Sei sulla pagina 1di 47
 
CALM CALM

CALMCALM

 

Partner name

AVL

Contract number

G4RT-CT-2001-05043

Proposal number

GTC2-2000-33026

Page

1 (47)

Work package no.

WP1A+B

Date (DD-MMM-200X)

17 November 2003

Document type

Report

Deliverable no.

1A+B

Authors

Receivers

A. Rust

CALM Team, EC

Subject

Noise Technology Status Report

 

TECHNICAL REPORT:

Noise Technology Status Report

CONTRACT N° :

PROJECT N° :

ACRONYM :

TITLE :

G4RT-CT-2001-05043

GTC2-2000-33026

CALM

Community Noise Research Strategy Plan

PROJECT CO-ORDINATOR :

AVL List GmbH, Austria (J. Affenzeller, A. Rust)

MEMBERS :

MB 2

MB 3

MB 4

MB 5

MB 6

MB 7

MB 8

MB 11

B. Berglund / Univ. Stockholm / Sweden V. Irmer / Federal Environm. Agency / Germany J. Hinton / Birmingham City Council / UK S.-L. Paikkala / Min. of Environment / Finland M. Jaecker-Cueppers / Fed. Environm. Agency / Germany G. Billi / Unacoma and Min. of Environment / Italy H. Steven / RWTUEV / Germany M. van den Berg / Min. VROM / Netherlands

1 Oct. 2001

DURATION :

36 Months

PROJECT START DATE :

Date of issue of this report :

17 Nov. 2003

START DATE : Date of issue of this report : 17 Nov. 2003 Project funded by

Project funded by the European Community under the ‘Competitive and Sustainable Growth’ Programme (1998-2002)

NoiseTechnology-Final.doc

 
CALM CALM

CALMCALM

 

Partner name

AVL

Contract number

G4RT-CT-2001-05043

Proposal number

GTC2-2000-33026

Page

2 (47)

Work package no.

WP1A+B

Date (DD-MMM-200X)

17 November 2003

Document type

Report

Deliverable no.

1A+B

Authors

Receivers

A. Rust

CALM Team, EC

Subject

Noise Technology Status Report

 

Table of Contents

Page

1. Introduction

3

2. Road Traffic

4

2.1.

Rolling Noise

5

2.1.1. Tyres

5

2.1.2. Road Surface

7

2.2.

Propulsion Noise

10

3. Railway

15

3.1. Rolling Noise

16

3.2. Aerodynamic Noise

17

3.3. Traction Noise

18

3.4. Curve Squeal

18

3.5. Brake Screech

18

3.6. General

18

4. Aeronautics

22

5. Outdoor Equipment

26

6. Glossary of Terminology

30

7. References

31

8. Appendix A: Classification of OE

38

9. Appendix B:

Noise Research Data Base

42

NoiseTechnology-Final.doc

 
CALM CALM

CALMCALM

 

Partner name

AVL

Contract number

G4RT-CT-2001-05043

Proposal number

GTC2-2000-33026

Page

3 (47)

Work package no.

WP1A+B

Date (DD-MMM-200X)

17 November 2003

Document type

Report

Deliverable no.

1A+B

Authors

Receivers

A. Rust

CALM Team, EC

Subject

Noise Technology Status Report

 

1. Introduction

This Noise Technology Status Report describes the state-of-the-art of noise technologies and summarises noise research activities primarily in the EU but also on a more global scale. An extract of technology and research centres is given at the end of each section. However, it should be noted that the lists of technology and research centres provided are without any classification and merely exemplary, therefore, cannot be considered to be anywhere near complete.

The report is thematically focussed on the main sources of environmental noise which are road transport, railways, air traffic and outdoor machinery. However, other environmental noise sources may be included in future updates of this report which are scheduled in the CALM work plan.

An essential basis of this report and future updates is the "Noise Research Data Base" provided on the CALM homepage www.calm-network.com. This database includes research projects which were either completed within the last five years, are still in progress or in the planning stage. Some information about contents and handling of this database is given in the Appendix B of this report.

NoiseTechnology-Final.doc

 
CALM CALM

CALMCALM

 

Partner name

AVL

Contract number

G4RT-CT-2001-05043

Proposal number

GTC2-2000-33026

Page

4 (47)

Work package no.

WP1A+B

Date (DD-MMM-200X)

17 November 2003

Document type

Report

Deliverable no.

1A+B

Authors

Receivers

A. Rust

CALM Team, EC

Subject

Noise Technology Status Report

 

2. Road Traffic

The main types of noises produced from road vehicles are rolling noise (arising from the tyre- road interaction) and propulsion noise (comprising noise emission from the engine, transmission, intake and exhaust system). A typical example of a passenger car noise emission is illustrated in Figure 1. This figure gives a quantitative breakdown of the noise emission from the vehicle under the fully accelerated passing-by according to ISO 362. The vehicle fulfils the 74 dBA noise limit currently in force and thus represents the state-of-the-art. The vehicle speed is approx. 55 km/h at the moment of maximum measured noise level.

Emission on people Νο.1Νο.1Νο.1Νο.1 Tires Rolling noise Exhaust system Intake system Engine Tail pipe
Emission on
people
Νο.1Νο.1Νο.1Νο.1
Tires
Rolling noise
Exhaust system Intake system
Engine
Tail pipe
Intake pipe
Remaining Noise:
air noise,
Powertrain
exhaust system
engine,
Load influence
tires,
Surface Radiation
Surface radiation
Transmission
etc
Air-cleaner box
Oil pan
Exhaust
Alternator
manifold
Drive train
Intake
Engine
Hose connections
Accessories Cylinder Valve
manifold
head
cover
block
Front pipes
Rear muffler
Catalyst
Mid muffler
Cardan shaft

Figure 1:

Noise source distribution of a 74 dBA car in pass-by test [1]

The dominance of the individual noise sources on a particular vehicle depends, first of all, on the vehicle speed, but also on the vehicle category. The dominating noise sources are

rolling noise for vehicle speed v > 55 km/h propulsion noise for v < 15 km/h exhaust noise of powered two-wheelers (PTW) combustion noise of diesel engines at low idle and cold running conditions

The speed values relating to the dominance of rolling and propulsion noise need further explanation. The large vehicle speed range from 15 to 55 km/h covers a transition window where the dominance of either rolling noise or propulsion noise depends on the vehicle category (cars or trucks & buses), the age of the vehicle (model year: before or after 1996), the driving conditions

NoiseTechnology-Final.doc

 
CALM CALM

CALMCALM

 

Partner name

AVL

Contract number

G4RT-CT-2001-05043

Proposal number

GTC2-2000-33026

Page

5 (47)

Work package no.

WP1A+B

Date (DD-MMM-200X)

17 November 2003

Document type

Report

Deliverable no.

1A+B

Authors

Receivers

A. Rust

CALM Team, EC

Subject

Noise Technology Status Report

 

(e.g. cruising or accelerating) and, of course, the acoustic properties of the road surface [2]. Nevertheless, this split into the main sources shows that rolling noise is the predominant noise source in many situations of real traffic.

2.1. Rolling Noise

Rolling noise is the result of the interaction between tyre and road surface. As described in [2], there are basically two noise generating mechanisms: structure-dynamic and aerodynamic mechanisms. Both include several detail mechanisms:

Structure-dynamic mechanisms Impact mechanisms (causing mainly radial vibration) Tread impacts (impacts of tyre tread elements on road surface) Texture impacts (impacts of road surface texture on tyre tread) Running deflection (deflection of tyre at leading and trailing edges) Adhesion mechanisms (causing mainly tangential vibration) Stick-slip ("scrubbing" of tread elements on road surface) Stick-snap (adhesive effect of rubber to road) Aerodynamic mechanisms Air turbulences (around rolling tyre) Air-pumping (in/out displacement of air in cavities in or between tyre tread and road surface) Pipe resonances (λ/2-resonances in grooves of tyre tread) Helmholtz resonances (resonances in connected cavities in tyre tread pattern and road surface)

In addition to these noise-generating mechanisms, there are some further effects which either amplify or attenuate the generated noise:

Horn effect (exponential horn built by leading/trailing tyre edges and road surface amplifying airborne noise) Acoustical impedance effect (sound absorption by communicating voids in road surface) Mechanical impedance effect (road surface reaction on tyre block impact depending on dynamic stiffness ratio between tyre and road) Tyre resonances (mechanical belt resonances or air resonances in torus cavity)

Apart from meteorological influences, these noise generating mechanisms and secondary effects are influenced by tyre-related and/or road-related parameters. Consequently, research activities and technologies for low rolling noise refer to tyres and road surface.

2.1.1. Tyres

Regarding research in the fields of tyres and the tyre-road interaction, there are many activities in the research centres of tyre manufactures. Some of them refer to progress in low-noise treads and tyres, like [3], [4], [5], [6], others report on the advances in simulation models and tools, like [7],

NoiseTechnology-Final.doc

 
CALM CALM

CALMCALM

 

Partner name

AVL

Contract number

G4RT-CT-2001-05043

Proposal number

GTC2-2000-33026

Page

6 (47)

Work package no.

WP1A+B

Date (DD-MMM-200X)

17 November 2003

Document type

Report

Deliverable no.

1A+B

Authors

Receivers

A. Rust

CALM Team, EC

Subject

Noise Technology Status Report

 

[8], [9]. Additional investigations have been carried out at universities and research institutions, such as [10], [11], [12], [13], [14], [15] ,[16].

On a European level, the following important research projects have been undertaken or are still in progress.

Measuring, Understanding and Reducing Tyre Noise Emission under Realistic Vehicle Operation Conditions, Including the Contribution of the Road Surface (TINO). Project from 1996 to 1999 under the leadership of Pirelli, Italy.

Road and Tyre Interaction (RATIN). (Goal: A complete and physically consistent model for the prediction of exterior and interior tyre/road noise in the audible range). Ongoing project under leadership of Chalmers University, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Determination of Road Induced Tyre Noise by Measuring of the Torus Sound. (Goal: A new measurement method to determine road-induced tyre noise on the basis of sound measurements within the tyre torus cavity). Project within the German research network "Leiser Verkehr", led by Aeroakustik, Munich, Germany.

Determination of the Current State of the Art of Rolling Noise and Rolling Resistance of Modern Passenger Car Tyres. (Goal: Based on an update of tyre characteristics regarding rolling noise and rolling friction, the potential for reduction of noise and fuel consumption in road traffic are investigated). Ongoing project led by TUEV Automotive Munich, Germany.

Tyre Noise. Project within the Dutch research network "Noise Innovation Program", started 2002, led by Dutch ministry of transport, public works and water management, Netherlands.

Low-Noise Road: Optimisation of the system Vehicle – Tyres – Road. (Goal: Demonstration of the 70 dBA car and an extra low-noise truck in combination with an adequate road surface). Joint research project from 1996 to 1999 led by the Technical University of Vienna, Austria.

Many of the key technologies for quieter tyres are focused on the tyre tread. The most important elements of such technologies are:

Well randomised tread pattern (to avoid high tonal noise components)

Well ventilated tread grooves (for better air pressure equalisation)

No coincidence of tread pattern elements with the outline of the footprint

Narrow lateral grooves

Acoustic choking of longitudinal grooves if not well ventilated [2]

Optimised tread block shapes for low stiffness gradients

Lamellate tread (for winter tyres)

NoiseTechnology-Final.doc

 
CALM CALM

CALMCALM

 

Partner name

AVL

Contract number

G4RT-CT-2001-05043

Proposal number

GTC2-2000-33026

Page

7 (47)

Work package no.

WP1A+B

Date (DD-MMM-200X)

17 November 2003

Document type

Report

Deliverable no.

1A+B

Authors

Receivers

A. Rust

CALM Team, EC

Subject

Noise Technology Status Report

 

Not tread related:

Stiff belts

"Flat" cross section in the tread area

Softer rubber compounds (especially for winter tyres)

Exemplary list of technology and research centres for tyre noise:

Bridgestone, Japan Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden Continental, Hannover, Germany Goodyear SA, Luxembourg Michelin, France Nokian Tyres, Finland Pirelli, Italy Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden Technical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland

Despite of the current state of knowledge and technology, a future noise reduction potential of tyres is estimated to about 5 dBA [17] expecting different solutions for car and heavy duty truck tyres. Of course, this will demand for further intensive research particularly in a still better understanding of the road-tyre interaction leading to further improved simulation tools and low- noise technologies.

2.1.2. Road Surface

The two essential noise-generating mechanisms directly influenced by the road surface are firstly the excitation of tyre vibration by impact from the road roughness (road surface texture) and secondly aerodynamic excitations like air pumping in tyre tread and road surface cavities [18]. In addition to these effects on the noise generation, the acoustic quality of the road surface influences also the sound propagation, both locally (e.g. horn effect) and globally (sound propagation into the environmental areas). For all these effects, the main road surface parameters are the roughness (mega-, macro- and microtexture) and the porosity of the road surface [1]. Due to the lot of studies and research carried out over the last 10 to 20 years – they are well described in [19] – the typical low-noise road surface technologies use either porous or poroelastic surfaces or surface treatments of non-porous surfaces.

Today, porous asphalt surfaces are composed of a single porous layer or double porous layers laid on the top of a thin impervious layer so that water cannot penetrate to the base course. The typical porosity (expressed as residual air void content) lies in the range of 20 to 25 %. For a low roughness of the surface, the maximum chipping size is in the range of 8 to 11 mm. The double layer (or two-layer or twin-layer) surface consists of a bottom layer with a large chipping size and a top layer with small chipping size. The top layer with the small chipping size (4 to 8 mm) ensures an even surface as required for low rolling noise. This layer acts like a filter keeping out some of the dirt. The large chipping size of the bottom layer (11 to 16 mm) ensures that dirt and water penetrating the top layer can be drained off without clogging the pores. The void content of both layers is in the range of 25 %.

NoiseTechnology-Final.doc

 
CALM CALM

CALMCALM

 

Partner name

AVL

Contract number

G4RT-CT-2001-05043

Proposal number

GTC2-2000-33026

Page

8 (47)

Work package no.

WP1A+B

Date (DD-MMM-200X)

17 November 2003

Document type

Report

Deliverable no.

1A+B

Authors

Receivers

A. Rust

CALM Team, EC

Subject

Noise Technology Status Report

 

A Danish study with two-layer porous asphalt surfaces on urban roads [20] showed noise

reductions of 4 to 6 dBA (compared to the reference surface of dense asphalt concrete). Dutch studies of two-layer porous asphalt with very small chipping size in the top layer revealed noise reductions from 3 to 4 dBA at 50 km/h up to 5.5 dBA at 100 km/h. Clogging problems led to the development of a special cleaning technique and a new drainage profile [21].

A poroelastic road surface is highly porous (typically 25 to 35 % voids) and elastic due to the high content of granules or fibres of rubber (at least 20 % of the volume; the rubber may be produced from scrap tyres). The elasticity of the surface is beneficial to the vibration-excited rolling noise. Together with the high porosity, this gives a very effective reduction of road traffic noise between 5 and 15 dBA compared with conventional dense asphalt surfaces as shown by the promising results of Swedish-Japanese studies [22]. Since the elastic movement due to rolling tyres should avoid dirt to stuck inside the voids, clogging of these road surface may be minimised which would be a big advantage over non-elastic porous surfaces. At present, further research and development effort is still needed to make the poroelastic surfaces sufficiently durable and safe.

Surface treatments of non-porous road surfaces with small chippings (grip surfaces) are noise reducing under the following conditions [18]. The chipping shape shall be angular and as cubic

as possible. The chippings shall form a dense mono-layer grain at grain without oversized

particles. The maximum chipping size shall be below 5 mm. Narrow grain fraction (e.g. 3/4 mm) shall be used to enlarge the cross sections of the channels between the chippings.

Another important item of research in the field of road surfaces are the simulation tools and prediction methods which can be separated in the three topics noise emission, absorption and propagation.

The noise emission models either use a statistical approach or are based on physical models or hybrid techniques. The statistical approach is able to establish the correlation between the acoustic and the texture wavelength and is very well adapted to dense pavements [23], [24]. This approach needs still to be adapted for surfaces considering the absorption effects. For the physical models, the main theoretical concepts are based on the works of [25], [26] and comprise separate models for the tyre, the contact and the sound radiation including the road pavement characteristics. A more simplified analytical model called "TRIAS" has been developed in The Netherlands enabling the prediction of tendencies [27]. Hybrid methods use a physical approach (mainly Kropp's model) when considering the tyre, and a statistical approach when considering the pavement texture [28].

Concerning noise absorption, two different kinds of models for impedance are used which are either adapted to a dense asphalt surface [29] or to porous pavements [30].

Regarding the noise propagation, various approaches are available depending on the complexity

of the problem to be treated [31], [32]. Existing engineering models (French method and Nordic

NoiseTechnology-Final.doc

 
CALM CALM

CALMCALM

 

Partner name

AVL

Contract number

G4RT-CT-2001-05043

Proposal number

GTC2-2000-33026

Page

9 (47)

Work package no.

WP1A+B

Date (DD-MMM-200X)

17 November 2003

Document type

Report

Deliverable no.

1A+B

Authors

Receivers

A. Rust

CALM Team, EC

Subject

Noise Technology Status Report

 

methods), more adapted to general sound pressure predictions, form the basis for the elaboration of the new harmonised European model in the HARMONOISE project [33].

Besides the research activities as described above, there were and are the following important research projects on a European scale:

Quiet Road Traffic "LeiStra" (Leiser Straßenverkehr). Project of the German tyre, vehicle and road construction industry, from 2001 to 2003, under the leadership of BASt (Bundesanstalt für Straßenwesen), Germany.

Silent Roads. Project within the Dutch research network "Noise Innovation Program", started 2002, led by Dutch ministry of transport, public works and water management, Netherlands.

New Products and the Development of Thin Surfacing Materials for Poland (ROAD SURFMAT). Project from 1997 to 1999 led by BP Exploration Operating Company Ltd., UK.

Silent Road for Urban and Extra-Urban use (SIRUUS). (Goal: Development of road pavement types able to control rolling noise and low- frequency noise). Project from 1998 to 2001 led by Autostrade Concessioni e Construzioni Autostrade S.p.A., Italy.

Costs and Perceived Noise Reduction of Porous Asphalt. (Goal: Comparison of the costs and effects of porous asphalt with those of noise barriers and sound insulation of facades). Project led by the Danish Transport Research Institute, Denmark.

Investigation on Road Surface Transitions for Noise Reduction. (Goal: Recommendations regarding noise reduction at roadway transitions of bridges). Project led by BASt, Germany.

Evaluation of Previous Noise Reduction Measures at Road Cover Transitions of Bridges. (Goal: Systematic editing of noise protection measures already accomplished at roadway transitions). Project led by BASt, Germany.

Measurements for the Pavement Noise Reduction of New Road-Surface Layers. Project since 1996 led by BASt, Germany.

Study to Low-Noise Road Surfaces for Low Speed. Project led by the Bundesamt fuer Umwelt, Wald und Landschaft, Abteilung Laermbekaempfung, Switzerland.

Noise-Reducing Road Surfaces. (Goal: Creation of a manual for the application of noise-reducing road surfaces in cities and on motorways). Project from 1998 to 1999 led by Grolimud and Partner, Switzerland.

Noise-reducing pavements, criteria and qualification methods (HILJA). Project from 2001 to 2003 led by Helsinki University of Technology, Finland.

NoiseTechnology-Final.doc

 
CALM CALM

CALMCALM

 

Partner name

AVL

Contract number

G4RT-CT-2001-05043

Proposal number

GTC2-2000-33026

Page

10 (47)

Work package no.

WP1A+B

Date (DD-MMM-200X)

17 November 2003

Document type

Report

Deliverable no.

1A+B

Authors

Receivers

A. Rust

CALM Team, EC

Subject

Noise Technology Status Report

 

Sustainable road surface for traffic noise control (SILVIA). (Goal: Establishing a procedure for assessing the noise performance of a given road surface in a representative and reproducible way). Project lead by Belgian Road Research Centre (BRRC), Belgium.

Exemplary list of technology and research centres for road surfaces:

Danish Road Institute, Denmark Belgian Road Research Center, Belgium Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden Members of EAPA (European Asphalt Pavement Association), Breukelen, Netherlands Bundesanstalt für Straßenwesen (BASt, Federal Highway Research Institute), Germany Institut für Baumechanik und numerische Mechanik, University of Hannover, Germany M+P raadgevende ingenieurs bv, Hertogenbosch, Netherlands Transport Research Laboratory Ltd (TRL), Crowthorne, UK RWTÜV Automotive, Aachen, Germany Forum of European National Highway Research Laboratories (FEHRL), Brussels, Belgium Helsinki University of Technology, Laboratories of Highway and Automotive Engineering, Helsinki, Finland.

2.2. Propulsion Noise

With state-of-the-art powertrains the most significant contributions to the noise emission from the complete powertrain are ranked below according to their typical significance:

engine noise (arising from combustion noise and mechanical noise, influenced by the dynamic behaviour of the engine structure)

exhaust noise (mainly orifice noise)

gearbox noise (especially with trucks)

air intake noise (mainly orifice noise) Figure 2 illustrates this situation of propulsion noise.

As described in [35], the simulation of dynamic and acoustic behaviour plays an important role in the acoustic development of powertrains. The simulation tools have already reached a high level and include modelling of most of the relevant noise excitation mechanisms [36]. Such tools provide important support for the development of noise control at the source, i.e. to minimise the generation of vibration in powertrains and to reduce its transfer via the powertrain structure to the noise-radiating surface. Application examples of such technologies for noise control at the powertrain like quiet combustion systems and optimised structure dynamics are given in [37],

[38].

NoiseTechnology-Final.doc

 
CALM CALM

CALMCALM

 

Partner name

AVL

Contract number

G4RT-CT-2001-05043

Proposal number

GTC2-2000-33026

Page

11 (47)

Work package no.

WP1A+B

Date (DD-MMM-200X)

17 November 2003

Document type

Report

Deliverable no.

1A+B

Authors

Receivers

A. Rust

CALM Team, EC

Subject

Noise Technology Status Report

 
Passenger Cars - 2nd Gear 3 51 14 21 14 0 Passenger Cars - 3rd
Passenger Cars - 2nd Gear
3
51
14
21
14
0
Passenger Cars - 3rd Gear
2
35
11
31
23
0
Trucks
1
32
15
16
27
10
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%

Contribution to Pass-By Noise

EngineIntake System Exhaust System Gearbox & Driveline Cooling System

IntakeEngine System Exhaust System Gearbox & Driveline Cooling System

System

ExhaustEngine Intake System System Gearbox & Driveline Cooling System

System

GearboxEngine Intake System Exhaust System & Driveline Cooling System

&

Driveline

CoolingEngine Intake System Exhaust System Gearbox & Driveline System

System

Figure 2:

Typical contributions to propulsion noise of cars and trucks in pass-by test (based on [34])

Despite of the progress in powertrain noise control, a certain amount of acoustic shielding is still required to fulfil the European legislative requirements regarding vehicle noise emission. Most of the acoustic shielding is applied directly to the vehicle or even integrated in the vehicle body. The very typical engine-mounted type of acoustic shielding is the widely used "top cover" of engines often used also as "beauty cover" to emphasise good styling. The basic technologies were already developed in the 70's [39], the progress achieved meanwhile mainly refers to the use of new materials and production technologies (plastics, compounds, rubber isolators etc.). Some examples of "noise reduction packages" typically applied to passenger cars and trucks are given in [34]. These packages, defined for two different degrees of vehicle noise reduction, reflect the present situation of vehicle noise source priorities and noise technologies. Another comprehensive description of vehicle noise countermeasures is provided by [40].

In summary, the key noise technologies for the major components of propulsion noise are as follows:

Control of powertrain noise (= engine + transmission) by low-noise design (low-noise concept, optimisation of structure dynamics, control of clearances, use of low-noise materials etc.)

Specific injection and combustion characteristics of diesel engine to control combustion noise under cold running condition and low idle (common rail injection system, pilot injection, exhaust gas recirculation, electronic powertrain management)

Acoustic shielding or encapsulation of powertrains

Multiple muffler systems for control of exhaust noise

NoiseTechnology-Final.doc

 
CALM CALM

CALMCALM

 

Partner name

AVL

Contract number

G4RT-CT-2001-05043

Proposal number

GTC2-2000-33026

Page

12 (47)

Work package no.

WP1A+B

Date (DD-MMM-200X)

17 November 2003

Document type

Report

Deliverable no.

1A+B

Authors

Receivers

A. Rust

CALM Team, EC

Subject

Noise Technology Status Report

 

Noise-optimised lay-out of intake system (by advanced simulation tools) (resonators, broadband dampers)

Active noise cancellation for control of intake and exhaust orifice noise (technologies are still in applied research)

Exemplary list of technology and research centres for the above noise technologies:

General: all (European, Japanese, Korean, US) producers of automotive engines & vehicles and their research centres Vehicle and powertrain acoustics, acoustic shielding & encapsulation, simulation tools:

AVL List, Graz, Austria Chalmers University, Gothenburg, Sweden Cidaut, Spain FEV, Aachen, Germany FKSM, Stuttgart, Germany Head Acoustics, Germany IDIADA, Spain IKA, RWTH-Aachen, Germany INSA Lyon, France ISVR, Southampton, UK KTH Stockholm, Sweden KUL, Catholic University Leuven, Belgium LMS, Leuven, Belgium Metravib, France MIRA, Nuneaton, UK Polytechnic University of Valencia, Spain Ricardo, Shoreham-by-Sea, UK Salford University, UK STRACO, France University of Patras, Greece VTI, Linköping, Sweden Exhaust system: Faurecia, France Gillet, Germany Zeuner-Stärker, Germany Loughborough University, UK Intake system: Behr, Stuttgart, Germany Valeo, France Woco, Germany Active noise cancellation: Fraunhofer Institute, Darmstadt, Germany Technical Research Centre (VTT) of Finland Acoustic materials: Collins & Aikman, Sweden (especially laminated sheet steel) Freudenberg, Weinheim, Germany (especially damping and absorbing materials, isolators) Rieter, Switzerland

NoiseTechnology-Final.doc

 
CALM CALM

CALMCALM

 

Partner name

AVL

Contract number

G4RT-CT-2001-05043

Proposal number

GTC2-2000-33026

Page

13 (47)

Work package no.

WP1A+B

Date (DD-MMM-200X)

17 November 2003

Document type

Report

Deliverable no.

1A+B

Authors

Receivers

A. Rust

CALM Team, EC

Subject

Noise Technology Status Report

 

As already mentioned above, it is important to realise that adequate and powerful simulation tools are the decisive and basic requirement for the successful application of such technologies in the product development. In addition, the prediction of the total vehicle noise emission and its contribution to the overall noise emission of road traffic is also of highest interest for the assessment and mitigation of the road traffic contribution to the environmental noise.

In this context, there are two EU research projects of particular importance:

Vehicle Integral Simulation for Pass-By Noise Reduction (VISPER). (Goal: A basic methodology for the simulation of vehicle pass-by noise based on engine, intake and exhaust noise sources). Project from 2001 to 2004 led by AVL List GmbH, Austria.

Development of a Microscopic Road Traffic Noise Model for the Assessment of Noise Reduction Measures (ROTRANOMO). (Goal: A subtly differentiated road traffic noise calculation model which can be used for the development of effective and economic noise reduction action plans on a local base as well as for the assessment of noise reduction strategies within the frame of environmental protection policies). Project from 2003 to 2005 led by Volkswagen AG, Germany.

The first project will provide a very important tool for the development of tailor-made noise reduction solutions of the individual vehicles. The second project will enable the prediction of noise emission from road traffic flows and the assessment of various flow scenarios.

Further important research projects on a European level are:

Optimal Acoustic Equivalent Source Descriptors for Automotive Noise Modelling (ACES). (Goal: Development of a hybrid analysis and testing tool based on the combination between up-to-date acquisition and measurement techniques and a novel inverse boundary element method). Project from 2000 to 2003 led by Straco, France.

Acoustic Research on Turbocharged Engine Modelling of Exhaust and Inlet Systems (ARTEMIS). Project from 2001 to 2004 led by KTH Stockholm, Dept. of Vehicle Engineering, Sweden.

Methods and Tools to Address Friction-Induced Noise and Vibration in Brakes and Wheels (BRAKE NOISE). Project from 1999 to 2002 led by Robert Bosch GmbH, Germany.

Development of Innovative Low Pollutant, Low Noise, Low Fuel Consumption Two Spark Ignition Engines for Future Vehicles for Individual Urban Mobility (DOLCE). Project from 1997 to 2000 led by Piaggi S.p.A., Italy.

DI Diesel Engine Noise and Vibration Control Technologies (DINOISE). Project from 1996 to 1999 led by Centro Ricerche Fiat, Italy.

NoiseTechnology-Final.doc

 
CALM CALM

CALMCALM

 

Partner name

AVL

Contract number

G4RT-CT-2001-05043

Proposal number

GTC2-2000-33026

Page

14 (47)

Work package no.

WP1A+B

Date (DD-MMM-200X)

17 November 2003

Document type

Report

Deliverable no.

1A+B

Authors

Receivers

A. Rust

CALM Team, EC

Subject

Noise Technology Status Report

 

Healthier Environment through Abatement of Vehicle Emission and Noise (HEAVEN). Project from 2000 to 2003 led by Societa Trasporti Automobilistici, Italy.

Sound Quality of Vehicle Exterior Noise (SVEN). Project from 2000 to 2003 led by Head Acoustics, Germany.

Vibration and Noise Drop by Light High Damping Structures (VINO). Project from 2001 to 2004 led by Nicolas Correa SA, Spain.

Quiet Road Traffic. Project within the German research network "Quiet Traffic"

Silent Vehicles and Tyres. Research Cluster within the Dutch "Noise Innovation Program", Part "Road Traffic", Netherlands.

NoiseTechnology-Final.doc

 
CALM CALM

CALMCALM

 

Partner name

AVL

Contract number

G4RT-CT-2001-05043

Proposal number

GTC2-2000-33026

Page

15 (47)

Work package no.

WP1A+B

Date (DD-MMM-200X)

17 November 2003

Document type

Report

Deliverable no.

1A+B

Authors

Receivers

A. Rust

CALM Team, EC

Subject

Noise Technology Status Report

 

3. Railway

The noise emission from a train is characterised by a number of noise sources:

Rolling noise (wheel-rail interaction)

Traction and auxiliary systems (propulsion, cooling fans, compressors)

Aerodynamic

Curve squeal

Brake screech

Impacts

The relevance of these noise sources depends on the particular operational situations [41]. In particular, train speed has a significant influence on the noise emission. Table 1 provides a summary of the major noise sources. Figure 3 gives a typical example of the dependency of exterior noise sources on train speed.

   

Emission situation

 
 

Noise Source

Pass-by

(v in km/h)

 

In and

 

Low speed (v < 60 km/h)

Mid speed

High speed

around

Shunting

 

(v < 200

300)

(v > 250

300)

stations

Rolling

+

++

++

+

 

Traction and auxiliary systems

++

+

 

++

++

Aerodynamic

   

++

   

Curve squeal

+

   

++

++

Brake screech

+

   

++

++

Impact, bridges

+

+

 

+

++

+

relevant

++

highly relevant

NoiseTechnology-Final.doc

Table 1:

Major noise sources

Sound pressure level dB(A)

Sound pressure level dB(A)

 
CALM CALM

CALMCALM

 

Partner name

AVL

Contract number

G4RT-CT-2001-05043

Proposal number

GTC2-2000-33026

Page

16 (47)

Work package no.

WP1A+B

Date (DD-MMM-200X)

17 November 2003

Document type

Report

Deliverable no.

1A+B

Authors

Receivers

A. Rust

CALM Team, EC

Subject

Noise Technology Status Report

 

Sound pressure level as function of train speed

Sound pressure level as function of train speed

Traction noise Traction noise Rolling noise Rolling noise Aerodynamic noise Aerodynamic noise Total Total
Traction noise
Traction noise
Rolling noise
Rolling noise
Aerodynamic noise
Aerodynamic noise
Total
Total

120

120

120

110

110

110

100

100

100

90

90

90

80

80

80

70

70

70

130

130

130

10

10

10

20

20

20

50

50

50

100

100

100

200

200

200

300

300

300

400

400

400

Train speed [km/h]

Train speed [km/h]

Figure 3:

Typical speed dependence of railway exterior noise sources [42]

Rolling noise is currently the most important noise source. It depends strongly on the surface quality (roughness) of both wheels and rails. The aerodynamic noise depends on the streamlining of the vehicle. Both railway noise components depend strongly on the train speed, but they differ clearly in their speed dependence [42]: Rolling noise varies approximately in v 3 , whereas aerodynamic noise varies in v 6 to v 7 , as shown in Figure 3. The traction noise is influenced mainly by the engine noise and the fan noise of the cooling system. The control of all these noise components can be addressed most efficiently and at a lower cost if it is planned at a new design stage. Re-design (or retrofitting) is also technically conceivable, given the lifetime of railway rolling stock, but has strong cost and scheduling implications. Noise oriented maintenance of both vehicles and tracks still deserve further study in terms of efficiency and costs.

3.1. Rolling Noise

Due to the high importance of rolling noise over a large range of speeds, modelling of rolling noise had and still has a high priority within railway noise research. Based on a comprehensive model developed by [43], a refinement mainly for track modelling was performed resulting in the development of the TWINS (Track-Wheel Interaction Noise Software) model [44], [45]. The TWINS model is based on the displacement related vibration excitation of the wheel and rail due to the micro defects along the contact patch between wheel and rail (wheel and rail roughness with an amplitude of a few microns and a wavelength of 1 to 20 cm). With several European railway configurations including high speeds, TWINS has been validated thereby showing that

NoiseTechnology-Final.doc

 
CALM CALM

CALMCALM

 

Partner name

AVL

Contract number

G4RT-CT-2001-05043

Proposal number

GTC2-2000-33026

Page

17 (47)

Work package no.

WP1A+B

Date (DD-MMM-200X)

17 November 2003

Document type

Report

Deliverable no.

1A+B

Authors

Receivers

A. Rust

CALM Team, EC

Subject

Noise Technology Status Report

 

rolling noise third octave levels can be predicted within 2 to 3 dB between 250 and 4000 Hz [45], [46], [47]. Further refinements and developments around TWINS consider specific influences like those of wheel and rail shape, load or defects (wheel flats, rail joints) [48], [49]. Within the STAIRRS project (cf. later list of research projects), methods (either on a hybrid base or on a purely experimental base) were developed in order to separate the noise contributions from wheel and track. The results show that the typically dominating frequency ranges are about 400 Hz for the sleepers, about 600 to 1000 Hz for the rails and above 1500 Hz for the wheels. A further important result is that the track/rail contribution dominates the wheel contribution in many European configurations [42].

According to the research results achieved from rolling noise modelling, the rolling noise reduction possibilities focus on two areas. Firstly, the reduction of the rolling noise excitation by reducing both wheel and rail roughness. Secondly, the reduction of vibration in and radiation from track and wheel by structure optimisation, damping and shielding.

The main origin of wheel and rail roughness are the cast iron block brakes widely used on freight wagons and older passenger wagons. Therefore, the measures for control of rolling noise aim at replacing cast iron block brakes by disc brakes or by "composite" brake blocks which keep the wheels smooth. The related rolling noise reduction potential amounts up to 10 dBA. Due to the current state of technology, composite blocks exist for new brake designs, but not for the economic retrofitting of brake blocks on existing wagons [50]. Furthermore, regular grinding of the rails is a measure that keeps the roughness and hence rolling noise excitation small.

The second area of rolling noise control is directed towards lowering the track and wheel vibration and noise radiation. The control methods comprise structure optimisation to control wheel modes [51] and wheel damping by absorbers, rings or constrained layers [52], [53]. Also on the track side, damping devices have been developed [52], [54], [55] yielding rolling noise reduction of about 4 to 6 dBA. If combined with wheel-based solutions, the reductions reached 7 to 8 dBA [54]. Also promising results were obtained from low-noise track design developed in a Dutch project [56]. Practical implementation and integration in the railway system still deserves research activities.

3.2. Aerodynamic Noise

As modelling of the aerodynamic noise is very complex [57], the research activities were focussed on the identification and ranking of the main sources of aerodynamic noise [58]. The main sources for typical existing high-speed trains are therefore the bogie cavities, the pantograph recess (if present) and the pantograph itself. Pantograph optimisations were carried out in Germany [59] and in Japan [60]. The Japanese solution is applied now on a series of Shinkansen trains.

The aerodynamic noise generated at the front and rear end of a train was found to be of less importance for exterior noise.

NoiseTechnology-Final.doc

 
CALM CALM

CALMCALM

 

Partner name

AVL

Contract number

G4RT-CT-2001-05043

Proposal number

GTC2-2000-33026

Page

18 (47)

Work package no.

WP1A+B

Date (DD-MMM-200X)

17 November 2003

Document type

Report

Deliverable no.

1A+B

Authors

Receivers

A. Rust

CALM Team, EC

Subject

Noise Technology Status Report

 

3.3. Traction Noise

Traction noise yields essential noise contributions particularly at low speeds, especially from diesel locomotives. The typical technologies applied in this field are low-noise design of the diesel engine including quieter components like turbocharger, compressors and fans, use of efficient powertrain enclosures and vibration isolation, high performance muffler for the intake and exhaust systems. An essential contribution to the traction noise can arise from the cooling equipment (fan noise) which requires proper attention in the design phase. Fan noise can become a key issue, particularly in the context of urban or sub-urban railways (light railways).

3.4. Curve Squeal

As curve squeal normally occurs in small radius curves, this noise phenomenon is relevant mainly for urban rails (trams, metro). The squeal noise is generated by specific wheel modes excited by non linear phenomena at the wheel rail contact during curving. The detail mechanisms are not yet fully understood so that curve squeal modelling is still in development. Countermeasures refer to damping of the wheel modes by wheel dampers [61] and to modifying the wheel rail friction.

3.5. Brake Screech

Brake screech is an important topic for noise in and around stations and in shunting yards. It occurs with both the modern disc brake systems and conventional shoe brakes. For the disc brake situation, models and methodologies might be taken over from the automotive or aeronautic sector. Activities in this field of research have recently been intensified [62].

3.6. General

In addition to the research status described above, the following research projects have been undertaken or are still in progress on a European scale:

Methods and Tools to Address Friction-Induced Noise and Vibration in Brakes and Wheels (BRAKE NOISE). (Goal: Development of methods and tools to assess, model and predict friction- induced vibrations). Project from 1999 to 2002 led by Robert Bosch GmbH, Germany.

Consistent Semiactive System Control (CASCO). (Goal: Noise Reduction using advanced materials in damping elements). Project from 2000 to 2003 led by VCE Holding GmbH, Germany.

Control of Vibration from Underground Rail Traffic (CONVURT). (Goal: Creation of innovative tools to predict and minimise ground-borne vibrations). Project from 2001 to 2003 led by London Underground Ltd., UK.

Euro Rolling Silently (ERS).

NoiseTechnology-Final.doc

 
CALM CALM

CALMCALM

 

Partner name

AVL

Contract number

G4RT-CT-2001-05043

Proposal number

GTC2-2000-33026

Page

19 (47)

Work package no.

WP1A+B

Date (DD-MMM-200X)

17 November 2003

Document type

Report

Deliverable no.

1A+B

Authors

Receivers

A. Rust

CALM Team, EC

Subject

Noise Technology Status Report

 

(Goal: Reducing rolling noise generated by tread-braked railway rolling stock incorporating an innovative braking product). Project from 2002 to 2005 led by SNCF, France.

Quieter rail traffic project (Stiller Trainverkeer). (Goal: Development of demonstrator of quieter track & freight wagon and development of knowledge base). National project from 1995 to 1998 led by NS, Netherlands.

Squeal noise project. (Goal: Development of new squeal noise model ranking of abatement measures, new measures and field tests). National project from 1999 to 2002 led by Railinfrabeheer, Netherlands.

Methodologies and Actions for Rail Noise and Vibration (METARAIL). Project from 1997 to 1999 led by Schreiner Consulting, Austria.

Harmonised, Accurate and Reliable Prediction Methods for the EU Directive on the Assessment and Management of Environmental Noise (HARMONOISE). Project from 2001 to 2004 led by AEA Technology Rail Bv., Netherlands.

Development of an Innovative High-Performance Railway Wheelset (HIPERWHEEL). (Goal: Reduction of the wheel rail contact noise). Project from 2000 to 2004 led by the Centro Ricerche Fiat SCpA, Italy.

Improving Railway Infrastructure Productivity by Sustainable Two-Material Rail Development (INFRA-STAR). (Goal: Reduction of noise emission up to 15-20dB). Project from 2000 to 2003 led by Nederlandse Spoorwegen N.V., Netherlands.

Optimisation of Structural Connections for Noise and Vibration Reduction. Project from 1997 to 1999 led by Saint-Gobain Vitrage, France.

Sound attenuation by optimized tread brakes (EUROSABOT). (Goal: Noise measurements and reduction of rolling and braking noise of freight trains). Project from 1996 to 1999 led by ABB Daimler-Benz Transportation, Switzerland.

Advanced Composite Sandwich Steel Structures (SANDWICH). (Goal: Improvement of structures in weight, size, noise reduction and vibration properties). Project from 2000 to 2003 led by Jos. L. Meyer GmbH, Germany.

Development of New Technologies for Low Noise Freight (SILENT FREIGHT). Project from 1996 to 1999 led by European Rail Research Institute, Netherlands.

Development of New Technologies for Low Noise Railways Infrastructure (SILENT TRACK). Project from 1997 to 2000 led by European Rail Research Institute, Netherlands.

Squeal Noise Reduction in Urban Transport by Rail Treatment (SQUEAL). Project from 1997 to 2000 led by Alfa Products & Technologies NV.

Strategies and Tools to Assess and Implement Noise Reducing Measures for Railway Systems (STAIRRS). Project from 2000 to 2002 led by European Rail Research Institute, Netherlands.

NoiseTechnology-Final.doc

 
CALM CALM

CALMCALM

 

Partner name

AVL

Contract number

G4RT-CT-2001-05043

Proposal number

GTC2-2000-33026

Page

20 (47)

Work package no.

WP1A+B

Date (DD-MMM-200X)

17 November 2003

Document type

Report

Deliverable no.

1A+B

Authors

Receivers

A. Rust

CALM Team, EC

Subject

Noise Technology Status Report

 

Adaptive dampening of vibrations and structure-borne noise for high-speed rail vehicles (ADAPTRONIC). Project since 1998 led by Daimler Chrysler, Germany.

Characterisation of Aerodynamic Noise Sources and of Some Components of Mechanically Induced of High-Speed Guided Transport (DEUFRAKO Appendix

K2).

(Goal: Evaluation of acoustic sources and creation of acoustic noise prognosis models). Project led by Deutsche Bahn AG, Germany.

Development of a light-weight and low-noise bogie for goods wagons (LEILA-DG). Project since 2000 led by Technical University Berlin, Germany.

Low emission bogie (LEMBO). (Goal: Development of an economically and acoustically improved bogie for railway freight wagons). Project since 2000 led by Deutsche Bahn AG, Germany.

Light rail thematic network (LIBERTIN). (Goal: Promoting the attractiveness and competitiveness of light rail / light metro systems and accelerating the establishment of an international market in EU and associated countries). Project from 2002 to 2005 led by Transport Technologie-Consult Karlsruhe (TTK GmbH), Germany.

Procedures for Rolling Stock Procurement with Environmental Requirements (PROSPER):

(Goal: Establishing guidelines for setting-up environmental requirements and recommending values for the environmental performance of new rolling stock). Projects I + II from 2002 to 2005 led by Deutsche Bahn AG, Germany.

According to this current state of knowledge and research, the railway noise technologies can be summarised as follows [41].

Rolling noise:

The most effective means of control is that of wheel and rail roughness. Here, the technology is available (K-blocks/disc brakes, rail grinding systems) but also depends on the cost. Add- on systems such as rail and wheel dampers are also available for further reduction. Wheel and bogie shielding have only limited effect due to gauge constraints. New design of wheels and tracks provides the next best option after roughness control; vehicles with smaller and less wheels, and quieter track design are longer term, but could be beneficial investments. Local application of low noise track has the potential to reduce noise at low and medium speeds. This can even be applied on cast iron brake blocked vehicles, thereby adding to the effects of long term retrofit programmes before all retrofitting is complete.

Aerodynamic noise:

Recent generations of high speed trains have illustrated the improvements in this field; the streamline design of new trains often benefits both noise and energy consumption. Further streamlining is possible, in particular the covering of the bogie areas; this however has cost and maintenance consequences.

NoiseTechnology-Final.doc

 
CALM CALM

CALMCALM

 

Partner name

AVL

Contract number

G4RT-CT-2001-05043

Proposal number

GTC2-2000-33026

Page

21 (47)

Work package no.

WP1A+B

Date (DD-MMM-200X)

17 November 2003

Document type

Report

Deliverable no.

1A+B

Authors

Receivers

A. Rust

CALM Team, EC

Subject

Noise Technology Status Report

 

Traction noise:

In principle, all of the above mentioned noise control measures are available to minimise traction noise at the design stage. The remaining issues are then the cost and maintainability. Retrofitting only for the purpose of noise reduction is generally not economically feasible.

Exemplary list of technology and research centres for railway noise:

AEA Technology Rail BV, Utrecht, Netherlands Bombardier Transportation, Québec, Canada Deutsche Bahn AG, Germany Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Germany European Rail Research Institute (ERRI), Utrecht, Netherlands ISVR, Southampton, UK Knorr Bremse AG, Germany Metravib, France psiA-Consult, Vienna, Austria RATP, France SBB, Switzerland Siemens Transportation, Germany SNCF, France Technical University Berlin, Germany TNO-TPD, Netherlands University of Naples, Italy Vibratec, France

NoiseTechnology-Final.doc

 
CALM CALM

CALMCALM

 

Partner name

AVL

Contract number

G4RT-CT-2001-05043

Proposal number

GTC2-2000-33026

Page

22 (47)

Work package no.

WP1A+B

Date (DD-MMM-200X)

17 November 2003

Document type

Report

Deliverable no.

1A+B

Authors

Receivers

A. Rust

CALM Team, EC

Subject

Noise Technology Status Report

 

4. Aeronautics

The overall noise emission from aircrafts is determined by the propulsion noise and the airframe noise. The main contributions to the propulsion noise (engine noise) arise from the fan, jet and turbine which can be significantly influenced by the engine installation conditions (installation noise). The main contributors to the airframe noise are the flaps and slats of the high lift devices on wings and landing gears with open stowage bay doors. So airframe noise is particularly high during the approach to the airport. Before these movable structures are deployed, airframe noise can be up to 15 dB lower [63].

In the early 70's, the introduction of the High Bypass Ratio (HBR) turbofan was a significant milestone in the development of engine technology and jet aircraft noise reduction. These engines were significantly quieter than their immediate predecessors [64]. The noise level reduction reached up to 10 dB resulting mainly from reduced jet noise and additional control of fan and turbine noise. Due to the combined effects of further developed engine technology and low speed airframe aerodynamic improvements leading to a progressive decrease of the propulsion system noise, airframe aerodynamic noise has become the dominant source in approach conditions. This situation initiated specific research activities for the reduction of airframe and installation noise [65] in the context of large European research initiatives co- ordinated by X-Noise and X2-Noise respectively [66].

The results of a survey of these research activities covering the recent past until the near future are given in Figure 4. The topics are split into methodologies (advanced simulation tools, better understanding of sources), technologies for noise control at source in the fields of engine noise and airframe noise (including installation noise) and operational aspects. These research activities are supplemented by industry-based research or national research programmes like the German research network "Quiet Traffic". Recent research results demonstrated further noise reduction potentials in engine noise and airframe noise [68]. The reduction of engine noise was achieved by modifications in the inlet duct and by modified exhaust nozzle shape. Essential airframe noise reduction was realised by the application of small turbulence devices on the wings suppressing two strong tonal and dissonant components. Other research results have demonstrated efficient reduction of inlet noise by so-called Herschel-Quincke waveguides [69] and significant reduction of tonal fan noise by active control [70].

The main technologies for low aircraft noise comprise quiet HBR turbofan engines and acoustically and aerodynamically optimised airframes. The quiet HBR engines have low noise design of the inlet and nozzle. This includes also low noise design of the fan and its tip region, acoustic lining along the ducts and adequate mixing of the core and by-pass air flows. Another important item is the optimised installation of the engines onto the airframe yielding minimised installation effects, i.e. minimising the noise increasing effects arising from the interactions between the noise radiated from the engine and the adjacent airframe.

NoiseTechnology-Final.doc

 
CALM CALM

CALMCALM

 

Partner name

AVL

Contract number

G4RT-CT-2001-05043

Proposal number

GTC2-2000-33026

Page

23 (47)

Work package no.

WP1A+B

Date (DD-MMM-200X)

17 November 2003

Document type

Report

Deliverable no.

1A+B

Authors

Receivers

A. Rust

CALM Team, EC

Subject

Noise Technology Status Report

 

Although considerable advances in aircraft noise reduction have been achieved in the last decades, the needs for further development of noise reduction technologies is evident and reflected in Figure 4 as well as in the following large list of research activities.

Years 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 JEAN
Years
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
00
01
02
03
04
05
JEAN
Basic Tools
Advanced CFD Models
TurboNoise CFD
& Source
Understanding
FANPAC
RESOUND
--
Source Models
Advanced
National / Industry Research
RAIN
ROSAS
Configurations
Propagation Models
DUCAT
Noise Reduction
Turbomachinery
FANPAC
RESOUND
Noise
at Source
Reduction
Technology
Nacelle Technologies
FANPAC
RANNTAC
Exhaust
Noise
Nozzle Design &
Liner Technology
National / Industry Research
SILENCE(R)
Reduction
Technology
Technology
Platform
Airframe noise
RAIN
Reduction
High Lift Devices
& Landing Gear
Techniques
National programs
Operational
Noise Abatement
Aspects
Procedures
SOURDINE
SOURDINE II

Figure 4:

X-NOISE Roadmap for aircraft noise research [67]

On a European scale, the following important research projects have been undertaken or are still in progress:

Advanced Grinding Technology of New Aircraft Engine Materials (AGNETA). (Goal: Material improvements regarded to noise and emission reduction, and fuel consumption decrease). Project from 2000 to 2004 led by the Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen, Germany.

Acoustic Radiation of Small Turbomachines (AROMA). (Goal: Noise prediction of turbomachines). Project from 2001 to 2003 led by the Free Field Technologies S.A., France.

Basic Research in Aircraft Interior Noise (BRAIN). (Goal: Investigation of the mechanisms of noise transmission through fuselage structures). Project from 1992 to 1996 led by the Katholike Universiteit Leuven, Netherlands.

Basic Research on Duct Acoustic and Radiation (DUCAT). (Goal: Development of computational methods for the propagation and radiation of fan noise of turbofans).

NoiseTechnology-Final.doc

 
CALM CALM

CALMCALM

 

Partner name

AVL

Contract number

G4RT-CT-2001-05043

Proposal number

GTC2-2000-33026

Page

24 (47)

Work package no.

WP1A+B

Date (DD-MMM-200X)

17 November 2003

Document type

Report

Deliverable no.

1A+B

Authors

Receivers

A. Rust

CALM Team, EC

Subject

Noise Technology Status Report

 

Project from 1998 to 2000 led by the National Lucht en Ruimtevaart Laboratorium, Netherlands.

Environmental Noise Associated with Turbulent Boundary Layer Excitation (ENABLE). (Goal: Determination of interior noise generated by turbulent boundary layer around an aircraft). Project from 2000 to 2003 led by Dassault Aviation S.A., France.

Modelling Sound Generation and Propagation in Fluid Machinery Systems (EQUIP). (Goal: Design of fans for minimum noise production, minimisation of sound transmission, etc.). Project from 1997 to 2001 led by Kungliga Tekniska Hoegskolan, Sweden.

Friendly Aircraft Cabin Environment (FACE). Project from 2002 to 2006 led by Alenia Aeronautica Spa, Italy.

Aeroacoustic Methods for Fan-Noise Prediction and Control (FANPAC). Project from 1993 to 1996 led by Rolls Royce plc, Great Britain.

Helicopter Noise and Vibration Reduction (HELINOVI). Project from 2002 to 2005 led by the German Aerospace Centre, Germany.

Jet Exhaust Aerodynamics and Noise (JEAN). Project from 2001 to 2004 led by the Trinity College Dublin, Ireland.

High Performance Damping Material for Aeronautical Use (PARVIS). Project from 2001 to 2002 led by Artec Aerospace SARL, France.

Reduction of Airframe and Installation Noise (RAIN). Project from 1998 to 2000 led by the British Airbus Ltd, Great Britain.

Reduction of Aircraft Noise by Nacelle Treatment and Active Control (RANNTAC). Project from 1998 to 2000 led by Aerospatiale Matra Airbus, France.

Reduction of Engine Noise Through Understanding and Novel Design (RESOUND). Project from 1998 to 2000 led by Rolls Royce plc, Great Britain.

Research on Silent Aircraft Concepts (ROSAS). Project from 2002 to 2004 led by Airbus France SAS, France.

Significantly Lower Community Exposure to Aircraft Noise (SILENCE). Project from 2001 to 2005 led by Snecma Moteurs, France.

Study of Noise and Aerodynamics of Advanced Propellers (SNAAP). Project from 1993 to 1996 led by Alenia Aerospazio, Italy.

Study of Optimisation Procedures for Decreasing the Impact of Noise around Airports (SOURDINE). Project from 1998 to 1999 led by ISR, France.

Study of Optimisation Procedures for Decreasing the Impact of Noise around Airports II (SOURDINE II). Project from 2001 to 2004 led by Stiching National Lucht- en Riumtevaart Laboratorium, Netherlands.

Turbomachinery Noise Source CFD Models for Low Noise Aircraft Engine Designs (TURBONOISECFD). Project from 2000 to 2003 led by Rolls Royce plc, Great Britain.

Aircraft External Noise Thematic Network (X-NOISE).

NoiseTechnology-Final.doc

 
CALM CALM

CALMCALM

 

Partner name

AVL

Contract number

G4RT-CT-2001-05043

Proposal number

GTC2-2000-33026

Page

25 (47)

Work package no.

WP1A+B

Date (DD-MMM-200X)

17 November 2003

Document type

Report

Deliverable no.

1A+B

Authors

Receivers

A. Rust

CALM Team, EC

Subject

Noise Technology Status Report

 

Project from 1998 to 2001 led by Société Nationale d'Etudes et de Construction de Moteurs d'Aviation, France.

Development of a multi-channel control unit for active noise reduction (HTGT- Turbotech II). Project since 1996 led by Daimler-Benz Forschung und Technik, Aeroakustik, Germany.

Investigation of Airframe and Jet Noise in High-Speed flight with a Microphone Array. Project led by the Department of Turbulence Research in Berlin, Germany.

Quiet Aircraft. Part of the German research network "Quiet Traffic".

Exemplary list of technology and research centres for aeronautic noise:

Aerospatiale Aircraft Business SN, Toulouse, France Aerospatiale Matra Airbus, France Alenia Aeronautica Spa, Italy British Aerospace Airbus Ltd., Bristol, UK Daimler Chrysler Aerospace Airbus GmbH, Hamburg, Germany Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Germany Dornier GmbH, Friedrichshafen, Germany EADS Corporate Research Centre Germany, Munich, Germany Eurocopter, France Free Field Technologies (FFT), France LMS, Belgium Metravib, France National Aerospace Laboratory (NLR), Amsterdam, Netherlands National Aviation University, Kyiv, Ukraine Roll Royce PLC, UK Snecma Moteurs, France University of Manchester, UK University of Naples, Dept. of Aeronautical Engineering, Italy

NoiseTechnology-Final.doc

 
CALM CALM

CALMCALM

 

Partner name

AVL

Contract number

G4RT-CT-2001-05043

Proposal number

GTC2-2000-33026

Page

26 (47)

Work package no.

WP1A+B

Date (DD-MMM-200X)

17 November 2003

Document type

Report

Deliverable no.

1A+B

Authors

Receivers

A. Rust

CALM Team, EC

Subject

Noise Technology Status Report

 

5. Outdoor Equipment

Outdoor equipment (OE) covers a wide range of very different mechanical devices. A survey on these types of equipment can be found in the EC directive 2000/14/EC [71]. Although the variation of OE is very wide, the predominant noise sources are similar in many cases due to the fact that most of these devices are operated by internal combustion engines. This means that there are two major noise sources on most of these devices – "engine" and "cooling system (fan)".

Concerning the engine noise, the research activities and also the noise control technologies are mostly the same as for automotive engines (Section 2.2.). Also the cooling technologies are similar in the case of water-cooled systems. However, very often air-cooling systems are in use for practical reasons. This implies special care for low fan noise. Basic design guides for low noise axial fans are given in [72], examples for the practical application of a low noise cooling fan and system is described in [73], [74], [75]. Another study on acoustic emission of OE has been published in [76].

The use of lawnmowers often leads to high noise pollution of the adjacent environment because of its high and specific noise emission (engine, rotor blades). The fact that the lawnmowers are mainly used in residential areas results in serious annoyance of neighbours. Due to this special noise situation of lawnmowers, a study on "possibilities and limits of noise reduction on lawnmowers" was carried out by CETIM as described in [77]. The study shows that the main noise generators are the engine (combustion engine, electric drives) and the aerodynamics of the cutting device. More research work can be found in [78], [79], [80]. Concerning noise radiation, the deck of the lawnmower can give significant contributions besides the airborne noise contributions directly radiated from the engine and cutter blades. The noise reduction technologies for lawnmowers refer to quieter combustion engines (quieter combustion) including more efficient cooling fans and better exhaust silencers. Some manufacturers use elastic mounting of the engine, but with only slight acoustic benefit, since the mounting elements must not be too soft for safety reasons. Also the deck structure has been developed towards lower vibration and noise radiation by optimised deck profiles or use of sandwich materials.

An important topic of OE is the correlation (or divergence) between its legislative testing (defined by the Directive 2000/14/EC [71]) and typical noise-relevant modes of real-life operation of OE [81]. Although the Directive provides a classification of the machines according to their type, no specifications are made regarding different operating conditions. Yet in practise, they substantially affect the noise level of running OE. For each machine, the Directive includes a particular section relating to:

Basic standard on acoustic emission

Operating conditions during the test

While the first point in each case refers to the EN ISO 3744:1995 standard [82] unifying procedures for signal acquisition and elaboration with only relatively marginal differences, the

NoiseTechnology-Final.doc

 
CALM CALM

CALMCALM

 

Partner name

AVL

Contract number

G4RT-CT-2001-05043

Proposal number

GTC2-2000-33026

Page

27 (47)

Work package no.

WP1A+B

Date (DD-MMM-200X)

17 November 2003

Document type

Report

Deliverable no.

1A+B

Authors

Receivers

A. Rust

CALM Team, EC

Subject

Noise Technology Status Report

 

second point presents significant differences between machines due to the diversity of the operating conditions in practice. The description of the operating conditions for each machine includes:

The configuration of the machine

The description of the test (whether no- or full-load and the procedures to be followed)

The observation time interval

In order to highlight the differences between the procedures for the experimental characterisation of OE as prescribed by the standard and the real operating conditions, a separate classification can be made of the machines (covered in Art. 12 of the Directive) with the following distinction:

a:

b1: Potentially incomplete, because certain significant operating conditions are excluded but which, on subsequent verification, are found to represent an issue of secondary importance in terms of acoustic emission; b2: Potentially incomplete, because certain significant operating conditions are excluded which could, on subsequent verification, be found to be of primary importance with regard to acoustic emission.

Representative of the real operating conditions;

The summary of this evaluation regarding divergence between the requirements of the standard and the real operating conditions is outlined in Appendix A [81]. Especially for construction machinery the test standards or testing procedure might differ considerably from real operating conditions. In many cases this is related to the lack of interaction with the ground, which may often correspond to the prevalent source of noise in practice. Thus, the significance of the test standard with respect to the real operating condition represents an essential aspect to guarantee the effectiveness of the legislative requirements through the progressive reduction of acoustic emission limits in order to decrease the noise pollution of that specific machine. In fact, if the test conditions for the machine are not completely representative of the effective mode of operation, it is possible that a reduction in the maximum level allowed does not correspond to a real benefit in terms of an acoustic emission reduction during the equipment's life.

A further important topic is related to the feasibility of an acoustic quality index to quantify and classify the annoyance caused by the noise of OE. Specific features ("quality") of the noise emitted and the way in which these are perceived by observers ("listeners") are also of great concern, e.g. [83]. In terms of perception, it is known that the level of emitted sound power is generally one of the most important aspects, though not the only. For instance, the noise produced by a mosquito is around 30 dBA but is generally agreed to be highly annoying, whereas orchestra music can reach levels of 90 dBA without representing a disturbance for those attending the concert. Evidently, the relation between the sound emitted and the perception of pleasantness depends on the diverse nature of the sources and the general incompatibility of the contexts. The project SVEN started to study the sound quality of the exterior noise.

The effect of the combination of OE noise sources on the perception is of particular interest and high importance. It considers the issue of noise being caused from a number of machines

NoiseTechnology-Final.doc

 
CALM CALM

CALMCALM

 

Partner name

AVL

Contract number

G4RT-CT-2001-05043

Proposal number

GTC2-2000-33026

Page

28 (47)

Work package no.

WP1A+B

Date (DD-MMM-200X)

17 November 2003

Document type

Report

Deliverable no.

1A+B

Authors

Receivers

A. Rust

CALM Team, EC

Subject

Noise Technology Status Report

 

operating close to each other at the same time in order to evaluate and address the potential combination effect of several sources emitting noise simultaneously. The EC directive does not suggest any general testing procedure. The only relevant standard ISO 8297/94 [84] specifies an engineering method to determine the sound power emitted from industrial equipment based on the post-processing of microphone measurements taken around the equipment itself. A relatively common procedure is the superposition of continuous noise sources (that are assumed to be uncorrelated), yielding the energetic sum as result. Such an approach can provide a qualitative first approximation, though it is certainly not exhaustive, particularly when coherent sources of noise may need to be taken into account. (For example, an approximate approach may prove sufficient to predict the noise emitted from a site in the far

field, whereas in the vicinity of the site the noise perceived strongly depends on various factors including the position of the equipment with respect to the reference listening location.) Considering more specifically the real equipment and not ideal continuous acoustic sources, another complication arises due to the variations in time depending on the type of operation being performed.

A more sophisticated approach to obtain the equivalent sound pressure level L eq on a working

site is described in [85]. The algorithm is based on neural networks taking into account the type

of equipment in operation and the type of operation being performed.

An initial attempt at defining a prediction methodology to evaluate the effect of combing the noise emitted from several machines has been proposed by C.P.T., a local authority located in Turin, Italy, [86]. Specifically a database of measurements from approximately 360 machines has been created, including the sound power (overall and in third-octave band) measured in real operational conditions. Furthermore, approximately 125 standard modes of operation have been catalogued, indicating the activities performed in a specific phase of the on-site work progress together with the type machine that is deployed. Correspondingly, in order to determine a quantitative measure of significance, a relative proportion has been assigned to the machines, the operations performed and the duration of the activities. Based on the data available, a method has been proposed for determining the average sound power emitted from the site. By taking into account the proportion of time that machine is used to perform a specific operation, a weighted sum has been proposed with regard to the effective contribution of generated noise to the sound power level for each single machine.

In this context, the subsequent EU research projects are of particular importance:

Modelling sound generation and propagation in fluid machinery systems (FLODAC) Project led by KTH Stockholm, Sweden.

Sound Quality of Exterior Vehicle Noise (SVEN) (Goal: Investigation of acoustical emission of vehicles causing significant annoyance.) Project from 2000 to 2003 led by Head Acoustics, Germany.

Sound Quality of Exterior Vehicle Noise (EMISSIO) (Goal: Measurement and simulation of vehicles and machinery regarding noise emission.) Project from 1999 to 2002 led by VTT, Finland.

NoiseTechnology-Final.doc

 
CALM CALM

CALMCALM

 

Partner name

AVL

Contract number

G4RT-CT-2001-05043

Proposal number

GTC2-2000-33026

Page

29 (47)

Work package no.

WP1A+B

Date (DD-MMM-200X)

17 November 2003

Document type

Report

Deliverable no.

1A+B

Authors

Receivers

A. Rust

CALM Team, EC

Subject

Noise Technology Status Report

 

Vibration and noise control of transport equipment and mobile work machines(Liikku VÄRE) Project since 1999 led by VTT, Finland.

Vibration control of rotating machinery (Pyöri VÄRE) Project since 1999 led by VTT, Finland.

Exemplary list of technology and research centres for OE noise:

ABB Ventilation Products, Vaexjoe, Sweden AV Technology Ltd., Cheshire, UK Centro Ricerche Fiat (CRF), Italy CETIM, Senlis, France IMAMOTER Institute (National research Council of Italy), Ferrara, Italy TORO Company, Bloomington, MN, USA UNACOMA, Bologna, Italy VTT Industrial Systems, Tampere, Finland Engine manufacturers (like Hatz, Lombardini, Briggs&Stratton,

Members of Euromot (European Association of Internal Combustion Engine Manufacturers, Frankfurt, Germany, www.euromot.org) Members of Cema (Japan Construction Equipment Manufacturers Association, Tokyo, Japan, www.cema.or.jp) Members of AEM (Association of Equipment Manufacturers, Milwaukee WI, USA, www.aem.org) Members of Pneurop (European Committee of Manufacturers of Compressors, Vacuum Pumps and Pneumatic Tools, Brussels, Belgium, www.pneurop.com)

)

NoiseTechnology-Final.doc

 
CALM CALM

CALMCALM

 

Partner name

AVL

Contract number

G4RT-CT-2001-05043

Proposal number

GTC2-2000-33026

Page

30 (47)

Work package no.

WP1A+B

Date (DD-MMM-200X)

17 November 2003

Document type

Report

Deliverable no.

1A+B

Authors

Receivers

A. Rust

CALM Team, EC

Subject

Noise Technology Status Report

 

6. Glossary of Terminology

Acoustic shielding Reduction of airborne sound radiated from a source by a noise attenuating panel near the source (but no sound-tight fixation of panel on source structure, compare "enclosure")

Airframe noise

Noise generated by the flaps and slats of the high lift devices on wings and landing gears with open stowage bay doors

Brake screech

often also called "brake squeal"

Combustion noise

Noise component of internal combustion engine excited by the sharp gas pressure rise in the combustion chamber due to the combustion

dBA

Decibel, A-weighted

Enclosure

Acoustic covering of a noise-radiating surface of a noise source by means of panels with sound-tight fixation on the surface

Exhaust noise

Noise component comprising noise emerging at the exhaust orifice and at the surface of the entire exhaust system

HBR

High By-pass Ratio

Installation noise

Component of aircraft noise arising from engine noise increase due to interaction of engine noise with adjacent airframe structure

OE

Outdoor Equipment

Propulsion noise

Noise of the vehicle driving system, in road vehicle consisting of engine, transmission, drive line, intake and exhaust noise

PTW

Powered Two-Wheeler

Rolling noise

Noise generated by the interaction between tyres or wheels and the ground (road surface, rail)

Traction noise

Noise part considering powertrain noise (especially important for diesel engines) and fan noise of the cooling system

NoiseTechnology-Final.doc

 
CALM CALM

CALMCALM

 

Partner name

AVL

Contract number

G4RT-CT-2001-05043

Proposal number

GTC2-2000-33026

Page

31 (47)

Work package no.

WP1A+B

Date (DD-MMM-200X)

17 November 2003

Document type

Report

Deliverable no.

1A+B

Authors

Receivers

A. Rust

CALM Team, EC

Subject

Noise Technology Status Report

 

7. References

[1] P. Ehinger: Noise Reduction Potential of Passenger Cars. Workshop "Further Noise Reduction for Motorised Road Vehicles", Umweltbundesamt Berlin, Germany, 17 – 18 Sep. 2001.

[2]

U. Sandberg, J. A. Ejsmont: Tyre/Road Noise Reference Book. Informex, Sweden, 2002.

[3]

Bridgestone

Corp.,

Patent

2001

(cf.

www.bridgestone-

eu.com/english/bs/range/psr/tech/supp.htm)

[4] E.-U. Saemann, W. Liederer, H. Schmidt, W. Fornefeld: Tyre/Road Noise – Causes, Influences, Potential for Improvement and Target Conflicts. Workshop "Further Noise Reduction for Motorised Road Vehicles", Umweltbundesamt Berlin, Germany, 17 – 18 Sep. 2001.

[5]

G. J. Kim: Flexural Wave propagation and Sound Radiation of the Tyre Shell. Paper 594, Internoise 2001, The Hague, Netherlands, 27 – 30 Aug. 2001.

[6]

E.-U. Saemann, T. Dodt: Advanced Passive Noise Control of Truck Tyres. Internoise 1996, Liverpool, UK, 1996.

[7]

M. Brusarosco: TINO Test Results Overview and Validation. First International Colloquium on Vehicle Tyre Road Interaction, Rome, Italy, 28 May 1999.

[8]

A. Pietrzyk, J. Leyssens, A. Lerusse: FE Modelling for Tyre Noise. Paper 462, Euronoise 2003, Naples, Italy, 19 – 21 May 2003.

[9]

Y. H. Kim, S. K. Lee, S. J. Lee: Tyre Noise & Vibration Characteristic Analysis using SEA – Based on Tyre FE Modelling. Paper 050, Euronoise 2003, Naples, Italy, 19 – 21 May

2003.

[10]

J. A. Ejsmont: Tyre-Road Noise Simulation for Optimisation of the Tread Pattern. Internoise 2000, Nice, France, 2000.

[11]

P. Guisset, W. Hendricx, C. McCulloch: Tyre Noise Models, Analysis and Prediction. ISATA Conference 2000, Dublin, Ireland, 2000.

[12]

K. Iwao, I. Yamazaki: A Study on the Mechanism of Tyre-Road Noise. JSAE Review 17 (1996) 139-144.

[13]

W. Kropp, F. X. Becot, S. Barrelet: On the Sound Radiation from Tyres. Acta Acustica, Vol. 86 (2000) 769-779.

NoiseTechnology-Final.doc

 
CALM CALM

CALMCALM

 

Partner name

AVL

Contract number

G4RT-CT-2001-05043

Proposal number

GTC2-2000-33026

Page

32 (47)

Work package no.

WP1A+B

Date (DD-MMM-200X)

17 November 2003

Document type

Report

Deliverable no.

1A+B

Authors

Receivers

A. Rust

CALM Team, EC

Subject

Noise Technology Status Report

 

[14]

K. Larsson, W. Kropp: A High Frequency Range Tyre Model Based on Two Coupled Elastic Layers. Internoise 1999, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA, 1999.

[15]

U. Sandberg, J. A. Ejsmont: Noise Emission, Friction and Rolling Resistance of Car Tyres – Summary of an Experimental Study. NOISE-CON 2000, Newport Beach, California, USA.

[16] R. Stenschke, P. Vietzke: Tyre-Road Noise Emissions, Rolling Resistance and Wet Braking Behaviour of Modern Tyres for Heavy-Duty Vehicles (State of the Art). Internoise 2001, The Hague, Netherlands, 27 - 30 Aug. 2001.

[17]

Report on CALM workshop "Road Transport Noise", held in Brussels on 29 April 2003, www.calm-network.com.

[18] S. Ullrich: Noise Reduction Potential of Motorway Pavements. Workshop "Further Noise Reduction for Motorised Road Vehicles", Umweltbundesamt Berlin, Germany, 17 - 18 Sep. 2001.

[19]

M. Berengier, G. Licitra: Traffic Noise and Road Surfaces: a State-of-the-Art. Paper 194, Euronoise 2003, Naples, Italy, 19 – 21 May 2003.

[20]

J. Kragh, H. Bendtsen: Performance of New Twin-Lay Drainage Asphalt Laid in Denmark. Internoise 2000, Nice France, 2000.

[21]

G. van Bochove: Twin-Lay, a New Concept of Drainage Asphalt Concrete. Euronoise 1998, Munich, Germany, 1998.

[22]

U. Sandberg, H. Ohinishi, N. Kondo, S. Meiarashi: Poroelastic Road Surfaces - State of the Art, Review. Internoise 2000, Nice, France, 2000.

[23]

U. Sandberg, G. Descornet: Road Surface Influence on Tyre/Road Noise Internoise 80, Miami, Florida, USA, 1980.

- Part 1 & 2.

[24]

V. Legeay: Macrotexture and Low Frequency Tyre/Road Noise Correlation. Introc 90, Gothenburg, Sweden, 1990.

[25] W. Kropp: Ein Modell zur Beschreibung des Rollgeraeusches eines unprofilierten Guertdlreifens auf rauher Strassenoberflaeche. Doctor thesis, VDI Fortschritte-Berichte Reihe 11, Nr. 166, Düsseldorf, 1992.

[26] W. Kropp, K. Larsson, F. Wullens, P. Andersson, F. X. Becot, T. Beckenbauer: The Modelling of Tyre/Road Noise - A Quasi Three-Dimensional Model. Internoise 2001, The Hague, Netherlands, 2001.

NoiseTechnology-Final.doc

 
CALM CALM

CALMCALM

 

Partner name

AVL

Contract number

G4RT-CT-2001-05043

Proposal number

GTC2-2000-33026

Page

33 (47)

Work package no.

WP1A+B

Date (DD-MMM-200X)

17 November 2003

Document type

Report

Deliverable no.

1A+B

Authors

Receivers

A. Rust

CALM Team, EC

Subject

Noise Technology Status Report

 

[27]

F. de Roo, E. Gerretsen, E. H. Mulder: Predictive Performance of the Tyre-Road Noise Model TRIAS. Internoise 2001, The Hague, Netherlands, 2001.

[28]

J. F. Hamet, P. Klein: Road Texture and Tyre Noise. Internoise 2000, Nice, France, 2000.

[29]

M. EW. Delany, E. N. Bazley: Acoustical Properties of Fibrous Absorbent Materials. Applied Acoustics, Vol. 3, 1970, pp. 105 - 116.

[30]

J. F. Hamet, M. Berengier: Acoustical Characteristics of Porous Pavements: A New Phenomenological Model. Internoise 93, Leuven, Belgium, 1993.

[31]

M. C. Berengier, M. R. Stinson, G. A. Daigle, J. F. Hamet: Porous Road Pavements:

Acoustical Characteristics and Propagation Effects. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 101, No. 1, 1997, pp. 155 - 162.

[32] M. C. Berengier, B. Gauvreau, P. Blanc-Benon, D. Juve: Outdoor Sound Propagation: A Short Review on Analytical and Numerical Approaches. To be published in Acta Acustica united with Acustica.

[33]

H. van Leuven, R. Nota: The Harmonoise Engineering Model. Paper 275, Euronoise 2003, Naples, Italy, 19 – 21 May 2003.

[34]

A. Rust: Environmental Noise Control at Source: Passenger Cars and Trucks. Internoise 2001, The Hague, Netherlands, 2001.

[35] M. Pflueger, A. Rust, T. Resch: Stand der Technik und Perspektiven in der rechnergestuetzten Motorakustik (State-of-the-Art and Perspectives of the Computer-Aided Engine Acoustics). Wiener Motorensymposium, Vienna, Austria, 2002.

[36]

H. H. Priebsch, J. Krasser: Simulation of Vibration and Structure Borne Noise of Engines - A Combined Technique of FEM and Multi Body Dynamics. 16 th CAD-FEM Users’ Meeting, Bad Neuenahr, Germany, 1998.

[37]

G. Biaggini, V. Buzio, R. Ellensohn, W. Knecht: Der neue Dieselmotor Cursor 8 von Iveco (The New Diesel Engine Cursor 8 of Iveco). MTZ Motortechnische Zeitschrift 60 (1999) 10, 1999.

[38]

F. W. Leipold, R. A. Zima: Development Stages for Reducing Noise Emissions of the New OM 904 LA Commercial Vehicle Diesel Engine. SAE972040, SAE Noise and Vibration Conference 1997, Traverse City, Michigan, USA, 1997

[39]

G. E. Thien: The Use of Specially Designed Covers and Shields to Reduce Diesel Engine Noise. SAE 730244, Detroit, USA, 1973.

NoiseTechnology-Final.doc

 
CALM CALM

CALMCALM

 

Partner name

AVL

Contract number

G4RT-CT-2001-05043

Proposal number

GTC2-2000-33026

Page

34 (47)

Work package no.

WP1A+B

Date (DD-MMM-200X)

17 November 2003

Document type

Report

Deliverable no.

1A+B

Authors

Receivers

A. Rust

CALM Team, EC

Subject

Noise Technology Status Report

 

[40]

U. Sandberg: Noise Emission of Road Vehicles - Effect of Regulations. Final report of the I-INCE Working Party on Noise Emissions of Road Vehicles (WP-NERV), July 2001.

[41]

WG Railway Noise of the European Commission: Position Paper on the "European Strategies and Priorities for Railway Noise Abatement", May 2003.

[42]

P.-E. Gautier: Railway Noise: A Review of Recent Progress and Research. Paper 494, Euronoise 2003, Naples, Italy, 19 – 21 May 2003.

[43]

D. J. Thompson: Wheel-Rail Noise Generation, Part 1. Journal of Sound and Vibration 161 (3), 1993.

[44]

D. J. Thompson, B. Hemsworth, N. Vincent: Experimental Validation of the TWINS Prediction Program for Rolling Noise, Part 1: Description of the Model and Method. Journal of Sound and Vibration 193, pp. 123 - 135, 1996.

[45]

D. J. Thompson, P. Fodiman, H. Mahe: Experimental Validation of the TWINS Prediction Program for Rolling Noise, Part 2: Results. Journal of Sound and Vibration 193, pp. 137 - 147, 1996.

[46]

L. Castel, P.-E. Gautier, N. Vincent, J.-P. Goudard: 350 kph Running Tests to Assess a New Railway Noise Model. Internoise 93, Leuven, Belgium, 1993.

[47]

C. J. C. Jones, D. J. Thompson: Extended Validation of a Theoretical Model for Railway Rolling Noise Using Novel Wheel and Track Designs. Proceedings of 7 th IWRN, Portland, Maine, USA, 2001.

[48]

D. J. Thompson, P. J. Remington: The Effects of Transverse Profile on the Excitation of Wheel/Rail Noise. Journal of Sound and Vibration 231 (3), pp. 537 - 548, 2000.

[49]

T. Wu, D. J. Thompson: On the Impact Noise Generation due to a Wheel Passing over Rail Joints. Proceedings of 7 th IWRN, Portland, Maine, USA, 2001.

[50]

P. de Vos, S. van Lier: Noise-Related Roughness on Railway wheels Generated by Tread Braking. Internoise 2000, Nice, France, 2000.

[51]

P.-E. Gautier, N. Vincent, D. J. Thompson, G. Hoelzl: Railway Wheel Optimization. Internoise 93, pp. 1455 - 1458, Leuven, Belgium, 1993.

[52]

B. Hemsworth, P.-E. Gautier, R. Jones: Silent Freight and Silent Track Projects. Internoise 2000, Nice, France, 2000.

[53]

C. Jones, D. J. Thompson, A. Frid, M. O. Wallentin: Desing of a Railway Wheel with Acoustically Improved Cross-Section and Constrained Layer Damping. Internoise 2000, Nice, France, 2000.

NoiseTechnology-Final.doc

 
CALM CALM

CALMCALM

 

Partner name

AVL

Contract number

G4RT-CT-2001-05043

Proposal number

GTC2-2000-33026

Page

35 (47)

Work package no.

WP1A+B

Date (DD-MMM-200X)

17 November 2003

Document type

Report

Deliverable no.

1A+B

Authors

Receivers

A. Rust

CALM Team, EC

Subject

Noise Technology Status Report

 

[54] L. Guccia, P. Fodiman, P.-E. Gautier, N. Vincent, P. Bouvet: High-Speed Rolling Noise:

Design and Validation of Low Noise Components. World Congress on Rail Research, Florence, Italy, 1997.

[55]

D. J. Thompson, C. J. C. Jones, D. Farrington: The Development of a Rail Damping Device for Reducing Noise from Railway Track. Internoise 2000, Nice, France, 2000.

[56]

M. H. A. Janssens: Low Noise Slab-Track Design: Acoustic Development and Final Tests. Sixth International Congress on Sound and Vibration, Lyngby, Sweden, 1999.

[57]

C. Talotte: Aerodynamic Noise, a Critical Survey. Journal of Sound and Vibration 231 (3), pp. 549 - 562, 2000.

[58]

DEUFRAKO Annex K (1994) and K2 (1999): Sources de Bruit des Transports Guides a Grande Vitesse. Final Reports.

[59]

W. Behr, T. Loelgen, W. Baldauf, L. Willenbrink, R. Blascko, K. Jaeger, J. Kremlacek:

Low Noise Pantograph ASP, Recent Developments. Internoise 2000, Nice, France, 2000.

[60]

T. Okamura, Y. Kusumi, T. Hariyama: Development and Prospect for Low Noise Pantograph. Internoise 2000, Nice, France, 2000.

[61]

J. T. Nelson: Wheel Squeal Noise Control with Wheel and Rail Vibration Absorbers. Internoise 2001, The Hague, Netherlands, 2001.

[62]

A. A. van Lier: The Break Squeal of Tread-Braked Trains. Euronoise 98, Munich, Germany, 1998.

[63]

Transport Noise Reference Book. Ed. by P. M. Nelson, Butterworth & Co. Ltd., 1987.

[64]

D. Collin: Aircraft Noise Engineering - Issues and Challenges. Internoise 2002, Dearborn, Michigan, USA, 2002.

[65]

L. C. Chow, P. Lempereur, K. Mau: Reduction of Airframe and Installation Noise. Internoise 99, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA, 1999.

[66]

European Thematic Network "X2-NOISE": www2.x-noise.net

[67]

Report on CALM Workshop with Stakeholder, Brussels, 18 - 19 March 2002 (www.calm- network.com).

[68]

W. Dobrzynski, U. Michel: Neue Massnahmen zur Laermminderung (New Measures for Noise Reduction). DLR-Nachrichten Nr. 102, April 2002. (www.fv-leiserverkehr.de/FV- LeiserVerkehr/Veroeffentlichungen.htm)

NoiseTechnology-Final.doc

 
CALM CALM

CALMCALM

 

Partner name

AVL

Contract number

G4RT-CT-2001-05043

Proposal number

GTC2-2000-33026

Page

36 (47)

Work package no.

WP1A+B

Date (DD-MMM-200X)

17 November 2003

Document type

Report

Deliverable no.

1A+B

Authors

Receivers

A. Rust

CALM Team, EC

Subject

Noise Technology Status Report

 

[69]

R. A. Burdisso:. Reduction of Inlet Noise from Turbofan Engines Using Herschel-Quincke Waveguides. Internoise 2001, The Hague, Netherlands, 2001.

[70]

J. Zillmann, R. Maier, W. Just, I. Borchers, E. Bouty, H. Antoine, L. Enghard, U. Tapken:

Active Control of Fan Noise by Active Stators. Internoise 2001, The Hague, Netherlands,

2001.

[71]

Directive 2000/14/EC relating to the Noise Emission in the Environment by Equipment for Use Outdoors. Brussels, 2000.

[72]

G. Karfalk: Low Noise Design of Axial Fans. Internoise 2001, The Hague, Netherlands,

2001.

[73]

J. Hyrynen, A. Karjalainen: Low Noise Cooling Fan Integration in an Induction Machine Application. Paper 226, Euronoise 2003, Naples, Italy, 19 – 21 May 2003.

[74]

E. Carletti: Effectiveness of Some Noise Solutions Applied to Small Agricultural Machines. Paper 351, Euronoise 2003, Naples, Italy, 19 – 21 May 2003.

[75]

A. Karjalainen, J. Hyrynen: Experiments on Design Parameters Affecting Cooling Fans in an Induction Machine. Part I: Specific Sound Power Level. Part II: Results from Design of Experiment. Internoise 2001, The Hague, Netherlands, 27 – 30 August 2001.

[76]

J.P.J. Oostdijk, H. Kuypers, J.H. Granneman: Acoustic Aspects of the Development of Silent Loading and Unloading Devices. Internoise 2001, The Hague, Netherlands, 27 – 30 August 2001.

[77]

M. Bockhoff: Possibilities and Limits of Noise Reduction on Lawnmowers. Paper 303, Euronoise 2003, Naples, Italy, 19 – 21 May 2003.

[78]

Product Group Lawnmowers: Determination of noise emission values and studies related to noise within the work on EC-Directive. Landesgewerbeanstalt Bayern, February 2002.

[79]

M. Bockhoff, P. Thoquenne, J. Tourret: Characterisation of Structure-borne Noise Emitted by Small Combustion Engines Powering Lawnmovers and Other Garden Equipments. Internoise 2000, Nice, France, 2000.

[80]

C. Drutowski: Lawnmover Noise Emission. Internoise 2001, The Hague, Netherlands, 27 – 30 August 2001.

[81] C. Baret, G. Boreanaz: Study on the status of research related to the noise of outdoor equipment in operation. Report for the CALM Network, Sept. 2003, www.calm- network.com.

NoiseTechnology-Final.doc

 
CALM CALM

CALMCALM