ship
 Modifications to the passage plan may be necessary to accommodate new chart
features such as reporting schemes, traffic separation schemes (TSS), isolated
dangers, etc.
 When planning new waypoints and courses, always use the largest scale possible
so all features of the chart can be readily identified and risk assessed
 Ensure that the plan takes into account sufficient cross track error (XTE) to
accommodate any deviations for collision avoidance or currents
 Ensure adequate values are inputted for safety contour and depth alarms
 Once the route has been planned, check the entire passage plan visually from berth
to berth on the largest scale ENCs by manually scrolling along the track

vii) Safe planning


Always plan the route using both the ECDIS and its back-up system, and make
sure the route is entered in both save the completed passage plan onto a disk, and
also print out a paper copy make sure your ECDIS has received all the recent updates
to keep its charts accurate. Use the largest scale electronic chart appropriate for all
alarm indicators or for entering safety contours and prohibited areas.

Remember, ENC alarms will operate automatically from the largest scale data, while
data to trigger an alarm on an RNC has to be manually entered by the operator on the
largest scale chart when entering waypoints on the preferred selected route into the
ECDIS.

viii) Route monitoring


ECDIS makes route monitoring very easy, but you must avoid relying entirely on it or
radar as the only methods of safeguarding the vessel: it is important to always continue
maintaining a regular look-out from the bridge. Always keep a navigation log on paper
as well as the automatic ECDIS log. It is necessary to keep the ECDIS logs for a
minimum of 90 days and paper logs for at least one year.

The Master must specify at the outset of a voyage what standard information is
needed to be on ready display on the ECDIS, such as chart orientation, range on
display, safety zone and contour, he must also verify the same during route
monitoring stage and verify that Watch keepers are aware of same.

Under special circumstances such as severe weather, if the Officer of the Watch
wants additional information to be displayed for quick consultation, he can do so
provided the display is set back to the original information status.

Adjusting a passage plan is easy as the voyage progresses. During route monitoring
the ECDIS display will not only show the ship's position, but can also provide such
Issued by : Approved : Ship Board Manual Vol.2
Charts and Nautical Publications
Name : N. Padhi Name : V. Rangroo Doc.Nbr.:NAV-0080 Rev. Nbr : 0007
Position : SQM Position : MD Date : 03/31/17 Page : 36 of 48

information as the distance left or right of the intended track, time-to-run, distance-to-
turn, position and time of 'wheel over', and past Track history. Your ECDIS system
should be able to keep a constant calculation of your passage, showing your ETA,
required speed and elapsed time.

ix) Execution and monitoring tips:


 Check that the display has been set-up properly prior to sailing, otherwise
important information may not be displayed
 Always operate ENC on the best scale possible to avoid crucial information
being auto-filtered and subsequently not being displayed
 Do not use ‘base display’ mode as this only displays the minimum amount of
features and information
 Use Customised display (Standard + spot soundings as a minimum +
submarine cables and pipelines + text + other layers as required)
 Auto-filter or ‘SCAMIN’ may affect the display as it tends to remove
information from the display if the best scale chart is not being used. Operators
should know how to select the best scale chart to avoid the auto-filter feature
removing information when using ENCs
 Ensure the GPS unit providing constant position fixing information to ECDIS
has been updated with any relevant chart datum offset if the chart datum used
in the raster chart is different from WGS (84). Failure to do so may result in
positions being inaccurate
 Do not solely rely upon GPS position fixing when there are alternative
position fixing facilities available. GPS is subject to a variety of different
errors
 Traditional forms of position fixing should never be overlooked or
replaced when using ECDIS
 The position fixing interval may be five minutes in pilotage waters to one hour
in open sea conditions as per Master’s orders. In coastal waters, manual
position fixing is to be carried out on ECDIS. For position fixing interval, refer
to NAV-0032 Paragraph 6.
 Refer to the Passage Plan ECDIS Checklist in Annex VIII of this Manual. This
is also included in the Company’s Passage Plan Form B018.
 Make use of the Marine Information Objects (MIO) capability to plot
electronically navigational warnings (e.g. NAVAREA warnings)

x) Safe monitoring
Whenever possible, have two electronic navigational systems in operation for
establishing your vessel's position, set a generous time period for the ECDIS alarm to
sound before your vessel crosses any safety boundary or begins to deviate from its
Issued by : Approved : Ship Board Manual Vol.2
Charts and Nautical Publications
Name : N. Padhi Name : V. Rangroo Doc.Nbr.:NAV-0080 Rev. Nbr : 0007
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planned route. When linked up with radar set a distance as per Master’s standing
instructions for the CPA/TCPA alarm to sound if another vessel approaches.

ECDIS usually offers the capability to overlay radar data onto the chart display. This
may be selected targets or the full picture. According to the design, this option should
be used frequently, but not continuously, to verify the stabilization of the ECDIS
image. Discrepancies between the radar image of a fixed object and its
depiction as an electronic chart feature should be NOT be resolved by the “offset
function” provided on the equipment. Also if there is a difference in the observed
position and GPS position, the Radar overlay feature should not be used for position
monitoring.

The ECDIS must not be relied upon if the discrepancy between the radar display and
the ECDIS image persists, despite the use of the offset functions.

Target vectors, which are based on own ship’s speed through the water, will display
incorrectly when overlaid on an electronic chart. Therefore when overlaying radar
targets on an ECDIS display, the radar should be set to ‘ground-established’ (it
follows that this should not be the radar used for collision avoidance). (Please see
Section L for detailed information).

The Master shall also ensure that navigation officers are aware of the potential
dangers of over reliance on this equipment. The information from the ECDIS
must not be over relied on as it is intended as an aid to navigation.

Where information, such as the vessel’s position is obtained from GPS or equivalent
system, this must be cross referenced with an alternative and reliable source.

ECDIS provides instant monitoring of the vessel’s position in relation to the


electronic Chart. As a cross check of this instant monitoring, during coastal and port
passages Parallel Indexing (PI) should be used as a comparison and must be recorded.

Master must be informed immediately in event of failure or problems with the


ECDIS.

o) PRECAUTIONS AGAINST VIRUS


It is identified that the ECDIS equipment which is connected to other systems with
other Software and data transfer done via USB/CD can be infected by Virus Infection.

Always check with the maker prior installing any anti-virus in the ECDIS. If ECDIS is
fitted with Anti-Virus software then the ECDIS will automatically detect the Virus and
if fitted with an alarm, same should trigger. However many Units in use do not have
such functions.

The ECDIS if not fitted with an Internal Anti-Virus, it is prudent to ensure all
Hardware, E.g. USB Sticks and CD/DVD should be scanned prior every use for
Issued by : Approved : Ship Board Manual Vol.2
Charts and Nautical Publications
Name : N. Padhi Name : V. Rangroo Doc.Nbr.:NAV-0080 Rev. Nbr : 0007
Position : SQM Position : MD Date : 03/31/17 Page : 38 of 48

downloading chart correction or updating of charts before inserting into the ECDIS
Unit.

These corrections received on the communication system should be transferred onto a


standalone computer for ECDIS functions. The USB Sticks and CD/DVD should be
labelled and kept separately and used only on the Stand alone computer and then
connected to the ECDIS Unit for transferring data.

If the Correction is received through a broadband connection to the Communication


Computer then it is essential for a Firewall to be present between the Communication
Computer and the ECDIS Unit. In this case it is possible to download correction and
updates automatically onto the ECDIS Unit.

Master must ensure strict adherence that the Stand Alone Computer, USB sticks
and CD used for transferring data is not used for any other purpose. The Anti-Virus
Protection is up to date in order to prevent any Malfunction of the ECDIS Unit.

p) TRAINING OF NAVIGATING OFFICERS ON ECDIS


Each Navigational officer must have attended the IMO model course 1.27 for ECDIS
operation in a flag state approved training facility prior his signing on. The training
certificates must be available on board. An officer not certified to have attended the
generic ECDIS IMO model course 1.27 is not permitted to stand a navigational watch.

Type specific ECDIS training must be provided to any navigational officer prior his
signing on. If an officer was certified in the past then this will be accepted provided a
training certificate for the maker / type of ECDIS installed on board has been made
available to the Manning & Training Department. The shore based type specific
training must be provided by a maker approved facility or if the IMO ECDIS Model
Course 1.27 was done on the same make of ECDIS and is mentioned in the said
certificate.

If for whatever reason this training cannot be provided then an extended on


board familiarization period must be planned by the crewing department. During this
period sufficient time must be allotted to the on-signing officer by the master. The on-
board training must be completed before the on-signing officer is standing a watch on
his own. The training is to be recorded in the Form S143: ECDIS Familiarization
Checklist (See Annex I)
Issued by : Approved : Ship Board Manual Vol.2
Charts and Nautical Publications
Name : N. Padhi Name : V. Rangroo Doc.Nbr.:NAV-0080 Rev. Nbr : 0007
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q) CARE, MAINTENANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF ECDIS

Proper care of the ECDIS system is important to ensure safe navigation.

 ENCs are supplied to the vessels on DVD/CD-ROMs. These are subject to


physical damage or degradation if not handled or stored correctly. The original
discs and updates should be stored safely in dust covers.
 When a voyage is planned, all courses, safety contours, waypoints and notes are
saved in the system and stored in the voyage or routes subfolder for use again if
the voyage is repeated.
 The ECDIS software is updated as per the maker instructions. Temporary files
need to be deleted or old log files need to be cleared out as per manufacturer's
guidance to avoid clogging up the system and slowing down the operation.
 Vessels should only use a dedicated memory stick for transferring latest updates to
ECDIS. There is still the possibility of virus attacks, therefore updates shall be
applied to one ECDIS Console and updating of the second ECDIS should not be
done unless the update results are verified on first ECDIS.
 The navigating officer shall ensure that a back-up of the voyage plan on the
ECDIS is available in case of equipment failure of the ECDIS itself or the
connected sensors.
 Password Management (where available): User password allows the navigator to
make minor setup changes (non-critical) to ECDIS and this password shall be
known to all navigating officers. Administration password permits user to make
critical set up changes and shall only be accessed by the Master. Administration
password shall be included in Master's handing over notes.
 It is a good practice that ECDIS should be switched off once when in port for 5-10
minutes
 The Second Officer shall ensure that a back-up of the ECDIS data is done at
regular intervals, preferably prior every departure.
 Maintenance of ECDIS to be carried out as per the PMS in accordance with the
maker’s instructions.
 Screenshots to be taken and saved for various settings. This will act as a reference
for future use.
 The Master shall issue ‘Standing Orders’ and ‘Night Orders’ for ECDIS usage.
 Be aware of the procedure for transferring files (routes, maps etc.) from one
ECDIS to the other or to another path or drive.
Issued by : Approved : Ship Board Manual Vol.2
Charts and Nautical Publications
Name : N. Padhi Name : V. Rangroo Doc.Nbr.:NAV-0080 Rev. Nbr : 0007
Position : SQM Position : MD Date : 03/31/17 Page : 40 of 48

r) SOME COMMON ERRORS / MISTAKES BY THE USER, THE


CONSEQUENCES AND BEST PRACTICES
The following table provides a description of some of the user errors/mistakes that can
create a significant navigational risk and have resulted in grounding and collision:

Error Consequence Best Practice

1. Complete Appraisal Improper Passage Plan Ensure that complete Appraisal by


not done for referring to all relevant publications is
passage planning done

2. Visual Check of Plan may be incorrect Ensure that the Complete Passage Plan
passage plan not is checked first Visually on the largest
done scale ENCs and then by the ‘Route
Check’ tool. Plan to be checked during
Monitoring as well.

3. Insufficient Obstructions, Submarine cables Always ensure that all appropriate layers
information layers and pipelines and spot soundings are selected. This is particularly
selected are not shown on the chart important when planning passage. If in
any doubt, at regular intervals and when
breaching safety contour turn all layers
on.

4. Excessive levels of Insufficient overview of hazards Use compilation scale. Alter zoom
zoom outside of current view that are in regularly, use best scale functionality if
close proximity or some layers get available, set vector length to consistent
deactivated value

5. Incorrect ENC in Insufficient detail to show Check chart in use against passage plan.
use navigation hazards in proximity Be aware of chart ID with respect to
scale

6. Inappropriately set The ECDIS does not correctly Set values as per 0080
safety contour identify shallow depths or
obstructions

7. Inappropriately set Insufficient warning of navigation Regularly check and adjust XTD and
XTD or look ahead hazard to allow corrective action Guard zone to maintain at an appropriate
safety margin to be taken or excessive alarms level.
causing distraction

8. Alarm muted Navigation hazard proximity Always ensure that at least one of
alarm not noticed by OOW ECDIS’s alarm is not muted
Issued by : Approved : Ship Board Manual Vol.2
Charts and Nautical Publications
Name : N. Padhi Name : V. Rangroo Doc.Nbr.:NAV-0080 Rev. Nbr : 0007
Position : SQM Position : MD Date : 03/31/17 Page : 41 of 48

Error Consequence Best Practice

9. Navigation hazard Proximity of navigation hazard Give priority to Danger alarms over
proximity alarm not noticed caution alarms. Set parameters
not responded to appropriately to reduce number of
irrelevant alarms

10. ENC feature Misinterpretation of Ensure bridge team is familiar with


misinterpreted navigational danger the most important ENC symbols
and have the ENC symbol book
available on the bridge

11. Information of The hazards, symbols or Access information by ‘Pick


the ENC not information are not detected Reports’ and also accessing the
accessed in fully various notes in it.
detail

12. All ENCs not Ship could run aground Ensure the Digital Catalogue is used
ordered properly and all voyage charts are
ordered for

13. Overreliance on Ship may not be in the shown Cross-check position by plotting
the ECDIS, position. visual or Radar positions.
especially GPS
position

14. Unnecessary Could lead to confusion Settings to be changed only as


changes in amongst the Bridge team required. Important changes should
settings be mentioned in the ECDIS log book
Issued by : Approved : Ship Board Manual Vol.2
Charts and Nautical Publications
Name : N. Padhi Name : V. Rangroo Doc.Nbr.:NAV-0080 Rev. Nbr : 0007
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s) PICK REPORTS: To access additional information of the ENC ‘Pick Report’ has
to be done. Additionally the Text notes have to be accessed by opening the ‘txt’
files and the image files in the ‘tif’ files. See the below illustration.
Issued by : Approved : Ship Board Manual Vol.2
Charts and Nautical Publications
Name : N. Padhi Name : V. Rangroo Doc.Nbr.:NAV-0080 Rev. Nbr : 0007
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t) ECDIS LOG: An ECDIS log has to be maintained to record any abnormalities or


changes observed in the ECDIS behaviour. A record of software updates, problems
experienced, repairs, any changes made to the hardware or formatting etc should
be mentioned in the ECDIS Log.

2. CHART CORRECTIONS
All Charts onboard must be kept corrected to the latest weekly Notices to Mariners, but in
any case not older than 8 weeks. Masters are to designate the Second Officer for the
upkeep and maintenance of charts and publications.

Records and corrections are to be maintained and available on board. Used notices will be
maintained on board in yearly segregation for a period of two years.

2.1. CONTRACT WITH CHART CORRECTION COMPANY


Company has a contract with C & C for providing facilities for Chart & Publications
on line / mail system to all ships in the fleet. In case Owners would like to use their
own vendors, this is acceptable to the company.

2.2. CONTRACT WITH AUTO CHART SUPPLIER OUTFIT


The company has appointed C & C Marine as an approved vendor for supplying paper
charts and publications & Electronic charts and publications. Corrections and updates
are also supplied by the same vendor. C & C marine service is available 24 x 7. In
some cases, vendors nominated by owners are being used.

However, not-withstanding above, the Master may procure paper charts required for
the voyage locally, if there is any delay in supply of charts / publications.

The company has the following arrangements in place for corrections and updates.
a) Paper charts – Software E mariner is installed on board. Weekly corrections
are received on board from C & C marine. The information is downloaded on a
flash drive and then on the E mariner software. The decoded files are used to
correct the paper charts.

b) ENCs & RNCs - Software E navigator is installed on board. Weekly


corrections are received on board from C & C marine. The information is
downloaded on a flash drive and then on the E navigator. The decoded files are
used to update the ENCs and RNCs. In addition regular CD are also sent
containing large corrections which cannot be sent through weekly updates.

In case of some owners, the weekly updates are not being sent as a requirement
from owners. In such cases only regular CDs are being sent from vendors
nominated by owners containing the regular updates. However it is ensured that the
time interval between such corrections is not more than 8 weeks.
Issued by : Approved : Ship Board Manual Vol.2
Charts and Nautical Publications
Name : N. Padhi Name : V. Rangroo Doc.Nbr.:NAV-0080 Rev. Nbr : 0007
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c) Paper publications – Software E mariner is installed on board. Weekly


corrections are received on board from C & C marine. The information is
downloaded on a flash drive and then on the E mariner software. The decoded
files are used to correct the paper publications.

d) Electronic Publications – There are 3 ways of doing this correction.

i) If the computer on which the ENP and ADP are installed is connected to
internet – The update tab is used to directly update the publications from
UKHO website.

ii) Media method – The update file is received via E mail attachment from C &
C marine or vide a CD supplied from C & C marine. This file received via E
mail or CD is used to update the ENP and ADP.

iii) E-mail to UKHO website. The ship sends an E mail to the UKHO website
and receives an update file. This update file is used to update the ENP and
ADP.

(ALL DECK OFFICERS MUST BE FULLY CONVERSANT WITH CORRECTION


METHODS STATED ABOVE)

It is essential that ALL British Admiralty and, where necessary, United States
Hydrographic Department charts are corrected to the latest available Notice to
Mariners on-board.

The Admiralty Notices to Mariners Weekly Editions and tracings should be


retained on board for at least two years.

2.3. OUT OF DATE CHARTS


Superseded, cancelled and out of data charts must not be used for navigation. Such
charts must be clearly marked, removed, and stored separately from the charts in use.

2.4. CANCELLED CHARTS (PAPER CHARTS)


 The Company has placed onboard the vessel for general guidance the
Admiralty Chart Correction Log and Folio Index NP 133A, this publication is
to be used as a reference document and a record of charts / corrections /
cancelled charts.
 In cases where, on receipt of relevant notices, charts are found to have been
cancelled or superseded, then these are to be clearly marked as CANCELLED,
and should be used for reference only.
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Charts and Nautical Publications
Name : N. Padhi Name : V. Rangroo Doc.Nbr.:NAV-0080 Rev. Nbr : 0007
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 Cancelled charts should not be removed from the folio until its substitute has
been received onboard. A record is to be maintained, in the supplied index NP
133A, of all charts which have been superseded.
If an electronic version equivalent to NP 133A is available on board, hard copy
version NP 133A is not required to be maintained.
 If replacements are not received, from either the chart suppliers replacement
scheme, or from a direct order then the Marine Manager shall be advised at the
first opportunity

2.5. NAVIGATIONAL WARNINGS AND T&P NOTICES


(Including NTM Temporary and Preliminary Nav Warnings)
The Master shall delegate to one of the Navigating Officers (normally the Second
Officer) the task of maintaining navigational warnings (which includes NTM
Temporary and Preliminary Navigational warnings) and ensuring such warnings are
recorded and brought to the attention of the Master and Navigating Officers.
 Temporary and Preliminary Navigational warnings, as given in the weekly
updates / notices are to be compiled in a folder and kept up to date with regard
to their status (Valid or Cancelled)
 The Temporary and Preliminary Navigational Warnings are to be transferred to
the appropriate charts when transiting the different areas
 NAVTEX receivers fitted to vessels are to be left in the operational mode and a
file of relevant NAVTEX messages maintained. (This file is to be maintained
in a similar fashion to Temporary and Provisional Notices)
 A VHF watch is to be maintained at all times whilst the vessel is underway. In
coastal waters, navigational warnings are also transmitted by VHF from coastal
radio stations

2.5.1. NAVTEX
The Navtex on board must be kept on at all times at sea at distances less than
300nm from coast and during entire port stay in ports. In NAVTEX System,
information is available (through 518 KHz frequency channel of the Navtex)
include Navigational Warnings, Distress / Emergency messages, weather reports
etc.

Navigational Warnings transmitted by all means including Navtex are by nature


more short time and urgent than T&P Notices. Navigators using ECDIS should be
able to plot new dangers on electronic charts by use of Marine Information Objects
(MIO) capability of the ECDIS. The purpose of MIO is to highlight navigational
warning information on the electronic charts.
Issued by : Approved : Ship Board Manual Vol.2
Charts and Nautical Publications
Name : N. Padhi Name : V. Rangroo Doc.Nbr.:NAV-0080 Rev. Nbr : 0007
Position : SQM Position : MD Date : 03/31/17 Page : 46 of 48

All Navtex messages are obtained through a print out or a digital display system
with memory (for about 200 messages).

Whenever, a Navtex message has been received, the OOW receiving same must
read and sign the report. Thereafter if the Navtex message is affecting the chart in
use or for the voyage charts, they are to be marked in pencil on the charts with
Navtex Number and date. These Navtex messages are then to be filed in a separate
Navtex message file area wise.

Navtex messages more than 8 weeks are to be cancelled by striking off across. On
completion of the voyage the Navtex information drawn in pencil on the charts are
to be deleted.

While using ECDIS: the Navtex corrections can be done (on most ECDIS)
automatically and also deleted automatically when not applicable. (The ECDIS
Operations Manual must be consulted for procedures to follow). On some ECDIS,
navigation warnings received through Navtex are to be marked on the electronic
charts manually using MIO facility and deleted manually.

2.6. HYDROGRAPHICAL PUBLICATIONS AND UPDATING


The Company subscribes to an automatic updating system with our contracted
supplier. To achieve this automatic service however, the vessel must provide the
contractor with an updated list of all charts and publications (including non-
navigational reference books such as ISGOTT, SOLAS, and MARPOL.
 The Second Officer will be in charge of correcting the charts. The Third
Officer must assist the Second Officer.
 A chart correction folio NP 133A must be maintained unless the relevant
information is recorded in an equivalent system.
 The vessels receiving Admiralty Digital Catalogues (ADP) and/or electronic
Nautical Publications (eNP) must keep them updated and maintain the records
in electronic format.
 The vessels fitted with ECDIS should maintain the record of the ENCs, permits
with their validity and application of the Updates. These records should be
supplemented by the records in NP 133C - Admiralty ENC Maintenance
Record
 The corrections for List of lights and Radio Signals may be delegated to the
Third Officer at the Master’s discretion
 List of lights and Radio signals MUST BE CORRECTED STARTING FROM
THE NOTICE TO MARINERS TO WHICH THE BOOK HAS BEEN
CORRECTED AT THE TIME OF PRINTING
Issued by : Approved : Ship Board Manual Vol.2
Charts and Nautical Publications
Name : N. Padhi Name : V. Rangroo Doc.Nbr.:NAV-0080 Rev. Nbr : 0007
Position : SQM Position : MD Date : 03/31/17 Page : 47 of 48

 If at any time, the Notices to Mariners are not received, the Master must inform
the Office immediately. It shall be the Master’s responsibility to ensure that the
latest Notices to Mariners on board is within 3 – 4 weeks of the running weeks.
The Master has full authority to obtain the Notices to Mariners locally through
the agents or from the Harbour Master’s office. All efforts must be made to
correct the Passage Charts, especially port approach charts, prior sailing
 A Register or File containing all temporary and preliminary notices must be
maintained and referred to in passage planning.

2.7. THE T&P NOTICE NUMBER


The T&P Notice Number and the week must be written in pencil in the bottom left-
hand corner. The notices shall be filed area by area as per the Annual Summary of
admiralty Notices to Mariners.

This file must be used in conjunction with the list of T&P Notices published in the
Annual of Notices to Mariners.

2.8. RANDOM CHECKS BY MASTERS


Masters is required to carry out random checks of chart & publications on board.

2.9. SCALE OF CHART


Attention is drawn to the differing scales and units for depths, on different charts.
These should be guarded against.

The largest scale chart onboard, suitable for the area and fully corrected with the latest
available information is to be used.
Note: Definition as per Admiralty Chart Catalogue:
a) Large scale shows most detail (1:6000)
b) Small scale shows least detail (1:100,000)

2.10. PUBLICATIONS TO BE MAINTAINED ON BOARD


Publications as a minimum are to be maintained on board as per Company’s Form
G136 which is based on IMO MSC MEPC.2 / CIRC.2 requirements.

IMO instruments such as the SOLAS, MARPOL, LL, COLREG and STCW
Conventions deal with many operational aspects, inter alia, navigational
responsibilities, safety-related training / drills on board, safe cargo handling, oil spill
prevention, collision avoidance activities and watch-keeping standards. Therefore,
these publications, although not expressly required by IMO instruments, may need to
be carried on board in order to improve the crew‘s knowledge and to enhance the
implementation of IMO instruments.
Issued by : Approved : Ship Board Manual Vol.2
Charts and Nautical Publications
Name : N. Padhi Name : V. Rangroo Doc.Nbr.:NAV-0080 Rev. Nbr : 0007
Position : SQM Position : MD Date : 03/31/17 Page : 48 of 48

Vessels must forward the requisitions for updated versions of charts and publications
to the Office (Marine Department). It is the responsibility of the Marine
Superintendents to ensure that all updated versions of charts & publications are
provided to the vessel.

3. RELATED DOCUMENTS
Form B018: Passage Plan
Form G136: Standard Shipboard Reference Publications (Chart & Publications to be
carried on board)
Form S143: ECDIS Familiarisation Checklist (See Annex I)
Form B019: ECDIS Watch Handover Checklist
ECDIS Maker Manual
NP 5012: Admiralty Guide to ENC Symbols used in ECDIS
NP 231: Admiralty Guide to the Practical use of ENCs
NP 133C: Admiralty ENC Maintenance Record
MSC 1 / Circ. 1503: ECDIS-Guidance for Good Practice
VIQ – 4.1: Chart and nautical publication correction procedure
VIQ – 4.13: Has a system been established to ensure that nautical publications and
charts are on board and current?