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# ECE 1231

Electronics

## Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

International Islamic University Malaysia
Chapter 3
Diode Circuits
Rectifier Circuits 1-3

##  A dc power supply is required to bias all electronic circuits.

 A diode rectifier forms the first stage of a dc power supply.

##  The output voltage vo usually be in the range of 3 to 24V

 The secondary voltage vs and the primary voltage vI are related by
vI/vs = N1/N2
Rectifier Circuits 1-4

##  Rectification is the process of converting an alternating (ac)

voltage into one that is limited to one polarity.
 Rectification is classified as half-wave or full-wave rectifier.

Half-Wave Rectification 1-5

##  Half-wave rectifier circuit and

voltage transfer characteristics,
vO versus vS.

##  For vS < Vγ, the diode will be

nonconducting, so the output
voltage will remain zero.
 When vS > Vγ, The diode
becomes forward biased and a
current is induced in the circuit.

and
For vS > Vγ, the slop of the transfer curve is 1, assuming the diode forward resistance rf =0.

Half-Wave Rectification 1-6

##  If vS is the sinusoidal signal, the

output voltage can be found by
using the voltage transfer curve.

##  For vS > Vγ, vO = vS - Vγ for

vS ≤ Vγ, output voltage is zero.

##  When diode is cut off, no voltage

drop occurs across resistor R, entire
input signal voltage appears across
the diode.

Half-Wave Rectified Signal 1-7

 T = 02
 0  has some value, Vm
   2 is 0
 Thus the average value is Vm/  = 0.318
The DC voltage out of the diode: VDC = 0.318Vm, where Vm = the peak voltage

Effect of VT on Half-Wave Rectified Signal 1-8

Full-Wave Rectification 1-9

##  The full-wave rectifier inverts the negative

portions of the sine wave so that a unipolar
output is generated during both halves of the
input sinusoid.
 During the positive half of the input voltage
cycle, diode D1 is forward biased and
conducting and D2 is reverse biased or “off”.
The current through D1 and the output
resistance produce a positive output voltage.
 During the negative half cycle, diode D1 is cut
off and D2 is forward biased or “on”. The
current through the output resistance again
produces a positive output voltage.

## The voltage transfer characteristics, vO versus vS, assuming that

forward diode resistance rf of each diode is small and negligible.

Full-Wave Rectification 1-10

##  When vS > Vγ, D1 is on and the output

voltage is vO = vS - Vγ.
 When vS is negative, then for vS < -Vγ or
-vS > Vγ, D2 is on and the output voltage
is vO = -vS - Vγ.

 Since a rectified output voltage occurs during both positive and negative
cycles of the input signal, this circuit is called a full-wave rectifier.

Full-Wave Rectification 1-11

##  The rectification process can be improved by using more diodes in a

full-wave rectifier circuit.
 Full-wave rectification produces a greater DC output.

 T = 02
 Thus the average value is 2Vm/  = 0.636

Bridge Rectifier 1-12

##  During the positive half of the input voltage

cycle, vS is positive, D1 and D2 are forward
biased, D3 and D4 are reverse biased and
produces the output voltage across R.
 During the negative half cycle, vS is
negative, D3 and D4 are forward biased, D1
and D2 are reverse biased and produces
the same output voltage polarity as before.

Rectifier Circuits 1-13

Example
Compare the transformer turns ratio in two full-wave
rectifier circuits.
Consider the input voltage is from 120 V (rms), 60 Hz
ac source. The desired peak output voltage vO = 9 V,
and diode cut-in voltage Vγ = 0.7 V.

Rectifier Circuits 1-14

## Consider the input voltage is from 120 V (rms), 60 Hz

ac source. The desired peak output voltage vO = 9 V,
and diode cut-in voltage Vγ = 0.7 V.

Filters, Ripple Voltage, and Diode Current 1-15

##  A capacitor is added in parallel with the

load resistor of a half-wave rectifier to
form a simple filter circuit.
 The voltage across capacitor follows the
initial portion of the signal voltage.
 When the signal voltage reaches
its peak and begins to decrease,
the voltage across the capacitor
starts to decrease or discharge.
 If the RC time constant is large,
the voltage across the capacitor
discharges exponentially.
 During this time period, the diode
is cut off.

Filters, Ripple Voltage, and Diode Current 1-16

##  During the next positive cycle of the

input voltage, there is a point at which
the input voltage is greater than the
capacitor voltage, diode turns back on.
 The diode remains on until the input
reaches its peak value and the
capacitor voltage is completely
recharged.
 Since the capacitor filters out a
large portion of the sinusoidal
signal, called a filter capacitor.

## The steady-state output voltage of the

RC filter

Filters, Ripple Voltage, and Diode Current 1-17

## Figure: Half-wave rectifier with smoothing capacitor.

Filters, Ripple Voltage, and Diode Current 1-18

## The ripple effect in the output from a full-wave rectifier circuit:

 The capacitor charges to its peak voltage value when the input
signal is at its peak value.
 As the input decreases, the diode becomes reverse biased and
the capacitor discharges through the output resistor R.
 The output voltage or the voltage across the capacitor:
t’ = time after the output has reached its peak
RC = time constant of the circuit

## T’ = the discharge time

Filters, Ripple Voltage, and Diode Current 1-19

##  The diode in a filtered

rectifier circuit conducts
for a brief interval ∆t
near the peak of the
input signal.
 The diode current
supplies the charge lost
by the capacitor during
the discharge time.

Voltage Regulator 1-20

## A voltage regulator supplies constant voltage to a load.

Zener Diode Circuit 1-21

##  The breakdown voltage of a Zener diode is nearly constant over a

wide range of reverse-bias currents.
 This make the Zener diode useful in a voltage regulator, or a
constant-voltage reference circuit.
 We can write:

##  For the diode current IZ, we get:

where IL = VZ / RL

Zener Diode Circuit 1-22

## For proper operation of the circuit:

 The diode must remain in the breakdown region.
 The power dissipation in the diode must not exceed its rated value.
 The current in the diode is a minimum, IZ(min), when the load current is a
maximum, IL(max), and the source voltage is a minimum, VPS(min).
 The current in the diode is a maximum, IZ(max), when the load current is
a minimum, IL(min), and the source voltage is a maximum, VPS(max).
 We obtain:

and

Zener Diode Circuit 1-23

Example
The voltage regulator is to power a car radio at VL = 9 V from an automobile
battery whose voltage may very between 11 and 13.6 V. The current in the
radio will very between 0 (off) and 100 mA (full volume). If the min Zener
current to be one-tenth the max Zener current, or IZ(min) = 0.1 IZ(max), find
the value of the current-limiting resistor Ri.
We get:

Clipper and Clamper Circuits
Clippers 1-25

## ● Clipper circuits, also called limiter circuits, are used to eliminate

portion of a signal that are above or below a specified level.

##  The diode DI is off as long as vI < VB + Vγ.

 With DI off, the current is approximately zero, the voltage drop across R is
essentially zero and the output voltage follows the input voltage.
 If vI > VB + Vγ, the diode turns on, the output voltage is clipped and vO = VB + Vγ.
 In this circuit, the output is clipped above VB + Vγ.

Clippers 1-26

##  Other clipping circuits can be constructed by reversing the diode,

the polarity of the voltage.

Clippers 1-27

##  Diode clipper circuit can be designed such that the dc power

supply is in series with the input signals.

Clippers 1-28

##  Positive and negative clipping can be performed simultaneously

by using a double limiter or a parallel-based clipper.

##  The parallel-based clipper is designed with two diodes and two

voltage sources oriented in opposite directions.
 The voltage transfer characteristics of
the limiter circuit.
 The limiter is a liner circuit if the signal
is in the rage ,
where Av = slope of the transfer curve.

Clippers 1-29

Example
Find the output of the parallel-based clipper.
For simplicity, assume that Vγ = 0 and rf = 0 for
both diodes.

Clampers 1-30

## ● Clamping shifts the entire signal voltage by a dc level.

 The sinusoidal input voltage signal, vI.
 During the first 90 degrees of the input
waveform, voltage across the capacitor,
vC = vI (assuming that rf = 0 & Vγ = 0).
 When vC reaches its peak and begins to
decrease, the diode is reverse biased.
 Ideally, capacitor
cannot discharge,
so that vC = VM.
 By KVL, we get

Clampers 1-31

##  In this circuit, the RLC time constant is assumed to be large, where RL is

 For simplicity, assume that rf = 0 & Vγ = 0, then output is clamped at VB.
 An example of a sinusoidal input signal and the resulting output voltage
signal are plotted, the output is shifted in a negative voltage direction.
 Similarly, a square-wave input signal and the resulting output voltage
signal are plotted by neglecting the diode capacitance effects and
assuming that the voltage can change instantaneously.