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Basic Concrete Ingredients

&
Concrete Mix Design
(IS 10262-2009)
By:
Mr. Darshan P Shah
(M.Tech Structures, B.Tech Civil)
Jaydipdarshan Consultants Pvt Ltd.
Ahmedabad
Contents

• General discussion on Concrete


• Concept of Mix Design
• Objective of Mix Design
• Factor affecting Mix design
• Method of Mix design
• Mix Design of M40 & M20
• Indian standard IS 10262 2009
• IS 10262 1982 v/s IS 10262 2009
CONCRETE MAKING MATERIALS
Cement + Aggregates + Water + Admixtures
CONCRETE

WHAT IS CONCRETE?
• Construction material
• Concrete is obtained by mixing cement, fine aggregate, coarse
aggregate, water and admixtures in required proportions.
• The cement and water form a paste that hardens and bonds the
aggregates together.
• Often looked upon as “man made rock”.
• Versatile construction material, adaptable to a wide variety of
agricultural and residential uses.
• Strong, durable, versatile, and economical.
• Concrete solidifies and hardens after mixing with water and
placement due to a chemical process known as hydration.
• It is the most widely-used man-made construction material in the
world.
Concrete is composed mainly of cement (commonly Portland
cement), aggregate, water, and chemical admixtures.
Portland Cement Coarse Aggregate

Fine Aggregate Chemical Admixtures


CONCRETE PROPERTIES:

• Concrete has relatively high compressive strength, but significantly


lower tensile strength, and as such is usually reinforced with materials
that are strong in tension (often steel).
• The elasticity of concrete is relatively constant at low stress levels but
starts decreasing at higher stress levels as matrix cracking develops.
• Concrete has a very low coefficient of thermal expansion, and as it
matures concrete shrinks.
• All concrete structures will crack to some extent, due to shrinkage and
tension.
• Concrete can be damaged by :
fire, aggregate expansion, sea water effects, bacterial corrosion,
leaching, physical damage and chemical damage (from carbonation,
chlorides, sulfates and distillate water).
CONCRETE PROPERTIES:

• Can be placed or molded into virtually any shape and reproduce any
surface texture.
• In the world almost twice as much concrete is used as all other
construction materials combined.
• The ready-mix concrete producer has made concrete an appropriate
construction material for many applications.
Types of Concrete:
• There are various types of concrete for • Rubberized concrete
different applications that are created by
changing the proportions of the main • Polymer concrete
ingredients. • Geopolymer or Green concrete
• Regular concrete • Limecrete
• Pre-Mixed concrete • Gypsum concrete
• High-strength concrete • Light-Transmitting Concrete
• Stamped concrete
• High-Performance concrete
• UHPC (Ultra-High Performance
Concrete)
• Self-consolidating concretes
• Vacuum concretes
• Shotcrete
• Cellular concrete
• Roller-compacted concrete
• Glass concrete
• Asphalt concrete
• Rapid strength concrete
MIXING
MIXING OF CONCRETE
MIXING CAN BE DONE BY
Hand Mixing.
Machine Mixing.
Hand Mixing
• For hand mixing, a water tight platform at
least 2m wide and 3m long should be
provided.
• This platform is made up of 3 to 5 cm. thick
board, which is jointed by tongued and
grooved joint.
• It can be also be made by 3 mm. thick iron
sheet as shown in fig.
PROCESS OF HAND MIXING

• Spread out sand of given quantity evenly on a platform.


Step 1

• Spread out cement uniformly over the sand


Step 2 • Spread the mixture again on this platform

• Spread the coarse aggregate evenly on mixture.


• Mix whole mixture by shovel so that stones have been uniformly
Step 3 distributed

• Make a hollow in the middle of the mixed pile and pour water slowly
Step 4 in the hollow up to 2/3 height of pile and again mix it.

• Pour total quantity of water and remix it.


Step 5 • Normally mixing time should not be exceed 3 minutes.

 Note: at the end of the day platform should be cleaned.


PROCESS OF HAND MIX
MACHINE MIXING
• Mixing of concrete is almost invariably carried out by machine
for R.C.C work and for medium or large scale mass concrete
work
• Machine mixing is an efficient, economical and time saving
methods of mixing.
• Machine mixing can be done by tilting or non tilting type of
mixing machine.
MACHINE MIXING
The following are the standardize size of mixing machine.

• Tilting; 85 T, 100 T, 140 T, 200 T.

• Non tilting; 200 NT, 280 NT, 375 NT, 500 NT, 1000 NT.

• The size of the mixer machine is depending upon the


proportion of concrete, corresponding to 50 kg of cement.

For example,

1:2:4 mix ideal mixer is 200 liters capacity.

1:3:6 mix ideal mixer is 280 liters capacity.


MIXING PROCESS
CONCRETE MIX
DEFINITION OF CONCRETE MIX DESIGN
• The process of selecting suitable ingredients of concrete and
determining their relative quantities with the objective of producing a
concrete of the required strength, durability, and workability as
economically as possible, is termed the concrete mix design.
• Concrete mix of inadequate workability may result in a high cost of
labour to obtain a degree of compaction with available equipment.
• From technical point of view the rich mixes may lead to high shrinkage
and cracking in the structural concrete, and to evolution of high heat of
hydration in mass concrete which may cause cracking.
REQUIREMENTS OF CONCRETE MIX DESIGN
The requirements which form the basis of selection and proportioning
of mix ingredients are:
• The minimum compressive strength required from structural
consideration
• The adequate workability necessary for full compaction with the
compacting equipment available.
• Maximum water-cement ratio and/or maximum cement content to
give adequate durability for the particular site conditions
• Maximum cement content to avoid shrinkage cracking due to
temperature cycle in mass concrete.
FACTORS AFFECTING THE DESIGN MIX
1. Compressive strength
• It is one of the most important properties of concrete and
influences many other describable properties of the hardened
concrete.
• The mean compressive strength required at a specific age, usually
28 days, determines the nominal water-cement ratio of the mix.
• According to Abraham’s law the strength of fully compacted
concrete is inversely proportional to the water-cement ratio.
2. Durability
• The durability of concrete is its resistance to the aggressive
environmental conditions. High strength concrete is generally
more durable than low strength concrete.
• In the situations when the high strength is not necessary but the
conditions of exposure are such that high durability is vital, the
durability requirement will determine the water-cement ratio to be
used.
FACTORS AFFECTING THE DESIGN MIX
3. Maximum nominal size of aggregate
• In general, larger the maximum size of aggregate, smaller is
the cement requirement for a particular water-cement ratio,
because the workability of concrete increases with
increase in maximum size of the aggregate.
• However, the compressive strength tends to increase with
the decrease in size of aggregate.
• IS 456:2000 and IS 1343:1980 recommend that the nominal
size of the aggregate should be as large as possible.
FACTORS AFFECTING THE DESIGN MIX

4. Grading and type of aggregate


• The grading of aggregate influences the mix proportions
for a specified workability and water- cement ratio.
• Coarser the grading leaner will be mix which can be used.
• Very lean mix is not desirable since it does not contain
enough finer material to make the concrete cohesive.
• The type of aggregate influences strongly the aggregate-
cement ratio for the desired workability and stipulated
water cement ratio.
• An important feature of a satisfactory aggregate is the
uniformity of the grading which can be achieved by mixing
different size fractions.
FACTORS AFFECTING THE DESIGN MIX

5.Workability
• The degree of workability required depends on three factors.
• These are the size of the section to be concreted, the amount of
reinforcement, and the method of compaction to be used.
• For the narrow and complicated section with numerous corners
or inaccessible parts, the concrete must have a high workability
so that full compaction can be achieved with a reasonable
amount of effort. This also applies to the embedded steel
sections.
• The desired workability depends on the compacting equipment
available at the site.
FACTORS AFFECTING THE DESIGN MIX

6. Quality Control
• The degree of control can be estimated statistically by the
variations in test results.
• The variation in strength results from the variations in the
properties of the mix ingredients and lack of control of accuracy
in batching, mixing, placing, curing and testing.
• The lower the difference between the mean and minimum
strengths of the mix lower will be the cement-content required,
the factor controlling this difference is termed as quality control.
CONCRETE MIX

Types of Mixes
Nominal Mixes
Standard Mixes
Designed Mixes
Nominal Mixes
• In the past the specifications for concrete prescribed the
proportions of cement, fine and coarse aggregates.
• These mixes of fixed cement-aggregate ratio which ensures
adequate strength are termed nominal mixes.
• These offer simplicity and under normal circumstances, have a
margin of strength above that specified.
• However, due to the variability of mix ingredients the nominal
concrete for a give traditional way of mix proportion specified in
terms of fixed ratios of Cement : Sand : coarse aggregate (In
general by volume)
Nominal Mixes

• Useful for small works.


• Useful for routine concrete construction.
• Limited up to M20 grade
Grade of Nominal
• Requires high cement content Concrete Mix
• Workability varies widely in strength. proportion
s
(Cement:
FA : CA)
M5 1:5:10
M7.5 1:4:8
M10 1:3:6
M15 1:2:4
M20 1:1.5:3
Standard mixes

• The nominal mixes of fixed cement-aggregate ratio (by volume)


vary widely in strength and may result in under- or over-rich
mixes.
• For this reason, the minimum compressive strength has been
included in many specifications, these mixes are termed
standard mixes.
• IS 456-2000 has designated the concrete mixes into a number of
grades as M10, M15, M20, M25, M30, M35 and M40.
• In this designation the letter M refers to the mix and the number
to the specified 28 day cube strength of mix in N/mm2.
• The mixes of grades M10, M15, M20 and M25 correspond
approximately to the mix proportions (1:3:6), (1:2:4), (1:1.5:3)
and (1:1:2) respectively.
Designed Mixes

• In these mixes the performance of the concrete is specified


by the designer but the mix proportions are determined by
the producer of concrete, except that the minimum cement
content can be laid down.
• This is most rational approach to the selection of mix
proportions with specific materials in mind possessing more
or less unique characteristics.
METHODS OF DESIGNED MIXES
Several methods of mix design evolved over the years in different
countries.
• Arbitrary proportion
• Fineness modulus method
• Maximum density method
• Surface area method
• Indian road Congress, IRC 44 Method
• High strength Concrete mix design
• Mix design based on flexural strength
• Road note No. 4 (Grading Curve Method)
• ACI Committee 211 method
• Mix design for pump-able concrete
• Indian standard recommended IS 10262 : 2009
MIX PROPORTION DESIGNATIONS
• The common method of expressing the proportions of
ingredients of a concrete mix is in the terms of parts or ratios of
cement, fine and coarse aggregates.
For e.g., a concrete mix of proportions 1:2:4 means that
cement, fine and coarse aggregate are in the ratio 1:2:4 or the mix
contains one part of cement, two parts of fine aggregate and four
parts of coarse aggregate.
• The proportions are either by volume or by mass.
• The water-cement ratio is usually expressed in mass.
MIX PROPORTION DESIGNATIONS
FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED FOR MIX
DESIGN
• The grade designation giving the characteristic strength
requirement of concrete.
• The type of cement influences the rate of development of
compressive strength of concrete.
• Maximum nominal size of aggregates to be used in concrete
may be as large as possible within the limits prescribed by IS
456:2000.
• The cement content is to be limited from shrinkage, cracking
and creep.
• The workability of concrete for satisfactory placing and
compaction is related to the size and shape of section, quantity
and spacing of reinforcement and technique used for
transportation, placing and compaction.
Concrete mix design for M40
1.Stipulations for proportioning

a) Grade designation : M40


b) Type of cement : OPC 43grade conforming to IS 8112
c) Maximum nominal size of aggregate : 20 mm
d) Minimum cement content : 320 kg/m3
e) Maximum water-cement ratio : 0.45
f) Workability :100 mm (slump)
g) Exposure condition : Severe (for reinforced concrete)
h) Method of concrete placing : pumping
i) Degree of supervision : Good
j) Type of aggregate : Crushed angular aggregate
k) Maximum cement content : 450 kg/m3
l) Chemical admixture type : super plasticizer
IS 10262:2009
Concrete mix design for M40
2.Test data for materials

a) Cement used: OPC 43 grade conforming to IS 8112


b) Specific gravity of cement : 3.15
c) Chemical admixture : Superplasticizer conforming to IS 9103
d) Specific gravity of :
1) Coarse aggregate : 2.74
2) Fine aggregate : 2.74
e) Water absorption :
1) Coarse aggregate : 0.5%
2) Fine aggregate : 1.0%
f) Free (surface) moisture:
1) Coarse aggregate : Nil (absorbed moisture also nil)
2) Fine aggregate : Nil

IS 10262:2009
Concrete mix design for M40
2.Test data for materials

g) Sieve analysis : Analysis of


1) Coarse aggregate : IS sieve coarse
sizes aggregate Percentage of different
mm fraction Fractions Remarks
I II I II Combined
60% 40% 100%
20 100 100 60 40 100
conforming
10 0 71.2 0 28.5 28.5 to table 2 of
4.75 9.4 3.7 3.7 IS 383
2.36 0

2) Fine aggregate : Conforming to grading Zone I of Table 4


of IS 383

IS 10262:2009
Concrete mix design for M40
3.Target strength for mix proportioning
̒̒̒
f̒̒̒̒̒̒c’k =fck +1.65s
Where,
f̒̒̒̒̒̒̒̒̒ck = target average compressive strength at 28 days,
fck = characteristics compressive strength at 28 days,
and
s = standard deviation.
From Table 1 of IS 10262:2009,
standard deviation, s =5 N/mm2
Therefore, target strength= 40+1.65 x 5 =48.25 N/mm2

4.Selection of water-cement ratio


From Table 5 of IS 456, maximum water-cement ratio =0.45.
Based on experience, adopt water-cement ratio as 0.40.
0.40 < 0.45, hence o.k.
IS 10262:2009
Concrete mix design for M40
5.Selection of water content

From Table 2 of IS 10262:2009,


maximum water content for 20 mm aggregate
=186 liter (for 25 to50 mm slump range)
6
Estimated water content for 100 mm slump = 186+ x186
100
=197 liter
As Superplasticizer is used, the water content can be reduced up
20 percent and above.
Based on trials with Superplasticizer water content reduction of 29
percent has been achieved. Hence, the arrived water content
=197 x 0.71 =140 liter

IS 10262:2009
Concrete mix design for M40

6.Calculation of cement content


Water-cement ratio = 0.40
140
Cement content = =350 kg/m3
0.40
From Table 5 of IS 456,
minimum cement content for ‘severe’ exposure condition = 320 kg/m3
350 kg/m3 > 320 kg/m3 hence, o.K.

IS 10262:2009
Concrete mix design for M40
7.Proportion of volume of course aggregate and fine
aggregate content
From Table 3, Volume of course aggregate corresponding to 20 mm
size aggregate and fine aggregate (zone I) for water-cement ratio of
0.50 =0.60.
Note- In the present case water-cement ratio is 0.40. Therefore, volume of coarse aggregate is required to be
increased to decrease the fine aggregate content. As the water-cement ratio is lower by 0.10, the proportion of volume
of coarse aggregate is increased by 0.02. Therefore, corrected proportion of volume of coarse aggregate for the
water-cement ratio of 0.40 = 0.62.
NOTE:In case the coarse aggregate is not angular one, then also volume of coarse aggregate may be required to be
increased suitably, based on experience.

For pumpable concrete these values should be reduced by 10 percent.


Therefore, volume of coarse aggregate =0.62 x 0.9 =0.56.
Volume of fine aggregate content =1- 0.56 =0.44.

IS 10262:2009
Concrete mix design for M40
8.Mix calculations
a) Volume of concrete = 1 m3
𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 1
b) Volume of cement = 𝑥
𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 1000
350 1
= x
3.15 1000
=0.111 m3
𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 1
c) Volume of water = 𝑥
𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 1000
140 1
= x
1 1000
=0.140 m3
d) Volume of chemical admixture (super plasticizer)(@2.0 %by
mass of cementitious material)
𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑐ℎ𝑒𝑚𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑎𝑑𝑚𝑖𝑥𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 1
= 𝑥
𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑑𝑚𝑖𝑥𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 1000
7 1
= x
1.145 1000
=0.006 m3
IS 10262:2009
Concrete mix design for M40
e) Volume of all in aggregate = [a –(b + c + d )]
= [1 –(0.111 + 0.140 + 0.006)]
= 0.743 m3
f) Mass of coarse aggregate = e x volume of coarse aggregate x
specific gravity of coarse aggregate x 1000
=0.743 x 0.56 x 2.74 x 1000
= 1140 kg
g) Mass of fine aggregate = e x volume of fine aggregate x specific
gravity of fine aggregate x 1000
=0.743 x 0.44 x2.74 x1000
= 896 kg

IS 10262:2009
Concrete mix design for M40

• Mix proportions for trial number

• Cement = 350 kg/m3


• Water = 140 kg/m3
• Fine aggregate = 896 kg/m3
• Coarse aggregates = 1140 kg/m3
• Chemical Admixture = 7 kg/m3
• Water cement ratio = 0.40

Yield = 2533 kg

IS 10262:2009
CONCRETE MIX DESIGN FOR M20
Numerical example of the mix design
The procedure for designing concrete mix as per new code is
highlighted using an M20 concrete.

1. Design stipulations for proportioning


• Grade designation : M20
• Type of cement : OPC 43 grade, IS 8112
• Max. nominal size of aggregates. : 20 mm
• Minimum cement content : 320 kg/m3
• Maximum water cement ratio : 0.55
• Workability : 75 mm (slump)
• Exposure condition : Mild
• Degree of supervision: Good
• Type of aggregates. : Crushed angular aggregates.
• Maximum cement content : 450 kg/m3
• Chemical admixture : Not used
Numerical example of the mix design
The procedure for designing concrete mix as per new code is
highlighted using an M20 concrete.
2. Test data for materials • Sieve analysis
• Cement used : OPC 43 grade • Coarse aggregate :
Conforming to Table 2 of IS
• Specific gravity of cement : 3.15
383
• Specific gravity of • Fine aggregate : Conforming
• Coarse aggregate : 2.68 to Zone I of IS 383
• Fine aggregate : 2.65
• Water absorption
• Coarse aggregate : 0.6 %
• Fine aggregate :1.0 %
• Free (surface) moisture
• Coarse aggregate : Nil
(absorbed moisture full)
• Fine aggregate : Nil
Numerical example of the mix design
The procedure for designing concrete mix as per new code is
highlighted using an M20 concrete.
3.Target strength for mix proportioning
f’ck= fck +k*s
From Table 1 standard deviation, s = 4 N/mm2
Therefore target strength = 20+1.65 x4 = 26.60 N/mm2
4.Selection of w/ c ratio
From Table 5 of IS 456:2000, maximum water cement ratio = 0.55 (Mild
exposure)
Based on experience adopt water cement ratio as 0.50
0.5 < 0.55, hence ok.
5.Selection of water content
From Table 2, maximum water content = 186 liters (for 25 mm – 50 mm slump
range and for 20 mm aggregates)
Estimated water content for 75 mm slump = 186 + 3/100 x 186 = 191.6 litres
Numerical example of the mix design
The procedure for designing concrete mix as per new code is
highlighted using an M20 concrete.

6.Calculation of cement content


Water cement ratio = 0.50
Cement content = 191.6/0.5 =383 kg/m3 >320 kg/m3(given)
From Table 5 of IS 456, minimum cement content for mild exposure
condition = 300 kg/m3, Hence OK.
Proportion of volume of coarse aggregate and fine aggregate
content
From Table 3, volume of coarse aggregate corresponding to 20 mm
size aggregate and fine aggregate (Zone I) for water-cement ratio of
0.50 =0.60
Numerical example of the mix design
The procedure for designing concrete mix as per new code is
highlighted using an M20 concrete.

7. Mix calculations
The mix calculations per unit volume of concrete shall be as follows
a) Volume of concrete = 1 m3
b) Volume of cement = mass of cement/specific gravity of cement x 1/1000
= [383.16/3.15] x [1/1000] = 0.122 m3
c) Volume of water = [192/1] x [1/1000] = 0.192 m3
Numerical example of the mix design
The procedure for designing concrete mix as per new code is
highlighted using an M20 concrete.

d) Volume of all in aggregates (e) = a – (b + c)


= 1 – (0.122 + 0.192) = 0.686 m3
e) Volume and weight of coarse aggregates

Volume = 0.686 x 0.6 = 0.412 m3

Weight = Volume of CA (0.412 m3) x specific gravity (2.68) of CA = 1103 kg


f) Volume and weight of fine aggregates

= e x Volume of FA (0.274 m3) x specific gravity of FA

Volume = 0.686 x 0.4 = 0.274 m3

Weight= Volume of FA (0.274 m3) x specific gravity (2.65) of FA x 1000= 727 kg


Numerical example of the mix design
The procedure for designing concrete mix as per new code is
highlighted using an M20 concrete.

Mix proportions for trial number 1


Cement = 383 kg/m3
Water = 191.6 kg/m3
Fine aggregate = 727 kg/m3
Coarse aggregates = 1103 kg/m3
Water cement ratio = 0.50

Yield = 2404.6 kg

• * Aggregates are assumed to be in Saturated-Surface-Dry (SSD). Otherwise


corrections are to be applied while calculating the water content. Necessary
corrections are also required to be made in mass of aggregates.
Major Changes in : IS 10262
S.N. Old Edition 1982 Revised 2009 Edition
Title - " Recommended guidelines for Title - "Concrete mix Proportioning –
1
Concrete mix Desiqn “ Guidelines”
Specified for Ordinary (M 10 - M 20) and
Applicability was not specified for any specific
2 Standard (M25 - M 55) Concrete Grades
Concrete Grades
only.
3 Based on IS 456 : 1987 Modification in line with IS 456 : 2000

W / C ratio was based on Concrete grade and


W/C ratio is based on Durability criteria
4 28 days compressive strength of Concrete and
and the Experience and Practical trials
the durability criteria
Water Content could be modified taking into Water content can be modified Based on
account the compaction factor value Slump vale (Field test of Workability) and
5
(Laboratory based test for Workability) and the Shape of Aggregates, and use of
shape of aggregates. Admixtures.

Entrapped Air content considered according to No Entrapped Air content taken into
6
Nominal Maximum size of Aggregates account

7 Not much Consideration for Trial Mixes Trial Mixes concept is mentioned
An illustrative example of Concrete Mix
Concrete Mix Design with Fly ash is not
8 Proportioning using Fly ash has been
mentioned
added.
Thank you
for your attention