Sei sulla pagina 1di 520

FOREIGN

SERVICE

AMHARIC

INSTITUTE

BASIC

COURSE

 

Units

1

-

50

o

EPA

R

T

MEN

T

0

F

S

TAT

E

AMHARIC

BASIC COURSE

Units

1

-

DEBEBOW

SERGE

ZELELIE

50

OBOLENSKY

MULUGETA

ANDUALEM

FOREIGN SERVICE INSTITUTE

D

EPA

R

T

WASHINGTON,

MEN

T

1964

0

F

D.C.

S

TAT

E

AMHARIC

FOREIGN

SERVICE

BASIC

COURSE

Edited by

INSTITUTE

SERIES

CARLETON

HODGE

ii

BASIC COURSE

PREFACE

This volume is the first of a two-volume Basic Course in Amharic, and contains Units 1-50 of the course. The second volume includes Units 51.<JO, an introduction to the writing system, a Reader, and a Glossary.

Amharic, the official language of the Ethiopian Empire, is spoken natively by per- haps six million people in a small but populous area of the country which includes the capital, Addis Ababa. A member of the Southem Semitic branch of the Afro~siatic family of languages, Amharic is steadily gaining importance as it picks up additional speakers through the spread of communications and education within Ethiopw.

The linguist in charge of the entire project has been Serge Obolensky, with the assistance of Mr. Debebow Selelie and Mr. Mulugeta Andualem. The Amharic script in the second volume is the work of Mr. Zelelie. Valuable suggestions received from Pro- fessor Wolf Leslau during the beginning stages of the work are gratefully acknowkdged.

Howard E. Sollenberger, Dean School of Language and Area Studies Foreign Service Institute Department of State

iii

AMHARIC

 

TABLE

OF CONTENTS

 

Preface

iii

Introduction

 

xvi

Unit Symbols used

1

.

.

• • .

• .

• • •

.

.

.

.

• • • • • • • • • • •

.

.

.

• • • •

.

• .

• .

• • • • • • • •

1

Basic

Sentences

 

2

Note

1.1

Transcription used

• •

• •

• • .

• • • .

• • .

• • • • .

• • • • • • • •

3

1.2

Vowels

 

4

1.3

Consonants

. • • .• •. ••• •••• • •• • •• . • •

 

• •• • .•• • • . •

7

1.3.1

Plain Consonants •••••••••.•.•.•.•••.••••••••••

7

1.3.2

Glottalized Consonants • • • . •• •

 

• •• •• .•. •• • • • • 9

Drills

Unit 2

9

Ba.sic

Sentences

 

.

12

Note

2.1

Masculine

Definite

Suffix /-u--w/

•••••••••••••

13

2.2

Drills

Unit 3

'and'

/-(i)nna/

•••••••••••.•••••••••••••••••••

14

15

Ba.s ic

Sentence s

.

19

No te

3.1

Independent Pronouns ••.•.•••.•.•.•••••.•.•••

22

3.2

Suffix

Pronouns

••••••••••••.••

••••••••••••.•

23

3.2.1

Verb

Suffix

Pronouns

••••••••••••••••••••••••••

23

3.3

Loss

of Vowels

••••••••••••.•••••••••••••.•.•••

24

3.4

/w/ and /y/ glides

••••••••••••••••.•••.•.••••.

24

3.5

Verb

'be r

•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

 

25

3.6

Forma tion

of

Plural

•.••••••••.•••••.••••••••••

25

3.7 Transitional Vowel li/

.

26

Drills

27

Unit 4

Basic Sentences

Note

 

29

31

of

'have'

and

'have

not'

•••

32

33

34

35

4.1

4.2

4.3

4·4

4.5

Noun Suffix

Amharic

Pronouns

equivalents

Feminine Definite Suffix /-wa~-(y)itu--(y)itwa/.

Definite

Suffix /-(i)n/-Specific

Suffix on Modifier

•.•••••.•••••••••••

•••••••••

Direct

Object

iv

BASIC COURSE

Prep 0 sit ion

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

35

Preposition /b(e)-/ and /best(e)-/

 

•••••••

35

Drills

Unit 5

Basic

Note

Sentences

5.1

Verb.

Perfective

5.2 'have' and 'have not' with feminine object.

Verb Suffix Pronouns with Perfective •.•••• •

5.5 Prepositions /k(e)-/, /isk(e)-/ and /l(e)-/

5.5.1 /k ( e ) - / 'fr am ' .••••••.••.•••.•.•••.••••••

5.5.2 /isk(e)-/ and /isk(e)- •

5.3

5.4

Verb

Suffix

Pronouns

used

in apposition

dires/

'up

to',

'to' /l(e)-/ 'for', 'to' •.•.•• •••.• •••••• Postpositions /wisT/ and /lay/ combined with prefixes /b(e)-/ or /i-/ .•.•••••••• Suffixes /-iyye/ and /-iyyo/ to nouns ••••• Definite Suffixes /-iyyew/ and /iyyewa/ ••• Numerals; Ordinals •••••.•••••••••••.••••

36

43

46

49

49

51

51

52

52

52

52

53

53

53

 

Drills

 

54

Narrative

55

Unit

6

Basic

Sentences

 

.

57

Note

6.1

Relational Prefix /y(e)-/ .•••••••••••••••

59

 

6.2

Verb. Infinitive • ••••• ••.•••.•••••••

60

6.3

Verb. Imperfective • •••.••••.•.•••.•.••

61

6.4

Verb Classification

 

••••.•.•••.• •••

63

6.4.1

Regular

Three-Radical Verbs

••••.•• •••

63

6.4.2

Regular Two-Radical Verbs •.• •••••••.••

65

6.5

Verb. Notation .••••• ••••.•.•.•••••.••

65

6.6

Postpositlon /garHgara/ combined with pre-

 

f ix

/k (e )- /

• • • • •

.

• •

• .

• • .

• • • • •

.

.

.

• • • • • • •

65

 

6.7

Use of /k(e)- ••• befit/ and /k(e)-/ •••

 
 

behwB la/

.

66

 

Drills

 

66

Narrative

69

Unlt

7

Basic

Sentences

 

Note

7.1

Verb

Suffix

Pronouns with

Imperfective

••••

7.2 Equivalents

of

'had'

v

and

'had not'

•••••••

71

73

77

AMHARIC

 

•••••••••••••••••••.•••••••••••.••••• • •••••••••••.•

77

Narra tl.ve

•••••••.•.•.••••.••••••••.••••••••••••••••••••.•

80

Un~t 8

Bas~c Sentences

 

81

Note

8.1

82

8.2

SuffLK /-(~)m/

84

8.3

Suff1X /-(~)ss/

84

Dr 1.118

•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

84

Narrat~ve

••••. .1

~ •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

Un~t 9

BaS:LC

Sentences

•••.•••••••••••.•••••••••••.•.•••••••••.••

88

89

Note

9.1

Imperfect~ve forms connected by /-(~)nna/

 

92

9.2

Negat~ve Perfect~ve .•

••

••••.•

92

9.3

9.4

Short Imperfect~ve •.•.•••••.•.•.••.•.••••••• ••

•••

Negat~ve Irnperfect~ve •.•

••

•••

93

95

 

9.5 Negat~ve Inf~n~t~ve •••.•.•

•.••••••.•. •

99

•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••.••.••••

100

Narra tl.va

• •• • • • •• • • • • •• • •• • • • • • • • ••• • • .•. • • • • • ••• • • • • t • • •

103

Un~t 10

Ba S 1C

Sentence s

••••••••••••••••••••••••••.•••••••••••.••.

105

Note

10.1

Relat~onal AffLKes

to Verbs

.••.•

••.•.•.•.•

107

10.1.1

Relat~onal Aff1X /y(e)-- yemrn(~)-/ ~n Relat~ve

 

107

 

10.2

Aff1X /~nd(e)-I

110

10.2.1

/~nd(e)-/ 'l~ke', etc.

••• •••••••• •

110

10.2.2

/~nd(e)-.•• yalle/ 'such as', etc. • .•.•••.••.

III

10.2.3

/~nd(e)-/ 'as soon as'

•.••••••••• • ••

III

10.2.4

/~nd(e)-/ w~th Relat~ve Construct~ons 'that' •.

III

Drl11s

•••.•••••••••••••.••.•••••••.•••••.••••••••••••••.•

112

Narratlve

••••••••••••••••••••••••.•••.•

••••••••••••••••

118

Un~t 11

Bas~c Sentenues

 

120

Note

11.1

Verb:

Regular

Two-Radlcal Verbs

~n I-e/

121

Verb.

11.2 Gerund

•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

122

11.3 Present Perfect

Verb:

126

11.4 Past Perfect

Verb:

• •

127

11.5 Imperfect (Past) • • •.• •.••

Verb.

128

Dr:Llls

•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

129

Narratlve

•••••.••

•••.•••••.•••.••••••••••.••••••••

•••

132

vi

BASIC COURSE

Unl.t 12 BaSl.C Sentences

 

133

 

Note

12.1

Telll.ng Tl.me

136·

 

12.2

Verba Jussl.ve

136

12.3

Verb. Imperat1.ve •••.••••••••••••••••••••••••

140

12.4

Relat1.onal AfflX /1.yy(e)-/ W1.th nouns ••••••••

144

12.5

Relatl.onal AfflX /1.yy(e)-/ w1.th verbs ••••••••

144

12.6

Relatl.onal AfflX /s(1.)-/ •••••••••••••••••.•••

145

12.7

/abro/ 'both', Itogether' ••••••••••••••••••••

147

 

Drl.lls

148

Narratl.ve

 

153

Unl.t

13

BaSl.C Sentences

 

155

Note

13.1

Relat1.onal Aff1.xes /1(1.)-/ and /-(1.)ll(l.)-N-

 

(1.)11e-/

.

158

 

13.1.1

/1(1.)-/ w1.th Short Imperfect1.ve

•••••••••••••

159

13.1.2

/1(1.)-/ wl.th Short Imperfect1.ve plus /new/ or

159

 

/nebber/

••.••••.•.•.•.•.•

159

 

13.1.3

/-(1.)ll(1.)--(1.)lle-/ ••••.••••••••••••••••••

159

13.2

Relat1.onal AfflXes

/1.sk(e)-/ w1.th Relat1.ve Construct1.ons

/1.sk(1.)-/ and /1.sk(e)-/ •••

160

13.2.1

•••••••

161

 

Drl.lls

161

Narratl.ve

 

163

Unl.t

14

BaSl.C Sentences

 

165

Note

14.1

Demonstrat1.ve

Pronouns

168

 

14.2

Noun:

Gender

169

14.3.1

Relat1.onal AfflX /b(1.)-/

'l.f'

•••••••••••••••

172

14.3.2

Relatl.onal AfflX /b(1.)-/

'because'

••••••••••

175

14.4

SufflX /-(1.)bb(1.)-/

•••••••••••••••••••••••••

•••.•••••

176

14·5

PreflX /b(e)-/ w1.th Relat1.ve Clauses

178

14.5.1

/b (e) -

••• g iz e /

••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

178

14.5.2

/b(e)- ••• KuTl.r/ •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

178

 

'14.6

/b ( e )- ••• ml.kn1.ya t/ ••••••••••••••••••.•••••••

179

 

14.7

Relat1.onal AfflX /s1.1(e)--

s1.1emm(1.)-/ ••••••••

179

 

Drl.lls

180

Narratl.ve

 

186

Unl.t 15

 
 

BaSl.C

Sentences

 

188

Note 15.1

Verb.

/a-/ verbs

189

vii

AMHARIC

 

15.2

15.2.1

Verb:

Causat~ves ~n /a-/ and /as-/ ••.•.•••••

••••.•.•••.

Causat~ve Verbs

~n /a-/

190

191

15.2.2

CausatJ.ve

Verbs

~n /as-/

••

•••

••••••

191

15.3

PassJ.ve-ReflexJ.ve

Verbs

••.••.•••••

•.•

191

15.4

Class~fJ.catJ.onand NotatJ.on •.•••

/k(e)-/

••••••••.••

••••••.•.

•.••

•••••••.••.••

195

15.5

RelatJ.onal AffJ.x /k(e)-/ w~th PerfectJ.ve

197

15.5.1

197

15.5.2

/k

( e

) - /

's

J.nce '

• • •

• •

• .

• .

• •

• •

• •

• .

• •

198

 

Drllls

 

.

.

.

198

Narra til ve

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

• .

.

.

.

205

Un~t 16

 
 

BaS1C

Sentences

.

206

Note

16.1

•.•.•.•••

208

 

16.2 Pronoun /1"as-/ 'self'

•.•. • • •

208

16.3 Regular Four-Rad~ca1 Verbs • •• •

209

16.4 Three-and Four-Rad~cal Verbs ~n /-0-/ .

210

16.5 Verb: Noun of Agent .• • •.•

210

16.6 Verb: Noun of Instrument

•.••. • ••

212

16.7 Use of /wey~m/ and /weyJ.ss/ 'or'

•.•

213

 

214

 

NarratJ.ve

 

215

UnJ.t

17

Bas~c Sentences

 

Note

17.1

Verba

CIa ss ~f~cat~on

Chart

Chart II

I

 

Regular

Regular

.• Three-Rad~cal /a-/ Verbs .•••• ••

Three-Rad~cal Verbs

• •.•.••

222

223

Chart

III

Regular

Regular

Two-Rad~cal Verbs

~n /-a/

~n /-e/

•.••••••.•

•• •

224

Chart

IV

Two-Rad~cal Verbs

225

Chart V

 

Regular

Fou~-Rad~cal Verbs

• ••

226

DrJ.11s

227

 

230

Un~t 18

 
 

Bas~c Sentences

 

232

Note

18.1

Verba

Use of /y~honal/

•.••

••.••.

233

 

18.2

Use

of /gena/

••••

•.•

•.•

234

 

235

239

viii

Un~t 19

BASIC COURSE

 

Ba S 1.C

Sentence s

 

.

Note

19.1

Comparat~ve and

Superlatlve

•••••

••.•••.••

Drllls

 

.

Narratlve

·

.

Unlt

20

Ba S lC

Sentence s

 

.

Note

20.1

Verb

Classlflcatlon,

Two-Radlcal

Verbs,

types

me~a~, me~o~, me~e~ and me~e~ •.•••••••.••

Chart VI/l

me Ia 2

•.

Chart VI/2

me 102

.

Chart VI/3

mele2

Chart VI/4

mele2

20.2

Verbl

Impersonal Cbnstructlons

.•••••••••••

20.3

Verb:

Present

Perfect of verbs

denotlng

 

'state'

or

'condltlon'

.••.•.•.•.•••

••.•

 

·

 

.

 

Narratlve

·

.

Unlt

21

BaSlC

Sentences

·

.

Drllls

•••••••••••••••

e

•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

Narratlve

·

.

Unlt

22

BaS1C

Sentences

·

.

Drllls

·

 

.

Narratlve

·

.

Unlt

23

Ba s lC

Sentence s

·

Note

23.1

 

.

 

23.2

Questlon Words

.••••••.••••

•••••••.•••••

23.2.1

/man/

 

.

23.2.2

/mln/ or

/mlndln/

•••••••••••••.•.••••••.•••

23.2.3

/ye t /

.

23. 2 .4

/yetu/, /yetlnnaw/ and /mannlnnaw/ ••.••••••

23.3

/manrunnawlm/ or /mannaccewlm/ ••.••• •.•••

23.4

/mannEn/ and /mlnlmm/ ••• • •• •• •••.••

23.5

/mlnlmm/ wlth /~nde-/ •.•••••• •.•.•••••••

 

Drllls

·

 

.

Narratlve

.

ix

247

248

250

251

251

252

252

253

255

256

258

260

261

263

265

267

268

270

271

271

273

274

274

275

275

276

277

278

Un~t 24

AMHARIC

 

BaS1C

Sentences

.

280

Note

24.1

Verb:

Short form of /madreg/

.•.•••.••.•.•

283

 

24.2

Use

of /g~ddeta/ w~th /allebb-/,

/honebb-/

and

/nebberebb-/

283

•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

284

 

Narrat.1ve

.

288

Un~t 25

 
 

BaS1C

Sentences

.

291

Note

25.1

Repet~t~on and Redupl~cat~on .••

•••••••••

292

 

25.1.1

••••••••••.••••••••.••••••••••••

293

25.1.2

Part~al Redupl~cat~on .•••••.••

•.••••••••

293

25.1.3

25.2

Complete Redupl~cat~on

Use of /madregiya/

••

•.••••••.•••.

294

•.••••.• •• •••••••

295

 

Drllls

.

295

 

••••••.•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

297

Unlt 26

 
 

Bas~c Sentences

 

300

Note

26.1

SufflX /-(l)nnet/

301

 

26.2

Verb.

The

use

of /meKnat/

.•

••••••

302

 

Drl11s

.

303

Narratlve

307

Unlt

27

BaS1C

Sentences

Note

27.1

SufflX /-e/

•••••••••••••

310

Drllls

27.2

Plural after

In compound words

numerals

••.••.••••••••••••

.

311

312

Narra tlve

.

313

Unlt

28

BaS1C

Sentences

315

Note 28.1 Verb: Hypothetlcal Condltlonal .• • •.•••

317

 

28.2 AfflX /lnd(e)-/ wlth /alle-/ and /hone-/••••

318

28.3 Impersonal Verbs •••.•.• •.•••••••••••

319

 

Dr 1.118

•.•••••.•••.•

••.•

•••

320

Narratlve

.

324

Unlt

29

BaS1C

Sentences

.

327

Note

29.1

Verb C1asslflcatlon Three-Radlcal Verbs

 

/-a-/

328

x

BASIC COURSE

Chart VII

 

329

 

29.2

Use of /m1kn1yatu/ comblned w1th /s11e-/ and

 

/s11emm(1)-/ affLXes

and

the verb form /new/

329

/k(e)- ••. yetenessa/ •••••.••.•.•••••••••••••

330

Dr111s

330

Narrat1ve

332

BaS1.C

Sentences

.

 

.

334

Note

30.1

Compound Verbs

Verb:

w1th /ma1et/ and /madreg/

Inconclus1ve Aspect

••••

30.1.1

•••••••••••••••••

335

338

llil.lls

 

.

340

Narrat1ve

 

342

UnlC 31

BaS1C

Note 31.1

Sentences

•••••••••••••••••••••••••••

31.2 Use of /b1cca/ w1th Noun SufflX Pronouns and D1rect ObJect Suff1X /-(l)n/ ••.•••••••.••.

/b(e)- ••• beklru1/

\

Dr111s

Narratlve

Un1t 32

BaS1C

Sentences

Note 32.1

Suff l.X

/ - ge/

• •

• • •

• • • • •

• •

• • • • •

• .

• • • • • • • • •••

32.2

Verb: /lndehon/ w1th re1at1ve construct10ns

32.3

/lndehon/ wlth Short Imperfect1ve and Gerund, 'whether or not' •••••••••••••.••••••••••

Verb:

Inf1n1t1ve w1th Noun SufflX

Pronouns

and Verb forms

/new/ and /nebber/

•••••••

Dr111s

Narrat1ve

Un1t 33 BaSH~ Sentences

344

345

346

347

349

350

352

352

353

354

355

357

358

Note

33.1

Verb,

/s-/ negat1ve comb1ned w1th the forms

 

of

the

verb /Kerre-meKret/

•••.•••••••••••

Drl1ls

Narrat1ve

xi

Un~t 34

AMHARIC

Ba s ~c Se n ten ce s

• .

• •

• .

• .

• •

• .

• • • •

• .

• .

• .

• .

• .

365

Note 34.1

Verba

Frequentat~ve Form

.

.

••.•••.••••.•••

.

.

.

.

.

 

.

367

Chart VIII

Frequenta t~ve

Verbs

•••••.••.•.•••.•••.•

 

368

 

34.2

Verb:

Rec~procal Form

 

•••.••

 

•••••••••••

 

369

Chart

IX

Rec~procal Verbs

••••.•.••••••

 

•••••••••.•.

372

})r11.11s

•••••••

·

••

•.•.•••.•

•.

 

.

Ba S J.C

Sentence s

.

Note 35.1

Use of /~nkwan/ ••.••

••.••

•.•.•••.•

35.2

/~nkwan/ comb~ned w~th /y~KrlTma/ 'let alone r,

Drllls

Narrat~ve

·

·

'even

though'

•••••••••

••

•••••••.•

.

.

Un~t 36

Bas ~c Sentences

·

.

Note 36.1

Relat~ve construct~ons comblned w~th lmperson-

al forms

of

the

verb

/memsel/

.•.•••••

•.

Drllls

Narrat~ve

·

·

.

.

Un~t 37

BaSlC

••••••••.•• Dr~11s ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

Sentences

·

.

Note 37.1

Verb.

/maweK/ w~th Gerund

••••

 

·

 

.

Unlt 38 Bas~c Sentences

·

.

 

·~

.

 

Narratlve

·

.

Unl t

39

Bas~c Sentences

·

.

Note 39.1

Verba

Use

of /yel1em

fect~ve and

Gerund

T/

w~th Short

•.•.•.•••.••

Imper-

•••

373

375

377

379

380

381

383

384

387

387

391

392

395

396

398

400

401

403

407

·

.

408

 

·

.

410

xii

Unlt

40

Ba s lC

Sentence s

Drllls

Narratlves

Unlt 41

BASIC COURSE

 

BaS1C

Sentences

 

417

Note

41.1

Postposltlons /zend/ and /ga/ ••.•.•.••••••

420

 

41.1.1

/ke- ••• zend - gal •••.••••••••••••••.••••••

421

41.1.2

/1- •.• zend-ga/ •••••••••.•••.•••••••••••.•.

421

41.1.3

/be-

••. z end/ •.•••••.•.•.•••••.••••••••••.•

421

41.1.5

/lziih zend-lzzih gal and /lzziya zend-lzziya

 

gal •••.•••.•.••.••••• •.••••••••

422

 

41.2

Verb: Use of /zend/ as postverb .••••.•••••

422

41.2.1

Verb:

/zend/

wlth Short Imperfectlve ••••

422

41.2.2

Verb.

/ke .•• zend/ wlth Perfectlve •••••.•.•

422

41.3

Verb: Use of /kenoren/, /kenoreh/, etc. 'If

 

I

do have'

•• •.•••.•.••••••••

422

Verb: /menor/ used lmpersonally, 'wlll

 

have',

'may have'

 

Drl11s

Narratlve

 

Unlt

42

BaS1C

Sentences

 

429

Note

42.1

Verb a Progre s s 1ve Form .• ••.•••.••••••••

432

 

42.2

Verba 'whether ••. (or not)' constructlons

433

42.3

Use of /mlnlmmal1l/, /mlnlmmattll/, et~.

434

 

Drllls

435

Narratlve

439

Unl t

43

BaS1C

Sentences

 

Note

43.1

Benefactlve

or

Causatlve

•.

Chart X

Benefactlve

Verbs

Reclprocal Verbs ••.••••••

•.•.••.••.•

Drllls

 

Narratlve

Unlt 44

BaS1C

Sentences

 

Note

41+.1

Verbal

Nouns

••••••••

••.••

•.•••••.•••••

Drl11s

e

•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

Narratlve

xiii

442

444

447

448

449

451

453

455

457

Unl.t 45

Bas~c Sentences

AMHARIC

Note 45.1

Use

of /bl.cca

sayhon/

•.•••••.••••••••••••••

460

 

45.2

Adver1bla Is

.

461

45.2.1

Adverbl.a1s

l.n /b(e)-/

461

45.2.2

Adverbl.a1s

of Tl.me

l.n /-(l.)n/

 

461

'45.2.3

Gerund Forms

used Adverbl.a11y

462

Drl.11s

 

464

Narratl.ve

468

Basle

Sentences

 

.

467

Note 46.1

/k(e)-/ used l.n combl.natl.on wl.th /wedih-wedezzih/ and /wediya-wedezzl.ya/

470

Dr 1.11 s

 

.

471

Narra t~ve

••••.•.•••.•.••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

472

Unl.t 47

BaS1.C

Sentences

 

•.•

474

Drl.lls

 

.

476

Narra tl.ve

.

478

Unl.t 48

BaSl.C

Sentences

 

.

480

Note

48.1

Use

of /1(l.)-/ form

/sl.ttl.1/,

etc.

l.n combl.natl.on wl.th /sl.l/,

 

•.••••.••••.•••.•••••••••••

483

48.2 Intensl.ve Aspect

Verb.

Vel'b.

48.3 Cona tl.ve Aspect

Drl.lls

.

•.•.•.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

.

• .

••.••••••••••••

.

483

484

485

Narra t~ve

•••••••••••••••.•.••••••••••••••••••.••••••••••

488

Unl.t 49

BaS1C

Sentences

 

.

490

Drllls

 

.

491

Narratlve

.

493

Unl.t 50 BaSl.C Sentences

 

495

Note 50.1

Emphatl.c

Suffl.X /-a/

497

Drl.11s

498

Narratl.ve

500

xiv

1

:r

.

.

BASIC COURSE

f

i )

··

ETHIOPIA

 

_

.• -

Inh:'lIlal,onJ' b.,undiHy

-

-

-

Pr v'f'lCe boundar,.

 

@

NatlOflit! Ot

( I'l~-,,'Il!~"

colonial ColD,tal

 

PrO\',nce ca;> tal

,.

I

~,1 '-',

"

\ "-

_-- _':t. A.swD

RaIlroad

Roao Of lIack

, 111111111 '\l"har1c Speak-

inr

Area

/"./

.

,-

./

['-'1

-L-

- -

----- -

REP~L1C

xv

AMHAR~

INTRODUCTION

The

Amharlc

Language

Amharlc

lS

the

offlclal language

of

the

Ethloplan Emplre

used

ln

government,

ln buslness,

ln all

lnstructlon

ln government

schools

and

ln

most newspapers. It lS, however, not the only language spoken ln Ethlopla.

As

as a natlve tongue

can be

seen from

the

lS

map

on page

one

xv

the

of

area

where

Amh~rlc lS

spoken

about

slXth

the

whole

terrltory

of Ethlopla.

Amharlc

belongs

to

the

Southern

Semltlc

branch

(formerly

called Hamlto-Semltlc)

famlly

of

languages.

of

the

The

Afro-Aslatlc

number

of natlve

speakers

of Amharlc

together

wlth

the

speakers

of

the

other

Semltlc

languages

spoken

ln Ethlopla

(such

as

Tlgrlnlya,

Tlgre,

Hararl,

Gurage

and

others)

lS

less

than

one

half

the

total populatlon of

the

Emplre.

The

greatest part

of

Ethlopla

lS

lnhablted

by

speakers

of CUShltlC

languages

(another

branch

of

the

Afro-Aslatlc

famlly)

such as

Galla,

Agaw,

Somall

and

many

others.

Slnce

no

census

has

ever

been

taken

ln Ethlopla

the

number

of Ethloplans

can

only

be

estlmated.

Accordlng

to

the

offlclal

data

of

the

Ethloplan government

the

number

of

lnhabltants

of Ethlopla

lS

between

20

and

22

mllllon.

It

lS

also dlfflcult to glve a rellable estlmate of the number of Amharlc speakers; lt lS probably between 5 and 7 mllllon. There lS Ilttle doubt, however, that due to the constantly growlng development of communlcatlons systems and the spreadlng of educatlon Amharlc lS galnlng ground throughout the whole country. It lS now the language of greatest prestlge and anyone who has had any educa- tlon lS able to speak lt, even lf lt lS not hlS mother tongue. Stlll others learn lt lnformally as a second language.

ThlS

Course:

The

followlng

parts

may

be

found

ln

a

unlt:

Baslc

Classroom Expresslons

Sentences

Structure

Sentences

Useful Words

Grammatlcal

Notes

Drllls:

Substltutlon

Correlatlon

Transformatlon

Model-Transform

drllls

Questlons

and Answers

Narratlve

xvi

BASIC COURSE

BaS1C

Sentences

and

Questlons

and Answers

are

found

In

each unlt.

The

Narratlves

begln wlth

the

unlt 5.

The

occurrence

of

other parts

may

vary.

The

Course

lS

dlVlded

lnto

two

Volume

volumes.

II

through 50

Introductlon

scrlpt)

In

a

transcrlptl0n.

to

the

Glossary

-

unlts

The

Amharlc Wrltlng

(In

System,

and

transcrlptl0n).

Volume

51-60

Reader

I

In

-

contalns

unlts

1

transcrlptl0n,

(Unlts

1-60

ln Amharlc

The

Reader

lncludes:

BaSlc

Sentences

 
 

Questlons

and Answers

Narratlves

 

Use

of

ThlS

Course

1.

'Baslc

Sentences',

'Structure

Sentences I,

'Useful Words '.

The

lnstructor

reads

the

Amharlc

ltem

by

ltem,

repeatlng

each

ltem

(a

bUl1d-up

or

a

sentence)

tWlce

for

each

student.

Each member

of

the

class

repeats the

ltem

lmmedlately after

the

lnstructor

trylng

to

lmltate

hlS

(or

her)

pronunclatlon.

 

If

In

the

lnstructor's

0plnlon

the

ltem

lS

mlspronounced

by

the

student,

the

lnstructor

repeats

lt at normal speed wlth the student repeatlng after

hlm

(or her)

as

many

tlmes

as

necessary.

After

the

class

hours

each

student

goes

over

the

Baslc

Sentences

by

llstenlng

to

the

tape

and

repeatlng,

dOlng

thlS

untl1 he

knows

the

dlalogue

by heart.

 

After

the

BaS1C

Sentences

have

been

thoroughly memorlzed

the

students

take

part and act

out

the

dlalogues.

The

lnstructor may take

one

of

the

parts

the

flrst

tlme

or

two.

ThlS

drl11

lS

to

be

contlnued

untll

any

student

can

take

part and go

through

the

dlalogue

11ke

an actor.

 
 

2.

Substltutlon,

Correlatlon and

Transformatl0n Drl11s

are

to

be

used

 

In accordance

wlth

the

lnstructlons

glven at

the

beglnnlng

of

each

drlll.

 
 

3.

Model

Transform

Drll1s

should

be

drllled

ln

the

same

way as

other

 

Transformatlon Drllls.

 
 

4.

Questl0ns

and Answers.

The

questlons

and

answers

are

to

be

drllled

as

speclfled

below,

but

they

should

not

be

consldered

complete.

Any

questlon WhlCh

lS

wlthln

the

11mlts

of

the

students'

grammar

and

vocabulary

can be

asked.

Some

questlons

requlre

lnformatlonal answers

some

others

slmply

'yes'

or

'no'

answers.

xvii

Quest10ns

requ1r1ng

AMHARIC

1nformat10nal answers

are

to

be

dr1lled

as

follows:

The

1nstructor asks