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2010

Flood Disaster Report


Of Khyberpakhtunkhwa
By Aziz-ul-Haq, Izhaar-ul-Haq, Aamir Hussain

Technical Support Provided By DIFID, Elementary & Secondary Education For


Making Report
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa - 2010Floods Impact
Profile
Map Of Defected Areas Of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa By Flood Disaster 2010

GILGIT-

Chitral BALTISTAN

Swat

Kohistan
Upper Dir
86

Lower Dir Shangla


64 7
Batagram

Mardan
148 6
Mohmand Agency
29
Legend AFGHANISTAN Mansehra
Charsadda

River Haripur
PeshawarNowshera 39 4 K . P. 28
Flood Af ected Districts

Severe
Overall Situation Of Floods Disaster in Pakistan 2010

The situation in Pakistan has worsened due to recent Flood on 29th july 2010. The recent floods in
Pakistan have devastated the Southeast nation more than ever before in its 63 year history. The effect
of this disaster will naturally be complex, tremendous and immense. an estimated 20M of Pakistan’s 175
million population have been affected by the flood. In the northern province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa,
formerly known as the North West Frontier Province, large-scale flash floods destroyed thousands of
homes and infrastructural elements in a matter of hours. The water receded quickly and flowed down
from the mountainous province to the central and southern provinces of Punjab and Sindh. However,
there was not just one flash flood in the region, there were several which struck sequentially and
relentless
Floods have been recognized as a major natural calamity and the country has a long history of flooding
from the Indus river and its tributaries. Floods in Pakistan are mainly caused by heavy concentrated
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rainfall in the catchments during the summer monsoon season (July to September) which is augmented
by snowmelt flows. Rainfall during the period occurs due to the monsoonal systems (Lows or
depressions) coming from the Afghanistan river Kabul Flash floods triggered by torrential rain have killed
hundreds of people all over the province of KPK. , submerging many villages and hundreds of houses,
causing extensive damage to precious lives and property. Roadside kiosks and shops were submerged,
and water lapped at the walls of buildings. Many of the industrial units have been shut down and schools
and colleges temporarily closed. Also Road traffic remained suspended. As of today, estimate that over
4 million people in Pakistan are homeless due to the worst flooding in their recorded history.
Approximately one fifth of the country is under water. The worst part about the water is the filth and
disease that is living in it. Lots of water…but not a drop to drink. Congress is working on more aid for
Pakistan in order to head off any potential Islamic extremists moving in on an already horrific situation.
Despite the already unimaginable amount of damage, monsoon season is only half way over.

• Pakistan is experiencing the worst floods in their history.

• 650,000 homes have been destroyed.

• At least 500,000 people have evacuated the Sindh region of Pakistan.

• The current damage to the highways is expected to be in the $60 million dollar range, so far.

• Damage done to the power system and dams is expected to be in the $30 million dollar range, so
far.

• Pakistan’s National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) says that when this is all said and
done, they expect that this will be considered the worst disaster the country has ever experienced.

• The current estimated death toll is approximately 1600 people.

• Nearly 1.5 million acres of crops have flooded.


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• Over 10,000 cattle have died.

Roadside kiosks and shops were submerged, and water lapped at the walls of buildings. Many of the
industrial units have been shut down and schools and colleges temporarily closed. Also Road traffic
remained suspended
Heavy rain falls have triggered both flash floods and riverine floods in several parts of the country
resulting in lose of life and widespread displacement. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Punjab, Balochistan
and Azad Jamu Kashmir have been the worst effected areas. Millions of people have lost their homes
and livelihoods. All 7 agencies of FATA have been affected by the flood according to FATA Disaster
Management Authority.

Pakistan Flood Losses


Province Deaths Injured Houses Damaged Population Affected

Balochistan 40 98 75,261 312,774

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 1,068 1,056 179,874 4,365,909

Punjab 103 350 500,000 8,200,000

Sindh 51 407 272,354 3,684,267

AJK 69 83 6,472 245,000

Gilgit Baltistan 183 60 2,820 8,561

Total 1,514 2,054 1,036,781 16,816,511

The degree of severity to which people have been affected by the floods varies depending on their particular losses
and damages. UN assessments have been launched in at least three provinces to identify severely affected families
who require life-saving humanitarian assistance. For Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, the UN experts have identified 2.7 million
people in need of immediate humanitarian assistance.
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8

Rivers Flow Chart In Disaster


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Causes of flood Disaster In Pakistan

A lot of Pakistan's water problems stem from the fact that the imperial irrigation and water control system
has not been upgraded in spite of the fact that it is so old now (a lot of water is just wasted) and does not
serve the current needs. There are other issues too i.e. disproportionate attention paid to the water
system in the province of Punjab as compared to other parts of the country
Causes of Flooding
From a geological perspective, floods are a natural consequence of stream flow in a continually changing
environment. Floods have been occurring throughout Earth history, and are expected so long as the
water cycle continues to run. Streams receive most of their water input from precipitation, and the
amount of precipitation falling in any given drainage basin varies from day to day, year to year, and
century to century.

The Role of Precipitation


Weather patterns determine the amount and location of rain and snowfall. Unfortunately the amount and
time over which precipitation occurs is not constant for any given area. Overall, the water cycle is a
balanced system. Water flowing into one part of the cycle (like streams) is balanced by water flowing
back to the ocean. But sometimes the amount flowing in to one area is greater than the capacity of the
system to hold it within natural confines. The result is a flood. Combinations of factors along with
exceptional precipitation can also lead to flooding. For example, heavy snow melts, water saturated
ground, unusually high tides, and drainage modifications when combined with heavy rain can lead to
flooding.
Coastal Flooding
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Areas along coastlines become subject to flooding as a result of tsunamis, hurricanes (cyclonic storms),
and unusually high tides. In addition, long term processes like subsidence and rising sea level as a
result of global warming can lead to the encroachment of the sea on to the land.

Dam & Levee Failures


Dams occur as both natural and human constructed features. Natural dams are created by volcanic
events (lava flows and pyroclastic flows), landslides, or blockage by ice. Human constructed dams are
built for water storage, generation of electrical power, and flood control. All types of dams may fail with
the sudden release of water into the downstream drainage
As we have seen during Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans, levee systems designed to prevent flooding
can also fail and lead to catastrophic flooding and loss of life.

Stream Systems
A stream is a body of water that carries rock particles and dissolved ions and flows down slope along a
clearly defined path, called a channel. Thus streams may vary in width from a few centimeters to several
kilometers. Streams are important for several reasons

• Streams carry most of the water that goes from the land to the sea, and thus are an important part
of the water cycle.

• Streams carry billions of tons of sediment to lower elevations, and thus are one of the main
transporting mediums in the production of sedimentary rocks.
• Streams carry dissolved ions, the products of chemical weathering, into the oceans and thus
make the sea salty.

• Streams are a major part of the erosional process, working in conjunction with weathering and
mass wasting. Much of the surface landscape is controlled by stream erosion, evident to anyone
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looking out of an airplane window.

• Streams are a major source of water and transportation for the world's human population. Most
population centers are located next to streams.
Erosion by Streams

Streams erode because they have the ability to pick up rock fragments and transport them to a new
location. The size of the fragments that can be transported depends on the velocity of the stream and
whether the flow is laminar or turbulent. Turbulent flow can keep fragments in suspension longer than
laminar flow. Streams can also erode by undercutting their banks resulting in mass-wasting processes
like slumps or slides. When the undercut material falls into the stream, the fragments can be transported
away by the stream. Streams can cut deeper into their channels if the region is uplifted. As they cut
deeper into their channels the stream removes the material that once made up the channel bottom and
sides.
decrease. This results in deposition of such features as levees and floodplains. If the gradient of the
stream suddenly changes by emptying into a flat-floored basin, an ocean basin, or a lake, the velocity
of the stream will suddenly decrease resulting in deposition of sediment that can no longer be
transported. This can result in deposition of such features as alluvial fans and deltas.
Stream Deposits

Sudden decreases in velocity can result in deposition by streams. Within a stream we have seen that the velocity vari
position, and, if sediment gets moved to the lower velocity part of the stream the sediment will come out of suspensio
deposited. Other sudden changes in velocity that affect the whole stream can also occur. For example if the discharg
increased, as it might be during a flood, the stream will overtop its banks and flow onto the floodplain where the veloc
suddenly

Drainage Systems
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Drainage Basins and Divides - Drainage systems develop in such a way as to efficiently move water off
the land. Each stream in a drainage system drains a certain area, called a drainage basin. In a single
drainage basin, all water falling in the basin drains into the same stream. Drainage basins can range in
size from a few km2, for small streams, to extremely large areas, such as the Mississippi River drainage
basin which covers about 40% of the contiguous United States. A divide separates each drainage basin
from other drainage basins.

Situation Overview in KPK:

In KP this was the worst flood since 1929 and 25 districts are said to be hit. At least 400,000
people have been affected. Charsada, Swat, Nowsherah, Peshawar, DI Khan, Shangla and
Upper Dir,kohistan,Swabi etc are the districts badly hit. They have received 100-290 mm of
rain. This is the record rainfall in last 35 years. khyber-Pakhtunkhwa is the worst hit province as
over 567 houses were razed down to ground by flash floods, 90 highways were damaged, 58
big thoroughfares were closed for traffic; while, 104 people are still unaccounted. . All 7
agencies of FATA have been affected by the flood according to FATA Disaster Management
Authority.Torrential rains have brought a great disaster and caused a lot of damages not only
of building and infrastructure but also of crops and livelihood. In fact, the rain water flooded
streams and canals and then inundated in several villages destroying the corn, sugar dame,
rice and other crops.
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CHARSADA. A newly constructed part of a dam in the Charsadda district collapsed. The
district lost its road link with Peshawar after a portion of the bridge on river Sardaryab
collapsed, leaving thousands of people in Doaba, Kot, Tarnab, Dildar Garhi, etc
stranded.However, water level at both Khiyali and Sardaryab rivers did not rise. The
discharge could not be measured due to overflow of water in both the rivers. People
continued to shift to safer places
Mingora: Three hundred persons were killed in flood caused by torrential rains in
Swat valley and the floodwater also washed away scores of shops, houses, vehicles
and destroyed standing crops and orchards on thousands of acres of land in Kalam,
Bahrain, Madyan and Matta areas. Meanwhile, the power house in Swat has been
damaged and power supply to Swat has been disconnected. All bridges on river Swat
have been swept away cutting communication links in the district.
Bisham: Shangla district was also devastated where death toll climbed to 180 while
80 others sustained injuries due to heavy rains and floods. Over 100 bridges and
several kilometres of roads were washed away by the flash floods.
Nowsherah: it have been reported that almost whole of the Nowsherah is underwater. Huge
amount of destruction has been made in this district
BANNU,LAKKI MARWAT.TANK DERA ISMAIL KHAN: people in Bannu, Lakki
Marwat, Tank and Dera Ismail Khan are still facing rain and flood-related problems.
Tuesday’s heavy downpour once again caused flood in rainy nullahs in the region. The Rerha
Bridge on Meryan Road Bannu has been swept away by the flood.
The Rivers Ghambila and Kurrum are once again in high flood threatening the nearby population
of Bannu and Lakki Marwat.
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KOHAT
Shahpur, Ali Zai, Sherkot, Usterzai, Urban, is very much affected, many homes and
farms are under water. Heavy rainfall on 28th and 29th july 2010 and due to it, Stormy Flood
made a disastrous loss in every area of Khyber PakhtoonKhwa Province and reminded of
disaster occurred in 1929 and the world lacked modern facilities at that time. A Century record
is created when the stormy flood crossed the KHUSHAL GARH Bridge. The people collected
information of the loss due to two days continuous rain. The road and bridges near KHUSHAL
GARH were destroyed which resulted the closure of the road from Kohat to Rawaipindi.Old and
Rarely used Jarma Bridge also fell and destroyed ,where as in different areas the flood strike
and entered into the houses in which 39 peoples died and 25 serious casualties were reported
beside falling of houses to ground.
Hundreds of livestock were taken away by flood resulting heavy financial loss to the peoples.
Some dead bodies due to falling of Jarma Bridge were recovered from flood. People are
directed to report the loss in Police Station and Camps. For flood effected peoples Camps are
formed in HIGH SCHOOLS# 3 and # 4 of District Kohat , but still now ,in Gov. High school # 3
and # 4, only a few families, who are staying on rent or IDPs who stayed in there relatives
homes, are present in camps temporarily .
KOHAT
Shahpur, Ali Zai, Sherkot, Usterzai, Urban, is very much affected, many homes and
farms are under water. Heavy rainfall on 28th and 29th july 2010 and due to it, Stormy Flood
made a disastrous loss in every area of Khyber PakhtoonKhwa Province and reminded of
disaster occurred in 1929 and the world lacked modern facilities at that time. A Century record
is created when the stormy flood crossed the KHUSHAL GARH Bridge. The people collected
information of the loss due to two days continuous rain. The road and bridges near KHUSHAL
GARH were destroyed which resulted the closure of the road from Kohat to Rawaipindi.Old
and Rarely used Jarma Bridge also fell and destroyed ,where as in different areas the flood
strike and entered into the houses in which 39 peoples died and 25 serious casualties were
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reported beside falling of houses to ground.


Hundreds of livestock were taken away by flood resulting heavy financial loss to the peoples.
Some dead bodies due to falling of Jarma Bridge were recovered from flood. People are
directed to report the loss in Police Station and Camps. For flood effected peoples Camps are
formed in HIGH SCHOOLS# 3 and # 4 of District Kohat , but still now ,in Gov. High school # 3
and # 4, only a few families, who are staying on rent or IDPs who stayed in there relatives
homes, are present in camps temporarily .

MALAKAND The situation in Malakand Division is, however, still critical where people are
facing problems in getting access to the targeted areas. Link roads are still closed and the
further rains particularly in Swat, Shangla, Malakand and other northern areas of the region
have increased the problems. Electricity is yet to be restored to the region while in Upper Dir
food shortage is getting worst.
SWABI AND MARDAN
Twenty people have been confirmed dead as floods wreak havoc in Mardan and Swabi areas
while powerful stream of floods took away five persons in different areas of Azad Kashmir,
reported a private news channel Sunday. Nine persons went missing in Garyala, 2 in Kaganau
camp and 2 in Balagarhi area of Mardan while in Ismailia area Swabi 2 persons are missing.

The deaths mainly occurred due to collapsing of roofs as a number of villages were inundated
and fields damaged when floods hit the above areas. A wide area came under water as floods
made their way in Mardan and Swabi where 400 houses have collapsed so far. Thousands of
people are trapped in the flood-hit areas and efforts are underway by the locals and welfare
organizations to shift them to safer places. Ismailia, Kalu Khan, Khat Kalay, Sheraghand and
Nazar Kalay areas of Swabi are worst hit. Fields of corn, rice, sugar cane and tobacco have also
been damaged in Swabi and Mardan. The heavy floods have also swept away Kalu Khan bridge
in Swabi while the communication network has been severely damaged.
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distributed at the desired locations. UNICEF has also provided 2 Inter-agency emergency Health
Kits(IEHK) to Charsadda and Nowshera health departments.

Care International: is supporting flood affected people through 4 health facilities in Upper Swat
distrct. Care has treated 3000 people from 30 July to 3 August.

In Naseerabad district of Baluchistan, three (3) mobile health teams visited affected areas and provided health care services
the communities. The affected areas are Manjishore baroon, Rabi canal baroon, Balakot, New Mirwah, Ghot Palyan, Allahab
Qambola and RD 40 Magsi Shah. In Naseerabad and Sibi district of Baluchistan province, 596 patient consultations were
reported 3 August with 113 cases of acute diarrhea. The sudden change in the security conditions forced disease early warn
teams to perform duties in the field
WHO Response :
In Peshwar district, WHO provided one mini-emergency health kit (MEHK) to the Lady Reading
HospitalIn Kohat district, WHO provided one MEHK, to Kohatian Association NGO. WHO is also
supporting the disease early warning and response system throughout the flood-affected areas.
WHO provided 30 emergency water treatment books to Abbasin Foundation in Swat district.
WHO coordinated provision of hygiene kits and WASH items with UNICEF’s implementing partner
to the displaced population of Marghuzar Govt High School and Gullbandai School hosting 30
families.
Hygiene sessions were conducted with HRDS hygiene promotion teams at Marghuzar.
WHO is extending its surveillance services in flood-affected provinces of Pakistan with Emergency
Humanitarian Action (EHA) and Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI) teams. Surveillance
officers in addition to their original duties are also conducting acute flaccid paralysis (AFP)
surveillance. Similarly the EPI and AFP surveillance teams will conduct EHA disease surveillance.
The EPI -Coordinator is responsible for the overall diseases surveillance in the district. The
surveillance sites are divided between the 3 surveillance officers without duplication.
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Role of E& SE In KPK for Affecties of The Flood


Disaster
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Elementary & Secondary Education department play an important role in the recent flood which affected
almost half of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Elementary & Secondary Education department
decided to accommodate all the Dip’s of the province in Primary and Secondary Schools.
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Process to help the Affectees in KPK By E& SE


They Declared all the Government Schools of the Province as a relief Camps. They have assigned
Executive District Officers, E&S Education of the flood affected districts as District Incharge
and Principal / Headmaster of the Govt Schools occupied by the flood affectees as Camp
Incharge for Coordination and facilitation in their respective districts of the Camp. The school
Teachers are assigned as a helper for Distribution of NFI,s Fi,s among the Affectees. The
Security Guards and the peon’s have been given charge of Security of the Camps. They have
issued Notification to all the Competent authority to constitute/form teams of Elementary &
Secondary Education Departments for Monitoring and inspecting the Flood Affectees,
temporarily stationed in Govt Schools of the Following Districts.
Charsadda,Nowshera,Peshawar,Swabi,Dir Lower,Dir Upper,Bannu,DI
Khan,Kohat,Kohistan,Buner,Shangla,Batagram,Malakand,Haripur
Elementary & Secondary Education department have given task of Distribution of NFI,s and FI,s among
the flood affectees to EDO,s of the Concern Departments. On pilot basis E&SE are distributing
NFI,s and FI,s in Peshawar,Charsadda and Nowshera.

EMERGENCY NOTIFICATIONS ISSUED BY E&SE


RESPONSE FROM E&SE DEPARTMENT
Notification

Emergency Response

• The E&S Education Department established a crisis management cell in the EMIS
Section to cope with the emergency situation due to floods on war footing basis.

• Nomination of focal persons.


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• Food Distribution in schools.

• The competent authority immediately formed the different teams in all the effected
districts to monitor and inspect the flood affectees, temporarily stationed/
accommodated in the Government Schools.

• Mobilized the scout boys in schools camps for facilitation of flood affectees, food and
non food items distributions among the flood affectees resides in Govt. Schools.

• EDOs, E&SE of the flood affected districts as Districts in charge and


Principal/Headmaster of the Govt. Schools occupied by the affectees as Camp In
charge for coordination and facilitation.

• E&SE Department allowed Friends Welfare Foundation, Pakistan to start assessment


of the demolished flood affected schools further and assistance in rehabilitation,
restoration of schools, temporary shelters, tents, rented buildings and schools supplies
to the damaged schools to the recent flood in district Kohistan.

Number of Flood Affectees setteled in Government Schools of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa as on Dated


26/08/2010

No. of No. of Total No. of Affectees


No. of Families to
S. No.

Name of Schools Familie (including Students, Updated


whom the following
District occupie s Teachers and other On
facilities are available
d by setteled Govt. Servants)
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Flood Food Non-


in the
Affectee Item Food Hygiene Male Female Total
schools
s s Items
18/8/201
1 Mardan 37 298 64 0 293 606 572 1178
0
26/8/201
2 Swat 10 78 78 66 18 402 404 806
0
26/8/201
3 Peshawar 89 966 473 368 292 2407 2580 4987
1
Charsadd 1546 25/8/201
4 190 4825 4215 71 0 16062 31531
a 9 2
1113 26/8/201
5 Nowshera 241 3817 2530 391 3422 11889 23023
4 3
18/8/201
6 Bannu 19 50 46 51 51 280 182 462
0
25/8/201
7 Swabi 29 223 0 0 0 713 775 1488
3
24/8/201
8 DI Khan 99 755 0 0 0 2327 2030 4357
1
16/8/201
9 Lakki 12 37 4 0 4 311 347 658
0
24/8/201
10 Shangla 10 46 0 0 0 102 93 195
1
3375
Total 736 11095 7410 947 4080 34934 68685
1

Note 1. The above information has been taken via either fax or email or telephone
: and has been summarized.
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2. The detail and verified information will be furnished soon as and when available
from the EDO(E&SE) concerned.

ABSTRACT OF SCHOOLS DAMAGED DUE TO RECENT FLOODS IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA


Fully Damaged
Schools
Charsadd
Swat Shangla Batagram a Nowshera Swabi Malakand

S# Category M F T M F T M F T M F T M F T M F T M F T
1 1
1 Primary 14 5 9 12 0 22 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

2 Middle 4 1 5 1 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

3 High 2 0 2 1 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

4 Higher Secondary 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
S. Total (Fully 2 1 2
Damaged 21 6 7 14 3 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Partially Damaged Schools


Charsadd
Swat Shangla Batagram a Nowshera Swabi Malakand

S# Category M F T M F T M F T M F T M F T M F T M F T
4 1 10 1 2 1
1 Primary 29 14 3 2 6 8 14 2 16 8 7 25 66 37 3 4 9 3 11 2 3

2 Middle 2 1 3 1 1 2 1 3 2 0 2 2 9 11 3 2 5 0 0

3 High 4 0 4 0 0 0 2 0 2 4 0 4 13 2 15 0 0 0 3 0 3

4 Higher Secondary 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 5 0 1 1 1 0 1
S. Total (Partially 5 2 13 1 2 1 1
Damaged 36 15 1 3 6 9 18 3 21 4 7 31 82 52 4 7 12 9 5 2 7
7 1 3 2 13 1 2 1 1
Grand Total 57 21 8 17 9 6 18 3 21 4 7 31 82 52 4 7 12 9 5 2 7
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Fully Damaged
Schools

Dir (Lower) Dir (Upper) Buner D.I Khan Kohistan Haripur Tank

S# Category M F T M F T M F T M F T M F T M F T M F T
3 1
1 Primary 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 36 72 24 96 0 0 0 5 5 0

2 Middle 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 0 9 0 0 0 0 0 0

3 High 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0

4 Higher Secondary 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
S. Total (Fully 3 10 1
Damaged 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 5 37 83 24 7 0 0 0 5 5 0

Partially Damaged Schools

Dir (Lower) Dir (Upper) Buner D.I Khan Kohistan Haripur Tank

S# Category M F T M F T M F T M F T M F T M F T M F T
1
6 8 24 2 2 2
1 Primary 0 0 0 11 2 13 1 0 1 1 7 8 0 0 0 0 6 6 12 9 1
1
2 Middle 1 0 1 2 2 4 4 1 5 3 2 15 0 0 0 6 1 7 1 3 4

3 High 0 0 0 2 0 2 2 0 2 7 0 7 0 0 0 1 0 1 3 0 3

4 Higher Secondary 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 4 0 0 0 2 1 3 0 0 0
1
S. Total (Partially 1 8 9 27 2 3 1 2
Damaged 1 0 1 15 4 9 7 1 8 2 2 4 0 0 0 9 8 7 6 12 8
2
1 1 9 31 10 2 3 2 3
Grand Total 1 0 1 15 4 9 7 1 8 4 7 1 83 24 7 9 8 7 1 17 8

Fully Damaged

Grad Total
24

M F T
13 18
4 49 3

14 3 17

6 1 7

1 0 1
15 20
5 53 8

Partially Damaged

Grand Total

M F T
35 54
9 181 0

39 22 61

41 2 43

6 9 15
44 65
5 214 9
60 86
0 267 7