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Q1 ) A Hypothetical semiconductor has and intrinsic carrier concentration of 2*106/m3 at T=300k.

The effective conduction and valence band density of States at T=300K are Nc=Nv=2*1025/m3. What is
the band gap energy Eg in eV of this material. If the semiconductor is doped with Nd =1*1016/cm3. What
are the equilibrium hole and electron concentration at 300K? If the same piece of semiconductor
already having Nd=1*1016/cm3 is also doped with Na = 2*1016/cm3 .what are the new equilibrium
electron and hole concentration at 300K.

Soln :

a)

Given : T = 300K, ni = 2*106 /m3 , Nc=Nv=2*1025/m3 .


NC NV
Eg = KT ln( )
ni 2

4 *1050
Eg = 0.02586 * ln( )
4 *1012

Eg = 2.26eV

b)

As we see ND >> ni2 , we can consider no = ND

Hence, no = 1*1022/m3
4 * 1012
Taking , po = ni2 / no = 1022

po = 4*10-10 /m3

c)

For compensated doping we can write as :

n = ni2 / (NA-ND)

We have : ND =1*1022/m3 ; NA =2*1022/m3

no = (4*1012) / (1*1022)
no = 4*10-10 /m3

Now , po = NA-ND

po = 1*1022 /m3b

Q2 ) Determine EFn and EFp, with respect to the bottom of the conduction band and top of the valence
band,respectively, if a slab of N-type silicon (Nd = 1016 cm-3 ) is illuminated so that the steady-state
concentration of the additional electron-hole pairs is δn = 2 x 1016 cm-3. What is the difference between
quasi-Fermi levels?

Soln:

1) Before Illumination :

n = ND = 1016 cm-3 = Nc e ( E  E c F ) / KT
……(1)

EC-EF= kt * ln( ) = 0.026 *ln ( )= 0.206eV

EF is below EC by 0.206 eV

p= = = 22.5* cm-3

p = 22.5* cm-3 = Nv e  ( E F
 E V ) / KT
……(2)

EF-EV = kt * ln( ) = 0.026 *ln ( )= 0.18 eV

EF is above by 0.18 eV

2) After illumination

n= no + δn =Nd + δn = 3*1016

using equation (1) , We have


3*1016= Nc e  ( E c
 E F ) / KT
n

EC-EFn = kt * ln( ) = 0.026 *ln ( ) = 0.177eV

P =Po + δn = 22.5* + 2*1016 = 2*1016 cm-3

using equation (2) , We have

2*1016 = = Nv e  ( E F
 E V ) / KT

EFp - EV = kT * ln( )
= 0.026 *ln ( )

= 0.1625 eV

The difference between the Quasi Fermi level can be determined as :

Eg =2*kT*ln

= 2*0.0256* ln

= 2.13 eV

The Difference between the Quasi Fermi level is =

2.13-0.177-0.125= 1.825eV

Q3 ) Assume Fermi energy level for a particular material is 6.25 eV and the electrons in this material
follows the fermi-dirac distribution function. Calculate the temperature at which there is 1 %
probability that a state 0.30 eV below the fermi energy level will not contain an electron.

Soln :
Given data , =1% = 0.3eV , k=
We know, Probability of the state energy E begin occupied by the electron is given by

= so,

0.01= → 0.01( ) =1

= 100 → = 99

Taking ln on both sides :

= ln(99) = 4.595 ie = 0.0652

Thus , T= *1.69*10-19 = 765 ° k

Q4 ) Select and answer for each of the following

a) what is the value of Fermi Dirac function at EF

b) what is the probability of finding a hole at EF

c) what is the probability of finding an electron at EV at room temperature


d) what is the probability of finding and hole at EV at room temperature

e) what is the probability of finding an electron and hole at EC and EV at 0k

Soln:

a) what is the value of Fermi Dirac function at EF


1
Ans : Fermi Dirac function f(E)  E -E F
1 e KT

At E=EF ; E-EF = 0

Hence f(E) = 0.5

b) what is the probability of finding a hole at EF

Ans : The probability of finding a hole at EF is 0.

c) what is the probability of finding an electron at EV at room temperature

Ans : At room temperature there is no excitation energy for the


electrons in valance band to move to conduction band hence the probability of finding an
electron at EV at room temperature is 1

d) what is the probability of finding an hole at EV at room temperature

Ans : At room temperature there is no excitation energy for the electrons


in valance band to move to conduction band hence the probability of finding a hole at EV at
room temperature is 0
e) what is the probability of finding an electron and hole at EC and EV at 0k

Ans : At EC and EV considering 0K time the Fermi dirac function can


yield contracdictory values depending upon the practical considerations on that time. Thus
its quite unpredictable and hence the probability as a whole is said to be between 0 and 1.

Q. 5) A P-type has a resistivity of 0.5 ῼ. Assume µn = 1450 cm2/V.s, µp = 500 cm2/V.s


Find the following:
a) The hole and electron concentrations.
b) The maximum change in resistivity caused by a flash of light, if the light creates 2 x 1016 additional
electron-hole pairs/cm3

Soln: Given ρ = 0.5 ῼ , µn = 1450 cm2/V.s, µp = 500 cm2/V.s

a) We know that

σ = = =2
Now ,
σ = qnoµn + qpoµp

σ = qpoµp , for p type we can neglect the n component considerations :

2 = 1.6 × 10-19 × p × 500

po =

= 2.5 × 1016 cm-3

We have :

n o p o = n i2
no =

= 9000 cm-3

no = 9000 cm-3
po = 2.5 × 1016 cm-3

b) Now ,
δn = δp = 2 × 1016 cm-3

n = no + δn
= 9000 + 2 × 1016
= 2 × 1016 cm-3

p = po + δp
= 2.5 × 1016 + 2 × 1016
= 4.5 × 1016 cm-3

Resistivity :

ρ, = 1/(qnµn + qpµp)

= 0.1213 ῼ-m

Percentage change in resistivity :

i   f
%Δρ= * 100
i
0.5  0.1213
= * 100
0.5

Δ ρ = 75.74 %

Q. 6) Calculate the built-in voltage of a junction in which the p and n region are doped equally with
1016atoms/cm3. Assume ni = 1.5x1010/cm3. With the terminals left open, what is the width of the
depletion region, and how far does it extend into the p and n region. If the cross-sectional area of the
junction is 100 µm2, find the magnitude of the charge stored on either side of the junction.

Soln
Given
NA= NA = 1016 atoms/cm3
ni = 1.5x1010/cm3
A = 100 µm2

For built in potential we have :

ɸbi = ln

= 0.026 ln

= 0.697 V

Width of the depletion layer :

Wdep = √

=√

= 4.301 x10-5 cm

= 0.43 µm

Calculation of Xn and Xp

xn = √

= √

= 3.041 x10-5 cm

= 0.30 µm

xn =
=

= 2.101 x 10-5 cm

= 0.21 µm

For NA= ND We can approx. consider :


xn = xp = 0.21 µm

Thus the charge can be calculated as :

Qj = q xn A ND

= 1.6 * 10-19 * 0.21× 10-6 * 10-2 * 100 * 10-6 * 10-4 * 1016

= 3.36 × 10-20 C