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Triswan Larosa/The Future Defense System for the Indonesian Nation State/261-280

P-ISSN: 2087-9415
Jurnal Pertahanan E-ISSN: 2549-9459
Media Informasi tentang Kajian dan Strategi Pertahanan
yang Mengedepankan Identity, Nasionalism & Integrity Vol. 3 | No. 3

The Future Defense System for the Indonesian Nation State

Triswan Larosa*
*
Sekolah Staf dan Komando Angkatan Udara

Article Info Abstract


Keyword: The curent global situation has encouraged inter-
Global Strategic state rivalry to become increasingly violent, so
Partnership, that the survival of every nation-state is becoming
Concentric Defense, increasingly vulnerable. Therefore, every nation
Defense Belt, state has a responsibility to develop its own
Initial Buffer of Regional defense system to deal with the physical and
Stability. psychological threats. This paper discusses the
challenges and concepts of future defense system
for the Indonesia, with the framework of analysis
is the security vortex. The concept of the future
defense system for the nation state of Indonesia is
concentric defense, which consists of internal and
external defense belt, by building three basic
capabilities of the TNI to ensure national security,
and to build global strategic partnership, which
put Indonesia as an initial buffer of regional
stability.
Corresponding Author: Situasi global saat ini telah mendorong rivalitas
timothytriswan@yahoo.co.id antar bangsa menjadi semakin keras, sehingga
kelangsungan hidup setiap negara-bangsa menjadi
semakin rentan. Oleh karena itu, setiap negara-
bangsa bertanggung jawab membangun sistem
pertahanannya sendiri untuk menghadapi
ancaman nyata yang bersifat fisik hingga
psikologis. Tulisan ini membahas tentang
tantangan dan konsep sistem pertahanan masa
depan bagi Indonesia, dengan kerangka
analisisnya adalah Pusaran Keamanan. Konsep
sistem pertahanan masa depan bagi negara-bangsa
Indonesia adalah concentric defense, yang terdiri
dari internal dan external defense belt, dengan
Jurnal Pertahanan membangun tiga kemampuan dasar TNI untuk
Volume 3 Nomor 3
September – December 2017
menjamin keamanan nasional dan membangun
P–ISSN. 2087-9415 global strategic partnership, yang menempatkan
E–ISSN. 2549-9459 Indonesia sebagai initial buffer of regional
hh. 261-280 stability.
©2017 JP. All rights reserved.

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Jurnal Pertahanan Vol. 3 No. 3 (2017)

Introduction become one of the countries in the

In the current global category of failed states.1

situation, nations are faced with a The demand for the


variety of environmental conditions, fulfillment of these needs, has
especially unpredictable world encouraged the nations of the world to
climate changes and natural disasters. seek to expand, control and maintain
Along with this, the condition of its sovereign territory (Huala, 2011;
natural resources is also diminishing, United Nations General Assembly
as does petroleum. Resolution No. 626 (VII) 1952 and
United Nations Resolution No.1803
This encourages the
(XVII) especially areas that have
emergence of various problems
significant natural resources.
associated within environment
security, food and water security, Given this condition, every
energy security, economic security, nation develops its national strengths
political security, to military security and capabilities, wether it's defense,
and human security issue. economic and political. Therefore, the
global, regional and national defense
Given the various problems,
environment always needs to be
the rivalry among nations in the world
reviewed and analyzed to develop the
is increasing because of the demand
best defense system in the future.
for food, drinking water sources, raw
materials, other materials to energy to This paper seeks to present a
ensure the survival of the nation and thought on the concept of a future
the country. defense system, namely the best
future defense system for Indonesia,
The availability of these
as the Nation-State is faced with
resources becomes a very important
security issues. In this case, the object
factor because it can lead to severe
of analysis selected is the Indonesian
domestic crises and the nation will

1 reproduce the conditions for its own


Crisis States Workshop, London, March
2006, “a condition of ‘state collapse’ – eg, existence) atau ‘Crisis states’...a state under
a state that can no longer perform its basic acute stress, where reigning institutions
security, and development functions and face serious contestation and are potentially
that has no effective control over its unable to manage conflict and shocks (a
territory and borders (one that can no longer danger of state collapse)”,

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Triswan Larosa/The Future Defense System for the Indonesian Nation State/261-280

defense system compared to the It is even asserted that the


defense system in some countries defense system is done by the United
faced with security issues in their States as a responsibility given to the
respective regions. The goal is to US on the nations of the world (DoD
provide a new perspective in USA 2008). Therefore, the US
assessing Indonesia's defense system defense system is always directed to
in the present. face all the Challenges faced by the
world, not just its own nation (DoD
Defense System of Some Countries
USA 2008).
in the World
With this framework, the
Different fields, different
United States insists that the defense
grasshoppers, different ponds, also
system uses two approaches, namely
different fish. This proverb clearly
gives the idea that the defense system promoting human rights, justice and

of each country “definitely” will be dignity, and facing these Challenges,


formulating their military strategy.
different.
With this approach, the US
The author agrees with that
defense system has a goal to face the
thought, however, the author has the
Challenges that threaten the US and
idea that although it is different, but
strengthen cooperation with other
the frame of thought has similarities
countries to further ensure US
in judgement. Differences often arise
national security (DoD USA 2008).
because of different perceptions in
To that end, the US Department of
assessing or understanding every
security issue that exists, whether Defense has set five key goals in its
defense system: defending the
global, regional or national, as in the
homeland, winning the long-term
explanation below.
war, promoting security, preventing
The defense system of the
conflict, and winning a total war
United States is heavily influenced by
threatening the US.
the interests of protecting itself, its
With that goal, the US built
allied countries and its friendly
its defense system consisting of active
countries (DoD USA 2008).

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components, reserves, communities, In line with this, the defense


the public sector and contractors. system developed by the UK is also
directed to ensure its national security
The Georgian defense
(Chapman, 2015). The considerations
system (2017) also has the same
he uses more emphasis on the
relative view, ie using the approach
problem of Russian revival, until the
“Total Defense” approach, because of
problem of cyber threat.2 The British
the threat of aggression from major
perspective is more emphasized on
countries, especially the invasion
the balance of forces in the region,
experience of Russia.
due to historical factors of the past.
The approach encourages
Likewise, Australia, which
Georgia to build its defense system to
builds its defense system by
respond quickly to any threat of
aggression “in times of crisis and considering relatively similar

war” and also enhance cooperation problems with Britain, especially


concerns the development of US
with other countries or other
foreign policy and China, world order
international communities, such as
based on international laws, acts of
NATO.
terrorism to cyber and space threats.
The approach used by
In addition, Australia also
Georgia is based on consideration of
considers regional conditions,
the security environment that uses
particularly border issues, bilateral
assumptions to the actions of Russia,
relations with neighboring countries
the United States, NATO, the
European Union, domestic and (especially Indonesia), as well as the
conditions of every region near
regional conditions, to transnational
Australia (Chapman, 2015).
threats, formulated in the form of
most defense scenarios allows. However, Australia's
defense system is more emphasized
on ensuring its security from the north

2
Chapman, 2015, pg 50“...the emerging maritime surveillance, and next generation
Russian threat, rebuilding conventional warfare arenas including cyberwarfare,
military capability to deter advanced nation intelligence, and strategic
threats in areas such as ballistic missile communications,....”
defense, weapons of mass destruction,

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Triswan Larosa/The Future Defense System for the Indonesian Nation State/261-280

and lines of communication, maritime the western factor. Under these


security and stability of the Indo- conditions, China's defense system is
Pacific region. Therefore, Australia more emphasized in defending itself
prioritizes maritime issues and from military attacks and western
strengthens its air attack capability, as domination, reintegration of
well as improves the ability of land fragmented areas (such as Hong
and coastal defense, especially in the Kong, Taiwan, South China Sea,
north (Chapman, 2015). etc.), preventing the interference of
other countries in its internal affairs,
Along with some of these
and build a respectful attitude toward
countries, China's defense system is
also developed taking into account other countries in China (The State

various aspects that are relatively Council The People’s Republic of


China, 2013). Therefore, China is
similar. In essence, the main aspect of
increasingly building its military
Chinese consideration is the thought
power to become the world's second
derived from its past leader, Mao Tse-
largest in its military budget.
Tung, as well as his past trauma and
Marxist-Leninist-Maoist ideology. In line with the turn of the
national leadership level, China's
The main problem for China
defense system is increasingly built
was to unite all of the divided Chinese
stronger and more modern due to
nation of their empire until the entry
international and domestic pressures,
of the western nation which further
as President Xi Jinping (Lam, 2015):
divided the unity of China and also
the cruelty of its colonialists. Under “China is facing two pressure:
internationally, the country needs to
the circumstances, Mao Tse-Tung
safeguard its sovereignty, security,
emerged as a Chinese leader who was and development interests;
domestically, political security and
considered successful in reuniting
social stability should be ensured...the
China in one leadership. variety of predictable and
unpredictable risks has been
Since then, China has begun increasing markedly; a powerful
platform that can coordinate security-
to rise from its downfall, so the
related work is needed.”
Chinese defense system has the
perception that its greatest threat is

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This is because these integrity, and development interests


are all part of China’s core interests.”
pressures are perceived to pose
President Xi Jinping
various problems to China's national
emphasizes that the issue of national
security, so President Xi Jinping
security is a top priority, as it is a
confirms the concept overall national
major prerequisite in achieving a
security which is closely related to its
moderately prosperous society in all
main national interest (Lam, 2015):
respects and realizing the
“Pay utmost to both external and
rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, so
internal security; territorial security as
well as citizens’ security; traditional that China's defense system must
and nontraditional security...The
always be ready in the face of
security of not only individual
[citizens and units] but also the potential dangers and enemy threats at
collective will be safeguarded...
all times.
China will stick to the path of
peaceful development, but other Therefore, China's national
countries should not assume that
China will sacrifice its core national security concerns cover all aspects of
interests or that China will swallow the nation's life, whether political,
the bitter pill of undermining its
sovereignty, security, and economic, military, social, cultural,
developments interests.” technological, information,
Dai Bingguo (in Lam, 2015),
ecological, to nuclear security
state councilor in charge of
(Jinping’s, 2014).
diplomacy, explains that China's main
To that end, China develops
national interest is
its military capabilities and strengths,
“the core interests of China are
in line with its increasingly vital
defending its fundamental systems
and national security, preserving national interests. China developed its
national sovereignty and unification,
military strength comprehensively by
and maintaining the steady and
sustainable development of its modernizing and standardizing its
economy and society”,
military strength and capabilities
Reaffirmed by Chinese
(Jinping’s, 2014).
Foreign Ministry Spokesman, Qin
Not only that, China also
Gang,
builds its military strength, with high
“Areas relating to national
preparedness on all threats of war,
sovereignty, security, territorial
performs better simulation exercises,

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Triswan Larosa/The Future Defense System for the Indonesian Nation State/261-280

and also strengthens the fighting spirit ‘boundaries of national


interests’...We need to safeguard not
of officers and warriors to be
only national-security interests but
confident and capable of winning any also interests relating to [future]
national development.”
existing battles.
Indonesia's Defense System
Thus, China's defense
system is closely linked to China's Indonesia's defense system
ultimate goal of realizing a modern, has been affirmed in the Defense
prosperous and powerful China, as White Paper of Indonesia (Ministry of
confirmed by President Xi Jinping Defence, 2015). Indonesia Minister of
(2014). Defense affirmed that the defense
system developed by Indonesia is
“A wealthy country may build a
strong army, and a strong army is able emphasized on the role of Indonesian
to safeguard the country.” society in every state defense effort
In the end, China's national
(Ministry of Defence, 2015).
goals and ideals can only be achieved
Matters to be considered
with China's strong defense system
include the dynamics of strategic
with strong military power (Jinping’s,
environmental security in the Asia
2014).
Pacific region, the modernization of
“This great dream we have is to make
military power, the issue of border
our country strong. To achieve these
aims we must strive both to enrich the between countries, intra and inter-
country and build a strong national
state conflicts, the tendency of
defense and powerful military.”
contemporary conflict, the issue of
The defense system is not
weapons of mass destruction,
limited only within the territorial
boundaries of China alone, but also terrorism, espionage, transnational

capable to the whole world, as crime, knowledge and technology,


climate change, natural disasters,
described by Huang Kunlun (in Lam,
food security, water, and energy,
2015), The nationalistic theorist:
epidemic, and national strategic
“Wherever our national interests have
extended, so will the mission of our environment developmentl.
armed forces...Given our new
historical mission, the military forces Assessment of these issues is
must safeguard not only the country’s summarized in a thinking about future
‘territory boundaries’ but also its
threat estimates, which are military,

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non-military and threats hybrid, with development is preferred to support


the source of its threat coming from the aspect of community
state actors or non state actors, development, but an agenda is
whether it’s national, regional and emphasized (Ministry of Defence,
international (Ministry of Defence, 2015) on the issue of “...melindungi
2015). segenap bangsa dan memberikan
rasa aman pada seluruh warga
There are three types of
negara Indonesia”. (protecting the
threats, it is recalled that the threat to
entire nation and providing a sense of
Indonesia in the form of factual and
security to all Indonesian).
non factual threats. The prioritized
factual threats are terrorism, The agenda, implemented to
radicalism, separatism, natural create an integrated defense system
disasters, territorial offenses, robbery, between military and non-military
theft of natural resources, disease to defense. Efforts to realize the defense
smuggling and espionage. While non- system is done by building a defense
factual threats that are prioritized are system that is universal, active
open conflict or conventional warfare defensive, layered, improve regional
(Ministry of Defence, 2015). security, international cooperation,
empowerment of the defense
However, vision and mission
industry, and consolidate the
of the Indonesian defense system
awareness of defending the state.
(Ministry of Defence, 2015) is more
towards to realize “...Indonesia yang Methods
Berdaulat, Mandiri, dan Challenges Against Indonesia's
Berkepribadian Berlandaskan Defense System
Gotong Royong”, (a sovereign, self- In this paper, the authors use
reliant, and a personality based on qualitative analysis. From the
mutual cooperation Indonesia) with explanation above there is a different
the goal to fulfill the procurement of approach between the defense system
drinking water. of several countries above with the
The priority agenda of Indonesian defense system in
Indonesia defense system ensuring national security (Brown,

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Triswan Larosa/The Future Defense System for the Indonesian Nation State/261-280

1983). Indonesia's defense system is world, the defense system of each


more emphasized to face the threat country will be closely related to the
from within the country that is only states's and nation’s survival. The
faced with Military Operations picture below is a framework used by
Besides War (OMSP), both combat the author in analyzing the defense
and non-combat. system owned by Indonesia.

But in reality, neither


Indonesia nor any country in the

Figure 1. Framework Analysis. “Whirlpool of Regional Security in South


China Sea Region”. (Source: Triswan Larosa, 2016).

With the above framework This first and foremost


of analysis, any defense system built challenge is in line with Ohmae's
by Indonesia will face enormous (1995) view that in the future many
Challenges, especially the inter-state countries will lose control or their
rivalries (security dilemma) in the sovereignty in the economic, even
world to ensure the survival of political and security.
Indonesian nation and state. This condition indicates that
a nation in the world that will lose its

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values, identity and even its existence revolutions or coups, etc), so that
in global politics, because the nations in the end Indonesia no longer has
are no longer able to re-control the an existence, identity and values
system of the country and vice versa (Ohmae's 1995).
very dependent with the help or
This means that, inevitably,
“policy” of global actors.
want it or not, Indonesia's defense
Second challenge, system will be faced with both
Indonesia's defense system will also physical and psychological threats.
be faced with other state military
Third challenge, strongly
(actor) strategies (Bowdish, 2013).
related to the existence of
That is, Indonesia's defense system
international law or norms. If
must be able to face:
Indonesia's defense system does not
1. The actions of other state military consider the existing rules, laws or
(actors) that tend to be total international norms, then the nearest
destruction of the nation and state neighboring countries will be
of Indonesia (like genocide); or percieve Indonesia as a threat or
2. Actions aimed at paralyzing all Indonesia will be assessed as an
Indonesian national powers (like aggressive state, consequently the
with long-term wars or guerrillas, stability of the region will be
for example the Iran-Iraq War); or disrupted.
3. Actions aimed at destroying the
Fourth challenge,
power of the TNI (such as the
Indonesia's defense system will be
military actions of other countries
determined by three systems working
that will attack the strength of the
simultaneously, ie individual system,
TNI); or
state/national system and
4. Actions that threaten the existence
international system. Individual
of the Indonesian nation (such as
system shows the value factor and
terrorism, preemtive strike); as
perception of Indonesian national
well as other disguised state
leaders who have the authority to
military actions to weaken the
establish and mobilize Indonesia's
legitimate system of government
defense forces.
at the time (such as separatists,

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Triswan Larosa/The Future Defense System for the Indonesian Nation State/261-280

These national leaders will “attenuated” by other states (actors).


play a role in fostering patriotism to This is because, each country's
support Indonesia's defense system defense system is highly dependent
(nation at war), define the defense on its military weaponry system,
strategy (strategy of war) as well as which comes from the world's
the appropriate defense policy (policy weapon producers.
for war). Furthermore, Indonesia's
Which means, Indonesia's defense system will also be faced with
defense system is highly dependent how strong the response of the
on what is seen, heard and values existing international system, whether
owned by Indonesian national global system (response from big
leaders. If our national leaders are power or world organizations, such as
wrong in percieving correct PBB) and regional system (response
information and believes in an from regional power, ASEAN, etc.).
aggressive value, then the decision This means that Indonesia's defense
will also be wrong, so that the system will be confronted with a
Indonesian defense system will also balance of regional and global forces.
face big problems. Fifth challenge, Indonesia's
Indonesia's defense system defense system will be faced with
will also be faced with how much domestic, regional and global
support the national system, namely conditions. Basically, the three
the support of national power, such as conditions are closely related to the
the quantity and quality of human problem of “availability” of energy,
resources, defense materials, defense food, drinking water, living space,
technology, science, defense industry, natural resources, to a climate that
to national reserves. supports the survival of the
Indonesian nation.
The support of the national
system will determine the Domestic conditions are
independence of Indonesia's defense closely related to the problem of
system in the face of any form of fulfillment of raw materials or
threat that exists, so it is not easily materials for national productivity

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and consumption needs, as well as These problems are caused


issues related to security and defense, by changing natural conditions that
so that it will be able to encourage the are more difficult to predict and many
emergence of national security natural disasters (nature chaotic) and
problems. increased acts of violence (terrorism)
to humanity (dignity chaotic),
Regional conditions are
economic recession to the monetary
closely related to the issue of strategic
crisis that can not be solved by the
value of the region for the vital
economic experts and world leaders
national interests of each country,
(economic chaotic), the various
whether it is political, economic and
strategic, for example the South political problems of the world have

China Sea region, the Middle East, not been able to be resolved well
(political chaotic) and conflict or
etc.
inter-state conflict is increasingly
For Indonesia, the two
difficult to resolve (military chaotic).
regions have a very high strategic
From these explanations, the
value for Indonesia's vital national
Challenges to be faced by Indonesia's
interests. Therefore, inevitably, the
defense system are quite complex.
capabilities and strengths of the
Nevertheless, by looking at the
Indonesian military must be able to be
defense system developed by some
“used” in these areas, although with
countries above, the Indonesian
certain limitations.
defense system will be “definitely”
Finally, Indonesia's defense
faced with the threat of using physical
system will also be faced with global
and psychological violence.
conditions closely linked to issues of
Therefore, thoughts about
war and inter-state conflict that are
the Indonesian defense system in the
happening near or far from
future must always be built so that the
Indonesia's borders, acts of terrorism,
survival of the nation and the state of
hunger and drought, disease, to all
Indonesia is always guaranteed.
that can be categorized as a global
threat.

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Results anticipate every change that exists


The Concept of Indonesia's Future in the global order.
Defense System In relation to the main and
With such complex first Challenges, Indonesia's defense
Challenges, Indonesia's defense system needs to be more emphasized
system must be able to face and to ensure the nation's survival and
overcome the rivalries between national security, as well as China and
nations that occur in the present and other countries.
future, both regionally and globally. Indonesia's defense system
Therefore, the grand design of must be able to ensure the
Indonesia's defense system must preservation of Indonesian values,
provide the greatest and best benefits
identity and existence, so that
for the nation and the country of Indonesia is not one of the nation-
Indonesia, that is: states destroyed in the future.
1. Indonesia's defense system can Furthermore, it can be
place Indonesia in a “safe expanded to become greater, and
position” in the global acceptable to all nations of the world,
competition, that is, Indonesia can and can “tackle” threats that arise
take strategic advantage for the against them.
national interest.
It is, the mindset about
2. Indonesia's defense system can national defense in Indonesia's
place Indonesia in a “crucial national paradigm needs to be
position” in global leadership, constantly changed, no longer have
where Indonesia can play an the mentality of the colonial era or the
active role or influence the era of war of independence, which is
balance of existing forces. expelling out the “colonizers”, but
3. Indonesia's defense system can Indonesia's defense system must be
put Indonesia in a “balanced able to guarantee the improvement of
position” in global competition, the welfare (economy) of Indonesia,
where Indonesia can always national strength of Indonesia, and
support the role and leadership of

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Indonesia in international forums in the future, because it is closely related


rivalries between nations. to the quantity and quality of defense
equipment owned.
This requires an increase in
the function and role of the TNI, not It is, the TNI is required to
only as a defense instrument but as an have three basic capabilities, namely
instrument of Indonesian foreign the ability to guarantee all efforts of
policy, which can support every the Indonesian nation in achieving its
achievement of the interests of vital interests, the ability to guarantee
Indonesia wherever located in this all efforts of the Indonesian nation in
world. managing and exploiting every
potential resource that is
Therefore, inevitably, it must
indispensable to the Indonesian
be revised again, namely the
Indonesian defense system must be nation, both within and outside the

able to guarantee national security territory of Indonesian sovereignty,


and the ability to guarantee all efforts
(Brown, 1983) the Indonesian nation
of the Indonesian nation in preserving
and state must be able to guarantee the
all that has been achieved and owned
efforts of Indonesia in fulfilling the
by the Indonesian people since the
national vital necessatity, must be
time of independence until today.
able to guarantee and support the
efforts of Indonesia in managing and Along with this, the future
exploiting every potential resource Indonesian defense system must be in
that is indispensable to Indonesia, line with every policy and direction of
both within and outside the territory Indonesian foreign policy. It is,
of Indonesian sovereignty, and must Indonesia's defense system and
be able to guarantee the perseverance foreign policy of Indonesia is like a
of all that has been achieved and “coin” which is always back to back
owned by the Indonesian nation to (sebelah menyebelah), or like an
this day. “Indonesian man”, which means his
mindset is Indonesian foreign policy
This is a very difficult task
to achieve national interest, and his
and requires a very large budget to
strong body is Indonesia's defense
support the task and role of the TNI in
system to realize all the “ideas” that

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Triswan Larosa/The Future Defense System for the Indonesian Nation State/261-280

exist. Thus, it can be said that and certain military presence in the
Indonesia's future defense system South China Sea, etc..
must be able to win Indonesia in the Furthermore, Indonesia's
rivalries among nations in the world. defense system must be able to
Furthermore, the second overcome certain countries that can
challenge can only be overcome by affect Indonesia's vital interests
the modernization of TNI alutsista directly or indirectly, such as the issue
that can overcome any threat of of Indonesia's national interest in the
military force use, whether physical Malacca Strait, the problem of
or psychological. securing natural resources in Papua,
the actions of the OPM supported by
In accordance with the above
many other countries, etc. And last is
explanation, the future Indonesian
defense system must be able to the Indonesian defense system must

overcome every country that wants to be able to realize national security


(Buzan, 1991) to create a “sense of
dominate Indonesia, both regionally
security” for the nation and state in
and globally, in terms of politics,
the international system that is
economy and security.
anarchy (Buzan, 1983).
Indonesia's defense system
With these ideas, Indonesia
must be able to deal with certain
needs to do a road map of the
countries, both regional and global,
spectrum of war that is likely to be
that may threaten Indonesia, directly
encountered by using some
or indirectly, with the quantity and
quality of modern weaponry systems war/conflict scenarios. Some of the
most likely scenarios are scenarios of
posessing great destructive force, thus
great power domination of Indonesia,
affecting Indonesia's foreign policy;
asymmetrical and symmetrical
such as the presence of certain
wars/conflicts, and coup.
country's military forces around
Indonesia, the modernization of the The dominance of a large
capabilities of certain state weapon country can only be overcome by
systems, the extent of nuclear missiles building a complex defense system,
with a fourth-generation military

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capability combined with counter- defense components), improving the


intelligence efforts, total diplomacy, quality and quantity of defense
handling economic blockade issues, infrastructure, defense and
strengthening people's nationalism, enhancement of existing defense
tackling terrorism problems and budgets.
anticipating the support of other great In the aspect of defense
power against the effort to divide the technology, it is expected that the
nation. development of maritime power is
Symmetrical war/conflict now blue water navy, with priority on
scenarios can be overcome by improving the quality of warships and
building a defense system that puts submarines with great
forward the concept of balance, the maneuverability and destructive
balance of threats and the deployment power.
of TNI forces in every territory of Along with this, the need to
Indonesian sovereignty, and by
develop a national air defense system
strengthening existing territorial by applying integrated battlespace
defenses. management system that can integrate
Asymmetrical war/conflict all components of military power to
scenarios can be overcome by guarantee the principle of “command
building active defensive concepts, of the air, control of the air”, so that
strengthening military cooperation the Indonesian Air Space is free from
with some countries, especially with any object or activity that could
certain great power that is a comprimise national security.
manufacturer of military equipment.
In addition, it is necessary to
With this concept, strengthen the existing territorial
Indonesia's defense system can be defense system by integrating
built by prioritizing the principles of existing defense systems with future
innovations owned by the national national air defense systems,
defense industry, aimed at improving including maritime forces, so that the
the quality of existing human entire Indonesian defense system is
resources (TNI soldiers and other fully integrated. With the concept of

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Indonesia's defense system, it is the spirit of the Indonesian people


expected that the sovereignty, (nation at war), establish the best
integrity and safety of the Indonesian defense strategy (strategy of war) and
nation and nation can be more secure the best policy for defense (policy for
in the future. war) for Indonesia.

Overcoming the third With this defense


challenge can be done by building an information system, Indonesia
Indonesian defense system that desperately needs a “National
prioritizes international standards in Security Council” or the like (such as
every use of TNI strength. This means the national security council in the
that TNI systems must be built with US) that serves as a forum to unify
standards recognized by the world or their perceptions and values in the
modernization with high technology national decision-making process and
and integrated, so that in every use of at the same time establish the best
the TNI's power can be in line with national strategy, and together to
the provisions in international law or foster the spirit of the people of
norms. Indonesia to face all existential threat
and ensure the survival of Indonesia.
With the fourth challenge,
Indonesia's defense system must be Through this vessel, they
built with the support of the best (especially the President of the
defense information system to Republic of Indonesia) can mobilize
support the decision-making process Indonesia's national power to support
of Indonesian national leaders. This is Indonesia's total defense system and
necessary because national leaders can establish the best defense policy
must have the same perceptions and to face any response from the
values about Indonesia's actual international system, either regionally
defense conditions. or globally.

They must understand all the The fifth challenge can be


risks, real threats and consequences overcome by Indonesia with a defense
for the survival of the Indonesian system that can build global strategic
nation in the future. So they can foster

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partnership with existing “forces” or actor who will become Indonesia's


both in the region and in the world. strategic partner.

This is due to the strong In the external belt defense


interdependency between nations in applied strategies to overcome the
the world in the field of security, potential threat, because not all
economy and politics. The main countries or actors have a “benefit” is
purpose is to build a “concentric good for the interests of Indonesia.
defense” with countries around In the external belt,
Indonesia, in the region to the world, Indonesia seeks to build the solidity
as shown below. of the region in order to realize the
rigidity of the regional security
structure, with code of conduct. At the
same time, placing Indonesia's role as
an “initial buffer of regional stability”
in maintaining regional stability,
encouraging the exchange of regional
security information and setting up a

Figure 2. Concentric Defense regional mechanism in addressing


regional security issues.
With this concentric defense
system, Indonesia's defense system While on the internal

consists of internal defense belts, the defense belt more implement towards

ASEAN defense belt, the Asia- the “elected” strategy, that is

Pacific-Indian Ocean defense belt and choosing the existential threat that
the global defense belt. will be faced with the strength of the
TNI.
It concentric defense system
aims to support the achievement of It means that Indonesia's

Indonesia's national interests by future defense system must be able to

promoting defense diplomacy, in set clear, active, “target” goals, with

which Indonesia must choose high flexibility, high mobility,

appropriately and correctly the state presence, minimal casualties, far-


reaching and well-integrated.

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Triswan Larosa/The Future Defense System for the Indonesian Nation State/261-280

With this concentric defense and state of Indonesia. Therefore, it is


system, Indonesia can influence the necessary to establish the function
assumptions used by threat sources, and role of the TNI as an instrument
provide a prompt and timely response of Indonesian foreign policy.
to all actions that will threaten In line with this, the national
Indonesia, detect as early as possible paradigm on national security must be
action plan that threatens Indonesia, reformulated in accordance with
and can even stop the action plan. academic rules, so that the future
Conclusion Indonesian defense system can realize
three basic capabilities for TNI
Indonesia's defense system
strength, by applying various
is a very complex national system,
war/conflict scenarios, and improving
because, in essence, it is a policy for
war that shows the spirit of the the quality of TNI alutsista with

Indonesian nation to maintain the international standards, able to set


clear, active, “target” goals with high
nation-state's survival by applying the
flexibility and mobility, remote
Indonesian military strategy (strategy
setting, remote reach, and minimal
of war).
casualties and well integrated.
Thus, Indonesia's future
The “National Security
defense system is largely determined
Council” body is a must in the future
by strong national leadership, reliable
Indonesian defense system as a
national military support and the
platform to unite the perceptions and
response of existing international
systems, particularly in the Asia values of national leaders in assessing
and making decisions related to
Pacific region, especially Southeast
national security issues.
Asia.
Indonesia's future defense
Therefore, the grand design
system is concentric defense to build
of Indonesia's defense system must be
global strategic partnership with
able to overcome the rivalry between
existing, regional and global
the nations that occur in the present
strengths, consisting of internal and
and future, both regional and global,
external defense belts, to build the
and ensure the survival of the nation

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Jurnal Pertahanan Vol. 3 No. 3 (2017)

solidity of the region in order to Department of Defense. (2008).


National Defense Strategy.
realize the rigidity of regional security
United States
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regional mechanisms in addressing Defense White Paper. Australia
regional security issues. Economic, C. A., & Cooperation, T.
(2013). Information Office of
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