Sei sulla pagina 1di 34
1 ONITANOD CINTA VY HOAOUHL NOLLOAS 1 Ol sopdurexs yeordKy w ySnamp uonses © sMOYS | amNdiy “Zuyfdnos sweeUsporpAy 10 anoUPFOIpAY Jo unos asojdims ox st (IPeuNK PIN M se OY pauioFe: souMeKios) Zuydno> PN Y Se rl ONTIANOD GIN AHL 1 SONTTANOD OLANIMOUGAT TNOLDaS It comprises a two-part housing, the halves being bolted together and the left-hand balf bolted to, and thus driven by, the engine crankshaft. In the right-hand half is a cup-shaped annular member A, opposite which is a-similar member B, which is connected to the output shaft The ouput shaft is mounted in ball bearings — one in cach half of the housing, Each eup- shaped annulus contains a number of radial vanes, which divide it up into sectors of a circle, rather Like half an orange with the flesh removed. The two halves of the housing form a closed casing which is partially or wholly filled with a fluid, but there is no mechanical connection between the two vaned ennuli. The input member,A, connected to the engine, is variously referred 10 as the impeller, pump or primary; and the output member as the iurbine, runner 0 secondary. When the engine is set in motion with the output shaft at rest, the fluid in the impeller is carried azouind with it by the radial vanes, ‘The fotation of the impeller produces a centripetal acceleration on the fluid it contains, and therefore gives an increase in pressure at the outer periphery of the annulus of fluid compared to its inner radius. This pressure difference causes a flow of fluid from the periphery of the impeller into the turbine, and hence induces a retum flow into the impeller at the inner radius of the annulus (or torus, as it is usually called). Thus, a continuous circulatory flow is set up around the two halves of the torus, as shown in Figure 2. Fig. 2 FLUID FLOW WITHIN A FLUID COUPLING ‘The fluid leaving the impeller has both axial (flow) and tangential (whirl) components of velocity. As the fluid enters the tarbine, its tangential velocity is amested by impingement oa the turbine's stationary blades. The resulting loss in angular momentum of the fluid produces ‘toque on the turbine which will tend to accelerate it io match the speed of the impeller. As the turbine increases in speed, a centripetal pressure head develops radially across it, which 2 t “uonenbo ourqum s_r9]neq wo.y Sunes ‘psonpep ‘9q Aeur drs yursuos Jo suonspuos J0j sonsuamerys poods-onbio 2m2q ou2 “HAIMOH “Sqeousteue Ajainue Sundaes pig & 50 soeruopad ap jopous o1 ajgissod ATipeas 20u #1 IT DIEPERYS PIS =HML TT “uaaysés oy 01 pousmas st prnyy stn 230509, aSueyoxs yeay vw IA paroofar Suisq pmy SujoSo oy) ur zeay stp ‘uorsssuEN op uF dud Feu poplaead uonejnan e se poSuene Crreuton st mol Suyoos sway. -<[oummjapur pounmsns ‘aq dem paads dys pamsap Aue “onjea apes ¢ oy amuesodara pmy ur eseax2m1 Inq op 1H 02 DYN $1 yryM Suydnes a ySnaxp pmy Jo Moy F Samos jeursixe ue Wor SumpLacad Kg “ssonyens Seugqgnu ot 3 poyessued are ssonmuadarsy YBry [EO] YOR Ui “ySya|S VORST ewe Arroedeo eure sonoq & sey fyesaued arojaramp Zupdnoo pry ¥ “Psonpoud zw saxnyeseduiay jroo] ySny ou “Bumdnos oy wi qwiassid st yom Moy wa[nq@m YK Burrow pry jo 1Ng suey Sup Jo 9sme9q “INg LONIUy pny Kq peze1sUa way se sxeadde poyedisstp zomod YT 1 $= (@ -‘) 1 = Suydnos unpen uonedissrp 25K0g * = sdqg ot Bundnoo ain ssaxse “s “dys amp se 01 pamiayat Aqreuonuaauos st “ouqany pur sfjoduet woosspoq aouss]sip poods feuomodasd at, (7%) Eo om ‘otr up-samog aT ao aay 72 'SPU Ft ‘spaads andut o1 indino Jo onex sun Aq Aiduns oats st Sundnoo aip jo KOustoTyo ayy au0}o1OH4, symnbs 29 sXeacqe ‘suonmpuos Aproys ur smut tz pure 47 *sonbuoa yndino pun indus 241. “anbaor Fummusuen six asirym Juydnoo ot unin ABeus jo ssot sXemme st afomn ‘paRTusUER 99 01 anbyor Aue Jo} suiqim: pus zaqjodan oq uIomI0q Isto inur sauaragpp poods e souTg “poRMEsuEN 2q tain E> enbucs ou wip 08 ‘Apamue gse20 [Tim MOU PINE 2p uo ‘oswenbe spaods auqim pun Joyjedun axp Jy -samsoqs0I" ‘SuNqunI Oy) Se DsROLOU! [km Poods ous yp ‘ywEISHO sf InbIOL BUIAUP op JI “SAY “MOLY Pimy Bursearop oy) YsEM sonpes O} Spus1 anbio} jo UOTsSMESURN oy ‘posds indut yuesuED Ww “suojarou| “patiouews Ar2sof> azowi suloced ‘te pur f ‘spoods ourqim pur soypedust ayn se 301 2q punase moy stp 2anpat or spuat auoyaionp pos soypsdur 2p wi pesy amssaad ap ssoddo Fig. 3 FLUID FLOW VECTORS IN IMPELLER OF HYDROKINETIC COUPLI Figure 3 shows an impeller rotor, which may in the general case be radial, axial or mixed flow. It rotates ot angular velocity a and fluid enters with velocity 1, at radius r; and leaves with velocity at radius 7. Each velocity can be divided into a flow component uy (axial, radial or a mixture of both, according to the rotor design) and a tangential or whirl componeat uu, The flow in 2 turbine member is essentéally similar but in the opposite digection, i.e. with entry at ry. Eulet’s turbine equation tells us that the torque exerted by the rotor on the fluid is cqual to the rats of change of the moment of angular momentum of the fluid as it passes through the rotor. ive, Torque = th (unos ~ UniFi) a) Where m = mass flowrate of fluid Applying this to a fluid coupling with purely radial vanes, it may be assumed that the fluid ‘whirl velocity at exit to the impeller, uy. , is equal to the local blade velocity: 1. tne = Ob Fa Likewise, the whirl velocity of fluid leaving the turbine (and thus entering the impeller), ti, Will be equal to the local blade velocity at exit from the turbine: Le. tear = Ger ©. from eqa 1, Driving torque on impeller, T= ri (04 7,7 - a7?) 2] ‘Thus, for a coupling of a given design, running at constant slip: 4 1g puv z suonnbe Bunuiquio> fal Syd p eam (40 091) ants perper om jo zens oup se Area (yim tare mol ay) ‘AnotMosd vaars v jo Buypdnoo e 10y “eI MOUs [lak StsApeuE [LUCISUOUTIP MON [s] dys wrjeuos 1 tore Dow 1 pur g wonenbg on tmoyy sy “Bundnos ou wt pry ain Jo Ausuap ap si “suey oun punose yexsuce Apaeuxoadde SID ‘Sn40} Op JO Rare FEUDS $8019 MO ay Ie OF PoUssap ATYeNsn ome sFundnoo pIn|L 7a) inv d = urn Moy sseur op, smOY piny 03 wonenbs Amunuos ap Aq ‘mon (9) wsnin :dys yurisuoa yo suonspuos sspun “Bur{dnes Jo wHIsop waAtd v.20} ‘sme, wa1y09 S804 Woy =~ Is] P= (, @ - 4) % wa “suornphos Apeans uy :sno) otp punom AuD0]94 AOU] 2tp Jo azenbs 24 uo puodap jTIA (Peay 9U o4p on penbo 9q [TL overs Apeais w Us YoRYMa) MOL) OF aoweISIBar atp WOK “WwOAHAUTY PeRLINSSE St MOLE 24 IT ‘erupt 2up jo-smupes Uram a st“ pes Suydnoo oq Jo Jey qDe> UI pIMy JO SSUI OUP ST ur QIU AA, (rl) (40 - , f0) 4 wr = pest priodiquas aN “ped soy 21p fq paxayjo 2oueistear Moy oy o1 uosEedato9 ur *smiqsm pur 2o(jodur soaueq peat amssaad qersdunuso jou an Uo spusdap ‘iw ‘snion amp puNOR ayes OLS ssear OL “pea “soupes sono oep Aifensy) “uorsusamp Tepes onsusioearyo Aue si 4 aueyn (al powor wd d= spauyep 9q Sous *y ‘woxonf Aqovdyo rpm w + 97%9 TuaIO]]IP Jo SBuydnos zw|WIS KypeomaWIES awdu0s oy Furjdno Jo ozts zejnonzed » o1 agpioods St pue ‘ssojuorsusurtp you st 1 unre} JO}DUTERD w SapNIoUr Y 24mg eka T x aeyp 299 $11 ZT pue TT suorrenbs Suyedi0 (er) apap yon Sy ‘uoronf az2ndno v oa1jop 01 s1 SILL, Iruba Jo waroxyFo09 onbioy exp 01 zouuE TRIaITP ® HE poods indur pue enbsor usaaviag diystoneyas eorsidura ou ssoudxo 0) s9joxd sanuoipne amos, “g00'0 punoie st onyes [ward y suewsoo nt ping yo Tunoure OM puro ‘snz0} oip Jo tsIUL) agepns PUP ape jo soqtuNU ‘axdeys amp wodn spuedap 9 ywnsuOD 94, aUEISUOD ST 9 TuaKIM gaa sty suonpnbe aug 01 Surprooge Ajayeunvordde drys yytas soures 1uaj9yyy902 onbier otf “| amy us uonenba a3 m1 usoys Hardnoo pny jo ad&i ayseq aya 46] ICA PUrNoy $1 IT “dys pue paods Aue ze Zuyjdnos sopmuns Kieouramoas uv jo couenuosied amp roipard oy posn 2q Kea TT uonenbg ‘Buydno> Jo wltsop vast v 403 suonIpuos dis Jo aBuer v Joy kypourdwe peurwoiep woo sey 40 pouo ‘aiojerouy, “dys }uo}SUOS Jo SUERIpUOD JOY “suOISUDLUEP suo SuEIAI UI UITIsop mond = Jo fuydnos pmy & 10y peods wim Aysedeo onbyo} jo uonetmes oun saat snip [| uonenba “Burjdnoo ayp jo udtsep pue Anowoss ain uo spuodep yom —‘uaroulfaca anbioy ig pau —“1UaI9}J509 jpourdas ssoquorsuounp 8 Sty -sruon 2up Jo s91eu0eEP spisine ag qyonsn “Buyfde09 Kp Jo Jorouwlp onstIOISeMYD © SL CT AHURA tr aysquesuosw tod 19 = 2 uso} 21p Ut possard ‘uonuanuoa Aq ‘fyrensn st gy wonenba, Ton) fod » zronbsay, An advantage of using X (or K), as against Cr, is that a graph of K plotted against slip will be the same shape as the graph of input speed vs. slip for constant torauc. 1.3 Matching Fluid Couplings to LC, Engines for Vehicle Traction ‘We have scen that, for a given slip, the torque capacity of a fluid coupling is proportional to the square of the input speed, and that for a given input speed the torque capacity increases roughily as the square root of the slip, If we plot torque vs input specd for over a range of slip conditions we can therefore obtain a family of parabolae of constant slip, all passing through the origin. TORQUE CAPACITY INPUT SPEED Fig. 4 CONSTANT SLIP TORQUE/SPEED PARABOLA. We can now superimpose a typical engine torque/speed curve on this diagram (see Figure 5), It will be seen from Figure 5 that at engine idle speed is a (small) drag tonque transmitted, so that the engine and transmission will never be completely disconnected, unless we put another clutching device in series with the fluid coupling, or possibly if we are prepared to drain the coupling of fluid at idle. This drag torque may cause the vehicle to ‘creep’ forward at idle unless the brakes are applied. [t will certainly preclude the usc of a conventional dog- engagement gearbox, unless an auxiliary clutch is employed to engage the gears. AAs the engine speed is increased from idle, if the wrbine remains stalled, the transmitted torque will follow the § = 7 parabola, until it meets the full load engine torque curve. Thus, as the engine is accelerated, we automatically achieve a smooth and progressive increase in diving torque to the transmission 8 NOLLOVAL FIDIHAA WOd ANTON “D OL GAH. DNTTANO GINTA V 40 ADNVINNOUad $ Fa 03345 §* ONITdNOD JO AONBIOIdSa @ dis gaad$ IndNi t@ vor vow Aawaioissa ans SNIONS 1 @ ONIANOD GINIA HOI S3AUND O3adS-SNOUOI (>) 0334s onmrar] o3aas Ts] gvo7 avou anowoL oaads vig von 71nd gages inawt (vou Tana) ‘SINVISTSS 3AioYeL— Ze ovud ‘ONTO o 20: so t Botts anouon zane ay vo Kouapayyp Zuner=do mol mojauaq pue dys Zupeiodo ySry pur ‘pasy 2u0 vo asueuuDpod Fens sod Ajqissod pue Sep opr ysry wssmyq ssuuardwos ys3q 2 Sous cuodn spuadap sng: oxmno eabam ourSu2 zenonzed x ov Sudnoe pny ¥ 30 Sunjourus ryssa2005 “(9 any 298) aoueTUoiod SunERs ITY aPUNN|N svOJaIaY ppue - onbsoy Sunreys wnuriveur somo] AqwuoyUfs v UBSEH ost fIPAs Y>yeU 29]jH8, SU ([9891P padseys-oqim = ‘#'2) paods soy i oxmo poodsyonbior Suny Aypidex v sey ourgus om JL esp app 1owai8 jo asiodr>.om we ing :paods ourdua uaniS w re Kouoroyj2 sayear8 pow days $891 rojasoup pus ‘poods |fe1s peoy [[nj AMO] & DAIS [TEA SUL “Yor OHI O1 aefoqused SAsL=IIETEYS Sundnoo Fo Aquures og onour 01 st ouiTue wand e pameq Sumdnoo so8ze] & Sumy Jo weE aL (@)s 2031 208 - peoy [jy 7 we sBon—puCD ‘PROT pros 29pun poods woard © ye Aousteyy> seas ye uns [jm Bexydnos oy) wey sursur sty, “svontpuos stmoxn [my zepun ury Zuydnos ay ye dys ssaq aim avesado [yun 1 “paads pros UaAIS w 10] ‘os[y “poods aurdu> Jomo] F Ie 370 aAOUE OD UTIs FIM D|ITGDA amp I Os “(¢ Imi) ff, 10d 28 [feIs ast99 [|EM AUICIM BUN "PEOL [949f ¥ uo KyyouOU SuEUMAS SF aporYS4 Kp IT “1852 Tax aforyas yp UIs OL aTeTTEAL onbsoy waMsyATUr a4 AuREaIO SF onbrOI [TEI POOL-TING eK, paods 2[s1ya0 peorjonoy mnunxeus 942 oF spuodsauoo mod six (5 Fy uo Wi, wwiod) peads indino ‘Buydno> Sumpeodsaw0s ap we MAND DOUETSISAl aANTEN peo] peor ap sqout ano sabi sues 2 fun snunves fim sssoasd sty, -URee aseazout on poods ouius am Sumojye pue ‘dys Jo mote sty Sulmpa: Ajatssauoxd emp ‘aeuzyasse fla Sagan; sip (omOSES.0 3q wea a[2yaA ay Jo soUTTSISAX oanoET oq SuRuMsse) way] ‘Pasca[es mou ar S9xeIG stp JT *(Buyjdnos sup Jo uonesado y2a1109 pure andino J8.0d ourdua Surtjuan jo suraur pros e septroxd sorr9s ut poods pHs PROT [Thy Uo oa} y) “Badan ‘oy UL way se porwdissIp Buroq way st Zomod auBus oun [TY “AIeI9FSIIe OU [fA spOTYDA ‘out pur (¢ “BL[ Wo ,Y, od) poods siyp Ve Wreurar [flak DuTaUD ayr voy (uO aze S>yeIq 2ST GIA ‘2qy esneoaq sdauzed) poyess st anbJoy ourFu2 peo) [ny aus wage porress Sumaras ourqam 242 JT or Spweny ap JO SHO [wou aI os sBuydno> py axnowomE wopow ssO,AL “vortsod onuy wey} asn92s 01 papfan. 20 porsin *poploy Cpuonbasqns 9q Ant yorym squa 0 stam Xq sBuisnoy fears possead ow sapetg yoais i20ys [enpiacpur Funqwosse Aq 20 ‘sBunse2orp Aojje wnsununys tosy sour paomsesnuEc Ayfensn ae SfoquIOW! POPTTQ SLL suonruqis da 9$ pinoo yotipn ‘uoRisod seinue sures aya ze s>qRo yore 1éacuaTUT 108 OP SOPETG uney am fe ep somsua Joye -ouIqIM pos sadn aq UI sope[g jo s9qQuNE Fenboon ‘ue 0 ‘snzor agp Jo aouarayumasto 2m punore Enid aperq a[qeueA v soUyNID Kopds9 01 Jensn st 3p ‘posh oq uvo Fuppeag urdu YORYA 0} TUERKE oy SUIT YoRA ‘eA UE UR Uren wo Axigede> onbso1 sax00d ¥ oxy [LIM 3 PUL “uONDaMp 2esaA03 21 uH KoustoUyD Ysty Ww uN OK youues Sumdnos oop suesus snp ing “Av1sedeo enbuo} scuduri o} posn soumouios ame sopeiq aang ~Kouaiouye Jo-osvadye ayn re Sundnoo pazis wand © go Aaronde onbuoy exp ancudust 01 ‘Span Sura FO JoquaME ayn Bursea‘ooy “sopeyg 20 S9UrA FeIper Tey axry sBurjdno> pmy wsopy RSPR OSI yt AINOYOL ONLLAVLS UNV OVUC ATA NO HO.LVN ONITINOD AO LOA “9 ENT a33¢s sai 03305 { ° ONITdNOD B3DUVT HLM ovud 370! G3SV3uON! 9NNgNOD y39HNVI OL G3HOIYN 3NIONS G3ONVHIOSUNL ¥os 3n0uOl ONILYWIS €39NG3Y— aziveldsy AvWuniyn aszouvH20gunL ‘SBABNS Inu ONS ‘ONIdNOD oningnoo BNOWOL SNIONS adn, Bees San Tivis anbuoL u “Kun0w099 ery pue Kouarouje umumncem Sua “poems sy dys uonrpuoD dn->20] SH UE ‘PUR YsIN|2 wonHy 2 eA Kfamua St UOISsTUsUEN Femod ‘uo!su=; Suuds wWMe1 JO/PUE saOyS YDIN|D OM JO 819m ap Zunsafpe ot SaouduNT ‘uoNoe opom Tuninsor oy) Ueno ‘pur s2oys oY) SsTIQeS "ware aoRNS ay) BSEaLoUT Or poroosd oq Kaus Sursea sayfadust acp Jo 2065 wORDU) OWL gm350 aap wORSUT 03 pImyy wo uomsuen & pur 2c05 [eSajindzo Zepun sprean axour S20ys YD aM 0s ‘sasu poods andino ay sy “SSauLpOOU!S WNUNTYeUE YPLA “BoRes Sumdno> pmy an Ysnanp én-ayE AUP snecome ssonpoid oucFua ap Jo woNesI|209e "ONE UI "YSeD yo sammpeay 19q 3M sapLAG.d pur yon peSnpuiues © eALM Fuxjdno> piny oy seurquio? (G amBLq) yor] PHY AL -Buy[dnos yo wBssop yeoysse|9 Suh WEN paredwos ‘sonsuaiseuys dys Suruune pue Sep apr oy: oacudumt osaqy se yons SuONRaYIpOU! moy sMOYs g ami °(G axndiy cvs) peads wo{ we MOY xoUOA oyp druza}UT 1 snuoy ot jo smipes J2UuF 2¢p punore poseyd ssumNoUIOS st 2yeq F kjoAREMITY Doy> Opn seq snuot poddas oyx pur wed [ruoNUDUOS 2h SMOT]O} Lots Pini) oy Tip OF “STE SuydoOD ui MUO} SpAEMNo A[EIPEI sanous YevOA PiNY ap Jo ANGI ay PEE “SMUG OP O7 MOATISOF ‘An WON PU a saFayuEI peoy amssaad Pmadinuso poseausu! mp “spoads Zuneiodo ry “(¢ 35081 298) Seap opt ain 25U=4 pur “one Man ur ping Jo sseur aq SuPonpa: AqazaKa = paads Moy 72 TOnasas op o1m poroastp st ping} aup JO ysaur “Buse Buyjdnoo ayy jo anus Du UY oWIN[OX s1oATOsaH DIQeIOaIdde UE yAL sno) paddors * Busplaard Aq yy Os ‘sUO 34 Jo sq[eA 3aIn0 ouy Bay a) SPUA, xaHIOA MOT] otp 'spoods CreuTd MOT I SHON IPUED [feIs JapLLPL -poods (amund Zuyseaiour ype dips ur wonsnpas pider azou e134 pur Sesp 2xpr psonpas soar SMU “snfeA UoRrpu0s Zumuuns sopun su Sudfurge Aqreuewus moqpin ‘7818 #8 S0yea. LD asp aonpaL 1 epeU Ueeg ansy ada Kany “pourmigo aue synsas [Jex=40 2ouq “F9pe|q JO 2oquING stp Zurseas>Ur KpYBT|s pur BwU a303 54 Sununu Aq yeu puns wseq Apeonbysqns sey x1 “onamoH “YavOA moY ox Jo anuao ip ye souaingam ojquutsapun woasid djay oF pur vase wuO;run Jo Wed Moly = aptAord OL (T UNS 298) HORDES ssoz9 st} yp JO aNUDD ay rea uN uO, wv pRY \quERAUE suydno KEW fom Atqedosear siwowarmbor osatp re S120 TY “SoHAI98 wl paromunootta 3q or Kpoye soummuadwian wsayFiy aM 3 Gypqes jeormays pue Cysoss. mop “Csuap ySiy ome sonstansemmys 2IGeZIS9p OY ‘PMY SuDPom oy; se (4LY) CieuEA pinpy vorssmsuRL | OIR Fig. 7 COUPLING WITH STEPPED TORUS AND RESERVOIR ‘The centrifugal clutch operates immersed in oil and, during the period of engagement, the Toad is shared between this and the flnid coupling, with the portion taken by the clutch varying as the square of the speed ratio. The clutch is designed to commence engagement at a speed when the hydrokinetic slip has been reduced to only a few per cent. Thus, although the clutch must transmit the full engine torque when fully engaged, it is not subjected to a high slip speed while engaging, so that the thermal loading is low and a small lining arca can provide adequate life. Under drive take-up conditions the clutch is, of cousse, inoperative. In some cases, 2 hydraulically actuated friction clutch, whose engagement is scheduled by the transmission control system, is used as an altemative to centrifugal actuation, See Figure 32 of Section 3 of these notes. 12 «1 HOLD 40-4907 TVOARINAD HLA ONTTANOD GINA V - HOLIID CINE 6 Fu stsavs (TwoidAl) TSH SNISNE |_ONIVae J4VHS waTIOW ANALG Was. anv oniuyas—— ive L asansi. onisy? — NOLDVaY uval uy ae HOLM, wan SOLLSIALOVUVHD ONITANOD ALLA AO NOSRAVAIVOD 8 Ft ‘sass pa sg “ean poe ‘eo Brn teat — WACUY.LAY OLLANINOUGAH OT sepa ayn Aq porsefar seay am aus adoo on Aressanau st A ooo surSus ur aseaupul apni “ausayoxs Aqjengnar ame saps ap ut wouRdrssip samod pur samod aura 92urg waIsks ZuyOO suISus I~ UI 991A9p IIPM-O1- [HO WE 40 JFULGDTI IY ue ySnonp sun [10 op Suissed Xq payediseyp Apessesd st sopreias aup ut payexausd 4 2yT, ‘pacoydure og or (kusedea peo, poonpar jo 10u WEnoIn) AWoedes [rUNIW remo Jo seyeuq UoNOUY FuyquuD “paonpar Your mt ‘st sop Ou, “SIqER 2yoigs umul ou iuoMaydns o1 ssapsrias se patojduio oq osye Lew sontaap onsuT{aupS SUICMVLAY ILLANIMOWGAH 7 st ten (aren se5n) we =p =(uopenbo aurquna 8 49|Ng] Ui049) 0} Tenbe st zox2vos O41 wo anbi0y eu “2, “anbio zo10e—s tH JO. wont 2g UO <{uo puadap qt. **y “anbuoy indino ata way “wwmnsuad st 2z anbion dur stp Jt Cr+{D- =r OnRt+ +E coms “(U1 aunty aes) wexSemp sorsen om moxy paonpap aq eur drs tpn sate uoneoednynun ‘onbiol yoru Ul Kom ay, “XTTeoUIdmID pourRgo UsEq 2ABY Y J0 13 JO SONIEA 2]qeIIMS 2OU0 “|| uonwnbsy Husn parstpaid oq Avw sourua}tod st pue Surjdnoo prnyy 947 v JO YU 0} TEATS Sk onstinzeseya peedspenbsor indus sit os ‘oornap omourjoupdy wv st kouoauoo onbuoy a], “TI ami wr uous st stusuay> popeyq sastp 2tp $0 swat aamzedued y -uonzea: onbsor ap aptaoid pur wommar jussoxd or Suse uossMEsUEN ap vo wuod quacuaAuOD SEOs O2 PIER, 51 GmyM. “YEYS J0EIs JO IOVS MOTOY ay UE SSuUEIG Ur SUM YRYS SUM BY “URETeIp some, Moy pmy e YM 2—RSF1 “suaAUOS ede 30 sno) 24 nosis YONSIS SS0HD © SMMOYS 11 aMTLy —TaaAuOS enka e pojfe> $1 sotazp SILL ~aurgam: pue soyfaduuy usowzoq “nun otp ss0u38 sun290 wo}D>NdeypMA snbyoy 184) os ‘sonbuor Jorsear pur soffodanr oy) Jo wins oun saaraoas surg ayy EMR posuEsTE €q tivo 11 ‘sxaquiout SaxY! [[e Wo BUIPElA am Jo Uilsop axgeains fq “Jwobs TeMuo| OU axe santo ‘Azepuooas pak Creurud yi YeuR SuWoU ‘oxaz 9q [INS ENE ZU aJoKsA 4A Wo sono tn Jo wns SeeqhSe oxp 2ouIs “YSIY Gorse 30 ‘yoLsH22 24 pauti= Ctqeash) ZsquIEE pany sity Uo anbI01 vonseas © sconpoid piny 2m Jo umuewour seine ur Fury Funmsal oy] uc pur Jpppdun ap womreq noy pmy oy WaNpar Aprap> [IL ZaquIsU Jone] Jo Sumpeyy pam a “sopeyg aumno Zutaey soquiam popeyq Zunmes-uod pimp 2 qua poy sods seymuue Sungnsst ‘2a pus "ponotzal #1 SurpGnos pmts € Jo sepetg euigam pur zoypodiun aus 30 yore yo wouiHes Ff] “Buydnos pimy 219 Jo soysus2eIY> n-ayo) SAEp opeuioine yusljooxs og) SuuMmar yspya “ouwuUoyiod Sunms Fwaoadurr DUE SaiouDauEp asay TunuooIaA0 Jo suzow v se padojsrsp see seoAUOD anbioL eu, “SUORIPUOD ,PRO|-PeOr, JruoE sepun Koustouje Surorpnfasd razanas mouim ‘onbsor Buns pood anamje o1 paods Sry ‘Apuomuns ¢ re Sundaoo sip yoqear o1 ynauyp 2q eur “2am onbson Cyead, v yin auras power Ciudry e 20g “poods yfews wasoy> 2m ve anbuoy suiSus apeys-ApeRs 3TQ seep SU SIGREAT ‘sabuon SunTess minwincrw ou] quausSeFue or oud paods ouifue Suiseatout Aq suonspuo> YROUP UI axow A Bo soryDA oy 1B OF UOREIZZI2p PIyNKy Surodurs jo Ampqrsod ‘ou S| auaqp 2sne20q "YoIN> WONSUy porjomuos AfeRUCUT ® YALA POU BfONYOA IRIN v OF vostsndwoo ur eouetiuoped Sunzeis 00d e anny 01 spun Suydnoo pny v Um Pony a[oIyaN y UOMSMpoNey re WALMAANOO ANOWOLSHL = ci MALUANOD ANOAO.L INAWATA ATAHL HOM WVAOVIG AOLIGA 11 a tide = 1% 299 onl BA ny ou (G) Fara ny Auvelad tude 2'8y ons “ny fg an fn © rs B “oy © a roo 3 g AsvON0IIS Ty ‘ta = in vy oa 7 ie % jn ‘nen 2008 souayay song ne os (uayonozas) auauns uaanria) anne Fig. 12 BLADED ELEMENTS OF A TORQUE CONVERTER Ts2e0/s " 1 Turbine 2 Stator 3 Impeiter Refersing to figuee 11, it can be deduced that, as the turbine speed increases from stall, so its blade velocity vector, is, will increase in length, thus causing the absolute exit velocity vector, us , to rotate in a clockwise direction. ‘The entry velacity to the rezetor, tes , will be approximately equal to us , so that as the turbine speed increases, the direction of 1, will approach more closely that of us , the reactor exit velocity. The difference between ts and tee, and hence the reactor torque and torque ratio across the unit, will therefore decrease with reducing slip. {tis also clear from Figure 11 that, if uw exceeds uysin the same direction, thea the torque on the reactor will become negative, and a torque reduction across the converter would thus result. The latter occurrence is usually avoided by mounting the reaetor on a sprag clteh, so that, as the torque on the reactor reverses, it is allowed to free-wheel in the same dicection as the impeller and turbine, and thereafter takes no further part in the procedings. The converter is, in this free-wheeling condition, behaving as a fluid coupling, and the input and output torques will be equal. The combined two stage device is then strictly termed a converter coupling, but in common parlance is still called a torque converter. Figure 13 shows a typical torque ratio versus speed ratio characteristic for a converter coupling. The coupling point, at which the reactor starts to free-whcel may, in practice, occur anywhere between about 0.7 and 0,9 speed ratio, depending on the detail design of the blading. The maximum torque ratio, at stall, may be as high as four or five with a simple three clement torgue converter of the type described, but is more usually between two and two three, High stall torgue ratios demand highly curved blades which entail higher losses, and therefore tend to reduce overall efficiency. The design point is the point of maximum efficiency in the conversion mode. Tt corresponds to the condition, shown in Figure 11, where the fluid is able to pass around the flow circuit with the minimum shock and turbulence because the fluid velocity vectors at blade entry and ‘exit are tangential to the blades. Clearly, a particular set of blade angles will only give this sondition at a single specd ratio: as the fluid vectors move away from the design condition, so increasingly high shock losses are incurred at the junctions between the different bladed member, and the efficiency is reduced. Even at the converter’s maximum efficiency, some losses are incurred duc to fluid friction, ‘which increase with the square of the velocity of circulation of fluid, and the-best efficiency is unlikely to be much in excess of 90% in the conversion range. When operating away from the design condition, further shock losses are incurred and the efficiency curve falls away on either side of the maximum efficiency point. Reaction members present the greatest design difficulties because they experience wider ‘variation in flow velocity, and in the direction at which the fluid arrives at entry to the blading. With a canverter-coupling having a moderate stall torque ratio, an efficiency of 90% or so can be obtained for about the top third of the range of speed ratios. If the maximum efficiency point is moved back to obtain higher torque multiplication, there is a resultant drop in efficiency around the 0.8 speed ratio region. Consequently most hydrokinetic fluid drives are designed for best efficiency at the higher speed ratios and with a relatively modest torque multiplication, Additional stepped gear ratios are then employed to extend the range of torque back-up to meet the full range of vehicle tractive requirements. 8 61 SOLLSRIALOVAVHD ONTTANOD-UELYAANOD “1 25 ANIOd |Niiano> olive o33as ro 30 ‘aro on EFFICIENCY = PER CENT oot anrod NoIS30 3.2 Performance Enhancements Many efforts have been made to extend the maximum efficiency region of hydrokinetic drives but, in some cases, the results tend scarcely to justify the additional complication involved. Several attempts have been made to produce adjustable reactor blades, so as to be able to vary the enltance or exit angles. To adjust the maximum efficiency point (design point) in an optimal manner, it is however necessary to aller the angles on nve of the bladed members. Adjustable blades not only complicate design and manufacture, but do not achieve all the desired improvement. Pivoting blades can only obtain part of the necessary design change, which requires a three-cimensional change in shape of the ducts through which the fluid passes It is difficult to achieve a high coupling efficiency as well as high torque multiplication in the same unit. High efficiency is obtained by employing fewer blades and lower rates of fluid circulation, whereas high torque multiplication requires higher rates of flow and blade areas. Thus, in the Lysholm-Smith converter (Figure 14), shree sets of turbine blades and ave sets of reactor blades, are used to obiain a stall torque ratio of Sto 1. A single turbine is insufficient and it is necessay to pass the fluid more than once through the turbine blades. After the fluid has passed through one set of turbine blades, it enters a reaction member whose blades collect the fluid and redirect it so that a further turbine member can develop additional torque. Tn this design, there are six sets of blades, one impeller, two reactors and three sets of turbine blades (See Figure 14). This type of converter does not operate well as a coupling because it is mechanically inconvenient ta allow the reaction members to freewheel and the converter is generally combined with a friction clutch which is locked-up to provide a direct drive at higher engine and vehicle speeds. The two-phase converter-coupling can combine improved efficiency and a higher torque multiplication than a single-phase version but the output torque is still rarely sufficient for all—road operation, and extra gear ratios are usually needed provided in the form of an epicylic gearbox. ‘Where a more modest torque multiplication is adequate, it is more satisfactory to obtain an improvement in efficiency by dividing the reactor into two or more elements which can rotate ‘or frewheel successively as the direction of fluid velocity changes. Thus, as seen in Figure 15, itis possible to divide a reaction member into two parts, each of which is mounted on its own one-way clutch. As the turbine accelerates, the sesultant direction of fluid srriving at the reactor may change by around 130°. By dividing the reactor into two, the first part may freewheel when the fluid direction has changed through say 60°. The fluid then causes the first part of the reactor to freewheel, so that there is litle change in the direction of the fluid passing through it. Only the rear part of the member now redirects the fluid flow, and the Converter acts as though the front part of the member was removed. The efficiency curve of the converter-coupling now shows three peaks, two in the conversion stage and one in the coupling stage, (See Figure 15). ‘The successive freewheeling of the two parts of the reactor Prevents the converter efficiency falling too far after having reached cach ‘design point’ ‘This two-part reactor thus provides two design points before reverting to coupling operation. 20 ONITANOD-NILNAANOD ASVHS-OML V 40 SOLSIHEIDVAYHD AONVINMOMNTA UNV WVHOVEG S ey vouna sn oo, (e182) sepeig vonoeay «9 (gies €) sepere eulain): @ sepeig dung. y w, “L1 ade ui paeorpur se “soysinIo woR[ Jo suoNeUIqUIOD waxayIp uNseTUs Aq paaayype are uopersdo Jo sapour somes aiyy, “¢ Waunjo uonany ayp Bunjoo &q ‘speads poor 19yFIy ye soysg s]O1Y9A URBEL oun auewIETddns on ‘sepreror onaUTYoUPAY v se posn osfe st sauequo9 anbior ay ‘uorssMUSUEN SIYE UL “aouEUUOLad [[PI940 ZeyEUTIS w OxOTIDe 0 soneT geaB jrorueypour paddars yeuonrppe sarmbou suep xoques’ ou pure ‘AUP onsUIZOMDKY ISTE sigeredwoo ¢ 20) ueyp ssa] Sf aueteBueLe snp qua vonvoydamer onbior einunxear ou, NOISSIWSNVUL . VAMC, FLLOIA SELL AO WWHOVIC ot Fg Sygeaqueyoout penruisuen seaue sizamod olp jo wos d0uls 19.40] aL sosso] ayn svarays ‘paxojdara aq eo yun s9[[eurs yeu Os “onbro} sUITUD [Inj Jo uorodosd y Kquo soos royonuoo onbao) op yeip surour uowePuEaI SIM “g{“399-naR ovfadoude puoaes e ut AAUP jRorueyDoUr ayp Yum pourqwODar sf indino sUIAUOD AL, “> “FaU9AUOD anbio) TuoUIa}S gan ® Jo Jofjadusr ayn saxtp 193 uns oy asqRps ‘og swall oer poddors vo YFoosy) oAUD Jeonmeysour wydtens e synsuEN rates youRd sy], “\ yes seek oadoide ue Jo snjouue o42 FIA sigue OAL OL “UoISSTUSURN DANCE YOR aIN smoys Yong “oy amt a1 paryrdd se STE, ‘2AUp Jeorteyosur oatp e pe 32179409 onbuoy w uo9AI99 paptatp s| anbiow nduy exp Xqarayn ‘quoweBueare parunys 10 ancy remuasafip w ojdmna 01 si “oxusp snoUTIOEDAY E Jo sameIUEADE ‘ip Sutuperar isn “odocesua paods)ouoouyo ysty e Suraowae or ysvoxtde aanewarpe uy SUT OPPS = ¢'e NOISSTINSNV2LL LNQHS SLLANDIOUGAH, VAMC HLIOA 40 SAGOW ONILVAAIO Lt 3 DreGumuone ear paecs ee aT on peers ABsoue amon SaL TSE SPINS pu sayidy aud AebuoHeTS 94) JoujoBe o:nesaid iapun po EuvOAtep ‘duind june ue se 3278 pu (=p vO) sea8 i wy uogesado Buunp yen o; woe [p women opsodsn aug u Yarup oa ee 10 0 ayeiqsojoum Aqiuayn ‘sen ‘4170 wmvewour prenuo} out fq uERUD 31 1eown oucim “eum Sune ou Bupea a6.ces puentoy 241 ypseds pecs winuwsceu}6 9601 IFOGES! 2 Kegan “eaeaey3sci-2 0d 70 UO 27096-90048! Uf 1wa6 o510004 poveye eumpou = hor® eyeueings pany — 5 usuodinco Keune = uned er op mnt ase = mogeinnOod peebocesay a0 81 Sug 6 pr Sac Sela toe mene eas poe (ease via) 05 5 ‘vowed janneN moy senod onan ue uBgESp SRS P cea} Ba 8030 du peeds peos wmuoreu! jo ‘og xovdde Wy 7008 pug wy voresaj9098 ‘Buunp 3€u 61 Sanujuoo posts surgery wm pe eswyes sas un uaauponam oy j6 aytig (418) pabeSuesip 61 2am aula aut “ANCOURLITIS “ieMos URUIOIDA jo noy 2 Socnumnn pue ¢ peous hand Sergstue Sing ‘pede 34 ext youT7 “oN susbue Due (asad peay wnwixeus 0 9% 0y 03008) ponds p01 hq peurnod AeayewoMe pa1s0}9 31 ppwod /9 velssnuswen jromueels Eee eu seed pur pandde iy oyesq smyous0) aso, uw yun 1806 vanup-ocimy au josousea sebuoysx0 roy peng mURAun9 see 38 Mero ~ "yun 960 vonu-casnt sate vane 10 saw wood pa ane IAT ses md mame rsa on scr own e010 eyed Seal sksap eae sound put sees ound ea Bad weUS ndino oi paaswevea semen eure AQ paranyop acbuo) pagum ay ‘| BUN [yBronst pub L204 99IN6 Gnas wroup pason Bu sway 3 ada Sq pomes 2008 pO “RANG aR HS NA ysis ound BA uanyp ave g saqoduR Cun pug 64205 ung “Lreuoqes aue 2 soure9 veue;d pesfons ped yaus mchno ‘Wess 226 meso 0 38 Buy 01 pomusuen 8 samod ‘ua “paEOD S12 UrIND Ind UeUAA (nuip wania) 4806154 % “GL Pur ST Semndix 01 Poppe u30q JAvy anbuo} indut payproods e roy pasds indus pur Aousiouye jo sansuaiserey) selRUIS Aqesmnauoss 34 yf4m enbor indi Jo sanyer zaip0 40} sonsusisereys peods andut am \Cyse2i9 soy somes y ap wouy pouTeigo oq eas onsta1oe7ay> peads indur Surpuodsexo oy) wou) “pownsse si snbioy indur jo anjea semonmd & 71 ‘ol = le*fousioug spaureago Aqipeas oq Aeur onsuioneseyS Kouaayye oy ‘MoNBULOFUT o1Seq 2AOGE OUP LON] ‘peyouosdde st aurod Sudno9 aip so ssjuei sowoseq pur ‘pides siour Aqyesouo8 st yfe) Jo avex jentur om somer anbso) (fers 2ougtyg ent reaun SqySno3 Kqpensn sf yxy ay; ‘ones snbi0n (jes ayezapou & EM sug}IOKUOS 1Of "BA0ge paumjdxs se tones poads Guiszosaur ques spo swan onox anbso) OU, “(p] aimig 99g) “dys ySxy 30 SuoMIpuos Jspun aseaisep [PIUL 1ySys © 9q Sem az9K peopUT ‘junpH aaoUL oq 01 spUAI ast 949 ‘one anbson (peas J9Y!y Yalka Soulyoeur Uy -peyoeas st yurod Buydneo ous Moya Apidos ast uaip pue ‘uonezado Jo aseyd uotssoauoo ayn moysnosty ones poads (pia APNOTS 2seaIDUT on spuay “y ‘ors¥j Medes ayy, omndwioo ip uo ‘sonbiuysa; feouown Sutsn Yo cesmydes Joint paypuey 382q St ep at WTA OF (SoNSHAOEYO oToIyaa pus ouBUD op ap soneUL ww? 40} JOU) ones paads 01 sdiysuonejas onPUIAINENT a]duTIs 229g Kore sOIDe} AaFSedvD pUe ones onbior axp ‘ooomd UL °{°Z anoge Jo ONE anbuoy [jes BurAcy rapP9Ates onBrOy LOST Ue 10} ‘g] ain Ly ur Unols 8] SonstiojseRyD so}:oAuOD Jo 19s wards) y "BIE o1sEq SU WO} sumiaureaed posmbar oxy ie aizinoyeo wea os tory wt ing ‘poyjddns uayo $1 uoNEUUsOFUE FINO andino pur indut useaviog ones poads snstoA Ones onbso} aM pus “y 301383 Larseded zo sydexd Jo so[gei Jo wlio 94} UI SloEITEINUELL LU9AUOD q par{ddns AIjensn aze soNsEIOOETeYD e524, sonspiaiopz0yo JoupAuoo 241 Uo voMPULIOZU! uyeMED arbor om ‘smusMaIMbss YORE afouyea porpigods Zuaoryoe Jo] surdus ue Jo ssteunopsod 919 0} 123.09 anbio1 w jo Bunyarrait ach ayeTasaaut O1 29910 UT ONTHOLVN WALNIANOD TNOVOL “Furjno> piny 10 ysIN}o uOHORY v Ysnonp SuIAUp diem auIvO ay Je wey OquEST eotUEYOU OY UI papooU aw SOME IAD] II} Supatd sosauos stp Aq pasayjo dn-syoeq onb10} ayn ‘saseo []e OULU UL “Cauatouse @[quuostal aim dn-yoeq onbio) ausinbar oi Suipraaid “uorssmemsuen oneuone Aq e soy Josn oy) 01 1509 [JBIOAG WINUTULUL Jo sULIDI EF E151LI09-]] Wag oO seas “coNeaTfdde ay) Foy peUsap Ajroauos gr ‘pure sq Ty 01 sopaXarojour uo] sapsiyan jo sad() (ye wo pesn st ureys4s sii, Pury ur som oun 40g dasjovq enbam arenbope soprod uonvuiquios aya yeu os SONA 1dIDEL)NS Fury xogTas oytods we SutaMp s9pim E aa18 12VaAUO> anbwor Jo suatsap yussyyp wody 2IQe[TEAR soNsLaDe7Y> 4210 pur ones snbios [pews wt VOLES 3) ‘sonmo}{ “sondumsuos [any asojazsy) pur - Kousisyy> Fumeiedo puneFe asueuopad Jo yo ~apen v aq sKemue |[lm Yorew FauFOAUOD endo) Jo soroys oun ‘sBundno> prnyg Jo ase9 ain ur sy ‘odo|eaus sourunopsod afoiyaa/surlus apoua. amp jo aamaed ‘iajduroo e da pring 01 sn afqeus o9 pappe 2q eu ‘uondumsuos any ayiaeds que;suoD jo souT Se YONS “S2EMTEDJ JMO “UONLII}20I JOY s{Ge[IRAE Indo Wp Iovsy PuE “uoNIpUOD peos Aue 20} pauinbar enbuoy suru [fry Jo womodoid ap saars ¢z amity waxy uonee2yes apduurs y sndino aurSua yo aansedsaut ‘pareja przanp axe spoods 2[2124 pur surua oy YON ur “uorssmusuen yeorueysou TISEQ s5OHM ISUANEOD OPED MP 205 smpaooad sap aensnge sz pur Zz sandy “papa 29 deur uompuoo Aus ye soweussoysad oppiyan ay) “seam> sounsysas ance poo|-peol SuIppe pur “oid onsuaemy> indur ain tax erep oursuo Suusaysuen keq “soxe poads indinoyanbioy indino uo ‘isyaAuoD 9x Jo apls indino sy2 4o pod oq AuUN soUTT Jo 198 EUS “aury yore yord 07 pasar uamp st yuod erp (Suis © kquQ “Z adoys so: sour] wy@eens jopjemd jo sous # se wade [jm amp aes youpe ut ‘soded 20[ 20} vo souy digs purse aep oid 01 }aREaAwo> aiow Pue ssa $81] -aumo cubsoy sudue am Sursodwuadns pur (Sundoo> pmy ax 205» amie or souueUI ZR[RUIS © wi) soxe pacds mnduyenbuo nda uo stjogerd dys ywmsuo> jo souss ° Zumoyd ‘£q s12n9 snbuo; su@ua usar » yum Apsamp poredwwos oq et sonsts4Seary> FOWSAvOS ail, “anyon ynduy Jo sonpea quersu0a zejnopand Joy stojd ypns axensay TZ pue gz soINAly spoods Surwury o[o1yar o) oadsox sy ‘>aRY9q |]! JUOAUOD at moy Jo Sinjoxd Jon|q ¥ uMHAO 01 sepI0 ut ‘oneT paads uEYR ZoMre ‘paods indno asuwae pauod oq usin Atur sisyouesed somo oq ‘pare2qe> aq Aewt paads inchno jo wonetex Sumpuodsaii03 241 ‘onbuoy mdut Jo snpea yuersuos sejroneed e SusooNS Key 3009) (ees) mind 200] 37 te! INPUT TOROUE 21085 Nm 2800 ea 907" 24001 no 2 aol 2200 | 48 ro} 2000 6 so} 1800 : 4 so} 1600 2 sok 1200 0 o 7000 2000 3000 Fig. 20 CHARACTERISTICS OF ALLISON TC-940 TORQUE CONVERTER VS. OUTPUT SPI 28 INPUT TORQUE +1088 Nm ae 7000 ig.21 CHARACTERISTICS OF ALLISON TC-850 TORQUE CONVERTER VS. OUTPUT SI » of SHAUND ANOUOL ANIONA TVOMAL OL, GAHOLVIN WALYAANOD ANOUOL OF6-OL NOSITTY 1O SOLISRIALIVAVHO LAGNI 2 244 (um /s24) ter ons 900% 002 ooo oot 007 (sansa Hoi) —} - snano MOL INIONS 003. noe ‘oo = (un looez Ts sf 35/37 vay T oleae |e ‘0.8, | ze ee ws ed _f CONVERTER het ‘OUTPUT CURVE | / 7 (SEA LEVEL MATCH) - is — | oy / converrea oun eee eles CURVE (ALTITUDE Wi tle a 0.925) i a3 8 ki = i lc 095 N Fig. 23 OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS OF MATCHED TO TYPICAL ENGI at D) ROAD-LOAD CURVES x ‘ynayyp 9q Cet saains anbion .Cyead, api sourTus parer fay o1 Sujorear sxenbspy podopduia st yainja azeuuoesip jworeyaau peuonppE ue Sso[un * daoL9, ov ajaTYDA amp asneo Aettt pue “Yogiea® wewuageSu2-Bop e Jo osm ap sopnjoaud esp opp] -Kemuia® asisse 0) pasn aq outa ABloua jour y/ourBUg, Apakojduna ss ysans dn-sps0] wonousy Aaeyqrrnn Ue sso|un) S80] 10 Mod yueOURURIs & enjonut SXeaaye ISOM OAUIP 2HLT, :soBwquTApEsta] “norssiuswen pur atefus ¥ao Ni3q SprO] YOU pue suORLIGEA [PUOIIOS yo UORE| OS] ‘Arioedes peuniaip UB ‘yuommamabas ssueuayiieut pasnpar asttoy ‘yno 18998 0} saepas Feige ony (uo siati9quoo onbon) ajgejgeat oer day anbin snonuAuO sdu-oy@1 dap onwOIE ‘qoows “S2Aup Snsuryoupy Jo salleURApy. AN-AMVL TAR WIOIHAA WOT SANI.LATO NOLLOTLA INV SAARIG OLLANTHOWCAT dO SLAIN AALLV 151 THL AO AUVININAS = “S «e (9Leds uonwanand [ei2eds qvs) TOOEL seded ays “Yama|2eM (FIN “souTUuLOHEY JouAAUOD anbio | nueUXpomAH SuUsITY “Th £€ dd £96 T/EL ON Mody TAA m0 ATTS UD jo mudey CQINE HOA IAlIeA “Y “sBurtdne> onaweudpospsy yo dn-ueg aL, ‘U9S6I EF AHOAINT Ooi “sa[tp “H'ANsnpUy so1oY, YSMEG a) 2OF SONITIG'SSOg MW puE Saau snaU}ODAH Jo MOKIY ¥ “LSS0LL ded aS ‘euBaN NF MOT “TH “vonesund seweseg uorssmusues| sruPUpOIPALL ‘LL6T adasnmSny ‘s20ui8ua aanowomy ‘sor “5° “(yeys indmo woy uanup ZoquioUl ‘DonDeas Yim pue 28F9Aai UE “UNI-JAAO UO Uanup wy) “UBISocT 1U|AUOD InbIOL “OL6T Atenuge “(Z) 05 eeudug aanoworny ‘soukry "VR SE2NT"O'D vouEND|ED wBisaq saUeAWoD anbio], ‘0961 ‘8S SMELL AVS “PHU DUP PM Vd “Suowseutseeay enbvol —inds onmeukpospiyy “PI FAYMa Hed “su2Au0g onbuoy suquma, ‘PQ Wesepuer “gy HIAUOD onbio |, wemepy cay, ‘eBeIs ofujg eyo UFisoq ‘pi undy ‘yg “SBorssmesues SHEWOMY = JeBuSSEY Oo} SHU ext somueu{pouphy jo suonvanddy ‘£961 ‘SborsuasUeLy opEOINY 3 ZeBuassEG—SeoNIEId uss, Juussuriug wi soupy JVs “HSq39 “Pa a weueNd “f -sfuydnoD pinpy “OL6I “(1e) FBT auOsHAT ooug “uouapTA ¢ “suorssHSEEAy a]>Iy>A peoy 103 sSuTdnoD PINT '$$61 "WOUND ISH Wa “Borssmusuer, 30 sraaAUOD anbso “6961 “AUHIL S9{15 ‘Df “uoIssnusuREy, pur sivas) “ot et tt “Ol el SHONTMAAMA “TR6T “SORE wodey 12ford [SH “WeHEID G TsAvoD anbsoy smureuXporp<} PSprig SUR & Jo SSUEUUO LAY HY OWTUORETNSSANT «ST “1861 “SOW ‘Hoday 122%01g OSA "PION LD “S2Pel ‘aug Surmn seupaues onbsoy, youttowspiodya] Un Jo ooltrunopiog 2) Ow: LONVENSOAUT “LI “0861 ‘SOWA ‘Yoday 1aforg ISH ‘*RHSOg NM “FN Temawuadxg 205 1ou9AUOD enbio odung e jo Sunsay pue smyzeynuryy “USIs9q] UL, “OL “SLL vag “uSisa pur SUSE, “Bug "(SIF A SUNITA 29} Tass BAU SAV/S9QCH) Wass AUGoOPEPA “ONY ST