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FINITE-SIZE CORRECTIONS FOR 4-POINT PROBE MEASUREMENTS (rev 07Jan04)

With the probes centered on a very wide (lateral dimension d >> s ) and very thin
( thickness t << s) sample, with s the probe spacing, the resistivity is given by:

π V V
ρ= t   = 4.5324 t  
ln(2)  I  I

For a sample of finite width and non-negligible thickness this should be multiplied by
correction factors f1 and f2 :

π V V
ρ= t   f1f 2 = 4.5324 t   f1f 2
ln(2)  I  I

where
f1 = f1 (t/s)= finite thickness correction :
f1 = f11 (t/s) = for an insulating
bottom boundary
ln(2)
f11 =
 sinh(t / s) 
ln 
 sinh(t / 2s) 

f1 = f12 (t/s) = for a conducting


bottom boundary
ln(2) in our probe: s=1.59 mm
f12 =
 cosh(t / s) 
ln 
 cosh(t / 2s) 

f11 ≈ 1 π  V  V
for t<<s, and ρ≈ t   f 2 = 4.5324 t  f 2
ln 2 I    I
2
f12 ≈ 8 ln(2) s2 8π s  V 
2
and ρ≈   f2
3 t 3 t  I
f11 = f12 ≈ 2 ln(2) s  V
for t>>s, and ρ ≈ 2π s   f 2
t I
f2 = finite width correction :

f2 = f2C (d/s) = for a circular sample of diameter d


f2 = f2R (a/d,d/s) = for a rectangular sample of width d and length a

for d/s >> 1, f2C = f2R ≈ 1

Original references:
A. Uhlir Jr., The Bell System Technical Journal 34, 105 (1955)
F.M.Smits, The Bell System Technical Journal 37, 711-718 (1958)
More easily accessible reference:
D.K. Schroeder, Semiconductor Material and Device Characterization, Wiley 1990.

1
0 .1 1 10
10 10
9 .5 9 .5
9 9
8 .5 8 .5
8 8
7 .5 7 .5
7 7
6 .5 6 .5
6 6
5 .5 5 .5
5 5
4 .5 4 .5
4 4
3 .5 3 .5
3 3
2 ln(2) s/t
2 .5 2 .5

2
f12 2

1 .5 1 .5
f1

1 1
0 .95 0 .95
0 .9 0 .9
0 .85 0 .85
0 .8 0 .8
0 .75 0 .75
0 .7 0 .7
0 .65 0 .65
0 .6 0 .6
0 .55 f1 1 0 .55
0 .5 0 .5
0 .45 0 .45
0 .4 0 .4
0 .35 0 .35
0 .3 0 .3

0 .25 0 .25
2 2
8 ln(2) s / 3 t
0 .2 0 .2

0 .15 0 .15

0 .1 0 .1

0 .1 1 10
t/s (thickn ess/probe sp acing)

Source.: F.M.Smits,"Measurement of Sheet Resisitivities with the Four-Point


Probe", The Bell System Technical Journal 37, 711-718 (1958)

2
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
1.00 1.00

0.95 0.95

0.90 0.90

0.85 0.85

0.80 0.80

0.75 0.75

0.70 0.70

0.65 0.65

0.60 0.60
f2
circle d iam e te r d
0.55 0.55
sq ua re side d
re ctan g le w id th d , le n gth 2d
0.50 0.50
re ctan g le w id th d , le n gth 3d
re cta n gle w idth d, le ng th >4 d
0.45 0.45

0.40 0.40

0.35 0.35

0.30 0.30
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
d/s (diam eter or w idth/probe spacing)

Source.: F.M.Smits,"Measurement of Sheet Resisitivities with the Four-Point


Probe", The Bell System Technical Journal 37, 711-718 (1958)