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Limitele functiilor elementare

Tabloul limitelor functiilor elementare f: X  Y, x 0  R , x 0 punct de acumulare al lui X.

Functia X Y Limite
lim f(x) lim f(x) lim f(x), x 0 finit
x x   x x0
Functia constanta R R c c c
f(x) = c
Functia identica pe R : R R  - x0
f(x) = x.
Functia polinomiala: R R  daca a k >0 -  daca a k >0, k impar f(x 0 )
k k 1
f(x) = a k x +a k 1 x + … + a1 x + a 0
-  daca a k <0  daca a k > 0, k par
 daca a k < 0, k impar
-  daca a k < 0, k par

Functia exponentiala  daca a > 1 0 daca a > 1 x0


a
x R (0,  ) 0 daca a (0, 1)  daca a (0, 1)
f(x) = a , a > 0, a  1

Functia radical
2k a) [0,  ) a) R a)  a) nu exista
a) f(x) = x , 1 k, k N a) 2k x0
2 k 1
b)f(x)= x , 1 k, k N b) R b) R b)  b) - 
b) 2 k 1 x 0

Functia logaritmica  daca a > 1 nu exista a) x 0  0 lim log a x = log a x 0


f(x) = log a x, a > 0, a  1 (0,  ) R -  daca a (0,1) x x0

b) x 0 = 0  lim log a x = -  daca a > 1


x 0
x0

lim log a x =  daca a (0,1)


x 0
x0

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Functia X Y Limite
lim f(x) lim f(x) lim f(x), x 0 finit
x x   x x0

Functia sinus R [-1, 1] nu exista nu exista sin x 0


f(x) = sin x
Functia cosinus R [-1, 1] nu exista nu exista cos x 0
f(x) = cos x
Functia tangenta R-    k  R nu exista nu exista 
f(x) = tg x 2 
a) x 0   k  lim tg x = tg x 0
2 x x0
k Z 
b) x 0 =  k  lim tg x =  , lim tg x = - 
2 
x   k

x   k
2 2
 
x   k x   k
2 2
Functia cotangenta R- k R nu exista nu exista a) x 0  k  lim ctg x = ctg x 0
f(x) = ctg x k Z x x0

b) x 0 = k  lim ctg x = -  , lim ctg x = 


x  k x  k
x  k x  k
Functia arcsinus [-1, 1]    nu are sens nu are sens a) x 0  (-1, 1)  lim arcsin x = arcsin x 0 ;
f(x) = arcsin x  2 , 2  x x0
 

b) x 0 = -1  lim arcsin x = - ;
x  1 2
x  1

c) x 0 = 1  lim arcsin x = ;
x 1 2
x 1
Functia arccosinus [-1, 1] [0,  ] nu are sens nu are sens a) x 0  (-1, 1)  lim arccos x = arccos x 0 ;
f(x) = arccos x x x0

b) x 0 = -1  lim arccos x =  ;
x  1
x  1

c) x 0 = 1  lim arccos x = 0
x 1
x 1
Functia arctangenta R      lim arctg x = arctg x 0
f(x) = arctg x  ,  - x x0
 2 2 2 2
Functia arccotangenta R 0,   0 
lim arcctg x = arcctg x 0
f(x) = arcctg x x x0

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