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Concrete mix design

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Concrete Mix Design

(IS 10262-2009)

By:

Mr. Darshan P Shah

(M.Tech Structures, B.Tech Civil)

Jaydipdarshan Consultants Pvt Ltd.

Ahmedabad

Contents

• Concept of Mix Design

• Objective of Mix Design

• Factor affecting Mix design

• Method of Mix design

• Mix Design of M40 & M20

• Indian standard IS 10262 2009

• IS 10262 1982 v/s IS 10262 2009

CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS

Cement + Aggregates + Water + Admixtures

CONCRETE

WHAT IS CONCRETE?

• Construction material

• Concrete is obtained by mixing cement, fine aggregate, coarse

aggregate, water and admixtures in required proportions.

• The cement and water form a paste that hardens and bonds the

aggregates together.

• Often looked upon as “man made rock”.

• Versatile construction material, adaptable to a wide variety of

agricultural and residential uses.

• Strong, durable, versatile, and economical.

• Concrete solidifies and hardens after mixing with water and

placement due to a chemical process known as hydration.

• It is the most widely-used man-made construction material in the

world.

Concrete is composed mainly of cement (commonly Portland

cement), aggregate, water, and chemical admixtures.

Portland Cement Coarse Aggregate

CONCRETE PROPERTIES:

lower tensile strength, and as such is usually reinforced with materials

that are strong in tension (often steel).

• The elasticity of concrete is relatively constant at low stress levels but

starts decreasing at higher stress levels as matrix cracking develops.

• Concrete has a very low coefficient of thermal expansion, and as it

matures concrete shrinks.

• All concrete structures will crack to some extent, due to shrinkage and

tension.

• Concrete can be damaged by :

fire, aggregate expansion, sea water effects, bacterial corrosion,

leaching, physical damage and chemical damage (from carbonation,

chlorides, sulfates and distillate water).

CONCRETE PROPERTIES:

• Can be placed or molded into virtually any shape and reproduce any

surface texture.

• In the world almost twice as much concrete is used as all other

construction materials combined.

• The ready-mix concrete producer has made concrete an appropriate

construction material for many applications.

Types of Concrete:

• There are various types of concrete for • Rubberized concrete

different applications that are created by

changing the proportions of the main • Polymer concrete

ingredients. • Geopolymer or Green concrete

• Regular concrete • Limecrete

• Pre-Mixed concrete • Gypsum concrete

• High-strength concrete • Light-Transmitting Concrete

• Stamped concrete

• High-Performance concrete

• UHPC (Ultra-High Performance

Concrete)

• Self-consolidating concretes

• Vacuum concretes

• Shotcrete

• Cellular concrete

• Roller-compacted concrete

• Glass concrete

• Asphalt concrete

• Rapid strength concrete

MIXING

MIXING OF CONCRETE

MIXING CAN BE DONE BY

Hand Mixing.

Machine Mixing.

Hand Mixing

• For hand mixing, a water tight platform at

least 2m wide and 3m long should be

provided.

• This platform is made up of 3 to 5 cm. thick

board, which is jointed by tongued and

grooved joint.

• It can be also be made by 3 mm. thick iron

sheet as shown in fig.

PROCESS OF HAND MIXING

Step 1

Step 2 • Spread the mixture again on this platform

• Mix whole mixture by shovel so that stones have been uniformly

Step 3 distributed

• Make a hollow in the middle of the mixed pile and pour water slowly

Step 4 in the hollow up to 2/3 height of pile and again mix it.

Step 5 • Normally mixing time should not be exceed 3 minutes.

PROCESS OF HAND MIX

MACHINE MIXING

• Mixing of concrete is almost invariably carried out by machine

for R.C.C work and for medium or large scale mass concrete

work

• Machine mixing is an efficient, economical and time saving

methods of mixing.

• Machine mixing can be done by tilting or non tilting type of

mixing machine.

MACHINE MIXING

The following are the standardize size of mixing machine.

• Non tilting; 200 NT, 280 NT, 375 NT, 500 NT, 1000 NT.

proportion of concrete, corresponding to 50 kg of cement.

For example,

MIXING PROCESS

CONCRETE MIX

DEFINITION OF CONCRETE MIX DESIGN

• The process of selecting suitable ingredients of concrete and

determining their relative quantities with the objective of producing a

concrete of the required strength, durability, and workability as

economically as possible, is termed the concrete mix design.

• Concrete mix of inadequate workability may result in a high cost of

labour to obtain a degree of compaction with available equipment.

• From technical point of view the rich mixes may lead to high shrinkage

and cracking in the structural concrete, and to evolution of high heat of

hydration in mass concrete which may cause cracking.

REQUIREMENTS OF CONCRETE MIX DESIGN

The requirements which form the basis of selection and proportioning

of mix ingredients are:

• The minimum compressive strength required from structural

consideration

• The adequate workability necessary for full compaction with the

compacting equipment available.

• Maximum water-cement ratio and/or maximum cement content to

give adequate durability for the particular site conditions

• Maximum cement content to avoid shrinkage cracking due to

temperature cycle in mass concrete.

FACTORS AFFECTING THE DESIGN MIX

1. Compressive strength

• It is one of the most important properties of concrete and

influences many other describable properties of the hardened

concrete.

• The mean compressive strength required at a specific age, usually

28 days, determines the nominal water-cement ratio of the mix.

• According to Abraham’s law the strength of fully compacted

concrete is inversely proportional to the water-cement ratio.

2. Durability

• The durability of concrete is its resistance to the aggressive

environmental conditions. High strength concrete is generally

more durable than low strength concrete.

• In the situations when the high strength is not necessary but the

conditions of exposure are such that high durability is vital, the

durability requirement will determine the water-cement ratio to be

used.

FACTORS AFFECTING THE DESIGN MIX

3. Maximum nominal size of aggregate

• In general, larger the maximum size of aggregate, smaller is

the cement requirement for a particular water-cement ratio,

because the workability of concrete increases with

increase in maximum size of the aggregate.

• However, the compressive strength tends to increase with

the decrease in size of aggregate.

• IS 456:2000 and IS 1343:1980 recommend that the nominal

size of the aggregate should be as large as possible.

FACTORS AFFECTING THE DESIGN MIX

• The grading of aggregate influences the mix proportions

for a specified workability and water- cement ratio.

• Coarser the grading leaner will be mix which can be used.

• Very lean mix is not desirable since it does not contain

enough finer material to make the concrete cohesive.

• The type of aggregate influences strongly the aggregate-

cement ratio for the desired workability and stipulated

water cement ratio.

• An important feature of a satisfactory aggregate is the

uniformity of the grading which can be achieved by mixing

different size fractions.

FACTORS AFFECTING THE DESIGN MIX

5.Workability

• The degree of workability required depends on three factors.

• These are the size of the section to be concreted, the amount of

reinforcement, and the method of compaction to be used.

• For the narrow and complicated section with numerous corners

or inaccessible parts, the concrete must have a high workability

so that full compaction can be achieved with a reasonable

amount of effort. This also applies to the embedded steel

sections.

• The desired workability depends on the compacting equipment

available at the site.

FACTORS AFFECTING THE DESIGN MIX

6. Quality Control

• The degree of control can be estimated statistically by the

variations in test results.

• The variation in strength results from the variations in the

properties of the mix ingredients and lack of control of accuracy

in batching, mixing, placing, curing and testing.

• The lower the difference between the mean and minimum

strengths of the mix lower will be the cement-content required,

the factor controlling this difference is termed as quality control.

CONCRETE MIX

Types of Mixes

Nominal Mixes

Standard Mixes

Designed Mixes

Nominal Mixes

• In the past the specifications for concrete prescribed the

proportions of cement, fine and coarse aggregates.

• These mixes of fixed cement-aggregate ratio which ensures

adequate strength are termed nominal mixes.

• These offer simplicity and under normal circumstances, have a

margin of strength above that specified.

• However, due to the variability of mix ingredients the nominal

concrete for a give traditional way of mix proportion specified in

terms of fixed ratios of Cement : Sand : coarse aggregate (In

general by volume)

Nominal Mixes

• Useful for routine concrete construction.

• Limited up to M20 grade

Grade of Nominal

• Requires high cement content Concrete Mix

• Workability varies widely in strength. proportion

s

(Cement:

FA : CA)

M5 1:5:10

M7.5 1:4:8

M10 1:3:6

M15 1:2:4

M20 1:1.5:3

Standard mixes

vary widely in strength and may result in under- or over-rich

mixes.

• For this reason, the minimum compressive strength has been

included in many specifications, these mixes are termed

standard mixes.

• IS 456-2000 has designated the concrete mixes into a number of

grades as M10, M15, M20, M25, M30, M35 and M40.

• In this designation the letter M refers to the mix and the number

to the specified 28 day cube strength of mix in N/mm2.

• The mixes of grades M10, M15, M20 and M25 correspond

approximately to the mix proportions (1:3:6), (1:2:4), (1:1.5:3)

and (1:1:2) respectively.

Designed Mixes

by the designer but the mix proportions are determined by

the producer of concrete, except that the minimum cement

content can be laid down.

• This is most rational approach to the selection of mix

proportions with specific materials in mind possessing more

or less unique characteristics.

METHODS OF DESIGNED MIXES

Several methods of mix design evolved over the years in different

countries.

• Arbitrary proportion

• Fineness modulus method

• Maximum density method

• Surface area method

• Indian road Congress, IRC 44 Method

• High strength Concrete mix design

• Mix design based on flexural strength

• Road note No. 4 (Grading Curve Method)

• ACI Committee 211 method

• Mix design for pump-able concrete

• Indian standard recommended IS 10262 : 2009

MIX PROPORTION DESIGNATIONS

• The common method of expressing the proportions of

ingredients of a concrete mix is in the terms of parts or ratios of

cement, fine and coarse aggregates.

For e.g., a concrete mix of proportions 1:2:4 means that

cement, fine and coarse aggregate are in the ratio 1:2:4 or the mix

contains one part of cement, two parts of fine aggregate and four

parts of coarse aggregate.

• The proportions are either by volume or by mass.

• The water-cement ratio is usually expressed in mass.

MIX PROPORTION DESIGNATIONS

FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED FOR MIX

DESIGN

• The grade designation giving the characteristic strength

requirement of concrete.

• The type of cement influences the rate of development of

compressive strength of concrete.

• Maximum nominal size of aggregates to be used in concrete

may be as large as possible within the limits prescribed by IS

456:2000.

• The cement content is to be limited from shrinkage, cracking

and creep.

• The workability of concrete for satisfactory placing and

compaction is related to the size and shape of section, quantity

and spacing of reinforcement and technique used for

transportation, placing and compaction.

Concrete mix design for M40

1.Stipulations for proportioning

b) Type of cement : OPC 43grade conforming to IS 8112

c) Maximum nominal size of aggregate : 20 mm

d) Minimum cement content : 320 kg/m3

e) Maximum water-cement ratio : 0.45

f) Workability :100 mm (slump)

g) Exposure condition : Severe (for reinforced concrete)

h) Method of concrete placing : pumping

i) Degree of supervision : Good

j) Type of aggregate : Crushed angular aggregate

k) Maximum cement content : 450 kg/m3

l) Chemical admixture type : super plasticizer

IS 10262:2009

Concrete mix design for M40

2.Test data for materials

b) Specific gravity of cement : 3.15

c) Chemical admixture : Superplasticizer conforming to IS 9103

d) Specific gravity of :

1) Coarse aggregate : 2.74

2) Fine aggregate : 2.74

e) Water absorption :

1) Coarse aggregate : 0.5%

2) Fine aggregate : 1.0%

f) Free (surface) moisture:

1) Coarse aggregate : Nil (absorbed moisture also nil)

2) Fine aggregate : Nil

IS 10262:2009

Concrete mix design for M40

2.Test data for materials

1) Coarse aggregate : IS sieve coarse

sizes aggregate Percentage of different

mm fraction Fractions Remarks

I II I II Combined

60% 40% 100%

20 100 100 60 40 100

conforming

10 0 71.2 0 28.5 28.5 to table 2 of

4.75 9.4 3.7 3.7 IS 383

2.36 0

of IS 383

IS 10262:2009

Concrete mix design for M40

3.Target strength for mix proportioning

̒̒̒

f̒̒̒̒̒̒c’k =fck +1.65s

Where,

f̒̒̒̒̒̒̒̒̒ck = target average compressive strength at 28 days,

fck = characteristics compressive strength at 28 days,

and

s = standard deviation.

From Table 1 of IS 10262:2009,

standard deviation, s =5 N/mm2

Therefore, target strength= 40+1.65 x 5 =48.25 N/mm2

From Table 5 of IS 456, maximum water-cement ratio =0.45.

Based on experience, adopt water-cement ratio as 0.40.

0.40 < 0.45, hence o.k.

IS 10262:2009

Concrete mix design for M40

5.Selection of water content

maximum water content for 20 mm aggregate

=186 liter (for 25 to50 mm slump range)

6

Estimated water content for 100 mm slump = 186+ x186

100

=197 liter

As Superplasticizer is used, the water content can be reduced up

20 percent and above.

Based on trials with Superplasticizer water content reduction of 29

percent has been achieved. Hence, the arrived water content

=197 x 0.71 =140 liter

IS 10262:2009

Concrete mix design for M40

Water-cement ratio = 0.40

140

Cement content = =350 kg/m3

0.40

From Table 5 of IS 456,

minimum cement content for ‘severe’ exposure condition = 320 kg/m3

350 kg/m3 > 320 kg/m3 hence, o.K.

IS 10262:2009

Concrete mix design for M40

7.Proportion of volume of course aggregate and fine

aggregate content

From Table 3, Volume of course aggregate corresponding to 20 mm

size aggregate and fine aggregate (zone I) for water-cement ratio of

0.50 =0.60.

Note- In the present case water-cement ratio is 0.40. Therefore, volume of coarse aggregate is required to be

increased to decrease the fine aggregate content. As the water-cement ratio is lower by 0.10, the proportion of volume

of coarse aggregate is increased by 0.02. Therefore, corrected proportion of volume of coarse aggregate for the

water-cement ratio of 0.40 = 0.62.

NOTE:In case the coarse aggregate is not angular one, then also volume of coarse aggregate may be required to be

increased suitably, based on experience.

Therefore, volume of coarse aggregate =0.62 x 0.9 =0.56.

Volume of fine aggregate content =1- 0.56 =0.44.

IS 10262:2009

Concrete mix design for M40

8.Mix calculations

a) Volume of concrete = 1 m3

𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 1

b) Volume of cement = 𝑥

𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 1000

350 1

= x

3.15 1000

=0.111 m3

𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 1

c) Volume of water = 𝑥

𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 1000

140 1

= x

1 1000

=0.140 m3

d) Volume of chemical admixture (super plasticizer)(@2.0 %by

mass of cementitious material)

𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑐ℎ𝑒𝑚𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑎𝑑𝑚𝑖𝑥𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 1

= 𝑥

𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑑𝑚𝑖𝑥𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 1000

7 1

= x

1.145 1000

=0.006 m3

IS 10262:2009

Concrete mix design for M40

e) Volume of all in aggregate = [a –(b + c + d )]

= [1 –(0.111 + 0.140 + 0.006)]

= 0.743 m3

f) Mass of coarse aggregate = e x volume of coarse aggregate x

specific gravity of coarse aggregate x 1000

=0.743 x 0.56 x 2.74 x 1000

= 1140 kg

g) Mass of fine aggregate = e x volume of fine aggregate x specific

gravity of fine aggregate x 1000

=0.743 x 0.44 x2.74 x1000

= 896 kg

IS 10262:2009

Concrete mix design for M40

• Water = 140 kg/m3

• Fine aggregate = 896 kg/m3

• Coarse aggregates = 1140 kg/m3

• Chemical Admixture = 7 kg/m3

• Water cement ratio = 0.40

Yield = 2533 kg

IS 10262:2009

CONCRETE MIX DESIGN FOR M20

Numerical example of the mix design

The procedure for designing concrete mix as per new code is

highlighted using an M20 concrete.

• Grade designation : M20

• Type of cement : OPC 43 grade, IS 8112

• Max. nominal size of aggregates. : 20 mm

• Minimum cement content : 320 kg/m3

• Maximum water cement ratio : 0.55

• Workability : 75 mm (slump)

• Exposure condition : Mild

• Degree of supervision: Good

• Type of aggregates. : Crushed angular aggregates.

• Maximum cement content : 450 kg/m3

• Chemical admixture : Not used

Numerical example of the mix design

The procedure for designing concrete mix as per new code is

highlighted using an M20 concrete.

2. Test data for materials • Sieve analysis

• Cement used : OPC 43 grade • Coarse aggregate :

Conforming to Table 2 of IS

• Specific gravity of cement : 3.15

383

• Specific gravity of • Fine aggregate : Conforming

• Coarse aggregate : 2.68 to Zone I of IS 383

• Fine aggregate : 2.65

• Water absorption

• Coarse aggregate : 0.6 %

• Fine aggregate :1.0 %

• Free (surface) moisture

• Coarse aggregate : Nil

(absorbed moisture full)

• Fine aggregate : Nil

Numerical example of the mix design

The procedure for designing concrete mix as per new code is

highlighted using an M20 concrete.

3.Target strength for mix proportioning

f’ck= fck +k*s

From Table 1 standard deviation, s = 4 N/mm2

Therefore target strength = 20+1.65 x4 = 26.60 N/mm2

4.Selection of w/ c ratio

From Table 5 of IS 456:2000, maximum water cement ratio = 0.55 (Mild

exposure)

Based on experience adopt water cement ratio as 0.50

0.5 < 0.55, hence ok.

5.Selection of water content

From Table 2, maximum water content = 186 liters (for 25 mm – 50 mm slump

range and for 20 mm aggregates)

Estimated water content for 75 mm slump = 186 + 3/100 x 186 = 191.6 litres

Numerical example of the mix design

The procedure for designing concrete mix as per new code is

highlighted using an M20 concrete.

Water cement ratio = 0.50

Cement content = 191.6/0.5 =383 kg/m3 >320 kg/m3(given)

From Table 5 of IS 456, minimum cement content for mild exposure

condition = 300 kg/m3, Hence OK.

Proportion of volume of coarse aggregate and fine aggregate

content

From Table 3, volume of coarse aggregate corresponding to 20 mm

size aggregate and fine aggregate (Zone I) for water-cement ratio of

0.50 =0.60

Numerical example of the mix design

The procedure for designing concrete mix as per new code is

highlighted using an M20 concrete.

7. Mix calculations

The mix calculations per unit volume of concrete shall be as follows

a) Volume of concrete = 1 m3

b) Volume of cement = mass of cement/specific gravity of cement x 1/1000

= [383.16/3.15] x [1/1000] = 0.122 m3

c) Volume of water = [192/1] x [1/1000] = 0.192 m3

Numerical example of the mix design

The procedure for designing concrete mix as per new code is

highlighted using an M20 concrete.

= 1 – (0.122 + 0.192) = 0.686 m3

e) Volume and weight of coarse aggregates

f) Volume and weight of fine aggregates

Numerical example of the mix design

The procedure for designing concrete mix as per new code is

highlighted using an M20 concrete.

Cement = 383 kg/m3

Water = 191.6 kg/m3

Fine aggregate = 727 kg/m3

Coarse aggregates = 1103 kg/m3

Water cement ratio = 0.50

Yield = 2404.6 kg

corrections are to be applied while calculating the water content. Necessary

corrections are also required to be made in mass of aggregates.

Major Changes in : IS 10262

S.N. Old Edition 1982 Revised 2009 Edition

Title - " Recommended guidelines for Title - "Concrete mix Proportioning –

1

Concrete mix Desiqn “ Guidelines”

Specified for Ordinary (M 10 - M 20) and

Applicability was not specified for any specific

2 Standard (M25 - M 55) Concrete Grades

Concrete Grades

only.

3 Based on IS 456 : 1987 Modification in line with IS 456 : 2000

W/C ratio is based on Durability criteria

4 28 days compressive strength of Concrete and

and the Experience and Practical trials

the durability criteria

Water Content could be modified taking into Water content can be modified Based on

account the compaction factor value Slump vale (Field test of Workability) and

5

(Laboratory based test for Workability) and the Shape of Aggregates, and use of

shape of aggregates. Admixtures.

Entrapped Air content considered according to No Entrapped Air content taken into

6

Nominal Maximum size of Aggregates account

7 Not much Consideration for Trial Mixes Trial Mixes concept is mentioned

An illustrative example of Concrete Mix

Concrete Mix Design with Fly ash is not

8 Proportioning using Fly ash has been

mentioned

added.

Thank you

for your attention

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