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AE 231 Thermodynamics

Recitation 7
Instructor: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Sinan Eyi
Problem 1
Question: One kilogram of water at 300°C expands against a
piston in a cylinder until it reaches ambient pressure, 100 kPa, at
which point the water has a quality of 90%. It may be assumed
that the expansion is reversible and adiabatic. What was the
initial pressure in the cylinder and how much work is done by
the water?
Solution:C.V. Water. Process: Reversible, Q = 0
m(u2 - u1) = 1Q2 - 1W2 = - 1W2
m(s2 - s1) = ∫ dQ/T + 1S2 gen = 0 + 0
=> s2 = s1
Problem 1
P2 = 100 kPa, x2 = 0.90 =>
s2 = 1.3026 + 0.9 × 6.0568 = 6.7537
u2 = 417.36 + 0.9 × 2088.7 = 2297.2
a) At T1 = 300°C, s1 = 6.7537
⇒ P1 = 2.048MPa, u1 = 2771.5 kJ/kg
b) 1W2 = m(u1 - u2) = 1(2771.5 - 2297.2)
1W2 = 474.3 kJ
Problem 2
Question: A rigid tank contains 2 kg of air at 200 kPa and
ambient temperature, 20°C. An electric current now passes
through a resistor inside the tank. After a total of 100 kJ of
electrical work has crossed the boundary, the air temperature
inside is 80°C. Is this possible?
Solution: C.V.: Air in Tank;
Ideal gas, R = 0.287 kJ/kg-K, Cv = 0.717 kJ/kg-K
1st Law: 1Q2 = m(u2 - u1) + 1W2 , 1W2 = -100 kJ
State 1: T1 = 20oC, P1 = 200 kPa, m1 = 2 kg
State 2: T2 = 80oC
Problem 2
Assume Constant Specific Heat
1Q2 = mCv(T2 - T1) + 1W2 = -14.0 kJ
2nd Law: ∆Snet = m(s2 - s1) - Qcv/To, Qcv = 1Q2
s2 - s1 = Cv ln (T2/T1) + Rln (V2/V1)
v2 = v1, ln (V2/V1) = 0
s2 - s1 = Cv ln (T2/T1) = 0.1335 kJ/kg-K
∆Snet = 0.3156 kJ/kg-K > 0, Process is Possible
Problem 3
Question: A mass of 2 kg ethane gas at 500 kPa, 100°C,
undergoes a reversible polytropic expansion with
exponent, n = 1.3, to a final temperature of the
ambient, 20°C. Calculate the total entropy generation
for the process if the heat is exchanged with the
ambient.
Problem 3
Solution:
P2 = P1(T2/T1)(n/n-1) = 500 (293.2/373.2)4.333 = 175.8kPa
s2 - s1 = CP0 ln (T2/T1) - R ln(P2/P1)
= 1.7662 ln(293.2/373.2) - 0.2765 ln(175.8/500) = -0.1371 kJ/kg K
2
P2V2 − PV R (T2 − T1 ) 0.2765 ( 293.2 − 373.2 )
1W2 = ∫ PdV = = = = 73.7 kJ / kg
1 1

1
1− n 1− n 1 − 1.3

1q2 = CV0 (T2-T1) + 1W2 = 1.4897(293.2 - 373.2) + 73.7 = -45.5 kJ/kg


∆SSYST = 2(-0.1371) = -0.2742 kJ/K
∆SSURR =-1Q2/T0 = +2 × 45.5/293.2 = +0.3104 kJ/K
Sgen = ∆SNET = -0.2742 + 0.3104 = +0.0362 kJ/K
Problem 4
Question: A cylinder fitted with a piston contains air at
400 K, 1.0 MPa, at which point the volume is 100 L. The
air now expands to a final state at 300 K, 200 kPa, and
during the process the cylinder receives heat transfer
from a heat source at 400 K. The work done by the air
is 70% of what the work would have been for a
reversible polytropic process between the same initial
and final states. Calculate the heat transfer and the net
entropy change for the process.
Problem 4
Solution:
C.V.: Air, R = 0.287 kJ/kg K, Cp = 1.004 kJ/kg-K, Cv =0.717 kJ/kg K
Actual 1W2 is 70% of that if the process were Reversible and
Polytropic.
State 1: (T, P), V1 = 100 L = 0.1 m3; m1 = P1V1/RT1 = 0.871 kg
State 2: T2 = 300K, P2 = 200 kPa
a) Assume Polytropic Reversible Process
1W2 = P dV = (P2V2 - P1V1)/(1 – n) = mR(T2 - T1)/(1 – n)
Find n such that (T1/T2) = (P1/P2)[(n-1)/n]
=> ln(T1/T2) = [(n-1)/n] ln(P1/P2)
Problem 4
1W2,rev = 0.871×0.287(300 - 400)/(1 - 1.2177) = 114.8 kJ
1W2,act = 0.7× 1W2,rev = 80.4 kJ
1st Law: 1Q2 = m(u2 - u1) + 1W2,act
Assume constant specific heat
1Q2 = mCv(T2 - T1) + 1W2,act = 18.0 kJ
b) 2nd Law: QH = 1Q2 , TH = 400K
s2 - s1 = CP ln(T2 / T1) - R ln(P2 / P1) = 0.1732 kJ/kg-K
∆Snet = m(s2 - s1) – QH/TH = 0.871×0.1732 - 18/400 = 0.1059 kJ/K