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What are Pumps?

 Pumps have two main purposes:

􀂃 Transfer of liquid from one place to another place

(e.g. water from an underground aquifer into a water
storage tank)
􀂃 Circulate liquid around a system (e.g. cooling water or
lubricants through machines and equipment)

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What are Pumping Systems? Type of Pumps

 The main components of a pumping system are:

􀂃 Pump
􀂃 Prime movers: electric motors, diesel engines or air system
􀂃 Piping, used to carry the fluid
􀂃 Valves, used to control the flow in the system
􀂃 Other fittings, controls and instrumentation
􀂃 End-use equipment, which have different requirements
(e.g. pressure, flow) and therefore determine the pumping
system components and configuration. Examples include
heat exchangers, tanks and hydraulic machines.

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Positive Displacement Pumps

Positive displacement pumps are distinguished

by the way they operate: liquid is taken from
one end and positively discharged at the other
end for every revolution. Positive displacement
pumps are widely used for pumping fluids other
than water, mostly viscous fluids.

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􀂃 Liquid is forced into an impeller either by

atmospheric pressure, or in case of a jet
Dynamic Pumps pump by artificial pressure.

􀂃 The vanes of impeller pass kinetic energy

to the liquid, thereby causing the liquid to
rotate. The liquid leaves the impeller at high

􀂃 The impeller is surrounded by a volute

Dynamic pumps are also characterized by their casing or in case of a turbine pump a
mode of operation: a rotating impeller converts stationary diffuser ring. The volute or
kinetic energy into pressure or velocity that is stationary diffuser ring converts the kinetic
needed to pump the fluid. energy into
pressure energy.

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Components Function
Casing Protect the pump and the largest share.

Priming & Self-Priming Impeller rotating disk with a set of vanes coupled to
 Priming engine/motor shaft that produces
The creation of a vacuum inside the pump casing by centrifugal force within the pump
entering the water bit by bit for prevent air trap inside
Shaft Transferring power from the drive to
the pump. the impeller.

Bearing Control the movement of the shaft.

 Self-Priming
The ability of a pump to purge air from its system and Coupling Connecting between motor to the drives the
creating an area of low pressure that permits water to pump.
flow into the pump casing. Mechanical Seal Prevent liquid from entering into certain
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Different about 2 type of pump Factors That Should Be Considered

When Choosing Pump
To handle dirty fluids Only suitable for handling clean fluids.  Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH)
Sending the flow of fluid is continuous. Pulsating fluid delivery.  Priming
 Flexibility
Readily available Have limited the size of the load.
 Corrosion
Structure easy construction Construction of complex structures.
 Useful life
Low maintenance cost. High maintenance costs.
 Maintenance
Expensive maintenance work Maintenance work is difficult and
 Quantity pumped
Large volume Total volume is small.  Pumping head
Not the kind of self-priming pump. Self priming  Power source
For low initial cost. High startup costs.  Economics
Pressure produced will vary with the Volume of output is fixed with the same
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Pump Terminology The following terms are usually

used when referring to lift or head
Pressure is needed to
pump the liquid through  Static Suction Lift — The vertical distance from the water line to the
the system at a certain centerline of the impeller.
rate. This pressure has to  Static Discharge Head — The vertical distance from the discharge outlet to
be high enough to the point of discharge or liquid level when discharging into the bottom of a
water tank.
overcome the resistance
of the system, which is  Dynamic Suction Head — The static suction lift plus the friction in the
suction line. Also referred to as Total Suction Head.
also called “head”. The
total head is the sum of  Dynamic Discharge Head — The static discharge head plus the friction in
the discharge line. Also referred to as Total Discharge Head.
static head and friction
head:  Total Dynamic Head — The Dynamic Suction Head plus the Dynamic
Discharge Head. Also referred to as Total Head.

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= Suction lift
Power Needed To Drive a Pump
= discharge head
 Horsepower = = Velocity head, where tap water velocity sender.

= The head loss in pipes due to friction.

- where f is the coefficient of pipe friction.
 Column manometer is the actual column to be overcome by the pump. Column D
manometer is given as + + + +
l = the length of the pipe.
2 v= speed of the water.
+ + + + d= diameter of the pipe.
g= gravity
= Head loss due to valve fittings.
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Friction Head Velocity Head

 Term that refers to pressure losses encountered by a fluid  Velocity head is the energy of liquid in which there is a
as it flows through a fitting or a valve in a piping system. change in flow rate.
This column is specified by the following equation.
 The value of the velocity head can be expressed in the

Where ;-
k = coefficient for valve Where ;-
v = velocity of the pumped liquid v = velocity of the pumped liquid
g = acceleration of gravity ( 9.81 m/s² ) g = acceleration of gravity ( 9.81 m/s² )

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Static Head Total Dynamic Head

 Static head is the difference in height between the  Is the total of all forces to show how much work needs
source and destination of the pumped liquid. Static to be done by the pump.
head is independent of flow. The static head at a  It is necessary to make the selection of pumps.
certain pressure depends on the weight of the liquid
and can be calculated with this equation:

Column =

* Pressure in (psi)

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How To Calculate Pump

The work performed by a pump is a function of the Pump output, water horsepower or hydraulic
total head and of the weight of the liquid pumped in a horsepower (hp) is the liquid horsepower delivered by
given time period. Pump shaft power (Ps) is the actual the pump, and can be calculated as follows:
horsepower delivered to the pump shaft, and can be
calculated as follows:

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 A centrifugal pump used to deliver water at a rate of 500
liters / minute from a pool 10 meters below ground level as
shown. At the suction side have a foot valve, filters, 90°
elbow, and 12 meter straight pipe. At the discharge side
have a ball valve, two 90° elbows and straight pipes 4
meters. All pipe sizes is 75 mm diameter connections.
 Determine the power required by the pump motor if the
overall efficiency was 85%. By taking the coefficient of
friction for the pipe as 0.012, the loss coefficient for angles
of 90° is o.9, the ball valve is 10, foot valve and filter
equivalent to 2.5 and 0.6.

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