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TASK #1 - MAIN Causes of WWI (M = Militarism) 1. What is militarism?

_______________________________
__________________________________________________
Militarism denoted a rise in military expenditure, an increase in military and naval forces, more influence
of the military men upon the policies of the civilian government, and a preference for force as a solution
2. What happened after 1871?
to problems. Militarism was one of the main causes of the First World War. __________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
After 1871, the war atmosphere engendered by the secret alliances led to an armaments race among the
powers. The race was particularly serious between 1900 and 1914, as the international situation became 3. How much did defense expenditure increase between
much worse than before. There was a significant rise in the army and naval estimates of the European 1870 and 1914?
powers in these years. __________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
Total Defense Expenditure (in million £ ) by Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, Britain, France and Russia
1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1914 4. Which nation increased its military spending the most
94 130 154 268 289 398
and by how much?
__________________________________________________
It is also important to take notice of the fact that from 1910 to 1914, while France increased her defense __________________________________________________
expenditure by 10%, Britain by 13%, Russia by 39%, and Germany was the most militaristic as she
increased by 73%. Increased war expenditure enabled all the powers to raise more armies and improve 5. Which nations adopted the conscription system and
their battleships. when did they adopt it?
__________________________________________________
All the Continental European powers had adopted the conscription system since 1870. France had
__________________________________________________
conscription since the Revolutionary Wars, Austria-Hungary since 1868, Germany since 1870, Italy since
1873 and Russia since 1874. Only Britain did not have conscription. After 1890, the deteriorating 6. What changes did countries make to their armies?
diplomatic relations among the powers accelerated their military expansion program.
__________________________________________________
From 1913 to July 1914, Germany increased her standing forces by 170,000 men. France lengthened her __________________________________________________
period of military service from two to three years. Russia lengthened her term of service from three to __________________________________________________
three and a half years. Britain did not introduce conscription but had prepared her armed forces for both
European expedition and for home defense. In general, all the powers increased their stocks of arms, 7. How did Germany and Britain compete?
produced more modern weapons of war and built more strategic railways. __________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
Britain and Germany were the chief rivals at sea. Under Admiral Tirpitz, State Secretary of the Imperial
Naval Office from 1897, a long-term shipbuilding program began. The German Navy Law of 1898
8. What did the ruling group of Germany believe?
increased the German battleships from nine cruisers to twelve. In 1900 Germany passed a Navy Law
__________________________________________________
which doubled the German battle fleet.
__________________________________________________
Increased military and naval rivalry led to the belief that war was coming. The German ruling group felt __________________________________________________
that only through a war could Germany become a world power. Military preparations by other nations
strengthened this belief. As a result of the armaments race, all the European powers were prepared for a 9. What did this arms race result in?
war by 1914. __________________________________________________
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__________________________________________________
Source modified from: http://spartacus-educational.com/FWWcosts.htm
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TASK #2 - MAIN Causes of WWI (M = Militarism) 1. Based on the table demonstrating naval strength, which alliance
had the largest navy? Please include specific numbers as your
Table demonstrating naval strength of European Powers in 1914 proof. _______________________________________________
Country Personnel Large Naval Vessels (Dreadnoughts) Tonnage ________________________________________________________
Russia 54,000 4 328,000 ________________________________________________________
France 68,000 10 731,000
2. How was the pervasive culture of militarism evident after 1907?
Britain 209,000 29 2,205,000
________________________________________________________
TOTAL 331,000 43 3,264,000 ________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
Germany 79,000 17 1,019,000 ________________________________________________________
Austria-Hungary 16,000 4 249,000
TOTAL 95,000 21 1,268,000 3. What role did the military start to play in civilian governments
during this period? _____________________________________
The descent into the First World war was not just driven by new weapons and the arms race: it was ________________________________________________________
also fuelled by the pervasive culture of militarism that reigned in many parts of Europe. After 1907, ________________________________________________________
militarism was as evident in an increase in military influence on policy making. The governments and ________________________________________________________
aristocracies of the Great Powers were strongly influenced and in some cases dominated by military
elites. Rather than working as servants of civilian governments, generals and admirals became de 4. How did former German army officer Alfred Vagts describe
facto government ministers. These men fuelled the arms race by demanding increases in defense militarism in Germany? _________________________________
spending; they also contributed to the mood for war by drawing up war plans and promoting ________________________________________________________
military solutions to political and diplomatic problems. As the former German army officer Alfred ________________________________________________________
Vagts would later write, militarism was “a domination of the military man over the civilian, an undue ________________________________________________________
preponderance of military demands [and] an emphasis on military considerations.” ________________________________________________________

This militaristic culture was strongest in Germany. The German army was formed from the old 5. Who were the Junkers and why were they important? ________
Prussian army and was therefore dominated by the Junkers, a small but powerful group of Prussian ________________________________________________________
aristocrats. Prussia had been the most powerful of the Germanic states prior to unification, both in ________________________________________________________
political and military terms. The Prussian army had been reformed and modernized by Field Marshal ________________________________________________________
von Moltke in the 1850s. Under von Moltke’s command the Prussians developed a rigorous training ________________________________________________________
regime for officers; they also incorporated new weaponry and communication technologies into 6. How does the excerpt from the diary of German Admiral Muller
their military strategy. After 1871 the Prussian army formed the core of the new German imperial express the German attitude towards war? Please include a
army. The Kaiser was the supreme commander of the army; he relied on a military council and chief specific quotation from the excerpt as proof of your answer.
of general staff, made up of Junker aristocrats and career officers. The Reichstag, Germany’s elected ________________________________________________________
civilian parliament, exercised very little say in military matters. In many respects the Germany ________________________________________________________
military existed as a part of the government, rather than being a servant of the government. ________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
German Admiral Muller expressed the following about the inevitability of war in an excerpt from his
________________________________________________________
diary on December 8, 1912: “General von Moltke [head of the army] said: I believe war is
________________________________________________________
unavoidable; war the sooner the better. But we ought to do more to press to prepare the
________________________________________________________
popularity of a war against Russia. The Kaiser supported this. Tirpitz [head of the navy] said that
________________________________________________________
the navy would prefer to see the postponement of the great fight for one and a half years.” 2
TASK #3 - MAIN Causes of WWI (A = Alliances)
1. What was Europe like before the war? ____________________
There was no single cause for the Great War, as World War I was first called. During the early months of _______________________________________________________
1914, few people thought about war. Europeans were enjoying peaceful times. What was intended as a 2. What were alliances a sign of? __________________________
strictly limited war - a brief war - between accuser and accused, Austria-Hungary and Serbia, rapidly 3. What is an alliance? ___________________________________
escalated into something that was beyond the expectations of even the most warlike ministers in Berlin _______________________________________________________
(and certainly Vienna, which quickly became alarmed at spiraling events in late July and sought German 4. What do allies agree to do? _____________________________
reassurances). _______________________________________________________
5. Which countries were part of the Triple Alliance?
Having allies was a sign of strength, so European countries formed alliances. An alliance is an agreement _______________________________________________________
made between two or more countries to give each other help if it is needed. When an alliance is signed, 6. What did these countries agree to? ______________________
those countries become known as Allies. Members of an alliance agreed to help one another in times of _____________________________________________________
trouble. The alliances allowed nations to take more risks because they knew they had support. _____________________________________________________
By 1914, there were two major alliances. One was the Triple Alliance. Its members were Germany, 7. Based on the information from Table 1, which country was
Austria-Hungary, and Italy. In 1879 Germany and Austria-Hungary agreed to form a Dual Alliance. This more powerful, Germany or Austria-Hungary? Explain your
became the Triple Alliance when in 1882 it was expanded to include Italy. The three countries agreed to answer. ___________________________________________
support each other if attacked by either France or Russia. It was renewed at five-yearly intervals. The _____________________________________________________
formation of the Triple Entente in 1907 by Britain, France and Russia, reinforced the need for the alliance. _____________________________________________________
8. Which countries were part of the Triple Entente?
Table 1: Triple Alliance Country Statistics _____________________________________________________
Country Population Soldiers Battleships Foreign Trade (£) Steel Production 9. Why did France want an alliance?
_____________________________________________________
Germany 65,000,000 8,500,000 37 1,030,380,000 17,024,000 tons
_____________________________________________________
Austria-Hungary 49,882,231 3,000,000 16 198,712,000 2,642,000 tons 10. Why did Britain want an alliance?
_____________________________________________________
France felt threatened by this alliance. Britain was also concerned by the growth in the German Navy and _____________________________________________________
in 1904 the two countries signed the Entente Cordiale (friendly understanding). The objective of the 11. Why did Russia want an alliance?
alliance was to encourage co-operation against the perceived threat of Germany. _____________________________________________________
Three years later, Russia, fearing the growth in the German Army, joined Britain and France to form the _____________________________________________________
Triple Entente. The Russian government was also concerned about the possibility of Austria-Hungary 12. What promise did Russia make?
increasing the size of its empire. It therefore made promises to help Serbia if it was attacked by members _____________________________________________________
of the Triple Alliance. _____________________________________________________
13. Based on the information from Table 2, which country has the
Table 2: Triple Entente Country Statistics
largest army (include the size of the army in your answer)?
Country Population Soldiers Battleships Foreign Trade (£) Steel Production _____________________________________________________
Great Britain 46,407,037 711,000 57 1,223,152,000 6,903,000 tons 14. Based on the information from Table 2, which country has the
largest navy (include the size of the navy in your answer)?
France 39,601,509 3,500,000 19 424,000,000 4,333,000 tons
_____________________________________________________
Russia 167,000,000 4,423,000 4 190,247,000 4,416,000 tons 15. Based on the information from Table 2, which country was the
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- richest (include the amount of wealth in your answer)?
Source modified from: http://spartacus-educational.com/FWWentente.htm and http://spartacus- _____________________________________________________
educational.com/FWWtriple.htm
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TASK #4 - MAIN Causes of WWI (A = Alliances)

1. Please label the following countries: The above political cartoon visual depicts the consequences of the alliance system.
Albania Netherlands
Austria-Hungary Norway 4. Color each uniform of the figures above the same color as you colored them on the
Belgium Ottoman Empire map on the left.
Bulgaria Romania 5. What is Serbia saying to Austria and why is it saying that? _______________________
Denmark Russia __________________________________________________________________________
France Serbia 6. What is Austria saying to Serbia and why is it saying that? _______________________
German Spain __________________________________________________________________________
Greece Sweden 7. What is Russia saying to Austria and why is it saying that? _______________________
__________________________________________________________________________
Italy Switzerland
8. What is Germany saying to Russia and why is it saying that? ______________________
Montenegro
__________________________________________________________________________
9. What is France saying to Germany and why is it saying that? _____________________
2. Color the countries of the Triple Alliance (Austria-
__________________________________________________________________________
Hungary, Germany, and Italy) one color.
10. Who do you think is the last country in the line? _______________________________
3. Color the countries of the Triple Entente (England,
France, and Russia) a different color.
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TASK #5 - MAIN Causes of WWI (I = Imperialism)
1. How did many hope that Imperialism could prevent war?
A factor which contributed to the increase in rivalry in Europe was imperialism. Just as many mistakenly hoped _______________________________________________________
that the system of alliances would prevent war, so too did many hope the economic interdependence created _______________________________________________________
by Imperialism would also discourage war. In 1910, Norman Angell, an English writer and politician, wrote the _______________________________________________________
Great Illusion in which he explains the futility of European powers going to war against one another. As part of
2. What did Norman Angell write about? ____________________
his argument, he explains what motivates these nations to acquire an empire:
_______________________________________________________
(Remember to mark the text) _______________________________________________________
“What are the fundamental motives that explain the present rivalry of armaments in 3. According to Angell, what was the fundamental motive for the
Europe, notably the Anglo-German? Each nation pleads the need for defence; but this rivalry between European nations? ______________________
implies that someone is likely to attack, and has therefore a presumed interest in so _______________________________________________________
doing. What are the motives which each State thus fears its neighbors may obey? _______________________________________________________
They are based on the universal assumption that a nation, in order to find outlets for _______________________________________________________
expanding population and increasing industry, or simply to ensure the best conditions _______________________________________________________
possible for its people, is necessarily pushed to territorial expansion and the exercise of _______________________________________________________
political force against others.... It is assumed that a nation's relative prosperity is broadly _______________________________________________________
determined by its political power; that nations being competing units, advantage in the _______________________________________________________
last resort goes to the possessor of preponderant military force, the weaker goes to the 4. According to Angell, what motivated Imperialism?
wall, as in the other forms of the struggle for life.” _______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
As Angell explains, Great Britain, Germany and France needed foreign markets after the increase in _______________________________________________________
manufacturing caused by the Industrial Revolution. These countries competed for economic expansion in _______________________________________________________
places like Africa. Although Britain and France resolved their differences in Africa, several crises 5. What were European countries competing for? _____________
foreshadowing the war involved the clash of Germany against Britain and France in North Africa. In the _______________________________________________________
Middle East, the crumbling Ottoman Empire was alluring to Austria-Hungary, the Balkans and Russia. _______________________________________________________
The major problem for Germany was they were one of the last European powers to join the race for 6. Which empire was crumbling? __________________________
colonies. Kaiser Wilhelm II was finding himself largely frustrated in his desire to carve out a grand 7. Why was Kaiser Wilhelm II (Willy) frustrated? ______________
imperial role for Germany. While he desired "a place in the sun", he found that all of the bright areas had _______________________________________________________
been already snapped up by the other colonial powers, leaving him only with a place in the shade. _______________________________________________________
Therefore, they only way Germany could gain an empire to rival that of France and Great Britain was to _______________________________________________________
take territories from other European powers by force. 8. What did Germany need to do to expand its empire? ________
_______________________________________________________
German Territorial Claims, 1914 British & French Territorial Claims, 1914 9. Please compare the territorial claims of Germany and
England/France in 1914 using the maps below.
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
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TASK #6 - MAIN Causes of WWI (I = Imperialism) 1. Who was Kaiser Wilhelm II? ______________________________
________________________________________________________
Before WWI, Germany was ruled by Kaiser Wilhelm II, the son of ________________________________________________________
Frederick III and Victoria, the daughter of Queen Victoria of
England. Wilhelm became emperor of Germany in 1888. 2. What was Kaiser Wilhelm II’s goal for his country? ____________
Wilhelm was an overtly imperialistic and militaristic man, and ________________________________________________________
believed fervently in increasing the scale of the German empire ________________________________________________________
and the strength of Germany's armed forces. In a number of
speeches, Kaiser Wilhelm made it clear his desire to create a 3. What is depicted in the political cartoon on the left?
powerful German Empire. ________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
British Political Cartoon depicting the German Kaiser’s desire 4. What is Kaiser Wilhelm’s central claim in the speech he gave in
for a “Place in the Sun” 1901? _______________________________________________
This British political cartoon depicts what the British believe is ________________________________________________________
the Kaiser’s dream of establishing the German “place in the ________________________________________________________
sun” by conquering the world. ________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
Remember to mark both texts below
________________________________________________________
Speech by German Kaiser Wilhelm, 1901 ________________________________________________________
“We have conquered for ourselves a place in the sun. It will now be my ________________________________________________________
task to see to it that this place in the sun shall remain our undisputed ________________________________________________________
possession, in order that the sun's rays may fall fruitfully upon our activity ________________________________________________________
and trade in foreign parts... The more Germans go out upon the waters,
whether it be in journeys across the ocean, or in the service of the battle 5. How does Kaiser Wilhelm describe Germany in the interview he
flag, so much the better it will be for us.” gave to the Daily Telegraph in 1908? _______________________
________________________________________________________
Kaiser Wilhelm II gave an interview to the British newspaper the Daily Telegraph that was ________________________________________________________
published on October 28, 1908. ________________________________________________________
“Germany is a young and growing empire. She has a world-wide ________________________________________________________
commerce which is rapidly expanding and to which the legitimate
6. What is Kaiser Wilhelm’s central claim in the interview he gave to
ambition of patriotic Germans refuses to assign any bounds. Germany
the Daily Telegraph in 1908? _____________________________
must have a powerful fleet to protect that commerce and her manifold
________________________________________________________
interests in even the most distant seas. She expects those interests to go
on growing, and she must be able to champion them manfully in any ________________________________________________________
quarter of the globe. Her horizons stretch far away. She must be prepared ________________________________________________________
for any eventualities in the Far East. Who can foresee what may take place ________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
in the Pacific in the days to come, days not so distant as some believe, but
________________________________________________________
days at any rate, for which all European powers with Far Eastern interests
ought steadily to prepare?” ________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
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TASK #7 - MAIN Causes of WWI (N = Nationalism) 1. What was the first type of nationalism and how did it lead
to war? ________________________________________
Nationalism was also strong in Europe and is considered one of the four main causes of World War I. In __________________________________________________
Europe at this time, there were two main types of nationalism at work: __________________________________________________
1. The desire of subject peoples for independence. This desire led to a series of national struggles for
__________________________________________________
independence among the Balkan peoples. Other powers got involved and caused much instability.
2. The desire of independent nations for dominance and prestige. As these powers try to dominate each
2. What was the second type of nationalism and how did it
other in Europe, their rivalries may be regarded as one of the causes of the First World War. lead to war? ____________________________________
__________________________________________________
Nationalism in Germany __________________________________________________
Germany was united in 1871 as a result of the Franco-Prussian War, and it rapidly became the strongest
__________________________________________________
economic and military power in Europe. From 1871 to 1890, Germany wanted to preserve its hegemony
in Europe by forming a series of peaceful alliances with other powers. After 1890, Germany was more
3. How did Nationalism manifest itself in Germany and how
aggressive. It wanted to build up her influence in every part of the world. German foreign policy in these did this lead to war? ______________________________
years was best expressed by the term 'Weltpolitik' (World Politics). Because German ambitions were __________________________________________________
extended to many parts of the globe, Germany came into serious conflicts with all other major powers of __________________________________________________
Europe (except Austria-Hungary) from 1890 to 1914. __________________________________________________
The words of the National Anthem for Germany captures this sense of Nationalism: __________________________________________________
“Germany, Germany above all __________________________________________________
Over everything in the world, __________________________________________________
When it steadfastly holds together, 4. How is the German National Anthem an expression of
Offensively, defensively” German nationalism? _____________________________
The new Kaiser, Wilhelm II, was in many respects the personification of late 1800s Germany: both were __________________________________________________
young, intensely patriotic, obsessed with militarism and expansion, nervous about the future and __________________________________________________
desperate for national success. The main obstacle to the latter was Britain, which became a popular 5. How did Nationalism manifest itself in France and how
target for the German press. The British and their leaders were greedy and hypocritical: they maintained did this lead to war? ______________________________
the world’s largest empire, while denying Germany any colonial gains. There was much criticism of __________________________________________________
Britain’s heavy-handed war against white South African farmers (the Second Boer War of 1899-1902); __________________________________________________
Berlin went as far as secretly supplying the Boers with weapons and munitions. __________________________________________________
Nationalism in France __________________________________________________
France had been the dominant power in Europe for centuries. Napoleon I and Napoleon III had __________________________________________________
attempted to dominate Europe. In 1871, France was defeated by Germany. She had to lose two __________________________________________________
provinces: Alsace and Lorraine. She also needed to pay heavy indemnities. From 1871 onwards, France's 6. How did Nationalism manifest itself in Britain and how
greatest ambition was to recover Alsace and Lorraine from Germany. She also wanted to prevent another did this lead to war? ______________________________
defeat by Germany, to recover her national prestige by acquiring overseas colonies (e.g. Morocco) and to __________________________________________________
make diplomatic alliances with other important powers in Europe.
__________________________________________________
Nationalism in Britain __________________________________________________
In 1870 Britain was the most industrially advanced country in Europe. She also possessed the largest __________________________________________________
overseas empire and the largest navy in the world. She did not want to trouble herself with the __________________________________________________
continental affairs of Europe. Her main concern was to preserve her overseas empire and her overseas __________________________________________________
trade by maintaining a large navy. 7
TASK #8 - MAIN Causes of WWI (N = Nationalism) 1. How did Nationalism manifest itself in Austria-Hungary
Nationalism in Austria-Hungary and how did this lead to war? ______________________
__________________________________________________
Austria-Hungary was established as the Dual Monarchy in 1867. The Dual Monarchy ruled over __________________________________________________
a large empire consisting of many nationalities, but only the Austrians (ethnically they were __________________________________________________
German) and the Hungarians had the right to rule. The other nationalities Czechs, Slovaks, __________________________________________________
Serbs, Croats, Rumanians and Poles resented their loss of political freedom. They desired for __________________________________________________
political independence. Thus the policy of the Dual Monarchy was to suppress the nationalist __________________________________________________
movements both inside and outside the empire. The particular object of the Dual Monarchy __________________________________________________
was to gain political control over the Balkan Peninsula, where nationalist movements were rife 2. What was the Dual Monarchy’s response to this growing
and were always giving encouragement to the nationalist movements within the Austro- nationalism? ____________________________________
Hungarian Empire. __________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
Map of Various Ethnic Groups living in the Balkans before 1914 3. What does the map on the left demonstrate?
This map demonstrates how the Austro- __________________________________________________
Hungarian Empire was host to many __________________________________________________
nationalities, and struggled with __________________________________________________
nationalistic movements of people who __________________________________________________
longed to be free of Hapsburg rule. __________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
In the Balkans this was called __________________________________________________
‘Panslavism’ because the people who __________________________________________________
wanted to be free were all Slav races. 4. What is Panslavism? ______________________________
The most nationalistic of all were the __________________________________________________
Serbs – Serbia had became an __________________________________________________
independent country by the Treaty of __________________________________________________
San Stefano in 1878, but in 1900 many __________________________________________________
Serbs were still ruled by Turkey and 5. Why did Austria-Hungary consider Serbia an enemy?
Austria-Hungary, and Serbia was determined to rule over them all. This led to rebellions and __________________________________________________
terrorism which destabilized the Balkans. __________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
The center of the nationalist movements in the Balkans was Serbia. Serbia always hoped to __________________________________________________
unite with the Serbs in the Austro-Hungarian Empire so as to create a large Serbian state. 6. Why did Austria-Hungary consider Russia an enemy?
Therefore the first enemy of Austria-Hungary from 1871 to 1914 was Serbia. Besides Serbia, __________________________________________________
Austria-Hungary also hated Russia because Russia, being a Slav country, always backed up __________________________________________________
Serbia in any Austro-Serbian disputes. Serbian nationalistic feelings led to the Archduke 7. What occurred on June 28, 1914? ___________________
Ferdinand's assassination on June 28, 1914 by Gavrilo Princip and the Black Hand. __________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
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TASK #9 - MAIN Causes of WWI (N = Nationalism) – Black Hand Context
1. Why was the Narodna Odbrana formed?
On October 8, 1908, just two days after Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina, _____________________________________________________
many men, some of them ranking Serbian ministers, officials and generals, held a meeting _____________________________________________________
at City Hall in Belgrade. They founded a semi-secret society -- Narodna Odbrana (National 2. What was the purpose of the Narodna Odbrana?
Defense). The purpose of the group was to recruit and train freedom fighters for a _____________________________________________________
possible war between Serbia and Austria. They also undertook anti-Austrian propaganda and organized _____________________________________________________
spies and saboteurs to operate within the Austro-Hungarian empire's provinces. 3. What happened to the Narodna Odbrana?
Narodna Odbrana's work had been so effective that in 1909 a furious Austria pressured the Serbian _____________________________________________________
government to put a stop to their anti-Austrian insurrection. Russia was not ready to stand fully behind _____________________________________________________
Serbia should things come to a showdown, so Belgrade was grudgingly forced to comply. From then on, 4. What was the goal of Ijedinjenje ili Smrt (the Black Hand)?
Narodna Odbrana concentrated on education and propaganda within Serbia, trying to fashion itself as a _____________________________________________________
cultural organization. _____________________________________________________
5. What is the Black Hand responsible for?
Many members formed a new, and again secret, organization to continue the terrorist actions. Ten men
_____________________________________________________
met on May 9, 1911 to form Ujedinjenje ili Smrt (Union or Death), also known as The Black Hand. By
_____________________________________________________
1914, there were several hundred members, perhaps as many as 2500. Many members were Serbian
army officers. The professed goal of the group was the creation of a Greater Serbia, by use of violence, if
necessary. This group will be responsible for the assassination of Austro-Hungarian Archduke Franz
Content
Ferdinand: an event that many historians refer to as the “spark” that started the First World War. Below 6. Summarize Article 1 of the Black Hand Constitution.
is an excerpt from their founding constitution: _____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 7. Summarize Article 2 of the Black Hand Constitution.
Remember to mark the text: (circle and define unknown words, underline patterns, draw connections, ask questions, _____________________________________________________
make observations, star the author’s claim, and mark the evidence of that claim)
_____________________________________________________
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
8. Summarize Article 4 of the Black Hand Constitution.
Founding Constitution of the Black Hand, 1911 _____________________________________________________
“Article 1: For the purpose of realising the national ideals – the Unification of Serbdom - _____________________________________________________
an organization is hereby created, whose members may be any Serbian irrespective of
sex, religion, place or birth, as well as anybody else who will sincerely serve this idea.
Critical Conclusions
Article 2: The organisation gives priority to the revolutionary struggle rather than relies 9. In Article 4, subsection 3, it says it will fight “with all means
on cultural striving, therefore its institution is an absolutely secret one for wider circles… against all enemies of this idea.” What idea are they fighting
for?
Article 4: In order to carry into effect its task the organization will do the following
_____________________________________________________
things:
_____________________________________________________
(1) Following the character of its raison d’etre (reason for existence) it will exercise its
_____________________________________________________
influence over all the official factors in Serbia …
(2) It will carry out a revolutionary organization in all the territories where Serbians are
_____________________________________________________
living: 10. Based on Article 4, subsection 4, which country would fit this
(3) Beyond the frontiers, it will fight with all means against all enemies of this idea: description?
(4) It will maintain friendly relations with all the States, nations, organizations, and _____________________________________________________
individual persons who sympathize with Serbia… _____________________________________________________
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TASK #10 - WWI - The “Spark” 1. What happened on June 28, 1914?
_______________________________________________________
The nationalist rivalries that were growing the Balkans has often been compared to a powder keg, which _______________________________________________________
is a barrel of gunpowder. On June 28, 1914, the fuse on the powder keg ignited when Gavrilo Princip, a _______________________________________________________
Serbian nationalist, assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, in _______________________________________________________
Sarajevo, Bosnia. 2. Who was Archduke Franz Ferdinand?
Princip was one of three men sent by Dimitrijevic, the chief of the Intelligence Department in the Serbian _______________________________________________________
Army and head of the Black Hand. The three men were instructed to commit suicide after killing the 3. How was the assassination plot organized?
Archduke. To this end they were each given cyanide, along with a revolver and grenades. Each of the _______________________________________________________
men suffered from tuberculosis and consequently knew that they did not have long to live; meanwhile, _______________________________________________________
Dimitrijevic did not wish any of the men to live to tell who was behind the assassination. _______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
The prime minister of Serbia was given advance warning of the assassination plot, and while he 4. What did the leaders of Serbia know about the plot
sympathized with the Black Hand's objectives (Bosnia-Herzegovina achieving independence from Austro- beforehand?
Hungary) he feared war with Austria-Hungary should an assassination attempt be successful. He _______________________________________________________
therefore gave orders for the arrest of the three men as they left the country; his orders were not acted _______________________________________________________
upon however. 5. What actions did the Serbian prime minister take?
The Black Hand’s nationalist plot was undertaken to increase tensions with Austria-Hungary and prepare _______________________________________________________
the way for a full-scale Slavic revolution, using it as an excuse to strike Serbia. German aid was sought to _______________________________________________________
bring about a quick attack before the other powers could help Serbia. Princip shot Ferdinand at point 6. Why was the nationalist plot undertaken?
blank range while the latter was travelling in his car from a town hall reception, having earlier that day _______________________________________________________
already survived one assassination attempt. Standing on the car's sideboard was Count Franz von _______________________________________________________
Harrach. A witness to Ferdinand's assassination, he subsequently recounted the events of the day: 7. How did the assassination occur?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- _______________________________________________________
Remember to mark the text: (circle and define unknown words, underline patterns, draw connections, ask questions, _______________________________________________________
make observations, star the author’s claim, and mark the evidence of that claim)
8. In your own words, summarize Count Franz von Harrach’s
“As the car quickly reversed, a thin stream of blood spurted from His Highness's mouth onto eyewitness account of the event:
my right check. As I was pulling out my handkerchief to wipe the blood away from his _______________________________________________________
mouth, the Duchess cried out to him, "For God's sake! What has happened to you?" _______________________________________________________
At that she slid off the seat and lay on the floor of the car, with her face between his _______________________________________________________
knees. _______________________________________________________
I had no idea that she too was hit and thought she had simply fainted with fright. Then I _______________________________________________________
heard His Imperial Highness say, "Sophie, Sophie, don't die. Stay alive for the children!" _______________________________________________________
At that, I seized the Archduke by the collar of his uniform, to stop his head dropping forward _______________________________________________________
and asked him if he was in great pain. He answered me quite distinctly, "It is nothing!" _______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
His face began to twist somewhat but he went on repeating, six or seven times, ever more _______________________________________________________
faintly as he gradually lost consciousness, "It's nothing!" _______________________________________________________
Then came a brief pause followed by a convulsive rattle in his throat, caused by a loss of _______________________________________________________
blood. This ceased on arrival at the governor's residence. The two unconscious bodies were _______________________________________________________
carried into the building where their death was soon established.” _______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
10
TASK #11 - WWI - The “Chain Reaction”
The events of July and early August 1914 are a classic case of "one thing led to another" - otherwise 1. What was the spark that started World War One?
known as the treaty alliance system. The explosive that was World War One had been long in the _____________________________________________________
stockpiling; the spark the finally set this explosive off was the assassination of Archduke Franz _____________________________________________________
Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914. _____________________________________________________
2. What happened on July 6?
As a result of the assassination of their archduke, Austria-Hungary sought the aid of its ally, _____________________________________________________
Germany. Germany responded by offering Austria-Hungary a “blank check” of support on July 6. _____________________________________________________
There is little doubt that this note from Germany was the first clear indication that Germany was 3. What was the intent of the militarists who wrote the
agreeable to war with - at least - France and Russia; she hoped however to avoid war with Britain. ultimatum? _______________________________________
Less than one month later, on July 23, 1914 Austria issued an ultimatum, with which Serbia was to _____________________________________________________
comply within 48 hours to avoid war. The militarists deliberately made the terms so harsh that it _____________________________________________________
would be assured that Serbia would not accept. To the surprise of everyone, Serbia did agree to all 4. What was Serbia’s response? ________________________
but one of the demands to allow Austrian officials to investigate the murder of the archduke on _____________________________________________________
Serbian soil. This one refusal was seen as a total rejection by the Austrians, and they declared war _____________________________________________________
on Serbia on July 28, 1914. _____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
Germany knew that it was important to become involved to protect its security. German leaders 5. Why did Germany want to be involved? ________________
believed that the Russia and France would join the conflict. The German generals were confident _____________________________________________________
that they would defeat them and become the world’s greatest power. _____________________________________________________
After the initial declaration of war on July 28, 1914, things moved rapidly. On July 30, the Russians _____________________________________________________
order a full mobilization to attack Austria and Germany. Germany, wanting to have the upper hand, _____________________________________________________
ordered Russia to cease war preparations. Russia ignored the warning, so Germany declared war on 6. What did the system of alliance do? ___________________
Russia. Within two days, Germany declared war on Russia’s ally, France. _____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
The war escalated as the system of alliances and military plans trapped the nations one by one. In _____________________________________________________
order to attack France, Germany would have to go through the neural country of Belgium. Since _____________________________________________________
Belgium refused to grant permission to Germany, it was attacked on August 3. This action by 7. Why did Great Britain get involved in the war? ___________
Germany involved Great Britain, since Britain had pledged to guarantee Belgian neutrality. Great _____________________________________________________
Britain was also aware that if France and Belgium fell, Germany would be master of Western Europe. _____________________________________________________
On August 4, Great Britain joined its allies, Russia and France. On August 6, Austria declared war on _____________________________________________________
Russia. Within six weeks of the assassination in Sarajevo, all of the great powers of Europe were _____________________________________________________
involved in the war.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
On the timeline below, note the important dates (July 6, July 23, July 28, July 30, August 3, August 4,
August 6) and their significance in this “Chain Reaction.”

June 28 – Archduke Ferdinand assassinated


by Serbian terrorists from the Black Hand.

11
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16
TASK #20 - WWI - Total War 1. How long did total war last? _______________________
__________________________________________________
Total war was introduced to Britain in May 1915 and was to last until the end of the war in November 2. What is total war? _______________________________
1918. Total War put the whole country on a compulsory war footing with the government controlling it.
__________________________________________________
When war was declared in August 1914, a certain naivety enveloped the whole country. Many did believe
that the war would be over by Christmas 1914 - hence the rush by young men to volunteer before the
3. What did many Europeans believe before the war?
'fun' ended. __________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
This whole belief that the war would be a short affair ended with the Battle of the Marne and the horrors 4. Why did the volunteers dry up? _____________________
of trench warfare that followed it. With so many men dying at the front - and with the horrors of trench
__________________________________________________
warfare becoming known back in Britain by men returning on leave - the volunteers started to dry up.
The May 1915 shell crisis showed that the country was not on a full war footing and with talk of the 'big
__________________________________________________
push' being made with due frequency, the men on the front line had to be suitably equipped. With this in 5. How did the government ensure there wouldn’t be any
mind, the government introduced 'total war'. more munitions shortages? ________________________
__________________________________________________
At the start of the war, railways had been taken over by the government; in December 1916, the
__________________________________________________
coalfields of South Wales were also taken under the government's wing. The government created
'national factories' to produce munitions - by the end of the war there were 218 of them. This was to
6. Why did they build nurseries in or near factories?
ensure that a munitions shortage never occurred again. Nurseries were built in or near factories to help __________________________________________________
the many thousands of mothers who joined the workforce of factories. 7. What was behind the German policy of unrestricted
submarine warfare? ______________________________
Soon after the outbreak of the First World War the German Navy attempted to halt the flow of imports to
__________________________________________________
Britain by introducing unrestricted submarine warfare. By the end of 1916, U-German boats were on
average destroying about 300,000 tons of shipping a month. In February 1917, the German Navy sank
__________________________________________________
230 ships bringing food and other supplies to Britain. The following month a record 507,001 tons of 8. How did the dietary habits of the British change?
shipping was lost as a result of the U-boat campaign.. __________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
Potatoes were often in short-supply and sugar was often difficult to get. Whereas the weekly
__________________________________________________
consumption of sugar was 1.49 lb in 1914, it fell to 0.93 lb in 1918. The consumption of butchers' meat
also dropped from an average of 2.36 to 1.53 lb a week during this period. At the end of 1917 people
__________________________________________________
began to fear that the country was running out of food. Panic buying led to shortages and so in January 9. Please summarize the struggles of Charles Young’s family
1918, the Ministry of Food decided to introduce rationing. Sugar was the first to be rationed and this was in England.
later followed by butchers' meat. The idea of rationing food was to guarantee supplies, not to reduce __________________________________________________
consumption. This was successful and official figures show that the intake of calories almost kept up to __________________________________________________
the pre-war level. __________________________________________________
While the rationing effort was successful, it put a major strain on those at home. Charles Young was a __________________________________________________
British soldier who fought on the Western Front. In his memoir, he wrote about the struggles of his __________________________________________________
family and friends left behind on the homefront: __________________________________________________
“When I returned after the war relatives told me how bad it had been. You see, us being an island hardly __________________________________________________
any food could get through, because German U-boats were sinking our food convoys. My family lived on __________________________________________________
bones from the butcher made into soups. And black bread. And when some food did get delivered to the __________________________________________________
shops everyone for miles around besieged the place. The queues stretched for miles, and if you were old or __________________________________________________
infirm you stood no chance. Many, especially children, died of starvation. Food riots were very common.” __________________________________________________
20
TASK #23 - WWI - At War’s End 1. Why was 1917 a very difficult year for the Allied forces?
__________________________________________________
1917 had been a very difficult year for the Allied forces. Their offensives on the Western Front had been __________________________________________________
defeated, and the Russian Revolution led to Russia’s withdrawal from the War. However, the entry of the
2. What provided a psychological boost?
United States into the war gave the Allies a much-needed psychological boost. In 1918, fresh American
troops would be crucial.
__________________________________________________
3. What did Russia’s withdrawal for the war mean for
With Russia out of the war, Germany was free to concentrate entirely on the Western Front. Erich von Germany? ______________________________________
Ludendorff, who guided German military operations, decided to make a grand offensive to break the __________________________________________________
stalemate. The German attack began in March 1918. The Germans were stopped at the Second Battle of
__________________________________________________
the Marne on July 18. French, Moroccan, and American forces, supported by hundreds of tanks, threw
the Germans back over the Marne. The German offensive had failed.
4. What happened at the Second Battle of the Marne?
__________________________________________________
With more than a million American troops pouring into France, the Allies began to advance toward __________________________________________________
Germany. On September 29, 1918, General Ludendorff informed the German leaders that the war was __________________________________________________
lost. He demanded that the government ask for peace. The Allies were unwilling to make peace with the
5. What happened on September 29, 1918?
present German government, so reforms were begun to create a more liberal government. However, the
exhausted German people were unwilling to wait for this process to take place. On November 3, sailors in
__________________________________________________
the town of Kiel mutinied. Soldiers and workers began to form councils throughout Germany. 6. What happened on November 3, 1918?
__________________________________________________
By November 9, William II was forced to leave the country. The Social Democrats under Friedrich Ebert 7. When did German William II leave? __________________
announced the creation of a democratic republic. On November 11, the new government signed an
8. What happened on November 11, 1918?
armistice (a truce or an agreement to end the fighting in a war).
__________________________________________________
No one would have dared to predict the casualties of WWI. When war was declared, there were street __________________________________________________
celebrations in most of Europe's capital cities. No-one even envisaged trench warfare in August 1914 let 9. What is an armistice? _____________________________
alone the appalling casualties that occurred over 4 years of fighting. The Somme and Verdun witnessed __________________________________________________
appalling slaughter. No one could have predicted the horrifying consequences of modern weaponry being
__________________________________________________
used together with out-of-date tactics. The grim figures 'speak' for themselves: 8.5 million soldiers killed,
21 million soldiers wounded, and 7.7 million prisoners of war or
__________________________________________________
missing. 10. What happened when war was first declared?
__________________________________________________
The war was over, but revolutionary forces had been set in 11. How many soldiers were killed? _____________________
motion in Germany. A group of radical socialists formed the
12. How many soldiers were wounded? _________________
German Communist Party in December 1918. The new Social
Democratic government used army troops to crush the rebels
13. How many soldiers were prisoners of war or missing?
and murdered two of the Communist party leaders. The attempt __________________________________________________
at revolution left the German middle class with a deep fear of 14. What impact did the attempted Communist revolution do
communism. to Germany? ____________________________________
__________________________________________________
Austria-Hungary also experienced revolution. Ethnic groups tried
harder and harder to gain their independence. By the end of the
15. What new independent republics were created after
war, the Austro-Hungarian Empire no longer existed. The WWI? _________________________________________
independent republics of Austria, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia, __________________________________________________
along with the monarchical state called Yugoslavia, replaced it.
23