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Disediakan Oleh:-
Politeknik Ungku Omar
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JJ618-Engineering Plant Technology

 For the production of paper and other wood

 For the preparation and serving of foods
 For the cooling and heating of large buildings
 For driving equipment such as pumps and
compressors, and
 For powering ships

However, its most important priority remains as

the primary source of power for the production of Steam is basically recycled, from steam
electricity to water and then back to steam again

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 Coal
 Oil
3  Gas
4  Bagasses

Figure 1a : Schematic diagram for a Rankine cycle.

The simplest steam cycle of practical value is called the Rankine

cycle, which originated around the performance of the steam engine.
The steam cycle is important because it connects processes that allow
heat to be converted to work on a continuous basis. 7/5/2017

 The M.A.W.P or Maximum Allowable Working Pressure is the

A boiler is closed vessel in which water, under highest amount of pressure that the vessel is designed to
pressure, is transformed into steam by the withstand. Pressure is measured in terms of pounds per square
inch or psi. Psig (gauge) indicates gauge pressure, which ignores
application of heat. the atmospheric pressure. Psia (absolute) is the sum of gauge
pressure plus the atmospheric pressure at that location, which
varies based on altitude. A compound gauge measures indicates
Open vessels and those generating steam at pressure and vacuum.
atmospheric pressure are not considered to be
boiler • Low-pressure boilers are designed to withstand
a maximum of 15 psig steam or a M.A.W.P. 160
psig water

• High-pressure boilers are designed to withstand

pressure above 15 psig steam and/or a M.A.W.P.
160 psig water
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 Safety. The boiler should be safe under operating conditions.

 Accessibility. The various parts of the boiler should be accessible for repair and According to
maintenance. what flows in the
 Capacity. The boiler should be capable of supplying steam according to the
 Efficiency. To permit efficient operation, the boiler should be able to absorb a
maximum amount of heat produced due to burning of fuel in the furnace.
 It should be simple in construction.
 Its initial cost should and its maintenance cost should be low.
 The boiler should have no joints exposed to flames.
 The boiler should be capable of quick starting and loading.

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 Less liable to explosion, produce higher pressure,

accessible and can response quickly to change in  Require careful attention. The maintenance
steam demand
costs are higher
 Tubes and drums of water-tube boilers are smaller
than that of fire-tube boilers and due to smaller size of  Failure in feed water supply even for short
drum higher pressure can be used easily period is liable to make the boiler over-heated
 The efficiency of water-tube boilers is more compare
to fire tube boiler  Less suitable for impure and sedimentary water,
as a small deposit of scale may cause the
 Water tube boilers require less weight of metal for a overheating and bursting of tube
given size
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 Fire tube boilers have low initial cost (cheaper than water tube boiler)  Boiler are equipped with two categories of components : boiler mounting
& boiler accessories.
 Easy to use, operate, clean and maintain. Boiler mounting are the machine Boiler accessories are those components
components that are mounted over the which are installed either inside or
 More compacts can be use in small scale industries (refer to small size boiler) body of the boiler itself for the safety of outside the boiler to increase the
the boiler & for complete control of the efficiency of the plant and to help in the
process of steam generation proper working of the plant
• Pressure gauge • Steam purifier
 More likely to explosion • Fusible plug • Air Pre-heater
• Steam stop valve • Economizer
 Water volume is large and due to poor circulation they cannot meet quickly the • Feed check valve • Superheater
change in steam demand. • Safety valve • Feed water heater
 For the same output the outer shell of fire tube boilers is much larger than the • Blow off valve
shell of water-tube boiler. • Man & mud holes
• Water gauge
 Capacity of generated steam is limited • Water column

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 Pressure Gauge  Fusible Plug

 Function : To record the steam pressure at which  Function : To extinguish fire in the event of water
the steam generated in the boiler. level in the boiler shell falling below a certain
specified limit.

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 Steam Stop Valve  Feed Check Valve

 Function : To shut off or regulate the flow of  Function : To allow the
steam from the boiler to the steam pipe or steam feed water to pass into
from the steam pipe to the engine. the boiler.
 To prevent the back
flow of water from the
boiler in the event of
the failure of the feed

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 Safety Valve  Blow off Valve

 Function : A safety valve is a  Function : To drain
valve mechanism which out the water from
automatically releases a the boiler for internal
substance from a boiler, cleaning, inspection
pressure vessel, or other or other purposes.
system, when the pressure
or temperature exceeds
Blowoff valves. (a) Flanged angle valve—open
preset limits position for full and free
discharge. (b) Flanged angle valve—closed
position for drop-tight shutoff. (Yarway.)
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 Man & Mud Holes  Water Gauge

 Function : A water gauge
 Function : To allow man to enter inside the boiler
is a device that allows
for service and maintenance, e.g., properly the liquid level in a vessel
inspect, clean, and repair the inside of the drum to be visually inspected.
and/or its internals. Water gauges are
required by the ASMW
Boiler and Pressure Code
on steam boiler, and are
also useful in many other
monitoring the amount
of oil in an oil tank.

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 Water Column  Steam Purifier

 Function : A water  Precise system control is required
for the operation of modern
column is used on a superheated steam turbines.
steam boiler to reduce Solids in the steam leaving a boiler
can deposit in the superheater and
the turbulence and turbines, causing costly damage.
fluctuation of the For this reason, close control of
steam purity is critical.
water level so the  Steam purity refers to the amount
gauge glass can of solid, liquid, or vaporous
contamination in the steam. High-
provide a steady purity steam contains very little
accurate water level contamination. Normally, steam
purity is reported as the solids
reading. content.
Water column and gauge arrangement for
connection to steam drum. (Clark-
7/5/2017 Reliance Corp.) 7/5/2017


 Superheater There are three basic methods to obtain

 Function : To superheat the
steam generated by boiler. constant steam temperature:
Super heater are heat
exchangers in which heat is
transferred to the saturated
steam to increase its  Attemperation – i) Drum-type attemperator
temperature. Superheat refers
to the process of increasing the ii) Spray-type attemperator
temperature of steam above
about 400°F/204°C and 100
psi/6.89 bar to produce a very
"dry" steam with absolutely no  Flue gas bypass (or flue gas proportioning)
water vapor. This feature is most
common in very large power
plant boilers of watertube
construction.  Flue gas recirculation
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 Feed Water Heater  Air Pre-Heater

 Function : A waste recovery
 Function : To increasing
device in which the air to
feedwater temperature on its way to the furnace is
& to minimize the heated utilizing the heat of
thermal effect. exhaust gases.
• Closed Feedwater
1 Heater

• Open Feedwater Heater


What is Baffle :- a flow-directing vane or panel in some vessels such as

7/5/2017 shell and tube
7/5/2017 heat exchanger, chemical reactor, or static mixers


A soot blower is a system for removing the soot that is

 Economiser deposited on the furnace tubes of a boiler during combustion.
 Function : TO recover
Types of soot blowers:
some of the heat being  Wall Blower.
carried over by exhaust  Long Retractable Soot Blower (LRSB)
gases. (This heat is  Air Heater Blower.
used to raise the Long Retractable Soot Blower (LRSB) with
temperature of blowing medium steam

feedwater supplied to
the boiler)

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A steam trap is a device used to discharge condensate and non

condensable gases with a negligible consumption or loss of live steam.  Water-wall a furnace or other wall within a
Most steam traps are nothing more than automatic valves. They open, boiler enclosure that is composed of
close or modulate automatically. Others, like venturi traps, are based
on turbulent 2-phase flows to obstruct the steam flow. numerous closely set water-tube. These
The three important functions
of steam traps are:
tubes maybe either bare, or covered by a
i. Discharge condensate as mineral cement.
soon as it is formed.
ii. Have a negligible steam
iii. Have the capability of
discharging air and other
non-condensable gases.

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De Laval, Parsons and Curtis developed the concept for the steam
turbine in the 1880s. Modern steam turbines use essentially the same
concept but many detailed improvements have been made in the
intervening years mainly to improve turbine efficiency. Energy Transfer
 Steam turbines are used in all of our major coal fired power
stations to drive the generators or alternators, which produce
electricity. Coal, Natural Gas, Nuclear,
 The turbines themselves are driven by steam generated in ‘Boilers‘ Biofuel, Waste Fuel
or ‘Steam Generators‘ as they are sometimes called.
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How Steam Turbine Function?  Steam under pressure contains energy.

 Energy in the steam after it leaves the boiler is converted into  Turbines convert the energy in steam into
rotational energy as it passes through the turbine. rotating mechanical energy.
 The turbine normally consists of several stages with each stage  Impulse turbines convert the kinetic energy
consisting of a stationary blade (or nozzle) and a rotating blade. of a jet of steam to mechanical energy.
 Stationary blades convert the potential energy of the steam  Reaction turbines convert potential energy
(temperature and pressure) into kinetic energy (velocity) and direct the in pressurized steam to
flow onto the rotating blades. mechanical energy.
 The rotating blades convert the kinetic energy
into forces, caused by pressure drop, which
results in the rotation of the turbine shaft (Fig. 1).
 The turbine shaft is connected to a generator,
which produces the electrical energy. The
rotational speed is 3000 rpm for Australian (50
Hz) systems and 3600 for American (60 Hz) L N
systems. Figure 1
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An Impulse Turbine the potential energy, or the head of water, is first

converted into kinetic energy by discharging water through a carefully
shaped nozzle. The jet, discharged into air, is directed onto curved buckets
fixed on the periphery of the runner to extract the water energy and convert
it to useful work

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Compounding is a method for

reducing the rotational speed of the
impulse turbine to practical limits
 High velocity of steam is allowed to flow through one row
of moving blades, it produces a rotor speed of about
30,000 r.p.m. which is too high for practical use
 The leaving loss is also very high.

Some improvements in the simple impulse

turbine have been made for practical use and
also to achieve high performance
There are three main types
(a) Pressure-compounded impulse turbine.
(b) Velocity-compounded impulse turbine.
(c) Pressure and velocity compounded impulse
turbine (Impulse-Reaction Turbine).
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 In a Reaction Turbine, forces

driving the rotor are achieved by
the reaction of an accelerating
water flow in the runner while the
pressure drops. The reaction
principle can be observed in a
rotary lawn sprinkler where the
emerging jet drives the rotor in
the opposite direction. Due to the
great variety of possible runner
designs, reaction turbines can be
used over a much larger range of

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Impulse Reaction

o Pressure drops in nozzles and not in moving o Pressure drops in fixed blade as well as moving
blade channels blades
o Constant blade channel area o Varying blade channel area
o Profile type blades o Aerofoil type blades

o Restricted tound or incomplete admission of o All round or complete admission

o Diaphragm contains nozzles o Fixed blades similar to moving blades attached
to casing act as nozzles and guide the steam
o Occupies less space for same power o Occupies more space for same power
o Higher efficiency in initial stage o Higher efficiency in final (low pr) stages
o Suittable for small power requirements o Suittabel for medium or high power
o Blade manufacturing is not difficul and thus not o Blade manufacturing process is dificult compare
cosly to impulse and hence costly
7/5/2017 o Velocity
7/5/2017 of steam is high o Velocity of steam is less