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©Department of Geography.

Valahia University of Targoviste

Annals of Valahia University of Targoviste. Geographical Series
Tome 14/2014 Issues 1: 33-39



International Computer High School of Bucharest, Bucharest, E-mail:


In this study were analyzed three rivers (Buzău, Râmnicu Sărat and Câlnău) located in Plain Râmnic between
Buzău and Râmnicu Sărat rivers. Generally observed a two terraces on these rivers: T6-8m and T2-3m (flood
plain terraces). Based on topographic maps (1981), the orthophotomaps (2005) supplemented with personal
information who targeted localization and measurement terraces . Extending flood plain terrace (2-3m) along
the river Buzău and Râmnicu Sărat show a reduced evolution of courses in these directions. Terrace T6-8m
found at the confluence Buzău-Câlnău (Gura Câlnăului), in many points can be located on the rivers Râmnicul
Sărat (Rubla,Măcrina) and Câlnău (Potârnicheşti, Poşta Câlnău). During the Holocene have been many
changes in the courses of these rivers in the Romanian Plain.

Keywords: terrace, Râmnicu Sărat, tectonic, meandering, Buzău, flood plain terrace


Râmnic Plain between Buzău and Râmnicu Sărat rivers is located in the north east of the
Romanian Plain. Relief characteristics are strongly influenced by tectonics movements, positive in
western half and negative in eastern (Polonic et al., 2005).
Previous research on terraces have been undertaken by Ielenicz (1968, 1988), Visan &
Cârstea (1978), and Voicu (2004), the study being integrated into the complex characterization of
relief, river basins but also on larger areas of plain.
Existing terraces along the river and Buzău, Râmnicu Sărat and Câlnău reflect the changes
which have taken place during the Quaternary and especially Holocene in this territory at the
hydrographic network (Popp, 1963). A common characteristic of these rivers is the existence a
small number of terraces (between two and three terraces).


Thys study aimed to analize the river terrace location, mapping and morphometric
quantification of these elements. Different materials were used, from thopographic maps (1981),
continuing with orthophotomap (2005 edition), and drawing plans (1917, 1929, 1955, 1956). For a
more detailed analysis and in orrde to achieve the higer accuracy of cross section, we used
topographic plans (scale 1:5000). Identification of terrace deposits and their continuity in some
points was facilitated by analysis of hydrogeological drilling depth executed by Romanian Waters
(Directorate Buzău- Ialomiţa) in the southern part of the of the locality Potârnicheşti. Digital
mapping of the different components and making maps was made with the program Arc GIS 10,
interpolation to obtain digital terrain elevation model and some drawings with the program surfer 8.

The sections have been made using the program Global Mapper 10.All information obtained from
these sources has been compared and supplemented by field information in order to achieve some
correlation on wider spaces of the evolution of the hydrographic network both in Râmnic Plain
between Buzău and Râmnicu Sărat rivers as well as its adjecent territory.

3.1. Buzău river terraces

Buzău river valley (in the sector between localities Gura Câlnăului and Racoviţa, on the
left-hand side, in the edge southern and south-eastern Râmnic Plain) has two terraces: T 2-3 m and
T 6-8 m.
Terrace 6-8 m emerges from the confluence with the Câlnău river to Vadu Paşii where is
unitary, with widths ranging between 300 m (within the perimeter Focşănei locality) and 500 m at
Gura Câlnăului, these two villages occupying most part of terrace surface (fig. 1). Also here is
recorded the highest altitude (approximately 8 m) reported to Buzău river bed, south relative
altitude is progressively reduced (approximately 4-5 m) appearing more fragmented (localities
Scurteşti and Stănceşti). On the right side of the Buzău valley occupies large areas (to Calmăţui
valley today) closely related to course deviation produced during the Holocene. Contact with the
surface of the Râmnic Plain is well evidenced by steep slopes of 6-10 meters height. In the sectors
where this level of terrace is missing (between localities Focşănei and Vadu Paşii) transition to
flood plain terrace (2-3meters) is done by steep slopes 15-20 meters height. (fig. 2).

Figure 1. Profile south west-north east from flood plain (2-3m) Buzău river to Râmnic Plain surface
(near locality Gura Câlnăului)

Terrace 2-3 m has unitary character between Gura Câlnăului and Racoviţa, is characteristic
of the sector in wich the course of the Buzău river was later estabilished on the current direction
therefore its upper terrace levels are missing. Between confluence Câlnău river and the railway
bridge from Vadu Paşii has widths of 600-700 meters distinguishing cleary from Buzău riverbed by
banks of 3 meters. In these can be observed structure of deposits formed at the base of gravel
deposit (well rolled) in a mixture with coarse, sand (it is noted in the opening at the top of the
deposits in thickness of 0,5 meters) more than they are silty and sandy deposits with few
intercalation of small gravel.

Figure 2 Râmnic Plain and contact with flood plain terrace in the north-east of the locality Vadu

Terrace surface between localities Gura Câlnăului and Vadu Paşii is coverd with grass and
representing an area for grazing; near confluence with Câlnău river is affected by exploitation of
mineral aggregates Gura Câlnăului. Downstream of the Săgeata terrace 2-3 meteres has character of
meander terrace (Vişan & Cârstea, 1978) appearing in the sinuosity of the river in localities Beilic
and Găvăneşti (fig. 3).

Figure 3. Flood plain terrace (2-3m) at Beilic, Buzau river

3.2. Râmnicu Sărat river terraces

Between localities Poşta and Ciorăşti, Râmnicu Sărat presents on the right –hand side two
level of terrace: T5-6 meters and T 2-3 meters.
Terrace of 5-6 meters begins to take shape near the locality Valea Râmnicului, specifically
in south-eastern, it is slightly recessed in deposits that clogs the nortern part of the valley Jirlău,
here are heading to the east, parallel with the road conecting localities Valea Râmnicului and
Râmnicelu. Downstream of the railway bridge over Râmnicu Sărat river increases in surface and
width (in the northen locality Rubla from 180-200 meters to 350-400 meters in width), then its
presence its interrupt in the north-west of the locality Râmnicelu. Up to locality Ştiubei has a
uniform appearance along river Râmnicu Sărat, the width is generaly reduced (aproximately 150
meters), beyond wich is fragmented in the sector where Vâlsan (1915), indicate that possible was a
watercourse toward Boldu valley. From the point called La Roata Sârbului (near locality Lunca
previously called Hoinari), this terrace has the highest development. This accompanies river
Râmnicu Sărat downstream, but from this point terrace is a clear deviation to the south east towards
the forest Spătaru, contact with the surface of plain is difficult observe, beyond the road wich
connect localities Vâlcelele and Nicoleşti (fig. 4).
The structure of terrace can be traced in many outcrops (north of the locality Rubla and
Ştiubei). In existing outcrops in the right side of the bank of Râmnicu Sărat river, about 500-600
meters downstream of the railway bridge at the bottom to the top of the terrace can be seen
folowing sequence:from basic (between 0,5-0,75meters) appear rolled gravel over wich is yellow
sandy loesslike deposit (in its mass is found small gravel interspersed) at its level can identify a
fossil soil horizon.

Figure 4. Terrace 5-6m in area Măcrina-Dăscăleşti

T2-3 meters is an almost all the sectors analyzed presenting a higer level of the river bed. It
has width 600-700 meters between Oreavu and northern Valea Râmnicului where it is in contact
with the surface of glacis Plain of Râmnic, by stepp slopes of 15-20 meters height along the
braided riverbed of Râmnicu Sărat (fig. 5). In this sector there is a clear distinction betweeen this
and riverbed of Râmnicu Sărat, is protected from river floods and much of it is grown.

Figure 5. Terrace 2-3m between localities Oreavu and Valea Râmnicului, Râmnicu Sărat river

Between localities Valea Râmnicului and Măcrina has a fragmented appearance and can be
located at several points (Râmnicelu,Stiubei), width is between 150-300 meters. Downstream, up to
Ciorăşti is surrounded by steep slopes between 4-10 meters heigt; its developments is evident in the
sinuosity of the river where it has asymetricall character.

3.3. Câlnău river terrace

Between locality Fundeni and the confluence with the Buzău river, Câlnău river terrace has
tree levels: T1 (2-3 meters), T2 (6-8 meters), T3 (15-20 meters). Their development is mainly on
the left side of the river, determined by the arrangement of Quaternary deposits north west to south
east, asymmetric valley has a strong structural character.
T15-20 meters occupies the largest areas in Râmnic Plain, plain surface contact is achieved
by steep slopes of 20-25m height in the sector Fundeni-Suditi, to the south they are reduced to 15m
(in the north of Poşta Câlnău) beyond wich contact is low marked in plain topography, transition to
plain surface is slow on the line: Movila Poşta (167 meters) - Movila Mare (153 meters) - Movila
Moroianu (137meters) - Movila Cojocaru (137meters).

Figure 6. Digital terrain elevation model, view 3d Câlnău and Buzău terraces (near confluence
Câlnău and Buzău rivers)

European road E 85 between road bridge over Câlnău river and north of locality
Potârnichesti is located on the terrace surface (fig. 6). The width increases from north to south, so at
Fundeni generally measured 300-400 meters, at Aliceni 500-600 meters, at Potârnichesti 600-700
Its structure can be followed into outcrops (Poşta Câlnău, Potârnicheşti) but also in the
hydrogeological drilling at Potârnicheşti where it was intercepted cobbles and gravels (thickness
aproximately 3meters) between 9,60-12,60 meters, is based on a yellowish clay (fig. 7).

Figure 7. Hydrogeological drilling

at Potârnicheşti, Romanian Waters
(Directorate Buzău- Ialomiţa)

Terrace surface has an absolute altitude wich decreases from 190 meters (Fundeni) to 120
meters at the intersection European road (E 85) with country road 203K (Focşănei-Jirlău) in the
north of the locality Gura Câlnăului.
Transition from negative vertical movements (in the north west of Râmnic Plain) to the
slow rise movements determined juxtaposition aluvial cones in the lower course the Câlnău river
(Rădulescu & Grumăzescu, 1962). The third terrace is sculpted into the alluvial cone, the altitude
decreased to Buzău river, contact with surface of Râmnic Plain is less clear.
Terrace 6-8 m can be observed near the confluene with the Buzău river, has a fragmented
distribution on the left side of the Câlnău river. Starting from the north-east of the locality Gura
Câlnăului (where is connected to the second terrace of Buzău river) its surface (where missing
terrace 2-3 meters) is subject to strong erosion in sectors with banks concave. By comparing
situation on the plans 1:20000 (1920), topographic map (1981) and ortophotomap (2005) by cutting
a portion of the second terrace (located on the right) in the southern road bridge over river. This
change is not natural but is result of antropic intervention wich followed channeling Câlnău river
(Voicu, 2004).
Terrace 2-3 meteres has discontinuos unfolding near the confluence Câlnău and Buzău river
to Fundeni; large areas are near intersection European road (E85) with country road 203 K and
western and south western locality Potârnicheşti (fig. 8).


Râmnic Plain between Buzău and Râmnicu Sărat presents a relief influenced by the location
in an area where there is contrary tendency regarding its vertical movements (positive movements
in the western half and negative movements in the eastern half on the plain) wich is reflected and
the overall patern of evolution hydrographic network. During the Holocene changes taken place of
the courses along Râmnicu Sărat river and Buzău river in plain area, current valleys have two
terraces (terrace 2-3 meters, terrace 6-8 meters on the Buzău river and terrace 5-6 meters on the
Râmnicu Sărat), of wich for the most part on the river flood plain terrace is encountered, wich
confirm the late fixing route in the lower course. Câlnău river beside the two menciond terraces has

developed and a third terrace in glacis Plain of Râmnic (T15-20 meters) wich is progressively lost
in the plain, situation wich is found and the valley of Buzău river.

Figure 8. Câlnău river terrace near intersection European road (E 85) with country road (203K)


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Geografie, Bucureşti, pp.38-40
2. Ielenicz M.,1988, Câmpia Vrancei, Analele Univ. Buc.,Geografie, Bucureşti, pp. 88-96
3. Polonic Gabriela, Zugrăvescu D., Toma I., 2005, Dinamica recentă a blocurilor tectonice din
zonele de amplasament al construcţiilor hidroenergetice din Romania, St. şi Geofizică,
43: 79-93, Bucureşti
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Meteorologia, Hidrologia si Gospodarirea Apelor, nr.1: 20-28, Bucureşti.
5. Rădulescu, I. & Grumăzescu H., 1962, Descifrarea mişcărilor tectonice din Cuaternar de pe
teritoriul R.P.Române prin metoda geomorfologică, Probleme de Geografie, IX: 9-19,
6. Vâlsan G. 1915, Câmpia Română, Buletinul Societăţii Regale de Geografie, Bucureşti, pp.313-
7. Vişan, Gh. & Cârstea A., 1978, Câmpia Râmnicului-Consideraţii geomorfologice, Studii de
Geografie, Bucureşti, pp.61-79
8. Voicu, M., 2004, Bazinul Câlnăului, studiu de geografie fizică, Bucureşti, Teză de doctorat