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A foreman thinks that low efficiency of the machine tool operators is directly linked to the
high level of fumes emitted in the workshop. He would like to prove this to his supervisor
through a research study.
a) Would this be a causal or a correlational study? Why?
This would be a causal study because this research was intended to prove the cause and
effect relation. The foreman wants to prove to his supervisor that the fumes are causing
operators to be low in their efficiency. Simply, machine tool operator is trying to
establish the fact that fumes cause low efficiency in employees.

b) Is this an exploratory, a descriptive, or a causal study? Why?

This is a causal study or hypothesis-testing because the machine tool operator wants to
establish a relationship between low efficiency caused by fume.

c) What kind of a study would this be: field study, lab experiment, or field experiment
and why?
This would be a field experiment because of the location of the study. The study would
be done in a natural environment where the work is normally done, the amount of fumes
will have to be manipulated while other factors such as atmospheric pressure may have to
be controlled.

d) What would be the unit of analysis? Why?

The unit of analysis would be the individual operators. The data will be collected with
respect to each operator and the conclusion will made on the basis of data.

e) Would this be a cross-sectional or a longitudinal study? Why?

This would be a longitudinal study because data will be gathered at more than one point
of time. At the initial point of the time the efficiency of the operators would be measured
at a given rate of fume emission. Then the volume of fume would be manipulated and
again the efficiency of workers would be measured.