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Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 6 (2018) 834–841

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Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering

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Kinetic analysis of the adsorption of dyes from high strength wastewater on T

cement kiln dust

Y.H. Magdya, H. Altaherb,
Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, El-Minia University, P.O. Box 61511, Egypt
College of Health Sciences, Jumeira University, P.O. Box 555532, Dubai, United Arab Emirates


Keywords: In this work, the adsorption of Basic Blue 69 (BB69) and Acid Red 114 (AR114) dyes on cement kiln dust using
Adsorption batch technique was studied. The effects of contact time, mass of adsorbent and initial concentration of dyes
Cement were analyzed. Five kinetic models namely, pseudo first order, pseudo second order, Elovich, intraparticle
Dye diffusion, and Boyd were applied to analyze the experimental data. The data best fitted to pseudo second order
and Elovich models indicating the chemical nature of the adsorption process. The maximum adsorption capa-
cities of BB69 and AR114 were 2119 mg/g and 2125 mg/g, respectively. The equilibrium time was 240 min
when using a dose of 8 g/L compared to 300 min when using a dose of 40 g/L. The adsorption rate was fast in the
initial stage. Initial equilibrium was attained after 30 min when using a dose of 40 g/L and initial dye con-
centration of 500 mg/L. That value increased to 90 min when using the same adsorbent dose with initial dye
concentration of 300 mg/L. Generally, the equilibrium was attained within 90–300 min depending on the dye,
adsorbent dose, and initial dye concentration. The rate of adsorption was found to be affected by both film
diffusion and intraparticle diffusion.

1. Introduction degradation and biodegradation [15–22] are being applied for treat-
ment of wastewater containing dyes. Many of the conventionally used
Wastewater containing dyes represents a threat to aquatic life [1]. techniques are not efficient in the treatment process especially at high
In addition to being toxic, dyes hinder the penetration of the sun light concentration of dyes in the wastewater. Consequently, alternative
which is different forms of life required. Furthermore, the presence of treatment processes are necessary to achieve the required removal ef-
dyes in water bodies inhibits the growth of aquatic biota and decreases ficiency [5].
the oxygen solubility [2]. The adverse effects of dyes on human being The adsorption of dyes on activated carbon is considered to be very
include allergy, dermatitis, skin irritation, and cancer. Mutagenic and effective [23]. However, many factors must be taken into consideration
teratogenic effects on aquatic life as well as humans are also con- such as the cost of the manufacturing of activated carbon, the cost for
siderable [3]. regeneration after exhausting and the loss of adsorption efficiency after
More than 100,000 dyes are produced every year with a total regeneration [24]. The feasibility of the adsorption process is largely
amount of 7 × 105 metric tons. From this amount, approximately 100 dependent on the availability of cheap and widely available adsorbents
tons/year are disposed as a wastewater [4]. One reason for the huge [25,26].
amount of the discharged dyes is the high residual dyes that remains in Many conventional and non-conventional materials have been in-
the water bath during the dying process [5]. Another important reason vestigated for their ability to adsorb dyes. However, all of these ad-
is their utilization in a wide variety of industries including textile in- sorbents have various drawbacks such as low availability and high cost
dustry [6,7], rubber and plastics [8], cosmetics [9], paper industry of preparation [27]. Some of the tested materials are clay, bentonite,
[10], leather industry [11], tannery [12], food processing [13], and Lignocellullosic materials, chitosan and its derivatives, industrial solid
pharmaceutical industry [14]. wastes, biomass, bagasse pith, impregnated rice husk ash, zeolites,
Various treatment methods such as adsorption, ozonation, photo- agricultural by-products, peat, silica, date palm, cashew nut shell,
catalysis, flocculation–coagulation, oxidation, advanced oxidation, mixtures of carbon and fly ash, activated bio-char, saw dust, natural
electro-flocculation, membrane separation, electrochemical and synthetic polymers, waste materials, and various nanotubes

Corresponding author.
E-mail address: (H. Altaher).
Received 2 October 2017; Received in revised form 2 January 2018; Accepted 3 January 2018
Available online 04 January 2018
2213-3437/ © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Y.H. Magdy, H. Altaher Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 6 (2018) 834–841

[24,27–42]. To study the effect of time, three tanks were loaded with 1700 cm3
Cement kiln dust (CKD) which is a solid waste of cement industry of the tested dye at different initial concentration (300, 500, 700 mg/L).
has many advantages which makes it superior to other adsorbents. The To every tank, 0.2 g of CKD was added. The tanks were agitated at
first advantage is its low cost of use since it is a waste material that does 400 rpm. Samples were taken from the tanks at different time intervals,
not require any pretreatment. The only cost associated with this ma- filtered and analyzed to determine the final dye concentration.
terial is the cost of transportation which is common with any other Another set of experiments was conducted to study the effect of
adsorbent. Another advantage is its continuous supply taking into adsorbent mass. Three different vessels were loaded with 1700 cm3 of
consideration that approximately 30 million tons/year of CKD are 300 mg/L of the dye. To every vessel, a different mass of CKD (0.2, 0.4,
generated globally [43]. Another important advantage of CKD is its safe and 1.0 g) was added. The mixtures were agitated until equilibrium is
use. Most of the carbon-based adsorbents will leach different organic attained. Samples were analyzed to calculate the final dye concentra-
compounds to the treated water during the adsorption process [44]. tion. The experiment was repeated with different sets with initial con-
These organic compounds may react with chlorine during the disin- centrations of 500 and 700 mg/L. A similar technique was applied to
fection to produce carcinogenic disinfection byproducts. This is not the study the effect of initial dye concentration on the adsorption process.
case when using CKD.
The aim of this paper is to assess the potential use of CKD as a low 2.4. Kinetic models
cost adsorbent for removal of BB69 and AR114 from aqueous solutions.
Furthermore, another objective is to study the effect of mass of ad- The kinetics analysis of any adsorption process represents an im-
sorbent, concentration of adsorbates, and mixing time on the kinetic portant stage in the design of the adsorption system. Determining the
parameters. time required for the adsorption process to reach equilibrium is very
important. This equilibrium time is one result of the kinetic analysis of
2. Methods and procedure the adsorption system. The kinetic analysis determines the mechanism
of adsorption and the rate determining step. The experimental data was
2.1. Adsorbates analyzed using pseudo first order model, pseudo second order model,
Intraparticle diffusion model, Boyd model, and Elovich model. The
Basic blue 69 was supplied by Bayer. This dye does not have a linear forms of these models are introduced in Table 1.
specific known structure. However, it belongs to the methine group.
The general structure of methine group is illustrated by Fig. 1. 2.4.1. Pseudo first second order models
Acid red (AR 114) was supplied by Ciba-Geigy. The structure of the These two models estimate the rate of adsorption of adsorbate on
dye is indicated in Fig. 2. adsorbent. The values of k1 and k2 introduced in Table 1 represent the
The dyes were used as received (without any treatment). They were rate constants for pseudo first and pseudo second order models, re-
dissolved in distilled water to prepare the stock solution. The working spectively. These values are obtained by fitting the experimental data to
solutions (300, 500, 700 mg/L) were obtained by dilution using dis- the equations in Table 1. The pseudo first order model is usually used to
tilled water. The initial and final concentrations of the dyes were de- describe the initial state of adsorption, while the pseudo second order
termined at their maximum wavelengths (380, 520 nm for BB69 and model predicts the behavior over the entire range of the adsorption
AR114, respectively) using UV-1800 UV–vis Spectrophotometer, process.
Shimadzu, Japan. Each experiment was duplicated under the same
conditions. 2.4.2. Intraparticle diffusion model
This model considers the intraparticle diffusion as the rate con-
trolling step for adsorption. If the plot of qt against t0.5 passes through
2.2. Adsorbent
the origin, the intraparticle diffusion is the rate determining step. The
constant C in the equation indicates the layer surrounding the ad-
In this work CKD was used as an adsorbent. The cement kiln dust
was obtained from El-Minia White Portland Cement Factory, El-Minia
Governorate, Egypt. It was received as a very fine powder. A sieve
2.4.3. Boyd model
analysis was performed to characterize the cement dust. However, the
This model is applied to distinguish between the pore and film
dust was used without ant treatment. The chemical composition of CKD
diffusion and help determine the rate determining step. According to
was determined using X-ray fluorescence (ARL, made in Switzerland).
this model if the plot of Bt versus t produces a straight line that passes
through the origin, pore diffusion is the rate limiting step. Otherwise,
2.3. Batch equilibrium study the adsorption process is film diffusion controlled.

Batch adsorption was performed in the tank illustrated by Fig. 3. All 2.4.4. Elovich model
experiments were conducted at room temperature (25 °C). The agitation While Elovich equation does not provide a definite mechanism of
speed was kept at constant value for all tests (400 rpm). All samples adsorption, it gives information about the nature of the adsorption
were filtered before analysis to separate the adsorbent from the solu- process. If the experimental data fits this equation, then the adsorption
tion. process has a chemical nature. An important feature of this model is the
constant B (g/mg) which is the adsorption constant related to the extent
of the surface coverage and activation energy for chemisorption.

3. Results and discussion

3.1. Characterization of the cement

Table 2 illustrates the sieve analysis of the CKD. It is clear from the
analysis that the size of cement dust particles is widely distributed in
the range between 0.3 mm to less than 0.075 mm. However, 85% of
Fig. 1. General structure of the methine group.
them are less than 0.18 mm diameter.

Y.H. Magdy, H. Altaher Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 6 (2018) 834–841

Fig. 2. Molecular structure of Acid red 114.

3.2. Effect of mixing time

The kinetic of adsorption describes the relation between the mixing

time and the adsorbate uptake by the adsorbent. In doing so, the time
required for attaining equilibrium between the adsorbate and adsorbent
is determined. The kinetic of adsorption is also important for selecting
optimum operating conditions for the full-scale batch adsorption pro-
cess. It also helps determine the mechanism and adsorption rate [48].
Fig. 4 illustrates the effect of mixing time on BB69 uptake on CKD.
The plots in the figure show that the adsorption increases with time
until the equilibrium is attained. It is clear that there are two adsorption
stages. The adsorption was fast at the initial stage and became slow
near equilibrium. This phenomenon can be attributed to the presence of
large number of vacant adsorption sites during the initial stage. The
high concentration of the adsorbate at that initial stage might also
provide a high driving force for adsorption. With time, the number of
available sites decreased and the adsorbate molecules started com-
peting for the remaining sites. It must also be noted that the adsorbed
molecules might create repulsive forces during further adsorption. As
shown in Fig. 5, similar trend was observed for adsorption of AR114.
However, equilibrium was attained faster in case of AR114 adsorption.
Hameed [49] observed the same stages for the adsorption of 2,4,6-tri-
chlorophenol onto activated clay. He illustrated the difference in ad-
sorption rate to the adsorption on the exterior surface of adsorbent at
the initial stage which is a fast process. At the later stages, and after
Fig. 3. Schematic representation of the adsorption vessel, Z = height of liquid in vessel,
D = diameter of vessel, d = diameter of impeller blade, b height of impeller blade (0.01
occupying most of the exterior sites, the adsorbate molecules would
D). start penetrating the pores to reach the interior adsorption sites. This
process is always a slow process.
The chemical composition of CKD as determined using X-ray
fluorescence, is presented in Table 3. The chemical analysis indicates a 3.3. Effect of initial concentration
wide concentration range of the different constituents. However, the
bulk constituents are calcium oxide (45%) and silicate (22.2%). The As can be observed from Fig. 6, and for adsorbent mass of 0.2 g, the
high concentration of CaO gives the cement kiln dust its alkaline adsorption uptake increased from 714 mg/g to 2100 mg/g with the
character. Typically 6–10% of this CaO represent free lime [46]. The increase of initial concentration of BB69 from 300 mg/L to 700 mg/L.
considerable percentage of sulfate (4%) may also contribute to the The same trend can be observed for adsorbent masses 0.4 g and 1.0 g.
adsorption property of the cement kiln dust [47]. However, the maximum uptake decreased from 2500 mg/g to 625 mg/g
with the increase of adsorbent mass from 0.2 g to 1.0 g. That means the
adsorption process is highly dependent on the initial concentration.
That close relationship between adsorption and concentration may be

Table 1
Equations and parameter of different kinetic models [7,37].

Model Parameters

Pseudo first order qe, qt (mg/g) are the amounts of dye adsorbed at equilibrium and at any time t (min), respectively; and k1 (min−1) is the rate constant of the
1n(qe − qt) = 1n qe − k1t pseudo first order equation
Pseudo second order k2 (g/mg.min) is the rate constant of the pseudo second order equation, qe (mg/g) is the maximum adsorption capacity, qt (mg/g) is the amount
t / qt = 1/ k2 qe2 + t / qe adsorbed at time t (min)
Elovich α (mg/g min) is the initial adsorption rate and B (g/mg) is the adsorption constant related to the extent of the surface coverage and activation
qt=1/B1n(αB) + 1/B1nt energy for chemisorption
Intraparticle diffusion qt (mg/g) is the amount adsorbed at time t (min) and kid (mg/g min0.5) is the rate constant for the intraparticle diffusion model
qt=kidt0.5 + C
Boyd model qe, qt (mg/g) are the amounts of dye adsorbed at equilibrium and at any time t (min), Bt is the mathematical function of fractional attainment of
Bt = −0.4977 − 1n(1 − qt/qe) equilibrium

Y.H. Magdy, H. Altaher Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 6 (2018) 834–841

Table 2
Screen analysis of white cement kiln dust.

Mesh No. 50 60 70 80 100 120 140 170 200 Less

Diameter, mm 0.3 0.25 0.21 0.18 0.15 0.125 0.1 0.09 0.075 Less
Remaining mass, gm 2.68 8.9 40.8 59.85 74.55 48.9 42.39 40.5 21.62 9.31
% occurrence 0.76 2.54 11.6 17.1 21.3 13.97 12.11 11.57 6.17 2.61

Table 3
Chemical analysis of cement dust.

Compound SiO2 Fe2O3 Al2O3 CaO MgO SO3 Cl2

Weight per cent 22.2 0.11 2.78 45.0 0.21 4.0 1.80

Fig. 7. Effect of initial concentration of AR114 on its adsorption on CKD (mass of ad-
sorbent = 0.2 g).

attributed to the high mass transfer driving force that is excreted by the
high dye concentration at the initial stages of the adsorption process.
The increase in initial concentration had a considerable effect on the
Fig. 4. Effect of mixing time on uptake of BB69. final equilibrium time. The equilibrium was achieved after 110, 250,
and 300 min for initial concentrations 300, 500, and 700 mg/L, re-
spectively (Fig. 6). Moreover, the initial uptake rate changed from one
initial concentration to another. In case of low concentration, the
number of vacant adsorption sites was enough to accommodate the
number of dye molecules in solution thus no competition occurred
between the adsorbent molecules. Increase of surface coverage with
time lead to a decrease in the rate of adsorption until plateau was at-
tained [50]. A similar trend can be observed for the adsorption of
AR114 on CKD (Fig. 7). However, the equilibrium was attained earlier
for all tested concentrations.

3.4. Effect of adsorbent mass

The effect of mass on the adsorption parameters for both dyes is

given in Tables 4 and 5. The results indicate that, for all tested initial
Fig. 5. Effect of mixing time on uptake of AR114. concentrations, the increase of the adsorbent mass results in a decrease
of the uptake of the dye. Fig. 8 illustrates the effect of mass of CKD on
the adsorption of BB69 uptake. It is clear that the increase of the ad-
sorbent dose of CKD from 0.2 g to 1.0 g (at 300 mg/L of initial dye
concentration) lead to decrease of adsorption uptake from 691.4 mg/g
to 295.9 mg/g.
At the same initial concentration for AR114, the increase of ad-
sorbent dose from 0.2 g to 1.0 g resulted in a decrease of the uptake
from 1872.4 mg/g to 163.3 mg/g (Table 5). The decrease of dye uptake
with increase of adsorbent dose may be due to two reasons. First, high
doses of adsorbent may lead to the agglomeration of adsorbent particles
which results in the decrease of both the specific surface area and the
number of active sites. This will also result in an increase in the dif-
fusional path length. Second, increase of adsorbent mass will lead to
increase of available adsorption sites for the adsorbate molecules which
results in less saturation and less adsorption capacity [51].
Fig. 6. Effect of initial concentration of BB69 on its adsorption on CKD (mass of ad-
sorbent = 0.2 g).
3.5. Kinetic analysis

Tables 4 and 5 show a poor fit of the experimental data to the

pseudo first order equation. Moreover, the calculated qe values from

Y.H. Magdy, H. Altaher Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 6 (2018) 834–841

Table 4
Kinetic parameters for adsorption of BB69 on CKD.

Model Parameter 0.2 g 0.4 g 1.0 g

300 mg/L 500 mg/L 700 mg/L 300 mg/L 500 mg/L 700 mg/L 300 mg/L 500 mg/L 700 mg/L

qe,calc (mg/g) 1058.28 703.66 2329.01 487.69 761.74 865.58 96.96 175.11 1653.75
qe,exp (mg/g) 691.42 1158.7 2119 458.7 681.7 1382 296 203.5 533.83
K1 (min−1) −0.0298 −0.0115 −0.0117 −0.0154 −0.0137 −0.0106 −0.0205 −0.0139 −0.0257
R2 0.8566 0.9282 0.9673 0.9376 0.8602 0.7613 0.9203 0.9434 0.873

qe (mg/g) 714.2857143 1250 2500 526.32 769.23 1428.57 303.030303 227.27 625
qe,exp (mg/g) 691.42 1158.7 2119 458.7 681.7 1382 296 203.5 533.83
K2 (g mg−1min−1) 0.00007 0.00003 0.000005 0.00004 0.00002 0.00001 0.0002 0.0001 0.00002
h2 (g−1 mg min−1) 34.60 48.31 28.74 11.29 13.51 38.02 15.89 5.77 6.24
R2 0.9991 0.9985 0.9899 0.9945 0.9886 0.9889 0.9997 0.9955 0.9899

α (g−1 mg min−1) 18.46 30.72 157.57 25.49 64.05 1337.09 30.28 0.9916 78.04
β (g mg−1) 0.0566 0.0341 0.0096 0.0109 0.0069 0.0051 0.0389 0.0273 0.0074
R2 0.9455 0.9847 0.976 0.9671 0.9644 0.9337 0.8394 0.9781 0.9714

Intraparticle Diffusion
kid 17.663 29.351 104.39 16.389 26.338 35.509 4.2299 6.5577 24.083
C 397.98 645.64 253.53 170.95 205.21 613.81 227.79 87.574 116.15
R2 0.866 0.9562 0.9822 0.9676 0.9843 0.9569 0.7066 0.9716 0.9548

Film Diffusion
B −0.0176 −0.0095 −0.0119 −0.0156 −0.0137 0.0107 −0.0205 −0.0139 −0.0257
R2 0.9662 0.9897 0.9605 0.9362 0.8602 0.7609 0.9203 0.9434 0.8729

from the bulk of the solution to the thin layer of adsorbate surrounding
the surface of the adsorbent. In the second stage the adsorbate mole-
cules diffuse through the thin aqueous layer surrounding the adsorbent.
The third stage is due to the penetration of the adsorbate molecules
through the pores on the surface of the adsorbent. In the final stage the
adsorbate molecules are adsorbed on the surface of adsorbent. The
second and third stages are taken as the rate determining steps of the
adsorption process since the other two stages are usually fast [2]. These
two stages act in series and the slower of the two will be the rate de-
termining step. The two stages were investigated using film diffusion
model (Boyd model) and intraparticle diffusion model. According to
Tsibranska and Hristova [53] the diffusion of adsorbate molecules
through the adsorbent pores determines the adsorption rate in most of
liquid systems. The intraparticle diffusion model is applied by drawing
qt against t0.5. If the adsorption process follows this model the line
Fig. 8. Effect of adsorbent mass on adsorption of BB69. obtained must be a straight one with an intercept C that gives an in-
dication about the thickness of the boundary layer. The larger the value
this model (for the two dyes) do not match the experimental values. of C, the thicker the boundary layer is. If the straight line passes by the
Accordingly, pseudo first order model is not suitable for explaining the origin, the intraparticle diffusion is the sole rate determining step.
rate of adsorption of the two dyes on CKD. On the other hand, the Otherwise, other mechanism may be involved. Fitting of the data to
experimental data for both dyes indicates excellent compliance with Intraparticle diffusion model is depicted by Figs. 9 and 10.
both second order equation and Elovich model for all tested initial dye Since the lines obtained from fitting the data to the intraparticle
concentrations and for all tested adsorbent doses. The regression coef- diffusion do not pass through the origin, it may be assumed that in-
ficients (R2) for the linear plots of the two dyes according to pseudo traparticle diffusion is not the sole mechanism that controls the ad-
second order equation were higher than 0.99 for all the systems as sorption. It may be assumed that the external mass transfer is sig-
indicated in Tables 3 and 4. In case of Elovich model, the regression nificant only at the initial adsorption stages, and the final stages are
coefficients values were higher than 0.95 for most of the systems. The controlled by the intraparticle diffusion [54]. The considerable high R2
good fitting of the experimental data to pseudo second order equation values for both intraparticle diffusion and Film diffusion suggest a
and Elovich model indicates the chemical nature of the adsorption combination mechanism. As indicated by Figs. 4–8, the uptake of the
process [45,52]. The values of the rate constant k2, illustrated in Tables dyes on the adsorbent goes through different stages. At the beginning of
4 and 5 for BD69 and AR114, respectively, show a linear relationship the adsorption process, the uptake rate is very fast. This uptake rate
with the initial concentration of dye. decreases with time until reaching the equilibrium state. During the
The fitting of the experimental data to both pseudo second order early stages of the adsorption process, boundary layer resistance may be
and Elovich models provided valuable information about the dye up- involved. To understand the relation between the time and uptake of
take, the rate of adsorption, and the nature of the adsorption process dye, every stage can be analyzed separately in a process known as
(chemisorption). However, it does not provide any information about piecewise analysis. Applying the piecewise linear regression especially
the mechanism of adsorption. The adsorption of the adsorbate follows at the initial stage of adsorption will indicate the different stages of
four consecutive stages. First, the molecules of the adsorbate migrate mass transport [53]. Some researchers [55,56] indicated that the

Y.H. Magdy, H. Altaher Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 6 (2018) 834–841

Table 5
Kinetic parameters for adsorption of AR114 on CKD.

Model Parameter 0.2 g 0.4 g 1.0 g

300 mg/L 500 mg/L 700 mg/L 300 mg/L 500 mg/L 700 mg/L 300 mg/L 500 mg/L 700 mg/L

qe (mg/g) 818.358 781.722 1174.97 239.13 107.986 872.096 102.760 66.72 373.1942
qe,exp (mg/g) 1782.42 2125.75 1202.17 390.58 1174.46 664.67 163.32 475.33 323.72
K1 (min−1) −0.202 −0.021 −0.0113 −0.014 −0.0063 −0.018 −0.016 −0.0078 −0.021
R2 0.9451 0.8048 0.9053 0.9623 0.9476 0.935 0.9854 0.98 0.8928

qe (mg/g) 2000 2000 1428.571 416.67 1250 769.231 172.414 476.190 357.143
qe,exp (mg/g) 1782.42 2125.75 1202.17 390.5833 1174.458 664.6667 163.32 475.33 323.72
K2 (g mg−1min−1) 0.00006 0.0001 0.00001 0.0001 0.0001 0.00003 0.0003 0.0003 0.00009
h2 (g−1 mg min−1) 238.095 434.783 19.569 17.762 212.766 15.244 8.347 64.103 11.325
R2 0.9996 1.000 0.9801 0.9988 0.9997 0.9927 0.9996 0.9997 0.998

α (g−1 mg min−1) 96.779 117.532 161.33 92.165 36.970 366.065 44.129 23.684 0.0002
β (g mg−1) 0.0111 0.0091 0.0003 0.019 0.028 0.007 0.044 0.045 0.017
R2 0.9018 0.8686 0.943 0.9874 0.9019 0.9577 0.969 0.9743 0.9575

Intraparticle Diffusion
kid (mg g−1 min−0.5) 16.302 18.086 52.69 9.212 6.232 25.166 3.931 3.999 10.109
C (mg g−1) 1500.2 1829.9 260.14 229.52 1050.9 226.5 96.765 403.36 152.94
R2 0.9141 0.7357 0.9747 0.9646 0.9656 0.9591 0.8961 0.9791 0.9049

Film Diffusion
B −0.202 −0.0138 −0.0112 −0.014 −0.006 −0.0163 −0.016 −0.0078 −0.0205
R2 0.9451 0.8796 0.8703 0.9623 0.9476 0.8771 0.9854 0.98 0.8928

intraparticle diffusion plots might be classified into more than one re-
gion. The first sharp region at the initial stage is attributed to the in-
stantaneous adsorption, probably due to the interaction between the
functional groups at the external surface of adsorbent and the adsorbate
molecules (external surface adsorption). The second region is char-
acterized by gradual adsorption where the intraparticle diffusion is the
rate limiting step. The last region (if present) is due to the low adsorbate
concentration in the solution. In this stage, the intraparticle diffusion
slows down. The results of this present work are in agreement with the
above mentioned mechanisms. It is clear that the rate limiting step is a
combination of the two mechanisms.

3.6. Comparison of CKD adsorption capacity and feasibility study

Table 6 illustrates the maximum adsorption capacity of CKD to-

Fig. 9. Fitting the kinetic data of adsorption of BB69 on CKD to intraparticle diffusion wards BB69 and AR114 compared with other adsorbents. It is clear that
model. CKD has the highest adsorption uptake. The uptake values of CKD are
higher than that of activated carbon. To the best of our knowledge, and
according to the extensive literature review, CKD can be considered the
best adsorbent for both BB69 and AR114.

Table 6
Comparison for the adsorption capacities of different adsorbents to DD69 and AR114.

Dye Adsorbent qe, mg/g Reference

Egyptian bagasse pith 168 [57]
AC from Pinewwod 1119 [58]
palm-fruit bunch 92 [59]
Wood sawdust 74.4 [60]
Peat 226 [61]
Cement Kiln Dust 2119 This work

Egyptian bagasse pith 23 [36]
Impregnated Rice Husk ash 111 [37]
Fig. 10. Fitting the kinetic data of adsorption of AR114 on CKD to intraparticle diffusion AC from Kattamanakku tree leaves 450.02 [62]
model. AC from Ceiba Pentandra wood bark 69.45 [63]
Gingelly seed shell 102.24 [64]
Cotton seed shell 15.85 [65]
Cement Kiln Dust 2125 This work

Y.H. Magdy, H. Altaher Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 6 (2018) 834–841

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