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Transformer Types

Contents [hide]

1 Introduction
2 Power Transformer
3 Laminated Core Type Transformer
4 Toroidal Core Transformers
5 Auto Transformer
6 Poly Phase Transformer
7 Oil Cooled Transformers
8 Grounding Transformers
9 Leakage Transformers
10 Resonant Transformer
11 Isolating Transformer
12 Instrument Transformer
12.0.1 Current Transformers
12.0.2 Potential Transformers
12.0.3 Combined Instrument Transformer
13 Pulse Transformer

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15 Audio Transformer
16 Rotary Transformer
17 Related Articles

IEC 61850 PDF -

Ergonomics in Automation

Generally a transformer is an electrical device or machine which inductively transfers the
electrical power operating at a particular current and voltage of one circuit to the other circuit
which is operating at di erent current and voltage level. Most of the transformers are
manufactured such that their characteristics must match for special application requirements
such as constant current, constant voltage, higher impedance, etc.
The most common types of transformers found in electrical transmission systems, industries
and electronic applications include power transformers, instrument transformers, tap changing
transformers, auto transformers, RF transformer, audio transformers, etc. They all are di erent in
size, ratings and shape with one another but the basic principle of operation of all these are
same. The various types of transformers are discussed in this article so let us have a look on

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IEC 61850 PDF -

Ergonomics in Automation

Power Transformer
Some of the power transformers are used in generating stations, substations and power
transmission lines for either stepping down or stepping up the voltage. By using step-up
power transformer, the voltage level in the transmission line is increased, thereby low current
ows through the line. Therefore, I2R losses in the transmission lines are reduced. The step-
down power transformers are used to supply loads in industries at its rated voltages.

Some of the power transformers also supply the power to the electronic circuits. The power
transformer can be single or three phase units based on the application it is employed for. With
respect to the unique features of tap changing transformer, auto transformer and distribution
transformers are generally belongs to the family of power transformers. Some power
transformers are discussed below.

Laminated Core Type Transformer

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range. These types of transformers are used in electric power transmission and also in
appliances to supply the low voltage. This transformer consists of a laminated core to reduce
the eddy currents. A core of thin steel or CRGO or CRNGO ‘E’ and ‘I’ laminations are used for
low and high power transformers which can be single or three phase transformers. These
laminations are clamped together with bolts. Both primary and secondary windings are wound
on a former and are placed around the central limb of the core. These transformers use split
bobbin to provide high insulation between the windings for small appliances. Between the
primary and secondary, shields may be used to reduce the electromagnetic interference.


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Toroidal Core Transformers

This type of transformer o ers many advantages over laminated core transformer that it
provides quite and e cient operation with reduced stray or external magnetic elds. Due to
less weight and small size, these are easily designed for any application operating either low
or high voltage. A highly e cient donut shaped core is used which is made from grain oriented
silicon iron and is cut to form a ribbon of steel. This core is further wrapped by copper windings
like a very tight clock spring. Compared to the EI laminated core transformer, toroidal core
transformers are more expensive. However, for a given rating a smaller and lighter will be the
toroidal transformer compared with EI laminated type transformer. Also, it provides less

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thousands of VA’s. Mostly, they come with center single hole mounting by a bolt with washers
and rubber pads.

Toroidal Core Transformers

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Auto Transformer
Auto transformers are di erent from standard two or three winding transformer as it contains
only a single winding that acts as both primary and secondary. In this, the part of this single
winding is common for both primary and secondary and hence these are electrically
connected (two windings are electrically isolated in case of traditional transformer). So this
transformer works on conduction as well as induction. In this, a laminated core is wound by a
single winding and part of this winding is divided into primary and secondary.

These are classi ed into step-up and step-down auto transformer. In step-down auto
transformer, full winding acts as primary and the part of it act as secondary and hence voltage
induced in the secondary is low as compared with primary. On other hand, reverse will be the
case for a step-up transformer. Three phase power transformers are used in power distribution
systems which can be either star or delta connected auto transformers. But mostly star
connected auto transformers are used for high power applications.

Variable auto transformers comes with number tappings on single winding and secondary

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is produced in the secondary which is equal to the turns ratio between the whole winding and
the tapping.

Auto transformers are used as stators for safe start of various electrical machines like
synchronous motors, induction motors, etc. And these are also used as furnace transformers
and boosters.

Auto Transformer

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Poly Phase Transformer

This type of transformer is commonly employed for three phase electric power systems such
as power grids and transmission lines that they transfer large amounts of high voltages. These
are most economical due to the widespread use of three phase AC generation, transmission,
distribution and utilization systems. This type of transformer consists of three windings which
are wound around three legged core and immersed in a tank. These primary and secondary
windings can be connected in di erent combination of the connections such as star-star, star-
delta, delta-delta and delta-star. These can be a step-up or step-down three phase
transformers depend on the application or load. Due to the common core for all the windings,
the lesser will be the leakage magnetic ux and hence e ciency of the transformer is high.

Polyphase Transformer

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Oil cooled transformer are large power transformers used in various units ranges from large
generating station or substation units to power distribution units. These transformers are lled
with standard transformer oil (or mineral oil) to provide the cooling as well as insulation to the
windings and core. In oil cooled transformers, core and coils are submerged or immersed in
the liquid or oil. As compared to the air cooled transformers, oil provides better insulation and
acts as a better conductor of heat. These types include

Oil Immersed Self Cooled Transformers

In this type heat generated by the core and windings is passed to the oil by conduction
process. When the heat of the oil rises due to the core and winding temperature, oil starts
moving inside the tank and reaches to its walls where this heat is taken away naturally by
ambient air. This oil continues to circulate and hence dissipates heat in the atmosphere.

Oil Immersed Forced Air Cooled Transformers

In this type of cooling method, heat dissipation is improved by directing the forced air on the
transformer outer surface using fans. These fans operate automatically when the temperature
reaches to a certain level.

Oil Immersed Water Cooled Transformers.

In this type, heat is extracted or dissipated by means of forced water pumped through the coils
immersed in the oil just below the top of the tank. This water is further cooled in heat
exchangers, or spray ponds, or cooling towers.

Oil Immersed Forced Oil Cooled Transformers.

In this type, heat is extracted by circulating the forced oil using the pump. The oil is pumped
upward to the windings and then back by the way of external radiators such that the heat is
dissipated by the forced air from fans in the external radiators. This type of cooling is used for
very high capacity transformers and in such cases air blast cooling radiator is used.

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Oil Cooled Transformers

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Grounding Transformers
These are used to create a ground path for delta connected or ungrounded star or Wye
connected systems. This transformer provides a low impedance path to the ground and hence
the system is maintained at neutral or ground or zero potential. When a single line to ground
fault occurs on an isolated or ungrounded system, there exists no return path for the fault
current. Hence no current ows through the faulty line, but this causes to raise the voltage on
the other two lines. This results to overstressing of the transformer insulation and on other
components. Hence, a grounding transformer provides a path to ground to prevent this.

Most commonly these are of single winding transformers with zigzag con guration and in
some cases these are incorporated with special star-delta con guration. The star connection of
the primary is connected to the supply system and the delta connected secondary remains
unloaded. For a grounding transformer, load on the secondary is short time i.e., in the event of
fault, hence the power ratings of grounding transformer is lesser compared to power
transformers. These are designed to carry the no load and if one of the lines becomes
grounded it supplies the current to the load. Because of this, the grounding transformer size
and cost are less compared with continuous duty power transformer. These are mostly used in
electrical transmission, utilities and industrial systems.

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Leakage Transformers
These are designed in such that they have large leakage inductance compared with other
transformers by binding primary and secondary windings loosely. These are also called as
stray- eld transformers. Due to this loose coupling between the primary and secondary
windings, it provides inherent current limitation which helps to prevent the overloads.
Therefore, under all operating conditions or even short circuit of secondary, the input and
output currents are low enough to prevent the thermal overload conditions. This type of
transformers is mainly used as welding transformers in arc welding, in such cases the short
circuit currents are produced if the electrode gets in touch with the job. But, due to the high
leakage inductance these currents are limited. Other applications of these transformers
include high voltage discharge lamps and extra-low voltage applications where frequent short
circuit conditions are expected such as children toys and door bell installations.


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Resonant Transformer
It is a high voltage transformer that consists of two high Q coils (primary and secondary) that
are wounded on either same ferrite or air core with capacitors are connected across the
windings. This combination of an inductor with capacitor makes two coupled LC circuits. In
some cases only secondary consists of capacitor thereby acts as a resonant coil.

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square wave in such that every pulse produces sinusoidal oscillations in tuned secondary. Due
to the resonance, a high voltage is generated across the secondary. Hence, these transformers
are used to generate high AC voltages. These are also used in electronic ballasts to light up
the uorescent lamps. Other applications of these transformers are radio transmitters, super
heterodyne radio receivers, ignition systems, etc.

Another form of resonant transformers is a constant voltage transformer. By arranging the ferro
–resonant tank circuit in the secondary and by choosing proper magnetic properties of the
core, transformer can produce the constant voltage in secondary for a varying input voltage
across the primary. The capacitor connected in the secondary draws current from it and
saturates the secondary ux. Due to this saturation of ux, constant output voltage is produced
across the load or secondary terminals even for a large change of input voltage.

Resonant Transformer

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Isolating Transformer
Mainly for safety purposes, these transformers are used to isolate the equipment or load from
the power source. It links the two circuits magnetically and separates them by not providing
any conducting path between them. Any isolation transformer has turns ratio of unity that
means these are about 1:1 transformers. These transformers provide the galvanic isolation such
that the electric shock gets prevented. These are used in medical equipments so that any
leakage of AC power into the devices connected to the patients prevented by this transformer.
And also by using shielded type isolation transformers, coupling magnetic noise is prevented.
In addition to the isolation and noise ltering, these are used as surge suppressors.

isolating transformer

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Instrument transformers are used to protect or isolate the metering equipment, relays,
instruments, and other control devices from the circuit which is operating at high voltage and
currents and in which electrical quantities are to be measured. These are specially designed
for the use of electrical instruments such as ammeters, voltmeters, watt meters, protective
relays, energy meters, etc. to increase their range of measurement. These serve as voltage and
current level conversion equipments from a high voltage circuitry to the levels suitable for
measurement. The classi cation of instrument transformers includes both voltage and current

Instrument Transformer

Current Transformers

These are used to step-down the current levels so that ammeters, current coils of other
instruments and relays are need not be connected directly to the high power operating circuit.
Hence, all these instruments are isolated from high power circuit. A current transformer
consists of separate primary and secondary windings. The primary consists of one or a few
turns of heavy wire wound on a laminated core. This winding is connected in series with one of
the power lines. In some CT’s, line conductor or wire itself serves as primary which is passing
through the core. The secondary winding consists of a large number of turns of a small size
wire which is wounded on the core. This winding is connected to instruments or relays. The
usual standard rating of secondary current of a CT is 5A. And the primary winding current is
determined by the maximum value of the load current.

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Current Transformers

Potential Transformers

These transformers operate as similar to the standard power transformer, but only di erence is
that these are small capacity transformers. These are used to step-down the voltage levels in
the high power circuit to levels suitable for measuring range. PT’s are connected parallel
across the line in which electrical parameters to be measured or protective system is to be
connected. The primary or high voltage side winding is connected between one of the power
lines to ground or between phase to phase lines. The secondary or low voltage side winding is
connected to the load or potential coils of the various instruments and relays or other control
equipments. Most commonly, the secondary winding is wounded for 115 or 120 volts.


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Combined Instrument Transformer

This type of transformers can accommodate both current and voltage transformers in a single
free standing unit. This type of transformers converts voltages and currents to the standardized
low and measurable values which are useful for metering, protection and other high voltage
control systems. This results to the optimum use of space and less supporting structures and
mounting pads. These are mainly used in protective relaying and revenue metering

Combined Instrument Transformer

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Pulse Transformer
Pulse transformers are used to transmit the rectangular electric pulses of constant magnitude
with fast rise and fall times from one circuit to the other by maintaining the isolation between
them. These can be small signal, or medium sized power, or high voltage pulse transformers.
In order to reduce the distortion of the rectangular pulse, these transformers must have low
leakage inductance, high open circuit inductance and low tolerance for distributed
capacitance. Signal type pulse transformers are smaller transformers that are used in
telecommunication and digital logic circuits. Medium sized pulse transformers are power pulse
transformers that are used in protection systems, power control circuits, camera ashes, etc.
These transformers require low coupling capacitances to protect the primary side circuits
against transients from the electrical loads. Large power pulse transformers are used in high
frequency power converters to interface the low power control circuitry to the high voltage

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systems, and other pulsed power applications.

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RF Transformers
RF transformers are used in a variety of electronic circuits for several reasons such as
impedance matching to transfer maximum power, DC isolation between the circuits, voltage
and current step-up or step-down, interfacing between unbalanced and balanced circuits, etc.
These transformers come as connector packages, surface mount packages and other di erent
con gurations. The steel laminations are not used for RF transformers. The working
frequencies of this transformer are ranging from 30 KHz to 30 MHz and most often by the
addition of capacitor to one winding helps to tune their windings for a particular frequency.

These can be air core, ferrite core, balun type transformers. Air core RF transformers used in
printed circuit boards such that a few turns of a wire are soldered onto it. Ferrite core
transformers are used in superheterodyne radio receivers which are mostly tuned type
transformers. Balun transformers are used to connect the unbalanced and balanced circuits
such as balanced ampli ers (common mode rejection applications).

RF Transformers

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Audio Transformer
Audio transformers are specially designed transformers used to carry the audio signal in audio
circuits. The working frequencies are ranging from 20 Hz to 20 KHz for this type of transformer.

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voltage, converting a circuit from balanced to unbalanced and vice-versa, decrease or increase
of impedance of a circuit, blocking DC component of current and allowing AC signal, and to
provide electrical galvanic isolation from one audio device to the other. These types of
transformers include microphone input, line input, moving-coil phono input, line output, inter-
stage and power output, microphone output, splitter, impedance conversion, direct box, Hum
eliminators, loudspeaker toroidal AF transformers, etc.

Audio Transformer

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Rotary Transformer
Many applications need electrical energy that has to be transferred to the rotating parts. In
such cases these transformers is used. Most of the devices or machines that use slip rings and
brushes are replaced with rotary transformers. Basically, these are similar to the conventional
transformers, except they are arranged in such that both primary and secondary windings can
be rotated. Most commonly, these are axial rotary and at plane rotary transformers. The power
transfer between primary and secondary is accomplished by electromagnetic induction
through an air gap. This type of transformers has no wearing contacts, or contamination
problems due to lubrication, noise, etc. These are most commonly used in grinding
applications, torque sensors placed on electric motors, video cassette recorders, etc.

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Rotary Transformer

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Three Phase Introduction to Step Down Transformer Potential Transformers

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Circuit Test on Correction

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pH Theory Guide



antonio jorge says

APRIL 20, 2017 AT 6:23 PM

Please i need a power transformer manufactured by ALLTRONICS with the speci cation::

class 3 / ISC CL 15J (f) / p/n w 10 11 16 28

model wto 57 035r

output 33 vac (200 mA) 11 vac (1.6 mA) 3.3 vac (400 mA) 3.3 vac (400 mA) (4 points)

input : 120 vac 60 hz


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