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Why in heat transferred in solids by conduction?

Heat transferred in solids by conduction due to increase in kinetic energy of vibration.

When molecules at one end get heat energy and began to vibrate. When molecules
vibrate about their means position, they collide with neighboring molecules and the
kinetic energy of vibration is transmitted to the neighboring molecules.
2. Why are gases and liquids mainly heated by convection?
Thermal energy is transferred from hot places to cold places by convection.
Convection occurs when warmer areas of a liquid or gas rise to cooler areas in the
liquid or gas. Cooler liquid or gas then takes the place of the warmer areas which have
risen higher. This results in a continuous circulation pattern.
3. What do you mean by convection current?
Heat transfer in a gas or liquid by the circulation of currents from one region to
another.A current in a fluid that results from convection, The Pacific Plate is floating,
propelled by convection currents deep in the mantle.
4. Why are woolen warmer than cotton clothes?
Woolen clothes have large layer of dry air in its texture. As air is bad conductor of heat.
The air does not allow the heat produced in the heater, so woolen warmer than cotton
5. Why are mud houses colder in summer and warmer in winter?
Mud is a bad conductor of heat and thatched roof traps air in between the straw which
itself is a bad conductor of heat. Hence, mud houses with thatched roofs
are warmer during winter and cooler during summer.
6. Why are good absorbers of heat also good emitters?
The body must emit radiant energy at the same rate at which it absorbs, when a body
reaches in thermal equilibrium with its surroundings. Hence, a body that is a good
emitter must also be good absorber of radiation and vice versa.
7. Why is water in well cooler in summer and warmer in winter?
Temperature of underground water remains almost constant throughout the year
because water level is far below from the surface of Earth. Sun is not able to heat up
such deep water. The temperature of underground water is almost 10-20
degree Celsius. It can be different for different geographical regions. So, if temperature
outside is suppose 40 degree Celsius but underground water has only 15 °C, feel it as
cold. In winter, if temperature on surface of Earth is 0 or below 0 °C, well water with
approx. 15 degree Celsius temperature will definitely be felt as warm
8.“Ventilations are provided near the ceilings in a room” Explain.
Ventilations are provided near the ceilings in a room because hot vitiated air which
always ascends towards the ceiling can escape more easily.
9. Give three practical applications of thermal conductivity in everyday life.
Three practical applications of thermal conductivity in everyday life are as
1. Woolen clothes are warmer because they have fine pores filled with air.
2. Ice is packed in saw dust
3. In winter, iron chairs appear to be colder then the wooden chairs.
Long Questions
1. Distinguish between conduction, convection and radiation. How will you find
coefficient of thermal conductivity of good conductor by Searle’s Method?
conduction convection radiation
Material medium is Material medium is also Material medium is not
essential. essential. essential.
Transfer of heat can be in
Transfer of heat can be in Transfer of heat can be in
any directions in straight
any direction. vertically upward.
Electromagnetic waves
Molecules do not leave their Molecules move from one
move from one place to
mean positions. place to another place.
another place.

Coefficient of thermal conductivity of good conductor by Searle’s Method

Figure : Searle’s apparatus for thermal conductivity
Searle’s apparatus consist of a metal bar AB with cavities C1 and C2. One end and A
of the bar is enclosed inside the steam chamber and other and B is wounded by a
copper tube.
Thermometer T1 and T2 are fitted in cavities C1 and C2 respectively;
A and V is used to collect out coming water.
When steam is passed in to the stem chamber, in A gets heated and this heat is
conducted towards and B. After sometime, steady state is reached and all the
thermometers T1 T2 T3 T4 show constant reading.At steady state, the amount of heat
flowing in to the bar at end A is equal to the amount of heat flowing out from the end
B. If θ1θ2 θ3and θ4 respectively. Then amount of heat flowing in to the bar at end A
x is the distance between the cavities C1 and C2
A is the area of cross section of metal bar
K is the thermal conductivity and
T is the time where heat is flowing in to the bar.
M be the mass of water collected in t vessel V in time T. then amount of heat absorbed
by water at end B in steady state is
Where s is specific heat capacity of water
Hence, from equation 1 and 2
From this relation we can calculate thermal conductivity of a good conductor
2.Define the coefficient of thermal conductivity. Write its unit and dimension. Deduce
an expression for the thermal conductivity of a good conductor in steady state.
The coefficient of thermal conductivity of a material is defined as the amount of heat
flowing in one second across the faces of a cube of sides of unit length maintained at
temperature difference of unit degree.
Its unit is Wm.−1K−1Wm.−1K−1
Its dimension K is [MLT−3K−1][MLT−3K−1]
Experimentally it is found that under steady state condition, the quantity of heat Q
flowing through the section of the bar is
Directly proportional to the temperature difference
Directly proportional to the time t for the heat follows
Inversely proportional to the perpendicular distance between hot and cold faces.
Combining both 1,2,3,4 we get,
This is required expression

3. what is meant by a perfect black body? How can you realize such a body in practice?
A perfect black body is the one which absorbs heat radiation of all wave lengths that
fall upon it. Such a body neither reflects nor transmits the incident heat radiation and
hence the body appears black. But when heated, it emits radiation which is called
black radiation. The wave length range of emitted radiation is independent of the
material of the body and depends on temperature of the blackbody.

Figure; 22_2 black body

In practice no material has been found to absorb all incoming radiation, but carbon in
its graphite form absorbs all but about 3%. It is also a perfect emitter of radiation. At a
particular temperature the black body would emit the maximum amount of energy
possible for that temperature. This value is known as the black body radiation. It would
emit at every wavelength of light as it must be able to absorb every wavelength to be
sure of absorbing all incoming radiation. The maximum wavelength emitted by a black
body radiator is infinite. It also emits a definite amount of energy at each wavelength
for a particulartemperature, so standard black body radiation curves can be drawn for
each temperature, showing theenergy radiated at each wavelength. All objects emit
radiation above absolute zero.
4.State and explain Stefan’s law of black body radiation.
It states that the total amount of heat energy radiated per second per unit area of a
perfectly black body is directly proportional to fourth power of its absolute temperature.
If E be the heat energy radiated per second per unit area by a black body of absolute
temperature T1 Then,
T∝σT4∝σT4 …..1
If the body is not perfectly black, then
E is the emissivity of the body.
The heat energy radiated per second or power radiated by a body is given by,
When a black body of absolute temperature T1 is placed inside an in closer of absolute
temperature T0, Then black body radiates as well as absorbs heat energy.
The heat energy radiated per second per unit area by the black body is,
Heat energy absorbed per second per unit area by the black body is given
Net heat energy radiated per second per unit area by the body is
If body is not perfectly black, then
This is required expression