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ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING WORKSHOP LABORATORY MANUAL

EXPERIMENT NO. 1

FAMILIARIZATION / IDENTIFICATION OF COMPONENTS WITH SPECIFICATION

Aim

Active, Passive, Electronics, Electrical, Electromechanical, Wires, Ca-

bles, Connectors, Fuses, Switches, Relays, Crystals, Displays, Fasteners and Heat sink.

Active components

Active components increase the power of a signal and must be supplied with the signal and a source of power. The signal is fed into one connection of the active device and the amplified version tak- en from another connection.

To familiarize and identify

Example: Diodes, Transistors, Integrated circuits.

Passive components

Passive components do not increase the power of the signal. They often cause power to be lost. Some can increase the voltage at the expense of current, so overall there is a loss of power.

Example: Resistors, Capacitors, Inductors.

Electronics components and symbols

Component

Circuit Symbol

 

Function of the component

 

Passive Components

 
   

A

resistor resists the flow of current, exam-

Resistor

Resistor ple is to limit the current passing through an

ple is to limit the current passing through an

 

LED.

Variable Resistor

Variable Resistor This type of variable resistor with 3 contacts (potentiometer) is usually used to control

This type of variable resistor with 3 contacts (potentiometer) is usually used to control voltage. It can be used like this as a trans- ducer converting position (angle of the con- trol spindle) to an electrical signal.

Potentiometer

LDR (Light Dependent Resistor)

LDR (Light Dependent Resistor) Light Dependent Resistor or Photo resistor, which is a basically a resistor

Light Dependent Resistor or Photo resistor, which is a basically a resistor which has a resistance that varies depending of the light intensity.

Thermistor

Thermistor The thermistor is a special type of variable resistor that changes its resistance when exposed

The thermistor is a special type of variable resistor that changes its resistance when exposed to changes in temperature.

Varistor Voltage dependent resistor (VDR)

Varistor Voltage dependent resistor (VDR) A varistor is type of variable resistor with an

A

varistor is type of variable resistor with an

electrical resistance that varies with the ap-

plied voltage.

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ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING WORKSHOP LABORATORY MANUAL

Component

Circuit Symbol

Function of the component

Tapped resistor

Tapped resistor Tapped resistor is a fixed r esistor having one or more additional terminals along

Tapped resistor is a fixed resistor having one or more additional terminals along its length, generally for voltage-divider appli- cations.

 
  A capacitor stores electric charge. A capaci-

A

capacitor stores electric charge. A capaci-

Capacitor

tor is used with a resistor in a timing circuit.

can also be used as a filter; to block DC signals but pass AC signals.

It

Electrolytic Capacitor

Electrolytic Capacitor An electrolytic capacitor is a polarized ca- pacitor that uses an electrolyte to achieve

An electrolytic capacitor is a polarized ca- pacitor that uses an electrolyte to achieve

larger capacitance than other capacitor types.

a

Trimmer Capacitor

Trimmer Capacitor This type of variable capacitor is operated with a small screwdriver or similar tool.

This type of variable capacitor is operated with a small screwdriver or similar tool. It is designed to be set when the circuit is made and then left without further adjustment.

 
Step Down Step Up

Step Down

Step Up

A

transformer is an electrical device that

Transformer

transfers electrical energy between two or more circuits through electromagnetic in- duction. Transformers are used to step up (increase) and step down (decrease) AC voltages. There is no electrical connection between the coils.

Transformer

Transformer

Inductor

Inductor An inductor, also called a coil, is a passive two - terminal electrical component that

An inductor, also called a coil, is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores electrical energy in a magnetic field when electric current is flowing through it.

Iron Cored

Air Cored

Inductor

Inductor

 

Active Components

Diode

Diode Diode is a semiconductor device with two terminals, typically allowing the flow of cur- rent

Diode is a semiconductor device with two terminals, typically allowing the flow of cur- rent in one direction only .

Light-emitting diode (LED)

Light - emitting diode (LED) A light - emitting diode is a semiconductor

A

light-emitting diode is a semiconductor

device that emits visible light when an elec- tric current passes through it.

Zener Diode

Zener Diode Zener diode is special diode which is used to maintain a fixed voltage across

Zener diode is special diode which is used to maintain a fixed voltage across its termi- nals.

 
  A photodiode is a semiconductor device

A

photodiode is a semiconductor device

Photodiode

that converts light into an electrical cur-

rent.

Transistor

B

C C B E E
C
C
B
E
E

Transistors are three-terminal devices, and its pins are labeled collector (C), base (B), and emitter (E). It is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals.

NPN

PNP

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ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING WORKSHOP LABORATORY MANUAL

Component

 

Circuit Symbol

 

Function of the component

Phototransistor

 
Phototransistor   Phototransistors are either tri - terminal (emitter, base and collector) or bi - terminal

Phototransistors are either tri-terminal (emitter, base and collector) or bi-terminal (emitter and collector) semiconductor de- vices which have a light-sensitive base re- gion.

   

A

Silicon-Controlled Rectifier, or SCR, is

 

GATE

essentially a Shockley diode with an extra terminal added. This extra terminal is called the gate, and it is used to trigger the device into conduction (latch it) by the application

Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR)

ANODE CATHODE

ANODE

CATHODE

of a small voltage.

Triac

GATE

Triac GATE   Triac is a three terminal, four layer, bi - directional semiconductord evice that
 

Triac is a three terminal, four layer, bi- directional semiconductordevice that con- trols AC power.

MT 2

MT 1

 

Switches

 
   
      A push switch allows current to flow only
 

A

push switch allows current to flow only

Push Switch

when the button is pressed. This is the

switch used to operate a doorbell.

   

This type of push switch is normally closed

Push to OFF Switch

 
Push to OFF Switch   (on), it is open (off) when the button is pressed.

(on), it is open (off) when the button is pressed.

ON-OFF Switch

 
ON - OFF Switch   An On - Off switch allows current to flow only when

An On-Off switch allows current to flow only when it is closed (on) position.

   
    A relay is an electrically operated switch. In

A

relay is an electrically operated switch. In

Relay

relays contacts are opened or closed by a magnetic force to control a circuit by a sep-

arate low-power signal.

 

Audio & Radio devices

 
   

A

microphone, is a transducer that con-

 
  verts sound into an electrical signal. Micro-

verts sound into an electrical signal. Micro-

Microphone

phones are used in many applications such as telephones, hearing aids, public address systems for concert halls and public events.

   
      A loudspeaker is an electroacoustic trans-
 

A

loudspeaker is an electroacoustic trans-

Loudspeaker

ducer which converts an electrical audio signal into a corresponding sound.

Crystal

 
Crystal   When a voltage source is applied to a small thin piece of quartz crystal,

When a voltage source is applied to a small thin piece of quartz crystal, it begins to change shape producing a characteristic known as the Piezo-electric effect. This Pie- zo-electric effect is the property of a crystal by which an electrical charge produces a mechanical force by changing the shape of the crystal and vice versa.

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ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING WORKSHOP LABORATORY MANUAL

 

Component

Circuit Symbol

 

Function of the component

 

Power Supplies & Fuse

 

Cell

Cell Cell Supplies electrical energy. The larger terminal (on the left) is positive (+). A single

Cell Supplies electrical energy. The larger terminal (on the left) is positive (+). A single cell is often called a battery, but strictly a battery is two or more cells joined together.

 
  An electric battery is a device consisting of

An

electric battery is a device consisting of

Battery

one or more cells.

Solar Cell

Solar Cell Solar Cell converts light energy to electrical energy.

Solar Cell converts light energy to electrical energy.

   

DC

power supplies are power sup-

 

Supply

  Supply plies which produce an output DC voltage.

plies which produce an output DC voltage.

DC

Power supplies are devices that deliver electric power to one or several loads.

AC

Supply

AC Supply AC power supplies are power sup-

AC

power supplies are power sup-

 

plies which produce an output AC voltage.

 
  A connection to earth. For many electronic

A

connection to earth. For many electronic

Earth

circuits this is the 0V of the power supply.

   

In electronics and electrical engineering,

fuse is an electrical safety device that op- erates to provide overcurrent protection of a

fuse is an electrical safety device that op- erates to provide overcurrent protection of

a

Fuse

an

electrical circuit. Its essential component

 

is

a metal wire or strip that melts when too

much current flows through it, thereby in- terrupting the current.

 

Displays

 
  A Seven - segment display (SSD), or seven -

A

Seven-segment display (SSD), or seven-

segment indicator, is a form of electron-

Seven Segment Display

ic

display device for displaying decimal nu-

merals that is an alternative to the more complex dot matrix displays.

LCD Displays

LCD Displays LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) is a type of dis- play used in digital watches

LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) is a type of dis- play used in digital watches and many port- able computers.

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ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING WORKSHOP LABORATORY MANUAL

Component

Circuit Symbol

 

Function of the component

 

Meters & Oscilloscope

 
 
    A voltmeter is used to measure voltage.
 

A

voltmeter is used to measure voltage.

Voltmeter

The proper name for voltage is 'potential

difference',

Ammeter

Ammeter An ammeter is used to measure current.

An ammeter is used to measure current.

Ohm meter

Ohm meter An ohmmeter is used to measure re- sistance. Most multimeters have an ohm- meter

An ohmmeter is used to measure re- sistance. Most multimeters have an ohm- meter setting.

Oscilloscope

Oscilloscope An oscilloscope is used to display the shape of electrical signals and it can be

An oscilloscope is used to display the shape of electrical signals and it can be used to measure their voltage and time period.

 

Wires & Connections

 

Wire

To pass current very easily from one part of

a

circuit to another.

Wires joined

Wires joined When wires are j oined, their respective lines on the circuit diagram will intersect,

When wires are joined, their respective lines on the circuit diagram will intersect, and a small, circular dot will be put over their intersection point.

Wires not joined

Wires not joined When circuits are drawn some wires may not touch others. This can only

When circuits are drawn some wires may not touch others. This can only be shown by bridging them or by drawing them with- out blobs.

 

Logic Gates

 
 
    A NOT gate can only have one input. The
 

A

NOT gate can only have one input. The

NOT Gate

output of a NOT gate is the inverse (opposite) of its input, so the output is true when the input is false.

AND Gate

AND Gate An AND gate can have two or more inputs. The output of an AND

An AND gate can have two or more inputs. The output of an AND gate is true when all its inputs are true.

OR Gate

OR Gate An OR gate can have two or more inputs. The output of an OR

An OR gate can have two or more inputs. The output of an OR gate is true when at least one of its inputs is true.

 

A

NAND gate can have two or more inputs.

 
    The 'o' on the output means 'not' showing
 

The 'o' on the output means 'not' showing

NAND Gate

that it is a Not AND gate. & • The output of

NAND gate is true unless all its inputs are true.

a

 
    A NOR gate can have two or more inputs.
 

A

NOR gate can have two or more inputs.

NOR Gate

The 'o' on the output means 'not' showing

that it is a Not OR gate.

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ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING WORKSHOP LABORATORY MANUAL

Component

Circuit Symbol

Function of the component

Fasteners & Heat Sink

Fasteners

of the component Fasteners & Heat Sink Fasteners A fastener is a hardware device that me-

A fastener is a hardware device that me-

chanically joins or affixes two or more ob- jects together. In general, fasteners are used to create non-permanent joints; that is, joints that can be removed or disman-

tled without damaging the joining compo- nents.

Heat Sink

tled without damaging the joining compo- nents. Heat Sink A heat sink is a passive heat

A heat sink is a passive heat exchanger that

transfers the heat generated by an elec- tronic or a mechanical device to a metal body, where it is dissipated away from the device, thereby allowing regulation of the device's temperature at optimal levels.

Result

Studied about Active, Passive, Electronics, Electrical, Electromechanical, Wires, Cables, Connect- ors, Fuses, Switches, Relays, Crystals, Displays, Fasteners and Heat sink.

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