Sei sulla pagina 1di 28

Rizal’s

Biography
19th Century
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
▪ After 1830
▪ Growth of an export economy
▪ Growth of a Filipino middle class
▪ Agricultural export economy
2
19th Century
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
▪ Friar haciendas
▪ Inquilinos
▪ Opening of the Suez Canal
3
19th century
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT
▫ Corrupt and opportunistic civil servants
▫ Inability of the colonial government to
provide basic social services and public
works
▫ Guardia Civil
▫ Antiquated tax system
4
19th century
CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
▫ An emerging middle class
▫ Nascent Filipino nationalism
▫ Role of education
▫ 5% of the population could speak
and understand Spanish 5

“If only our
ancestors could
be resurrected!”
-- Rizal, 1890, 90
6
What do we expect to learn?

7
Rizal’s Life
Turning points

Based on Austin Coates’


Rizal: Philippine Nationalist and Martyr
8
1861-1882
YOUTH IN MEDIEVAL
TWILIGHT
1861-1882
1. Childhood in Calamba
2. The Frailocracy
3. Student of the Jesuits
4. University of Santo Tomas
5. Departure on a Mission
10
“The Filipinos in the last half of
the nineteenth century were
not Orientals but medieval
Europeans.” -- Austin Craig
11
12
https://www.flickr.com/photos/johntewell/6105257675
14
15
Dominicans in the
Philippines
- Owned the hacienda in
Calamba during Rizal’s
time
- Rizal’s family members
were inquilinos of the
Dominicans

https://twitter.com/govph/status/623336689759592449
16
Who were the
inquilinos?
Inquilinos
= renters/tenant
http://haciendadecalamba.blogspot.com/2012/06/chapter-ii-historical-
19

antecedent.html
16,424 hectares
Total land area of Hacienda de Calamba upon the Dominican acquisition in 1832

20
380 hectares
Land area leased by the Rizal family (1880)

21
22
Status was determined by
the following factors:

1. 2. 3. 4.
Landownership Wealth Education Skin Color

23
Principalia

Others
(i.e., indios, los
chinos)
24
Jose Saniel and
family of Argao,
Cebu

Principalia family

25
26
“Do you call those external practices faith? Or that

“ business in cords and scapulars, religion? Or the stories


of miracles and other fairy tales that we hear every day,
truth?

Is this the law of Jesus Christ? A God did not have to


let Himself be crucified for this, nor we assume the
obligation of eternal gratitude.

Superstition existed long before this; all that was


needed was to perfect it and to raise the price of the
merchandise.“ -- Elias
27
28