LOADING & ANALYSIS
Influence Lines
A bending moment influence line for any given point X on a structure is a line whose ordinate at
any point B qives the bending moment at X when a load is placed at B (keep reading it and look at
the example below  it will make sense eventually!). Influence lines can be obtained for bending
moments, shear forces and reactions.
A bending moment influence line is drawn for one point only which may not necessarily be the
point of maximum bending. A bending moment diagram, by comparison with a influence line, will
give the bending moment at all points for one position of load.
Example  Simply Supported Single Span
Influence Line Tutorial for HA UDL and HB Loading Bending Effects
Example: Three span deck with continuity over pier supports.
Step1: Determine the position of the point of maximum bending moment in each element for a
single point load.
Point A − maximum sagging moment in span 1
Point B − maximum hogging moment over pier 1
Point C − maximum sagging moment in span 2
Note: as end spans are equal then critical points over pier 2 and in span 3 can be obtained from
point A and B by symmetry.
Step 2: Determine influence line diagram for point A:
Step 3: Determine influence line diagram for point B:
Step 4: Determine influence line diagram for point C:
Step 5: Determine loading for critical cases:
Point A
The maximum sagging moment is achieved by loading spans 1 and 3, however we also need to
check HA UDL for loading in span 1 only.
HA Span 1 only: loaded length = 10m hence udl = 71.8 kN/m (BD37table 13)
HA Span 1 and 3: loaded length = 20m hence udl = 45.1 kN/m (BD37table 13)
KEL: = 120 kN (BD37 Clause 6.2.2)
HB loading will produce worst sagging moment with an axle at the maximum ordinate (2.15). Any
one of the 4 axles can be located at this position; the vehicle is however positioned with the other
3 axles to achieve the maximum total ordinates:
Note: The HB vehicle has a range of spacings between the centre axles, in this case the 26m
spacing gives the worst effect.
Point B
The maximum hogging moment is achieved by loading spans 1 and 2, however we also need to
check HA UDL for loading in span 2 only.
HA Span 2 only: loaded length = 20m hence udl = 45.1 kN/m (BD37table 13)
HA Span 1 and 2: loaded length = 30m hence udl = 34.4 kN/m (BD37table 13)
KEL: = 120 kN (BD37 Clause 6.2.2)
Usually HB loading will produce the worst hogging moment with an axle at the maximum ordinate
(2.051). Any one of the 4 axles can be located at this position; the vehicle is however positioned
with the other 3 axles to achieve the maximum total ordinates.
In the case below the sum of the ordinates is 0.677 + 0.71 + 2.051 + 1.966 = 5.404
Other cofigurations of HB loading need be checked, and in this case the 6m vehicle will produce a
greater value with the vehicle in the position shown below. The sum of the ordinates for this
configuration = 1.604 + 1.943 + 1.651 + 1.305 = 6.503
Point C
The maximum sagging moment is achieved by loading span 2 only.
HA Span 2 only: loaded length = 20m hence udl = 45.1 kN/m (BD37table 13)
KEL: = 120 kN (BD37 Clause 6.2.2)
HB loading will produce worst sagging moment with an axle at the maximum ordinate (3.125).
Any one of the 4 axles can be located at this position; the vehicle is however positioned with the
other 3 axles to achieve the maximum total ordinates:
Note: The HB vehicle has a range of spacings between the centre axles, in this case the 6m
spacing gives the worst effect.
Step 6: Determine load effects on deck.
The following assumptions will be made to demonstrate principles of influence lines:
• Assume loads applied to 1 notional lane width of deck (3.65m wide).
• Assume ultimate limit state hence use load factor γ _{f}_{L} of 1.5 for HA loading and 1.3 for HB
loading.
• Assume 30 units of HB.
Span 1
Maximum sagging moment due to HB loading:
M = 1.3 x 30 x 10 x (2.172 + 1.345 + 0.088 + 0.108) = 1448 kNm
Maximum sagging moment due to HA loading at point A:
Case 1 − Span1 loaded
M = 1.5 x (71.8 x 10.285 + 120 x 2.172) = 1499 kNm (HA critical)
Case 2 − Span1 and 3 loaded
M = 1.5 x [45.1 x (10.285 + 0.695) + 120 x 2.172] = 1134 kNm
Pier 1
Maximum hogging moment due to HA loading at point B:
Case 1 − Span 2 loaded
M = 1.5 x (45.1 x 24.776 +120 x 2.051) = 2045 kNm
Case 2 − Span1 and 2 loaded
M = 1.5 x [34.4 x (24.776 + 4.641) + 120 x 2.051] = 1887 kNm
Maximum hogging moment due to HB loading:
M = 1.3 x 30 x 10 x (1.604 + 1.943 + 1.651 + 1.305) = 2536 kNm (HB critical)
Span 2
Maximum sagging moment due to HA loading at point C:
Case 1 − Span 2 loaded
M = 1.5 x (45.1 x 25.25 + 120 x 3.125) = 2271 kNm
Maximum sagging moment due to HB loading:
M = 1.3 x 30 x 10 x (3.125 + 2.286 + 0.8 + 0.366) = 2565 kNm (HB critical)
Note: HB loading is shown to be critical for two of the cases, however if the loads are distributed
using a computer analysis, such as a grillage analysis, then the HB moments will be reduced
considerably.
HA and HB Type Loading
History
The first standard vehicle load for highway bridges in the UK was introduced in 1922. British
Standards introduced a traffic live load requirement in BS 153 Part 3 in 1923, which was later
revised in 1925 and 1937. The Type HA uniformly distibuted loading was introduced in 1945 and
the concept of a Type HA and HB load was included in the 1954 edition of BS 153: Part 3A. In
1961 the HB load was specified in terms of units and varied depending on the class of road, with
45 units required for Motorways and Trunk Roads and 37.5 units for class i and class ii roads. A
requirement for all public roads to be designed for at least 30 units of HB was introduced in 1973.
HA Loading
BD 37/01 Appendix A of the Design Manual for Roads and Bridges says that Type HA loading is the
normal design loading for Great Britain and adequately covers the effects of all permitted normal
vehicles other than those used for abnormal indivisible loads. Normal vehicles are governed by the
Road Vehicles (Authorised Weight) Regulations 1998, referred to as the AW Vehicles and cover
vehicles up to 44 tonne gross vehicle weight. Loads from these AW vehicles are represented by a
uniformly distributed load and a knife edge load. The loading has been enhanced to cover:
i) impact load (caused when wheels 'bounce' i.e. when striking potholes or uneven expansion
joints).
ii) Overloading
iii) Lateral bunching (more than one vehicle occupying the width of a lane).
The magnitude of the uniformly distributed load is dependent on the loaded length as determined
from the influence line for the member under consideration. For simply supported decks this
usually relates to the span of the deck.
HB Loading
BD 37/01 Appendix A of the Design Manual for Roads and Bridges says that Type HB loading
requirements derive from the nature of exceptional industrial loads (e.g. electrical transformers,
generators, pressure vessels, machine presses, etc.) likely to use the roads in the area.
The vehicle load is represented by a four axled vehicle with four wheels equally spaced on each
axle. The load on each axle is defined by a number of units which is dependant on the class of
road and is specified in BD 37/01 Chapter 4 as follows:
Motorways and trunk roads require 45 units, Principal roads require 37.5 units and other public
roads require 30 units. One unit of HB is equal to 10kN per axle. There are five HB vehicles to
check although most vehicles can be discounted by inspection.
Design
The design procedure is to analyse the bridge for HA and HB load effects applying the appropriate
load factors. The member is then deisgned for the worst effects of HA or HB loading.
BS5400:Pt2 Loading Idealisation for Grillage Analysis of Bridge Decks
Index
1.HA UDL+KEL
2.HB Vehicles
3.Pedestrian Load
4.Accidental Wheel Load
5.Parapet Collision Load
Using a prestressed Y4 beam with reinforced concrete deck slab as the deck example as shown in
Fig.1; the deck having a 10° skew, a span of 20m and carrying a 7.3m carriageway with two 2m
footpaths.
BS 5400 Pt.2:2006 Cl.3.2.9.3.1
7.3m carriageway has 2 notional lanes hence lane width = 3.65m.
Cl.6.3 The deck shall carry 45 units of HB
Cl.6.7 Assume bridge requires high containment parapets hence collision loading needs to be
considered.
1.HA UDL + KEL
HA UDL can be applied to each longitudinal member as a uniformly distributed load, the intensity
of the load is proportional to the width of the lane directly above the longitudinal member, for
example:
HA UDL for a 20m span = 45.1kN/m of notional lane.
Notional lane width = 3.65m
HA UDL/m width = 45.1 / 3.65 = 12.36kN/m
HA UDL on member 2 = 0.15 x 12.36 = 1.85kN/m
HA UDL on members 3,4 & 5 = 1.0 x 12.36 = 12.36kN/m
HA UDL on member 6 = 0.5 x 12.36 = 6.18kN/m
UDL applied to each longitudinal grillage member to represent HA UDL in lane 1.
Alternatively, if the program has the facility of applying patch loads then a patch width equal to
the lane width and length equal to the loaded length may be applied. The patch load is usually
positioned by the centroid of the patch area in relation to the grid coordinates.
HA KEL can also be applied as a uniformly distributed load to the transverse members. As loads
are initially proportioned to the adjacent members and joints then the worst effects will always be
achieved by positioning the KEL directly above a transverse member. If the deck is skewed then
the postion of the KEL to give the worst effect will be different to a square deck and two or three
positions may need to be checked to find the critical case.
It is therefore useful to separate the HA UDL and HA KEL into different load cases to avoid
repeating the calculation for the effects of the UDL. The UDL and the various positions of the KEL
can be added together in different combination cases.
Similar load cases are produced for the HA UDL and KEL in the second lane. Full HA live load will
have the HA UDL and KEL in both lanes whilst HB live load has the HB vehicle in one lane and the
HA UDL and KEL in the second lane. All these variations in load cases can be developed in the
combination cases.
2. HB VEHICLES
The HB vehicle consists of four axles with four wheels on each axle and is applied to the grillage as
a series of point loads. Clause 6.3.2 and 6.3.3 allow the wheel loads to be applied as patch loads
however there is little to be gained in a global analysis by applying this refinement and point loads
will be a suitable representation for the wheel loads.
There are five variations of the inner axle spacing for the HB vehicle that can be applied to the
deck. A line beam analysis incorporating moving point loads will indicate the positions of the
critical HB vehicle to achieve the design moments and shears. An Excel spread sheet using
moment distribution to carry out a line beam analysis of standard moving vehicles can be
downloaded by clicking here.
The result of the line beam analysis shows that the maximum sagging moment occurs at 8.5m
from the end of the deck with the leading axle at 16.3m from the end.
All critical load cases are produced from the vehicle with the 6m inner axle spacing.
As the loading is symmetrical and both ends of the single span deck are simply supported then the
position of maximum moment can be measured from either end of the deck.
The transverse position of the HB vehicle will depend on which member is being considered,
however it is usual to design all internal beams for the critical loading condition for vehicles on the
carriageway. The edge beams will require special consideration to support the additional loading
from the cantilever.
The diagram shows one of the inner wheels on the critical axle positioned over the nearest
transverse member at 8.5m from the support.
This would produce the critical loading condition for the bending moment on the internal beam for
an orthogonal deck, however other positions need to be considered to take account of the skew
effects.
As a check on the data, the total of the reactions should equal the total load of the vehicle = 4 x
450 = 1800kN. Also the line beam analysis gives a total moment of 5692.5kNm; so as there are
four longitudinal members supporting the vehicle, then the moment from the grillage should be in
the order of (but less than) 5692.5 / 4 ≈ 1400kNm in the longitudinal member.
3. Pedestrian Load
Clause 6.5.1 states that the pedestrian live load shall be taken as 5.0 kN/m ^{2} , but reduced to 0.8 x
5.0 = 4.0kN/m ^{2} for members supporting both footway and carriageway loading. Consequently the
edge beam should be designed for 5.0kN/m ^{2} and the nexttoedge beam designed for 4.0kN/m ^{2} .
The UDL's can be applied to these two members in a similar manner to the HA UDL described in
Section 1. above, however, as there is no barrier between the carriageway and footway, Clause
6.6 requires that the footway members are designed for Accidental Wheel Load which is generally
more onerous than the pedestrian live load.
4. Accidental Wheel Load
Accidental Wheel Loading consists of a 200kN axle and a 150kN axle with two wheels on each axle
and is applied to the grillage as four point loads. Clause 6.6.2 and 6.6.3 allow the wheel loads to
be applied as patch loads however there is little to be gained in a global analysis by applying this
refinement and point loads will be a suitable representation for the wheel loads.
Similarly as with the HB vehicle a line beam analysis incorporating moving point loads will indicate
the critical positions of the vehicle to achieve the design moments and shears. An Excel spread
sheet using moment distribution to carry out a line beam analysis of standard moving vehicles can
be downloaded by clicking here. The Abnormal Load facility is used in the line beam proforma to
input the accidental wheel vehicle.
The result of the line beam analysis shows that the maximum sagging moment occurs at 10.26m
from the end of the deck under the leading axle.
The vehicle will be positioned over the parapet beam as shown to obtain the critical loading
condition for bending in this member. This may also be the critical position for the design moment
in the main edge beam, however the 100kN wheel should be positioned at joint B to confirm the
critical case.
Other positions on adjacent transverse members need to be considered to take account of the
skew effects.
As a check on the data, the total of the reactions should equal the total load of the vehicle = 200
+ 150 = 350kN. Also the line beam analysis gives a total moment of 1657.5kNm; so as there are
two longitudinal members supporting the vehicle, then the moment from the grillage should be in
the order of (but less than) 1657.5 / 2 ≈ 800kNm in the longitudinal member.
5.Parapet Collision Load
Loads due to collision with parapets need only be considered in a grillage analysis if high level
containment parapets (H4a) are required. Collision loads on other types of parapet need only be
considered for local effects (how the load is transferred to the main members).
Clause 6.7.2.1 describes the three loads that are to be applied to the top of the parapet over a
3.0m length.
The point loads need to be transferred down to the datum level of the grillage, which is at the
centroid of the deck slab, and distributed over a 3.0m length.
The high containment parapet is 1.5m high above the back of footpath level. The centroid of the
deck slab is about 0.3m below the back of footpath level, consequently the two horizontal loads
will induce moments on the grillage with a lever arm of 1.8m.
The 500kN horizontal load will produce a moment of 900kNm at the centreline of the deck. This
moment is distributed along a 3.0m length giving 300kNm/m moment to be applied to the grillage.
The horizontal load of 167kN/m will be taken into the deck which, as it is very stiff axially
compared to bending, will distribute evenly between all longitudinal members and therefore have
negligible effect in the grillage. The load is however considered in determining local effects in
accordance with Clause 6.7.1.
The 175kN vertical load can be idealised as a uniformly distributed load 58kN/m along a 3.0m
length of the parapet beam.
The 100kN horizontal load acts in the plane of the parapet and there is an argument that the load
will be resisted by the framing effect of the parapet rails with the posts and will therefore be
transferred to the deck as a series of horizontal and vertical loads at the base of the posts.
As the loads are to be applied over a 3.0m length then the moment of 100kN x (1.5 + 0.3) =
180kNm can be represented by a vertical couple of 60kN x 3.0m.
The horizontal load of 100kN will be taken into the deck which, as it is very stiff axially compared
to bending, will distribute evenly between all longitudinal members and therefore have negligible
effect in the grillage. The load is however considered in determining local effects in accordance
with Clause 6.7.1.
The three loads can be combined in one load case.
The 3.0m length can be positioned anywhere along the parapet beam and positions are generally
chosen to coincide with the critical positions for the accidental wheel load.
HA & HB Loading Example
BS 5400 Part 2 : 2006
Clause 6.2 Type HA Loading
Problem:
How do you work out the HA loading and bending moment for a bridge deck?
Example:
Carriageway = 6m wide Deck span = 34m (centre to centre of bearings for a simply supported single span)
Design for a metre width of deck :
Number of notional lanes = 2 Notional lane width = 6.0/2 = 3.0m
Cl 3.2.9.3.1.
Cl 
6.2.1. 

Loaded length = 34m 

W 
= 336(1/L) ^{0}^{.}^{6}^{7} kN/m (per notional lane) 

W 
= 31.6 kN/m (per notional lane) 

Cl 
6.2.2. 
Knife Edge Load = 120 kN (per notional lane)
Cl 6.4.1.1. Table 14.
α _{2} = 0.0137[b _{L} (40L)+3.65(L20)]
α _{2} = 0.0137[3.0(4034.0)+3.65(34.020)] = 0.947 Note: For loaded lengths less than 20m the load is proportioned to a standard lane width of 3.65m, i.e. 0.274b _{L} = b _{L} /3.65. For a metre width of deck:
W = (31.6 x 0.947)/3.0 = 10.0 kN/m
KEL = (120 x 0.947)/3.0 = 37.88 kN
Maximum mid span Bending Moment with KEL at mid span:
M = (10.0 x 34 ^{2} )/8 + (37.88 x 34)/4 = 1767 kNm
Cl 6.2.7.
γ _{f}_{L} = 1.20 (Serviceability limit state  combination 1) γ _{f}_{L} = 1.50 (Ultimate limit state  combination 1)
Design HA moment for a metre width of deck :
M _{s}_{l}_{s} = 1767 x 1.2 = 2120 kNm M _{u}_{l}_{t} = 1767 x 1.5 = 2650 kNm
Note: Use of γ _{f}_{3} BS 5400 Pt.3 & Pt.5  γ _{f}_{3} is used with the design strength so M _{u}_{l}_{t} = 2650 kNm.
BS 5400 Pt.4  γ _{f}_{3} is used with the load effect so M _{u}_{l}_{t} = 1.1 x 2650 = 2915 kNm.
Clause 6.3 Type HB Loading
Assume the road over the bridge is not a Principal Road then we need to check for 30 units type HB loading (see BD 37/01 Chapter 4).
Nominal load per axle = 30units x 10kN = 300kN
Cl 6.3.1
The maximum bending moment will be achieved by using the shortest HB vehicle i.e. with 6m spacing (see BS 54002:2006 Fig 12). The maximum moment for a simply supported span occurs under the inner axle when the vehicle is positioned such that the mid span bisects the distance between the centroid of the load and the nearest axle. With a 34m span and the 6m HB vehicle with equal axle loads, the inner axle is placed at 1.5m from the mid span.
RL = 300(10.7+12.5+18.5+20.3)/34 = 547 kN RR = 4x300547 = 653kN Moment at X = 547x15.5  300x1.8 = 7939kNm
Cl 6.4.2
The HB vehicle occupies one lane with HA load in the adjacent lane. Assume for the example that the HB load is carried by a standard lane width of 3.65m.
Hence the moment per metre width of deck = 7939/3.65 = 2175kNm
Cl 6.3.4.
γ _{f}_{L} = 1.10 (Serviceability limit state  combination 1) γ _{f}_{L} = 1.30 (Ultimate limit state  combination 1) Design HB moment for a metre width of deck :
M _{s}_{l}_{s} = 1.1 x 2175 = 2393 kN/m (compared to 2120 for HA load) M _{u}_{l}_{t} = 1.3 x 2175 = 2828 kN/m (compared to 2650 for HA load) Hence in this case HB load effects would govern although a grillage or finite element type distribution would reduce the HB moment considerably.
Reinforced Concrete to BS 5400 Part 4
Index
1.Introduction
2.Serviceability Limit State
3.Ultimate Limit State
4.Shear
1. Introduction
Both the Serviceability and Ultimate Limit States need to be considered.
Serviceability Limit State ensures that crack widths do not exceed values specified for different
environmental conditions, and also ensures that concrete and reinforcement stresses are
maintained below a safe limit.
Ultimate Limit State ensures that the structure will not collapse.
2. Serviceability Limit State
i) Crack Control
Cracks in concrete can be caused by:
∑ corrosion of the reinforcement which causes the concrete to spall
∑ thermal movements, particularly cooling from heat of hydration (called early thermal
cracking)
∑ structural actions such as bending, shear or torsion
Corrosion of reinforcement is controlled by use of suitable concrete grades and providing adequate
cover to the reinforcement.
Cracks due to thermal movements are controlled by providing minimum nominal steel area and
restricting the maximum bar spacing. BD28/87 is used to calculate the minimum steel area and
bar spacing to control early thermal cracking.
The width of shear cracks is controlled by ultimate strength calculations.
Only the crack widths caused by bending and tension need to be calculated and clause 5.8.8.2 is
used.
For calculating the crack width only combination 1 loading is used and a maximum of 30 units of
HB is applied. Cracks caused by higher loadings will not exist for long enough to affect corrosion.
The maximum design stress limits will ensure that the cracks close up when the loads are
removed.
A cracked elastic section analysis is used to determine the strain ε _{m} at the level where cracking is
being considered.
Using a rectangular section as an example:
We first need to determine the position of the neutral axis. Let:
α _{e} = E _{s} / E _{c}
E _{s} = 200kN/mm ^{2} (clause 4.3.2.2)
The short term value of E _{c} is obtained from Table 3 which is appropriate to the live load portion of
the moment (M _{q} ). The permanent load portion of the moment (M _{g} ) has an E _{c} value equal to half
the short term value. The modified value of E _{c} used for the crack width calculation is an
intermediate value between the short and long term values (clause 4.3.2.1(b)).
Modified E _{c} = E _{c}_{(}_{s}_{h}_{o}_{r}_{t}_{}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{m}_{)} {10.5[M _{g} /(M _{g} +M _{q} )]}
ρ = A _{s} / b _{t} d and ρ' = A' _{s} / b _{t} d
Then d _{c} /d = √{[α _{e} ρ + (α _{e}  1)ρ'] ^{2} + 2[α _{e} ρ + (α _{e}  1)ρ'd'/d]}  [α _{e} ρ + (α _{e}  1)ρ']
Second Moment of Area of Cracked Section I _{c} = b _{t} d _{c} ^{3} /3 + (α _{e} 1)A _{s} '(d _{c} d') ^{2} + α _{e} A _{s} (dd _{c} ) ^{2}
Strain at level of tension reinforcement ε _{s} = α _{e} (M _{g} +M _{q} )(dd _{c} ) / (I _{c} E _{s} )
Depth to notional surface where nominal cover c _{n}_{o}_{m} is provided = a'
Strain at notional surface ε _{1} = ε _{s} (a'd _{c} ) / (dd _{c} )
There is a correction formula (equation 25 in clause 5.8.8.2) which allows for the stiffening effect
of concrete in the tension zone. Due to fatigue the stiffening effect does not work under fluctuating
load. This is allowed for in equation 25 by providing no advantage if more than half the moment is
due to live load.
The corrected strain at notional surface ε _{m} is thus obtained using the value of ε _{1} in equation 25.
a _{c}_{r} = √{(c _{n}_{o}_{m} +Φ/2) ^{2} + (s/2) ^{2} }  Φ/2
The Design Crack Width can now be calculated using equation 24 in clause 5.8.8.2.
ii) Stress Limits
The methods given in the code for checking crack widths assumes a linear elastic behaviour. It is
therefore necessary to check the stress limits to ensure this assumption is correct. in particular
that the strains caused by transient loads will not become permanent.
The stresses are calculated using a cracked elastic section analysis similar to that used to
determine the crack width described above. All load combinations need to be checked to ensure
that the stress limits are not exceeded.
The stress limits are given in Table 2 of the code which are:
0.75f _{y} for reinforcement in tension or compression. This is critical for most members in bending.
0.5f _{c}_{u} for concrete in compression with triangular stress distribution. This is critical for members in
bending with significant axial load or with heavy reinforcement.
0.38f _{c}_{u} for concrete in compression with uniform stress. This is critical for members in axial
compression.
3. Ultimate Limit State
To determine the moment of resistance of a member at failure by limit state analysis the following
assumptions are made:
a. The distribution of strain across any section is linear. This means that plane sections
before bending remain plane after bending, and the strain at any point is proportional to
its distance from the neutral axis.
b. The resistance of concrete in tension is ignored.
c. The relationship between the stress and strain in the reinforcement is as shown in Figure 2
of the code with γ _{m} = 1.15.
d. The relationship between the stress and strain in the concrete is as shown in Figure 1 of
the code with γ _{m} = 1.5. The strain in the concrete at the outermost fibre is taken as
0.0035. Alternatively the distribution of stress in the concrete at failure may be
represented by a uniform stress of 0.4f _{c}_{u} acting over the whole of the compression zone.
The deisgn formulae given in clause 5.3.2.3 of the code are based on a uniform compressive stress
of 0.4f _{c}_{u} for concrete and stresses of 0.87f _{y} in tension and 0.72f _{y} in compression for steel. The
steel stresses are the maximum values provided by the stressstrain curves, where 0.72f _{y} is a
simplification of the expression for steel in compresssion.
The design formulae are also based on a maximum depth of concrete in compression of 0.5d; this
ensures a strain ≥ 0.0035 in the tension reinforcement. For values of x > 0.5d the use of the
design stress of 0.87f _{y} in tension is invalid, the design becomes inefficient and the failure less
ductile.
For the singly reinforced rectangular section:
Taking moments about the centre of compression for the tensile force
M _{u} = (0.87f _{y} )A _{s} z
Taking moments about the centre of tension for the compressive force
M = (0.4f _{c}_{u} )bxz = (0.4f _{c}_{u} )bx(d  0.5x)
The maximum moment of resistance is obtained when x = 0.5d so substituting for x we get:
M _{u} = 0.15f _{c}_{u} bd ^{2}
The depth to the neutral axis depends upon the reinforcement provided and is obtained by
equating the forces:
(0.87f _{y} )A _{s} = (0.4f _{c}_{u} )bx
Rearranging and dividing both sides by d we get:
(x/d) = (2.2f _{y} A _{s} ) / (f _{c}_{u} bd)
Lever arm z = (d  0.5x) so substuting for x we get:
z = (1  [1.1f _{y} A _{s} ] / [f _{c}_{u} bd])d
The value of z is not to be taken greater than 0.95d.
For the doubly reinforced rectangular section:
Taking moments about the centre of tension for the compressive forces
M _{u} = 0.15f _{c}_{u} bd ^{2} + (0.72f _{y} )A' _{s} (d  d')
Equating the tensile and compressive forces
(0.87f _{y} )A _{s} = 0.2f _{c}_{u} bd + (0.72f _{y} )A' _{s}
These two equations are based on a value of d'/d ≤ 0.2, which ensures a strain ≥ 0.0035 x 0.6 =
0.0021 in the compression reinforcement. For values of d'/d > 0.2 the use of a design stress of
0.72f _{y} in compression becomes invalid.
4. Shear
The design rules for shear in beams are based on the results of tests carried out on beams with
and without shear reinforcement.
The results from the beams tested without shear reinforcement showed that for a constant
concrete strength and longitudinal steel percentage, the relationship between the ratio of the
bending moment at collapse (M _{c} ) to the calculated ultimate flexural moment (M _{u} ) and the ratio of
shear span (a _{v} ) to effective depth (d) is as shown below:
The diagram has four distinct regions, each of which has a different mode of failure.
Region (i) fails by crushing of a compression strut running from the load to the support.
Region (ii) fails by diagonal tension causing splitting along the line from the load to the support.
Region (iii) fails when a flexural crack develops into a shear crack.
Region (iv) fails in flexure.
The flexural failure in region (iv) is prevented by designing the beam for M _{u} in accordance with
Clause 5.3.2.3. The test results show that this is unsafe for regions (ii) and (iii) and M _{c} needs to be
controlled by considering the shear force.
Let the shear force at failure = V _{c} and the nominal shear stress v _{c} = V _{c} / bd then:
M _{c} = V _{c} a _{v} = v _{c} bda _{v}
The test results relationship with a _{v} /d can be reproduced by dividing both sides of the above
equation by bd ^{2} which gives:
M _{c} /bd ^{2} = v _{c} a _{v} /d
The dashed line is M _{u} /bd ^{2} which assumes flexural failure. The chain dotted line is constructed to
cut off the unsafe side of the graph; the slope of this line is v _{c} and is the allowable shear stress.
Values of v _{c} are given in Table 8 of the code; these values will ensure that the moment to cause
collapse will fall below the test values. It can be seen from Table 8 that the steel area A _{s} has a
more significant effect on the value of v _{c} than does the concrete strength.
When the shear stress v is greater than ξ _{s} v _{c} , as given in Table 7 of the code, then links need to be
designed. These are designed on the basis that the beam and links act as a pinjointed truss.
The links are designed to carry the shear in excess of that which can be carried by the concrete.
The horizontal tie force in the truss analogy has to be provided by the tension reinforcement, this
is in addition to that required to resist any bending effects and is determined from A _{s}_{a} ≥
V/{2(0.87f _{y} )} in clause 5.3.3.2.
The beam may fail by crushing of the compression struts regardless of the amount of shear
reinforcement. The maximum allowable shear stress is therefore limited to a value of
0.92√(f _{c}_{u} /1.5) as given in clause 5.3.3.1
Reinforced Concrete Deck Example to British Standards
Reinforced Concrete Deck Design to BS 5400 Part 4
Problem:
Design a simply supported reinforced concrete deck slab using a unit strip method. The deck carries a 100mm depth of surfacing, together with a nominal HA live load udl of 17.5 kN/m ^{2} and knife edge load of 33kN/m . The deck should also be designed to carry 30 units of HB load. The span of the deck is 12.0m centre to centre of bearings.
γ _{c}_{o}_{n}_{c}_{.} = 25kN/m ^{3} 30 units of HB also to be considered. Use C32/40 concrete to BS 8500. Use Grade B500B reinforcement to BS 4449.
BS 85001 cl. A.2.1 Table A.1
Exposure Class XD1 used for bridge deck soffits.
cl. A.3
Fixing tolerence for reinforcement Δ _{c} = 15mm for insitu concrete.
Table A.5
Nominal cover for C32/40 concrete = 45 + Δ _{c} = 60mm with maximum watercement ratio = 0.55 and minimum cement content of 320 kg/m ^{3}
Loading per metre width of deck (unit strip) (Note: The loading has been simplified to demonstrate the method of designing the slab (See BS 5400 Pt2, or BD 37/01 for full design loading).
Nominal Dead Loads :
deck slab = 25 × 0.65 × 1.0 = 16.3 kN/m surfacing = 24 × 0.1 × 1.0 = 2.4 kN/m Nominal Live Load :
HA = 17.5 × 1.0 + 33.0 = 17.5 kN/m(udl) + 33kN(kel) 30 units HB = 30 × 10 / 4 per wheel = 75 kN per wheel
Key: ^{#} It is usually assumed that there is local plasticity at the critical sections at Ultimate Limit State and the selfequilibrating stresses due to nonlinear temperature distribution can be ignored in combination loadings. (Ref:"Concrete bridge engineering:
performance and advances" by R.J.Cope).
Temperature Difference Effects Apply temperature differences given in BS 5400 Pt2 Fig.9 (Group 4) to a 1m wide deck section. Cl. 5.4.6  Coefficient of thermal expansion = 12 × 10 ^{}^{6} per °C. From BS 5400 Pt4 Table 3 : E _{c} = 31 kN/mm ^{2} for f _{c}_{u} = 40N/mm ^{2} Hence restrained temperature stresses per °C = 31 × 10 ^{3} × 12 × 10 ^{}^{6} = 0.372 N/mm ^{2}
Section Properties Area = 1000 × 650 = 0.65 × 10 ^{6} mm ^{2} Second Moment of Area = 1000 × 650 ^{3} / 12 = 22.9 × 10 ^{9} mm ^{4}
a) Positive temperature difference
Force F to restrain temperature strain:
0.372 × 10 ^{3} × [ 150 × ( 3.0 + 5.05 ) + (195 × 1.5) + (195 × 1.05)] × 10 ^{}^{3} = 634.2 kN
Taking moments about centroid of section to determine required moment M to restrain curvature due to temperature strain :
0.372 × 10 ^{3} × [150 × (3.0 × 250 + 5.05 × 275) + 175 × (0.3 × 87.5 + 1.35 × 116.7)  (20 ×
0.15 × 6.7)  (195 × 1.05 × 260)] × 10 ^{}^{6} = 111.5kNm
b) Reverse temperature difference Force F to restrain temperature strain :
 0.372 × 10 ^{3} × [ 130 × ( 1.8 + 2.5 + 1.5 + 1.9 ) + 163 × ( 0.9 + 0.75 )] × 10 ^{}^{3} =  472.4kN
Taking moments about centroid of section to determine required moment M to restrain curvature due to temperature strain :
 0.372 × 10 ^{3} × [130 × ( 1.8 × 260 + 2.5 × 282  1.5 × 260  1.9 × 282 ) + 163 × ( 0.9 × 141  0.75 × 141 )] × 10 ^{}^{6} = 13.34kNm
Note: Sign convention is compressive stresses are positive.
Dead + Superimposed Dead Loading (per metre width of deck) SLS = Serviceability Limit State ULS = Ultimate Limit State
Design SLS moment = ∑(γ _{f}_{L} × M) = [(1.0 × 16.3)+(1.2 × 2.4)] × 12 ^{2} / 8 = 345 kNm
Design ULS moment = γ _{f}_{3} × ∑(γ _{f}_{L} × M) = 1.1 × [{(1.15 × 16.3)+(1.75 × 2.4)} × 12 ^{2} / 8] = 454 kNm
Live Loading (per metre width of deck)
Nominal HA mid span moment = 17.5 × 12.0 ^{2} / 8 + 33.0 × 12.0 / 4 = 414kNm The maximum moment for the HB vehicle occurs at point X in the diagram below with the vehicle positioned as shown.
(CG = position of the centre of gravity of the three 75kN wheel loads) Nominal HB moment at X = 99.4 × 5.3  75 × 1.8 = 392kNm
Combination 1 Loading Design HA SLS moment = γ _{f}_{L} × M = 1.2 × 414 = 497 kNm Design HB SLS moment = γ _{f}_{L} × M = 1.1 × 392 = 431 kNm < 497 kNm ∴ HA critical Total Design SLS Moment (Dead + Live) = 345 + 497 = 842 kNm
Design HA ULS moment = γ _{f}_{3} × γ _{f}_{L} × M = 1.1 × 1.5 × 414 = 683 kNm Design HB ULS moment = γ _{f}_{3} × γ _{f}_{L} × M = 1.1 × 1.3 × 392 = 561 kNm < 683 kNm
∴ HA loading critical
Total Design ULS Moment (Dead + Live) = 454 + 683 = 1137 kNm
Combination 3 Loading Design HA SLS moment = γ _{f}_{L} × M = 1.0 × 414 = 414 kNm Design HB SLS moment = γ _{f}_{L} × M = 1.0 × 392 = 392 kNm <414 kNm ∴ HA loading critical Design SLS Moment (Dead + Live) = 345 + 414 = 759 kNm
Design HA ULS moment = γ _{f}_{3} × γ _{f}_{L} × M = 1.1 × 1.25 × 414 = 569 kNm Design HB ULS moment = γ _{f}_{3} × γ _{f}_{L} × M = 1.1 × 1.1 × 392 = 474 kNm < 569 kNm
∴ HA loading critical
Design ULS Moment (Dead + Live) = 454 + 569 = 1023 kNm
Ultimate Capacity of Deck Slab Ultimate Design Moment = 1137 kNm
BS 5400 Pt 4 cl. 5.1.2.1
It is usual to design reinforced concrete for the ultimate limit state and check for serviceability conditions.
cl. 5.4.2
Use clause 5.3.2 for the resistance moments in slabs.
cl. 5.3.2.3
Try 32mm dia. reinforcement at 125mm centres:
Nominal cover to reinforcement in deck soffit = 60mm
d = 650  60 32/2 = 574
A _{s} = Π16 ^{2} × 1000 / 125 = 6434mm ^{2} /m f _{y} = 500N/mm ^{2} f _{c}_{u} = 40N/mm ^{2}
z 
= [1  ({1.1f _{y} A _{s} }/{f _{c}_{u} bd})]d 
z 
= [1  ({1.1 × 500 × 6434}/{40 × 1000 × 574})]d = 0.85d < 0.95 d 
∴ 
z = 0.85 × 574 = 488mm 
M 
_{u}_{S}_{t}_{e}_{e}_{l} = 0.87f _{y} A _{s} z = 0.87 × 500 × 6434 × 488 × 10 ^{}^{6} = 1366 kNm/m 
M 
_{u}_{C}_{o}_{n}_{c}_{r}_{e}_{t}_{e} = 0.15f _{c}_{u} bd ^{2} = 0.15 × 40 × 1000 × 574 ^{2} × 10 ^{}^{6} = 1977 kNm/m > 1366 
∴ 
M _{u} = 1366 kNm/m > 1137kNm/m ∴ OK. 
Check Serviceability Limit State
Combination 1 SLS Design Moment = 842 kNm (345DL + 497LL)
Determine depth 'X' to neutral axis of cracked section:
cl. 4.3.2.1 Table 3
Youngs Modulus for concrete for short term loading = E _{c} = 31 kN/mm ^{2}
cl. 
4.3.2.2 

Youngs Modulus for steel reinforcement = E _{s} = 200 kN/mm ^{2} 

Case 1) When the bridge has just opened (when only a small amount of creep has occurred): 

Modular Ratio = E _{s} / E _{c} = 200 / 31 = 6.45 Taking first moments of area about the neutral axis: 

1000 
× X ^{2} / 2 = 6.45 × 6434 × (574  X) 

500X ^{2} + 41510X  23.83×10 ^{6} = 0 

X 
= 177 mm 

Second Moment of Area of cracked section: 

I _{x}_{x} = 1000×177 ^{3} / 3 + 6.45×6434×(574177) ^{2} = 8.39×10 ^{9} mm ^{4} 

Cl 
4.1.1.3 
Max compressive stress in concrete = 842×10 ^{6} × 177 / 8.39×10 ^{9} = 17.8 N/mm ^{2}
Table 2 

Allowable compressive stress = 0.5f _{c}_{u} = 20 N/mm ^{2} > 17.8 ∴ OK 

Case 2) When creep and shrinkage in the bridge are substantially complete: 

cl. 4.3.2.1(b) 
Youngs Modulus for concrete for long term loading = E _{c} /2 = 15.5 kN/mm ^{2} Hence Modified E _{c} for (345DL + 497LL) = (345 × 15.5 + 497 × 31) / 842 = 24.65 kN/mm ^{2}
cl. 
4.3.2.2 

Youngs Modulus for steel reinforcement = E _{s} = 200 kN/mm ^{2} Modular Ratio = E _{s} / E _{c} = 200 / 24.65 = 8.1 Taking first moments of area about the neutral axis: 

1000 
× X ^{2} / 2 = 8.1 × 6434 × (574  X) 

500X ^{2} + 52115X  30×10 ^{6} = 0 

X 
= 198 mm 

Second Moment of Area of cracked section: 

I _{x}_{x} = 1000×198 ^{3} / 3 + 8.1×6434×(574198) ^{2} = 9.96×10 ^{9} mm ^{4} 

Cl 
4.1.1.3 
Max compressive stress in concrete = 842×10 ^{6} × 198 / 9.96×10 ^{9} = 16.7 N/mm ^{2}
Table 2
Allowable compressive stress = 0.5f _{c}_{u} = 20 N/mm ^{2} > 16.7 ∴ OK Tensile stress in reinforcement = 842×10 ^{6} × (574  198) × 8.1 / 9.96×10 ^{9} = 257.5 N/mm ^{2}
Table 2
Allowable tensile stress = 0.75f _{y} = 375 N/mm ^{2} > 257.5 ∴ OK
Crack Control:
Strain in reinforcement = ∈ _{1} = 257.5 / 200000 = 0.00129
Table 13
Notional surface for crack calculation = 35mm cover to reinforcement
a _{c}_{r} = √[(125/2) ^{2} + (16+35) ^{2} ]  16 = 65 Allow for stiffening effect of concrete:
5.8.8.2
eqn 25
∈ _{m} = ∈ _{1}  [{3.8b _{t} h(a'd _{c} )} / {∈ _{s} A _{s} (hd _{c} )}] × [(1M _{q} /M _{g} )×10 ^{}^{9} ] ∈ _{m} = ∈ _{1}  [{3.8×1000×650×(625  198)} / {0.00129×6434×(650  198)}] × [(1  497/345)×10 ^{}^{9} ] ∈ _{m} = ∈ _{1}  [0.00012] but not greater than ∈ _{1} Hence no stiffening effect ∈ _{m} = ∈ _{1} = 0.00129 × (625  198) / (574  198) = 0.00146 Design crack width = 3 × 65 × 0.00146 / [1 + 2 × (65  35) / (650  198)] = 0.25 mm
eqn 24
Design crack width = 3a _{c}_{r} ∈ _{m} / [1+2(a _{c}_{r} c _{n}_{o}_{m} )/(hd _{c} )]
Maximum allowable crack width = 0.25 mm ∴ OK
Table 1
Combination 3 SLS Design Moment = 759 kNm (345DL + 414LL)
Determine depth 'X' to neutral axis of cracked section:
cl. 4.3.2.1 Table 3
Youngs Modulus for concrete for short term loading = E _{c} = 31 kN/mm ^{2}
cl. 4.3.2.1(b)
Youngs Modulus for concrete for long term loading = E _{c} /2 = 15.5 kN/mm ^{2} Hence Modified E _{c} for (345DL + 414LL) = (345 × 15.5 + 414 × 31) / 759 = 23.95 kN/mm ^{2}
cl. 4.3.2.2
Youngs Modulus for steel reinforcement = E _{s} = 200 kN/mm ^{2} Modular Ratio = E _{s} / E _{c} = 200 / 23.95 = 8.35 Taking first moments of area about the neutral axis:
1000 × X ^{2} / 2 = 8.35 × 6434 × (574  X) 500X ^{2} + 53724X  30.84×10 ^{6} X = 200 mm
Second Moment of Area of cracked section:
I _{x}_{x} = 1000×200 ^{3} / 3 + 8.35×6434×(574200) ^{2} = 10.18×10 ^{9} mm ^{4} >
Cl 4.1.1.3
Max compressive bending stress in concrete = 759×10 ^{6} × 200 / 10.18×10 ^{9} = 14.9 N/mm ^{2}
Max compressive stress due to positive temperature difference = γ _{f}_{L} × 2.31 = 0.8 × 2.31
= 1.8 N/mm ^{2}
Total compressive stress in concrete = 14.9 + 1.8 = 16.7 N/mm ^{2}
Table 2
Allowable compressive stress = 0.5f _{c}_{u} = 20 N/mm ^{2} > 16.7 ∴ OK Tensile stress in reinforcement = 759×10 ^{6} × (574  200) × 8.35 / 10.18×10 ^{9} = 232.8 N/mm ^{2} Tensile stress due to reverse temperature difference = γ _{f}_{L} × 8.35×[{(1.43+0.06)×(1306016)/130}0.06] = 0.8 × 4.7 = 3.8 N/mm ^{2} Total tensile stress in reinforcement = 232.8 + 3.8 = 237 N/mm ^{2}
Table 2 

Allowable tensile stress = 0.75f _{y} = 375 N/mm ^{2} > 237 ∴ OK 

Hence B32 bars at 125 centres are adequate for the mid span. 

Shear Design 

Shear is designed for ultimate limit state. 

cl. 5.4.4 
V = shear force due to ultimate loads.
Maximum Dead Load V = γ _{f}_{3} × 12 × (1.15 × 16.3 + 1.75 × 2.4) / 2
Maximum Dead Load V = 1.1 × 137.7 kN = 151 kN
Determine shear effects at distance d away from the support. Try 32mm dia. bars at 125 c/c : d = 574mm
Maximum HA V = γ _{f}_{3} × 1.5 × (12 × 17.5 / 2 + 33 × 11.426 / 12  17.5 × 0.574) Maximum HA V = 1.1 × 190 kN = 209 kN
Maximum HB V = γ _{f}_{3} × 1.3 × 75 × (11.426 + 9.626 + 3.626 + 1.826) / 12 Maximum HB V = 1.1 × 215 kN = 237 kN > 209 ∴ HB loading critical Maximum V = 151 + 237 = 388 kN Shear stress = V / bd = 388×10 ^{3} / (1000 × 574) = 0.68 N/mm ^{2}
Design for no shear reinforcement condition then ξ _{s} v _{c} > 0.68 N/mm ^{2}
Table 9
ξ _{s} = (500/d) ^{1}^{/}^{4} = (500/574) ^{1}^{/}^{4} = 0.97
Table 8
v _{c} = 0.27/γ _{m} (100A _{s} /b _{w} d) ^{1}^{/}^{3} (f _{c}_{u} ) ^{1}^{/}^{3} v _{c} = (0.27 / 1.25) × [100 × 6434 / (1000 × 574)] ^{1}^{/}^{3} × (40) ^{1}^{/}^{3} = 0.77 N/mm ^{2} ξ _{s} v√ = 0.97 × 0.77 = 0.75 N/mm ^{2} > 0.68 ∴ OK
cl 5.3.3.1
Check that the maximum allowable shear stress is not exceeded:
Maximum allowable shear stress = 0.75√f _{c}_{u} or 4.75 N/mm ^{2} 0.75√f _{c}_{u} = 0.75√40 = 4.74 > 0.68 ∴ OK
Hence B32 bars at 125 centres are adequate for shear at the ends of the deck.
Note: Intermediate sections between mid span and the ends of the deck will have a smaller moment than at mid span and a small shear than at the ends of the deck. These sections need to be checked to determine where the reinforcement may be reduced to B25 at 125c/c.
cl. 5.8.4.1
Minimum area of reinforcement = 0.15% of b _{a} d = 0.15 × 1000 × 574 / 100 = 861 mm ^{2} /m ∴ use B12 bars at 125 centres (A _{s} = 905 mm ^{2} /m) for distribution reinforcement.
Prestressed Concrete
Since concrete is weak in tension in normal reinforced concrete construction cracks develop in the
tension zone
at working loads and therefore all concrete in tension is ignored in design.
Prestressing involves inducing compressive stresses in the zone which will tend to become tensile
under
external loads. This compressive stress neutralizes the tensile stress so that no resultant tension
exists, (or
only very small values, within the tensile strength of the concrete). Cracking is therefore
eliminated under
working load and all of the concrete may be assumed effective in carrying load. Therefore lighter
sections may
be used to carry a given bending moment, and prestressed concrete may be used over much
longer spans than
reinforced concrete.
The prestressing force also reduces the magnitude of the principal tensile stress in the web so
that
thinwebbed I  sections may be used without the risk of diagonal tension failures and with further
savings in selfweight.
The prestressing force has to be produced by a high tensile steel, and it is necessary to use high
quality concrete to resist the higher compressive stresses that are developed.
There are two methods of prestressing concrete:
1) Precast Pretensioned
2) Precast Posttensioned
Both methods involve tensioning cables inside a concrete beam and then anchoring the stressed
cables to the concrete.
1) Pretensioned Beam Construction
Stage 1
Tendons and reinforcement are positioned in the beam mould.
Stage 2
Tendons are stressed to about 70% of their ultimate strength.
Stage 3
Concrete is cast into the beam mould and allowed to cure to the required initial strength.
Stage 4
When the concrete has cured the stressing force is released and the tendons anchor themselves in
the concrete.
Stage 5
Loss of prestress due to elastic deformation of the concrete and relaxation of the steel need to be
considered. Further loss of prestress will also occur due to shrinkage and creep of the concrete; as
these are time related then the effects will need to be considered both at short term and long
term.
2) Posttensioned Beam Construction
Stage 1
Cable ducts and reinforcement are positioned in the beam mould. The ducts are usually raised
towards the neutral axis at the ends to reduce the eccentricity of the stressing force
Stage 2
Concrete is cast into the beam mould and allowed to cure to the required initial strength.
Stage 3
Tendons are threaded through the cable ducts and tensioned to about 70% of their ultimate
strength. The diagram above indicates jacking from both ends of the beam.
Stage 4
a) Wedges are inserted into the end anchorages,
b) the tensioning force on the tendons is released. Grout is then pumped into the ducts to protect
the tendons.
Stage 5
Loss of prestress due to elastic deformation of the concrete and relaxation of the steel need to be
considered. Further loss of prestress will also occur due to shrinkage and creep of the concrete; as
these are time related then the effects will need to be considered both at short term and long
term.
Loss of Prestress
Total losses in prestress can amount to about 30% of the initial tensioning stress.
Prestressed Concrete Beam Example to British Standards
Prestressed Concrete Beam Design to BS 5400 Part 4
Problem:
Design a simply supported prestressed concrete Y beam which carries a 150mm thick concrete slab and 100mm of surfacing, together with a nominal live load udl of 10.0 kN/m ^{2} and kel of 33kN/m . The span of the beam is 24.0m centre to centre of bearings and the beams are spaced at 1.0m intervals.
γ _{c}_{o}_{n}_{c}_{.} = 24kN/m ^{3} 25 units of HB to be considered at SLS for load combination 1 only (BS 5400 Pt4 Cl.
4.2.2)
Loading per beam (at 1.0m c/c) Note: The loading has been simplified to demonstrate the method of designing the beam (See BS 5400 Pt2, or DB 37/01 for full design loading)
Nominal Dead Loads :
slab = 24 × 0.15 × 1.0 = 3.6 kN/m beam = say Y5 beam = 10.78 kN/m surfacing = 24 × 0.1 × 1.0 = 2.4 kN/m
Nominal Live Load :
HA = 10 × 1.0 + 33.0 = 10 kN/m + 33kN 25 units HB = 25 × 10 / 4 per wheel = 62.5 kN per wheel
BS 5400 Pt. 4
Section Properties
cl.7.4.1
Modular ratio effect for different concrete strengths between beam and slab may be ignored.
Temperature Difference Effects Apply temperature differences given in BS 5400 Pt2 Fig.9 (Group 4)to a simplified beam section. Cl. 5.4.6  Coefficient of thermal expansion = 12 × 10 ^{}^{6} per °C. From BS 5400 Pt4 Table 3 : E _{c} = 34 kN/mm ^{2} for f _{c}_{u} = 50N/mm ^{2} Hence restrained temperature stresses per °C = 34 × 10 ^{3} × 12 × 10 ^{}^{6} = 0.408 N/mm ^{2}
a) Positive temperature difference
Force F to restrain temperature strain :
0.408 × 1000 × [ 150 × ( 3.0 + 5.25 ) ] × 10 ^{}^{3} + 0.408 × ( 300 × 250 × 1.5 + 750 × 200 ×
1.25 ) × 10 ^{}^{3} = 504.9 + 122.4 = 627.3 kN
Moment M about centroid of section to restrain curvature due to temperature strain :
0.408 × 1000 × [ 150 × ( 3.0 × 502 + 5.25 × 527 ) ] × 10 ^{}^{6} + 0.408 × ( 300 × 250 × 1.5 ×
344  750 × 200 × 1.25 × 556 ) × 10 ^{}^{6} = 261.5  26.7 = 234.8 kNm
b) Reverse temperature difference
Force F to restrain temperature strain :
 0.408 × [ 1000 × 150 × ( 3.6 + 2.3 ) + 300 × 90 × ( 0.9 + 1.35 ) ] × 10 ^{}^{3}
 0.408 × 300 × ( 200 × 0.45 + 150 × 0.45 ) × 10 ^{}^{3}
 0.408 × 750 × [ 50 × ( 0.9 + 0.15 ) + 240 × ( 1.2 + 2.6 ) ] × 10 ^{}^{3} =  385.9  19.3  295.1 =
 700.3 kN Moment M about centroid of section to restrain curvature due to temperature strain :
 
0.408 × [ 150000 × ( 3.6 × 502 + 2.3 × 527 ) + 27000 × ( 0.9 × 382 + 1.35 × 397 ) ] × 10 ^{} 
6 

 
0.408 × 300 × ( 200 × 0.45 × 270  150 × 0.45 × 283 ) × 10 ^{}^{6} 
+ 0.408 × 750 × [ 50 × ( 0.9 × 358 + 0.15 × 366 ) + 240 × ( 1.2 × 503 + 2.6 × 543 ) ] × 10 ^{}^{6} =  194.5  0.6 + 153.8 =  41.3 kNm
Differential Shrinkage Effects
BS 5400 Pt.4 cl.7.4.3.4
Use cl.6.7.2.4 Table 29 :
Total shrinkage of insitu concrete = 300 × 10 ^{}^{6} Assume that 2/3 of the total shrinkage of the precast concrete takes place before the deck slab is cast and that the residual shrinkage is 100 × 10 ^{}^{6} , hence the differential shrinkage is 200 × 10 ^{}^{6}
BS 5400 Pt.4 cl.7.4.3.5
Force to restrain differential shrinkage : F =  ε _{d}_{i}_{f}_{f} × E _{c}_{f} × A _{c}_{f} × φ F = 200 × 10 ^{}^{6} × 34 × 1000 × 150 × 0.43 = 439 kN Eccentricity a _{c}_{e}_{n}_{t} = 502mm Restraint moment M _{c}_{s} = 439 × 0.502 = 220.4 kNm
Selfweight of beam and weight of deck slab is supported by the beam. When the deck slab concrete has cured then any further loading (superimposed and live loads) is supported by the composite section of the beam and slab.
Dead Loading (beam and slab) Total load for serviceability limit state = (1.0 × 3.6)+(1.0 × 10.78) = 14.4kN/m Design serviceability moment = 14.4 × 24 ^{2} / 8 = 1037 kNm
Combination 1 Loading Super. & HA live load for SLS:
= [(1.2 × 2.4)+(1.2 × 10)]udl & [(1.2 × 33)]kel
= (2.88 + 12.0)udl & 39.6kel
= 14.9 kN/m & 39.6kN
Super. & HB live load for SLS:
= 2.88 & 4 wheels @ 1.1 × 62.5
= 2.9 kN/m & 4 wheels @ 68.75 kN
Total load for ultimate limit state:
= [(1.15 × 3.6)+(1.15 × 10.78)+(1.75 × 2.4)+(1.5 × 10)]udl & [(1.5 × 33)]kel
= (4.14 + 12.40 + 4.20 + 15.0)udl & 49.5kel
=
35.7 kN/m & 49.5kN
HA Design serviceability moment:
= 14.9 × 24.0 ^{2} / 8 + 39.6 × 24 / 4
= 1310 kNm
25 units HB Design SLS moment:
= 2.9 × 24.0 ^{2} / 8 + 982.3(from grillage analysis)
= 1191.1 kNm
Design ultimate moment:
= 35.7 × 24.0 ^{2} / 8 + 49.5 × 24 / 4
= 2867 kNm
Combination 3 Loading Super. & HA live load for SLS:
= [(1.2 × 2.4)+(1.0 × 10)]udl & [(1.0 × 33)]kel
= (2.88 + 10.0)udl & 33kel
= 12.9 kN/m & 33kN
Total load for ultimate limit state:
= [(1.15 × 3.6)+(1.15 × 10.78)+(1.75 × 2.4)+(1.25 × 10)]udl & [(1.25 × 33)]kel
= (4.14 + 12.40 + 4.20 + 12.5)udl & 41.3kel
= 33.2 kN/m & 41.3kN
Design serviceability moment:
= 12.9 × 24.0 ^{2} / 8 + 33 × 24 / 4
= 1127 kNm
Allowable stresses in precast concrete At transfer :
cl.6.3.2.2 b) 

Compression ( Table 23 ) 0.5f _{c}_{i} (≤ 0.4f _{c}_{u} ) = 20 N/mm ^{2} max. 

cl.6.3.2.4 b) 

Tension = 1.0 N/mm ^{2} 

At serviceability limit state : 

cl.7.4.3.2 
Compression (1.25 × Table 22) 1.25 × 0.4f _{c}_{u} = 25 N/mm ^{2} Tension = 0 N/mm ^{2} (class 1) & 3.2 N/mm ^{2} (class 2  Table 24)
Prestressing Force and Eccentricity Using straight, fully bonded tendons (constant force and eccentricity). Allow for 20% loss of prestress after transfer. Initial prestress at Level 1 to satisfy class 2 requirement for SLS (Comb. 3). Stress at transfer = ( 17.67  3.2 ) / 0.8 = 18.1 N/mm ^{2} (use allowable stress of 20 N/mm ^{2} )
The critical section at transfer occurs at the end of the transmission zone. The
moment due to the self weight at this section is near zero and initial stress conditions
are:
P/A + Pe/Z _{l}_{e}_{v}_{e}_{l} _{1} = 20 P/A  Pe/Z _{l}_{e}_{v}_{e}_{l} _{2} >=  1.0
(eqn. 1)
(eqn. 2)
(eqn. 1) × Z _{l}_{e}_{v}_{e}_{l} _{1} + (eqn. 2) × Z _{l}_{e}_{v}_{e}_{l} _{2} gives :
P 
>= A × (20 × Z level 1  1.0 × Z level 2 ) / (Z level 1 + Z level 2 ) 
P 
= 449.22 × 10 ^{3} × ( 20 × 116.02  89.066) / ( 116.02 + 89.066) × 10 ^{}^{3} = 4888 kN 
Allow 10% for loss of force before and during transfer, then the initial force P _{o} = 4888 / 0.9 = 5431kN
Using 15.2mm class 2 relaxation standard strand at maximum initial force of 174kN (0.75 × P _{u} ) Area of tendon = 139mm ^{2} Nominal tensile strength = f _{p}_{u} =1670 N/mm ^{2}
Hence 32 tendons required.
Initial force Po = 32 × 174 = 5568 kN
P = 0.9 × 5568 = 5011 kN
Substituting P = 5011 kN in (eqn. 2)
e 
<= Z _{l}_{e}_{v}_{e}_{l} _{2} / A + Z _{l}_{e}_{v}_{e}_{l} _{2} / P = (89.066 × 10 ^{6} / 449.22 × 10 ^{3} ) + (89.066 × 10 ^{6} / 5011 × 10 ^{3} ) 
e 
= 198 + 18 = 216 mm 
Arrange 32 tendons symmetrically about the YY axis to achieve an eccentricity of about 216mm.
cl. 6.7.2.3
P 
= 0.99 P _{o} / [ 1 + E _{s} × (A _{p}_{s} / A) × (1 + A × e ^{2} / I) / E _{c}_{i} ] 
P 
= 0.99 × Po / [ 1 + 196 × ( 32 × 139 / 449220) × (1 + 449220 × 219 ^{2} / 52.905 × 10 ^{9} ) / 31 
] 

P 
= 0.91 Po = 0.91 × 5568 = 5067 kN 
Initial stresses due to prestress at end of transmission zone :
Level 1
(20.89 N/mm ^{2} is slightly greater than the allowable of 20 N/mm ^{2} so a number of
tendons will need to be debonded near the ends of the beam).
Level 2
Moment due to self weight of beam at mid span = 10.78 × 24 ^{2} / 8 = 776.2 kNm
: P / A × ( 1 + A × e / Z _{l}_{e}_{v}_{e}_{l} _{1} ) = 11.3 × ( 1 + 219 / 258 ) = 20.89 N/mm ^{2}
: P / A × ( 1  A × e / Z _{l}_{e}_{v}_{e}_{l} _{2} ) = 11.3 × ( 1  219 / 198 ) =  1.20 N/mm ^{2}
Stress due to self weight of beam at mid span :
@ Level 1 =  776.2 / 116.02 =  6.69 N/mm ^{2}
@ Level 2 = 776.2 / 89.066 = 8.71 N/mm ^{2}
Initial stresses at mid span :
cl. 
6.7.2.5 

Allowing for 2% relaxation loss in steel after transfer, concrete shrinkage ε _{c}_{s} = 300 × 10 ^{}^{6} and concrete specific creep c _{t} = 1.03 × 48 × 10 ^{}^{6} per N/mm ^{2} Loss of force after transfer due to : 

cl. 
6.7.2.2 

Steel relaxation = 0.02 × 5568 = 111 

cl. 
6.7.2.4 

Concrete shrinkage = (ε _{c}_{s} × E _{s} × A _{p}_{s} ) = 300 × 10 ^{}^{6} × 196 × 32 × 139 = 262 

cl. 
6.7.2.5 
Concrete creep = ( c _{t} ×
Total Loss = 111 + 262 + 550 = 923 kN Final force after all loss of prestress = P _{e} = 5067  923 = 4144 kN (P _{e} /P = 0.82) Final stresses due to prestress after all loss of prestress at :
Level 1 f _{1}_{,}_{0}_{.}_{8}_{2}_{P} = 0.82 × 20.89 = 17.08 N/mm ^{2} Level 2 f _{2}_{,}_{0}_{.}_{8}_{2}_{P} = 0.82 ×  1.20 =  0.98 N/mm ^{2}
f _{c}_{o} × E _{s} × A _{p}_{s} ) = 1.03 × 48 × 10 ^{}^{6} × 12.76 × 196 × 32 × 139 = 550
Combined stresses in final condition for worst effects of design loads, differential shrinkage and temperature difference :
Level 1, combination 1 HB : f = 17.08  16.71 = 0.37 N/mm ^{2} (> 0 hence O.K.) Level 1, combination 3 : f = 17.08  17.67 =  0.59 N/mm ^{2} (>  3.2 hence O.K.) Level 2, combination 1 : f =  0.98 + 1037 / 89.066 + 1310 / 242.424 + 1.64 = 17.71 (< 25 O.K.) Level 3. combination 3 : f = (1127 / 179.402) + (0.8 × 3.15) = 8.8 N/mm ^{2} (< 25 O.K.)
Ultimate Capacity of Beam and Deck Slab (Composite Section)
Ultimate Design Moment = γ _{f}_{3} × M = 1.1 × 2867 = 3154 kNm
cl. 6.3.3
Only steel in the tension zone is to be considered :
Centroid of tendons in tension zone = (6×60 + 10×110 + 8×160 + 4×260) / 28 = 135mm Effective depth from Level 3 = 1200  135 = 1065mm Assume that the maximum design stress is developed in the tendons, then :
Tensile force in tendons Fp = 0.87 × 28 × 139 × 1670 × 103 = 5655 kN
Compressive force in concrete flange :
F _{f} = 0.4 × 40 × 1000 × 150 × 10 ^{}^{3} = 2400 kN Let X = depth to neutral axis.
Compressive force in concrete web :
F _{w} = 0.4 × 50 × [393  (393  200) × (X  150) / (671 × 2)] × (X  150) × 10 ^{}^{3} F _{w} = ( 2.876X ^{2} + 8722.84X  1243717) × 10 ^{}^{3} Equating forces to obtain X :
5655 = 2400 + ( 2.876× ^{2} + 8722.84X  1243717) × 10 ^{}^{3} X = 659 mm
Stress in tendon after losses = f _{p}_{e} = 4144 × 10 ^{3} / (32 × 139) = 932 N/mm ^{2} Prestrain ε _{p}_{e} = f _{p}_{e} / E _{s} = 932 / 200 × 10 ^{3} = 0.0047
Determine depth to neutral axis by an iterative strain compatibility analysis Try X = 659 mm as an initial estimate Width of web at this depth = 247mm
ε _{p}_{b}_{6} = ε _{6} + ε _{p}_{e} = 459 × 0.0035 / 659 + 0.0047 = 0.0022 ε _{p}_{b}_{5} = ε _{5} + ε _{p}_{e} = 359 * 0.0035 / 659 + 0.0047 = 0.0028 ε _{p}_{b}_{4} = ε _{4} + ε _{p}_{e} = 281 * 0.0035 / 659 + 0.0047 = 0.0062
ε _{p}_{b}_{3} = ε _{3} + ε _{p}_{e} = 381 * 0.0035 / 659 + 0.0047 = 0.0067 ε _{p}_{b}_{2} = ε _{2} + ε _{p}_{e} = 431 * 0.0035 / 659 + 0.0047 = 0.0069 ε _{p}_{b}_{1} = ε _{1} + ε _{p}_{e} = 481 * 0.0035 / 659 + 0.0047 = 0.0072
f _{p}_{b}_{6} = 0.0022 × 200 × 10 ^{3} = 444 N/mm ^{2} f _{p}_{b}_{5} = 0.0028 × 200 × 10 ^{3} = 551 N/mm ^{2} f _{p}_{b}_{4} = 1162 + 290 × (0.0062  0.0058) / 0.0065 = 1178 N/mm ^{2} f _{p}_{b}_{3} = 1162 + 290 × (0.0067  0.0058) / 0.0065 = 1201 N/mm ^{2} f _{p}_{b}_{2} = 1162 + 290 × (0.0069  0.0058) / 0.0065 = 1213 N/mm ^{2} f _{p}_{b}_{1} = 1162 + 290 × (0.0072  0.0058) / 0.0065 = 1225 N/mm ^{2} Tensile force in tendons :
F _{p}_{6} = 2 × 139 × 444 × 10 ^{}^{3}
F _{p}_{5} = 2 × 139 × 551 × 10 ^{}^{3}
F _{p}_{4} = 4 × 139 × 1178 × 10 ^{}^{3}
F _{p}_{3} = 8 × 139 × 1201 × 10 ^{}^{3}
F _{p}_{2} = 10 × 139 × 1213 × 10 ^{}^{3}
F _{p}_{1} = 6 × 139 × 1225 × 10 ^{}^{3}
F _{t} = ∑ F _{p}_{1} _{t}_{o} _{6} = 4976 kN
= 124
= 153
= 655
= 1336
= 1686
= 1022
Compressive force in concrete :
F _{f} = 0.4 × 40 × 1000 × 150 × 10 ^{}^{3} = 2400 F _{w} = 0.4 × 50 × 0.5 × (393 + 247) × (659  150) × 10 ^{}^{3} = 3258 F _{c} = F _{f} + F _{w} = 5658 kN Fc > Ft therefore reduce depth to neutral axis and repeat the calculations. Using a depth of 565mm will achieve equilibrium. The following forces are obtained :
F _{p}_{6} = 134
F _{f} = 2400 F _{p}_{5} = 168
F _{w} = 2765 F _{p}_{4} = 675
F _{c} = 5165 F _{p}_{3} = 1382 F _{p}_{2} = 1746 F _{p}_{1} = 1060 F _{t} = 5165
Taking Moments about the neutral axis :
M _{F}_{p}_{6} = 134 × 0.365 =
49 

M _{F}_{p}_{5} = 168 × 0.265 = 

45 

M _{F}_{p}_{4} = 675 × 0.375 = 

253 

M _{F}_{p}_{3} = 1382 × 0.475 = 

656 

M _{F}_{p}_{2} = 1746 × 0.525 = 

917 

M _{F}_{p}_{1} = 1060 × 0.575 = 

610 

M _{F}_{f} = 2400 × 0.49 = 

1176 

M _{F}_{w} = 3258 × 0.207 = 

674 
M _{u} = ∑ M _{F}_{p}_{1} _{t}_{o} _{6} + M _{F}_{f} + M _{F}_{w} = 4192 kNm > 3154 kNm hence O.K.
cl. 6.3.3.1
Mu / M = 4192 / 3154 = 1.33 ( > 1.15 ) hence strain in outermost tendon O.K.
cl. 6.3.4
The Shear Resistance of the beam needs to be determined in accordance with clause 6.3.4. and compared with the ultimate shear load at critical sections.
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