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DEPARTMENT OF
THEHISTORYOFAR'
k * OXFORD ■*
/
r DEPARTMENT OF N
THE HISTORY OF ART
*■ OXFORD *
^

u I
/
DICTIONARY
OF

GREEK AND ROMAN

BIOGRAPHY AND MYTHOLOGY.

VOL. II.
London :
A, and C. A. Spottiswoode,
N vvc -street- Square.
DICTIONARY
OF

GREEK AND ROMAN

BIOGRAPHY AND MYTHOLOGY.


EDITED BY

WILLIAM SMITH, LL.D.


miTOR Or THE "DICTIONARY or CREEK AND ROHAN ANTIQUITIES"

ILLUSTRATED BY NUMEROUS ENGRAVINGS ON WOOD.

IN THREE VOLUMES.
VOL. II.
EARINUS — NYX.

LONDON:
WALTON AND MABERLY, UPPER GOWER STREET;
AND TVT LANE, PATERNOSTER ROW :

JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET.


M.DCCC.LIV.
LIST OF WRITERS.

A. A. Alexander Allen, Ph. D.


C.T. A. Charles Thomas Arnold, M.A.
One of the Masters in Rugby School.
J. E.B. John Ernest Bode, M.A.
Student of Christ Church, Oxford.
Ch. A B. Christian A. Brandis,
Professor in the University of Bonn.
E H. B. Edward Herbert Bunbury, M. A.
Late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge.
A J. C. Albany James Christie, M. A.
Late Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford.
A. H. C. Arthur Hugh Clough, M.A.
Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford.
G.E.L. C. George Edward Lynch Cotton, M A.
Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge ; one of the Masters in
Rugby School.
S. D. Samuel Davidson, LL.D.
W. F. D. William Fishbcrn Donktn, M. A.
Savilian Professor of Astronomy in the University of Oxford.
W. B. D. "William Bodham Donne.
T.D. Thomas Dyer.
EE. Edward Elder, M.A.
Head Master of Durham School.
J. T. G. John Thomas Graves, M.A., F.R.S.
W. A. G. William Alexander Gheenhill, M.D.
Trinity College, Oxford.
A.G. Algernon Gbenfell, MA.
One of the Masters in Rugby School.
VI LIST OF WRITERS.

INITIALS. NAMES.

W. M. G. William Maxwell Gunk,


One of the Masters in the High School, Edinburgh.
W. I. William Ihne, Ph. D.
Of the University of Bonn.
B. J. Benjamin Jowett, M. A.
Fellow and Tutor of Baliol College, Oxford.
H. G. L. Henry George Liddell, M. A.
Head Master of Westminster School.
G. L. George Long, M. A
Late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge.
J. M. M. John Morell Mackenzie, M. A.
C. P. M. Charles Peter Mason, B. A.
Fellow of University College, London.
J. C. M Joseph Calrow Means.
H. H. M Henry Hart Milman, D.D.
Dean of St. Paul's.
A. de M Augustus de Morgan.
Professor of Mathematics in University College, London.
W. P. William Plate, LL. D.
C. E. P. CONSTANTINE ESTLIN PRICHARD, B. A.
Fellow of Baliol College, Oxford.
W. R. William Ramsay, M. A.
Professor of Humanity in the University of Glasgow.
L. S. Leonhard Schmitz, Ph. D., F.R. S.E.
Rector of the High School of Edinburgh.
P. S. Philip Smith, B. A.
Of University College, London.
A P. S. Arthur Penryhn Stanley, M. A.
Fellow and Tutor of University College, Oxford.
A. S. Adolph Stahr,
Professor in the Gymnasium of Oldenburg.
L. U. Ludwig Urlichs,
Professor in the University of Bonn.
R. W. Robert Whiston, M. A.
Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge.

The Articles which have no initials attached to them are written by the Editor.
LIST OF COINS ENGRAVED IN THE SECOND VOLUME.

In tie following list AV indicates that the coin is of gold, M of silver, JE of copper, 12E first bronze
Roman, 2JE second bronze Roman, 3^£ third bronze Roman. The weight of all gold and silver coins
if given, with the exception of the aurei and denarii, which are for the most part of nearly the same
weight respectively. When a coin has been reduced or enlarged in the drawing, the diameter of the
original coin is given in the last column, the numbers in which refer to the subjoined scale : those
which have no numbers affixed to them are of the same size in the drawing as the originals.

o -J s

281 Gordianus II a
282 Gordianus III a
298 Gracchus M
299 Granius a
808 Gratianus At
828 Hadrianus AV
842 Iiannibalianus aa
871 Helena :i.k
n Helena ta
407 Herennia Gens Al
«08 Herennius Etruscus . . a
428 Herod the Greek .... a:
480 Hieetas av 68)
487 llieron AV 68
a Id 428
459 Hieronymus a 8 31 3J
■11 498 Hirtius AV
157 m 516 Honorius AV
159 2 a 880 Hosidius Geta M
Al Hostilianus a
a 868 Idrieus a 232
1C1 2 FladHa ta (ill Iotape a
169 1 I Flavia Gens . . a 888 Juba I a 871
17S 2 Florianos. . . . :..V. 887 Juba II a 44
171 1 Floras, Aquillins a 638 Judex, Vettius a
a 642 Julia, daughter of Au
a gustus Al
a MSI Julia, daughter of Titus a
17* 2 Fonteias a 643 Jnlianus, Didius .... a
a 650 Julianas (emperor) . . . Al
a 675 JustinianuB AV
1(8 2 Fulvia Gens . . a 698 Labienus a
ItS 1 i Fmdania Gens . a 704 Porcius Laeca a
a 708 Laelianus Al
206 2 Galba a 731 Lentulus a
207 2 Galba (emperor) a 763 Lepidus, M. Aemilius . a
219 I Gaua Placidia . AV 764 ., Q. Aemilius . . a
221 1 , Gsllienns .... AV 766 Paullus, M. Aemilius . a
226 I I Gabs, Caniniua M 768 Lepidus, M., the trium
236 I Geffias a vir a
29 ljGeloa a 769 Paullus Aemilius Le
262 2 Gennanicun. . . ii pidus Al
26. 1 Geatius m 779 Libo, Marcius a
357 J Caracalla . . - - a
AV
780 Libo, ScriboniuB . . . . a
. .Geo . 780 Libo, Statilius ...... M
290 2 1 Gordianus At 784 Licinius Senior AV
VHl LIST OF COINS.

7!! I Licinius Junior. . . a 993 Maximus, Fabius . . . a.


785 Licinus, Porcius . . JR 997 Maximus, Magnus . . . Al
789 Livia 2.E 1026 Memmius, Quirinus . . Al
798 Longinus, Cassius . ML Memmius Gallus . . . . JR
806 Longus, Mussidius . Ai 1027 C. Memmius AI
809 Lucanus, Terentius . Al 1044 Mensor, Farsulcius . . . Al
82.5 Lucilla, Annia . . . a 1058 M. Metellus JR
870 Lysimachus . ... AV 132 C. Metellus JR
883 Macer, Clodius . . . M 1064 Metellus, Scipio . . . . Al
884 Macer, Licinius . . Al Al
Macer, Sepullius . . m 1065 L. Metellus ....:. Al
886 Macrianus Senior . Ai 1072 M. Mettius Al
Mm iianus Junior . Al 1092 Minucia Gens Al
887 Macrinus Al 1094 Mithridatcs, king of Ar
906 Majorianus .... AV menia A.
BIO Mamaea, Julia . . . Al 1103 Mithridatcs VI., king
912 Mamilia Gens . . . Al of Pontus AV 130}
831 Mannus Al "i 1117 Mostis JE
931 Marcellus Al 1121 Murcus, Statius . . . . Al
888 Marciana Al 1121 Musa, Pomponius . . . AI
84 1 Marcianus AV 1142 Nasidia Gens Al
86 1 Maridianus Al n Naso, Axius Al
Mariniana Al 1143 Natta, Pinarius . . . . JR
960 Marius, Aureliua . . Al 1159 Nepos, Julius AV
Martiniamis . . . . M Nepotianus ■2M
866
87J Matidia Al 1161 Neria Gens • . M
978 Mauricius AV 1166 Nero Ai
979 Mausolus M 383 1168 Nerra Al
980 Maxcntius 3JE 1190 Nicocles AV 118}
981 Maximianus I. . . . Al 119 Nicomedcs II M 251}
982 Maxiinianus II. . . 2JE 1198 Nicomedes HI M 238}
905 Maximums I. . . . M 1202 Niger, Pcscennius . . . JR
985 . Maximinus II. . . . 2JE 1202 Nigriuianas JR
987* 1 Maximus Caesar . . M 1207 Nonianus, Considius . . JR
090 2 Maximus, Egnatius M 1209 Norbanus JR
M 1214 Numerianus JR
JR 1215 Numitorius ' JR

V
A DIC T I ONARY
OP

GREEK AND ROMAN BIOGRAPHY


AND

MYTHOLOGY.

EBION. EBION
EA'RINUS, FLATIUS, a favourite eunuch of that the sect was flourishing in the time of Jerome
the emperor Domhian, in praise of whose beauty (a. d. cir. 400), though with its opinions much
there are several epigrams of Martial, and a poem modified and Christianized, inasmuch as it did not
of Statins. (Dion Cass, lxvii. 2 ; Mart. Epigr. is. desire to force the ceremonial law upon the Gen
12, 15, 14, 17, 18 ; Stat. Silv. ilL 4.) tiles, and fully admitted the authority of St. Paul.
FBION CESimv), the real or supposed founder It is needless to trace its progress farther, for in
•f the sect of Christians called Ebionites, by which fact Ebionism is only the type of a system which,
same, at least after the time of Irenaeus, were de in different forms, and adapted to various circum
signated all those who, though professing Christ's stances, has reappeared from time to time in almost
religion, thought it necessary to continue the ob- all ages of the Church. With regard to Ebion
aenance of the Mosaic law. The Ebionite doctrine himself, his existence is very doubtful. The first
therefore was a mere engrafting of Judaism upon person who asserts it is Tertullian, who is followed
Christianity. Generally speaking, the followers of by Augustine, Jerome, Epiphanius, and Theodoret.
this sect considered our Lord as a man chosen by The latter, however (Haer. fab. ii. 218), after
God to the office of Messiah, and furnished with saying, Toifnjr ttjs <pd\ayyos ^Ipif 'Z€mv, adds,
the divine power necessary for its fulfilment at the top Trruxoy oi outwj ol 'ESpaiot irpoaarfopt^ovaiv,
time of his baptism, which rite was performed by which may be compared with the derivation given
John, a* the representative of Elijah. They in for the name of the sect by Origen (contr. Celt. ii.
sisted on the necessity of circumcision, regarded 1), who considers it formed from the Hebrew
the earthly Jerusalem as still God's chosen city, word Ebion, poor, and knows of no such person as
and denounced St- Paul as a latitudinarian and a the supposed founder Ebion. Modern writers, es
heretic. (See, for the latter statement, Orig. Jerem, pecially Matter (Histoire du Gnotlidsmc, vol. ii.
flumil. xviii. 12.) It is, however, very difficult p. 320) and Ncander (in an appendix to his Gene-
to distinguish accurately the various shades of these titcke Entwickduny der vornchmstcn Gnostixhe Sya-
opiniooA, or to state at what time any particular tone, Berlin, 181 8, and also in his Kirchengesdiichte,
{arm of them was prevalent. Irenaeus certainly i. p. 612, &C.) deny Ebion's existence ; though
confounded varieties of opinion almost sufficient to Lightfoot says, that he is mentioned in the Je
constitute their holders two distinct sects, whereas rusalem Talmud as one of the founders of
Origen (e. Gad. v. 61) divides the Ebionites into sects. The authorities on both sides of the ques
two a 1 inse s, those who denied our Lord's miracu- tion are given by Burton. (Bampton Lectures, note
jotj* conception, and those who allowed it ; the lat 80.) If we reject the existence of Ebion, we must
ter admission of course implying, that the peculiar adopt Origen's derivation, though not with the ex
opereti'Tn of the Holy Spirit on the man Jesus de planation which he suggests, that it refers to the
veloped itself from the very commencement of his poverty of the Ebionite creed ; for such a name
irt. instead of first beginning to act at the parti- could not have been chosen by themselves, since it
cufcsr time of his consecration to the Messianic would have been in that sense a reproach ; nor
sniwon. The first traces of Ebionism are doubt- given by the Christians of Gentile origin, who
>» to at (bund in the New Testament, where we would not have chosen a title of Hebrew deriva
jv-ctxreize this doctrine as that of the Judaizing tion. It is better to suppose that the name Ebion
vachers in Galatia (GaL iii l,&c), the deniers of ites was originally applied to an ascetic sect, and
St. Paul's apottleship at Corinth (2 Cor. xi. 5, &c), gradually extended to all the Judaizing Christians.
u«e heretics opposed in the Epistle to the Colossians, For some of the ascetic Ebionites thought it wrong
and perhaps of those mentioned by St. John. (Uoh. to possess anything beyond that which was abso
a. IS, on which see Liicke, Commentar iiber die lutely necessary for their daily subsistence, holding
Brirft da EraMff. Johaxnet.) The " Clementineg,"a that the present world, not in its abuse, but in its
cjiWtion of homilies embodying these views, is very nature, is the exclusive domain of Satan.
jwobsfcly a work of the 2nd century ; and we find This is Ncander's explanation, [G. E. L. C]
TOL.O. 13
2 ECHEDEMUS. ECHEPOLUS.
EBURNUS, an agnomen of Q. Fabius Maxi- meet Publius and Lucius Scipio at Amphissa, and
mus, who was consul in b. c. 116. [Maxim is.] to obtain peace for the Aetolians. When the con
ECDE'MUS. [Dsmoph.ines.] sul Lucius refused to recede from the hard terms
E'CDICUS ("EkSikos), a Lacedaemonian, was which had been already proposed by the senate,
sent out with eight ships, in h. c. 391, to put down the Aetolians, by the advice of Echedemus, applied
the democratic party in Rhodes. On his arrival for and obtained a truce of six months, that they
however at Cnidus, he found that the forces of his might again send ambassadors on the subject to
opponents doubled his own, and he was therefore Rome. (Polyb. xxi. 2, 3; Liv. xxxvii. 6, 7.) [E. E.]
obliged to remain inactive. The Lacedaemonians, ECHE'MBROTUS ('Ex^Sporoj), an Arcadian
when they heard that he was not in a condition to flute-player (aOA^So's), who gained a prize in the
effect anything, sent Teleutias with a larger arma Pythian games about 01. 48. 3 (b. c. 586), and
ment to supersede him. (Xen. Hell. iv. 8. §§ 20— dedicated a tripod to the Theban Heracles, with
23 ; comp. Diod. xiv. 79, 97.) [E. E.] an inscription which is preserved in Pausanias (x.
ECEBO'LIUS ('Emj&fA.ioi), a sophist of Con 7. § 3), and from which we learn that he won the
stantinople, who in the reign of Constantine the prize by his melic poems and elegies, which were
Great pretended to be a Christian, but afterwards, sung to the accompaniment of the flute. [L. S.]
in the time of the emperor Julian, conducted him- ECHE'MENES ('Ex«m«>tii), is mentioned by
Belf as a zealous pagan. (Suid. s. v. ; Socrat. H. E. Athenaeus (xiii. p. 601) as the author of Kpirnira,
iii. IS.) [L. S.] from which a statement relating to the mythical
ECECHEI'RIA ('E«x"P'<>), that is, the ar history of Crete is there quoted. Vossius (de Hist.
mistice or trace, which was personified and repre Graec. p. 436, ed. Westerm.) proposes to read in
sented as a divine being at the entrance of the tem Fulgentius {Afythol. i. 14), Echemenes for Euxe-
ple of Zeus at Olympia ; there was a statue of Iphi- menes, who is there spoken of as the author of
tus, which Ececheiria was in the act of crowning. Mu9o\oyovfx*va, of which the first book is quoted.
(Paus. v. 10. § 3, 26. § 2.) [L. S.] But this conjecture is without support. [L. S.J
ECIIECLUS ("Ex«c\<is), a "on of Agenor, who E'CHEMON ('Ex^uui'), a son of Priam, who
•was slain by Achilles. (Horn. II. xx. 473; Paus. x. was killed, with his brother Chromius, by Diomcdes.
27.) A Trojan of the same name occurs in the (Horn. //. v. 160 ; Apollod. iii. 12. § 5.) [L. S.]
Iliad, (xvi. 692.) [L.S.] E'CHEMUS ("ExeM"), a Bon of Aeropus and
ECHE'CRATES ('Ex«p<*T»jt). 1. A Thcssa- grandson of Cepheus, succeeded Lycurgus as king
lian, was one of those whom the ministers of Pto of Arcadia. (Paus. viii. 4. § 7.) He was married
lemy Philopator, when they were preparing for to Timandra, a daughter of Tyndareus and Leda.
war with Antiochus the Great in b. c. 219, em (Apollod. iii. 10. § 6.) In his reign the Dorians
ployed in the levying of troops and their arrange invaded Peloponnesus, and Echemus succeeded in
ment into separate companies. He was entrusted slaying, in single combat, Hyllus, the son of Hera
with the command of the Greek forces in Ptolemy's cles. (Paus. viii. 5. $ 1, 45. $ 2; Schol. ad Find.
pay, and of all the mercenary cavalry, and did OL x. 79.) The fight was believed to have oc
good service in the war, especially at the battle of curred on the frontier, between Corinth and Me-
Raphia in a c. 217. (Polyb. v. 63, 65, 82, 85.) gara, and in the latter place Hyllus was buried.
2. Son of Demetrius of Cyrene by Olympias of (Paus. i. 41. $ 8, 44. $ 14.) After the fall of Hyl
Larissa, and brother of Antigonus Doson. He lus the Heracleidae were obliged to promise not to
had a son named Antigonus after his uncle. (Liv. repeat their attempts upon Peloponnesus within the
xl. 54 ; see vol. i. pp. 187, 189, b.) [E. E.] next fifty or hundred years, and the Tegcatans
ECHE'CRATES ('Exfpirvs), the name of were honoured with the privilege of commanding
three Pythagorean philosophers, mentioned by one wing of the Peloponnesian army, whenever the
Iamblichus. ( Vit. Pyth. ad fin.) inhabitants of the peninsula undertook an expedi
1. A Locrian, one of those to whom Plato is tion against a foreign enemy. (Herod, ix. 26 ;
said to have gone for instruction. (Cic. de Fin. v. Diod. iv. 58.) The fight of Echemus and Hyllus
29.) The name Cattus in Valerius Maximus (viii. was represented on the tomb of Echemus at Tegea.
7, Ext. 3) is perhaps an erroneous reading for (Paus. viii. 53. $ 5.) According to Stephanus of
Echecrates. Byzantium (s. v. 'EKa&fotta) Echemus accompanied
2. A Tarentine, probably the same who is men the Dioscuri in their expedition to Attica, whereas
tioned in Plat. Ep. 9. Plutarch (The*. 32) calls the Arcadian companions
3. Of Phlius, was contemporary with Aristox- of the Dioscuri Echedemus and Marathus. [L.S.]
enus the Peripatetic. (Diog. Lae'rU viii. 46; comp. ECHENE'US ('Ex»t)os), the eldest among the
Gell. iv. 1 1 ; Fabric. Bibl. Grate, i. p. 861.) [E.E.] nobles of Alcinous in the island of the Phaeacians.
ECHECRA'TIDES ('Ex«paT(87|j), a Peripa (Horn. Od. vii. 155, xi. 341.) [L. S.]
tetic philosopher, who is mentioned among the ECHEPHRON ('Zxi<t>i»»y). 1. A son of He
disciples of Aristotle. He is spoken of only by racles and Psophis, the daughter of Xanthus or
Stephanus of Byzantium (j. v. MrjBvuya), from Eryx. He was twin-brother of Promachus, and
whom we learn that he was a native of Methymna both had a herouni at Psophis. (Paus. viii. 24.
in Lesbos. §§1,3.)
Several other persons of this name, concerning 2. A son of Nestor by Eurvdice or Anaxibia.
whom nothing is known beyond what is contained (Horn. Od. iii. 413 ; Apollod. i". 9. § 9.) A third
in the passages where they occur, are mentioned Echephron is mentioned in Apollodorus. (iii. 12.
by Thucydides (i. Ill), Pausanias (x. 16. § 4), § 5.) [L. S.]
Aelian ( V. H. i. 25), Lucian {Timon, 7), and by ECHEPHY'LLIDES ('Ex«0uXA«nj\ a gram
Anyte in the Greek Anthologv. (vi. 123.) [L. S.] marian or historian, who is mentioned by Stephanus
ECHEDE'MUS [Echkmus.] of Byzantium (5. r. 2a>o*Tj|plo), and by the Scho
ECHEDE'MUS ('Ex«Wos), the chief of the liast on Plato"s Phaedon (p. 389). [L. S.]
Athenian embassy which was sent, in n. c. 1 90, to ECHEPO'LUS ('Ex^aAoj). The Homeric
ECHIDNA. ECHO. 3
poems mention two personages of this name, the but that she would not give them np, unless lie
•xf a Trojan, who was slain by Antilochus (//. iv. would consent to Btay with her for a time. Hera
457, Ax.), and the other a Sicyonian, who made cles complied with the request, and became by her
Ajamemnon a present of the mare Aethe, in order the father of Agathyrsus, Gelonus, and Scythes.
co*. to be obliged to accompany him to Troy. (II. The last of them became king of the Scythians, ac
xxii. 293. &c ) IL. S.j cording to his father's arrangement, because he was
ECH ESTRATL'S (/Ex^o-tooto-), son of Agis I., the only one among the three brothers that was
aad third of the Agio line of Spartan kings. In able to manage the bow which Heracles had left
hat reign the district of Cynuria on the Argive behind, and to use his father's girdle. (Herod, iv.
border was reduced. He was the father of Labotas 8—10.) [L. S.]
or Leobotra. king of Sparta. (Palis, iii. 2. § 2 ; ECHI'NADES. [Achklous.]
Herod. tS. 204.) [A.H.C.] ECHI'ON ('ExW). 1. One of the five sur
ECHETI'MUS ("Ex^T'-ios), of Sicyon, waB viving Spartae that had grown up from the dra
the husband of Nicagora, who was believed to have gon's teeth, which Cadmus had sown. (Apollod.
brought the image of Asclepius. in the form of a iii. 4. § I ; Hygin. Fab. 178 j Ov. Met. iii. 128.)
dragon, from Epidanrus to Sicyon, on a car drawn He was married to Agave, by whom he became the
by males. (Paus. ii. 10. $ 3.) [L. S] father of Penthcus. (Apollod. iii 5. § 2.) He is
ECHETLUS (*Ex«T*01)- a mysterious being, said to have dedicated a temple of Cybele in Boe-
about whom the following tradition was current at otia, and to have assisted Cadmus in the building
Athens. During the battle of Marathon there ap of Thebes. (Ov. Met.x. 686.)
peared among the Greeks a man, who resembled a 2. A son of Hermes and Antioneira at Alope.
rustic, and slew many of the barbarians with his (Hygin. Fab. 14 ; Apoilon. Rhod. i. 56.) He was
plotarh. After the battle, when he was searched a twin-brother of Erytus or Eurytua, together with
for, be was not to be found anywhere, and when whom he took part in the Calydonian hunt, and in
the Athenians consulted the oracle, they were com the expedition of the Argonauts, in which, as the
manded to worship the hero Echetlaeus, that is the son of Hermes, he acted the port of a cunning spy.
hero with the «*xer&n, or ploughshare. Echetlus (Pind. Pyth. iv. 179; Ov. McU viii. 311; coiup.
was to be seen in the painting in the Poccile, Orph. Argon. 134, where his mother is called
which represented the battle of Marathon. (Paus. Laothoe.) A third personage of this name, one of
i. 15. i 4, 32, | 4.) [L.S.] the giants, is mentioned by Claudian. (Gigaiit.
rTCHETUS CExrw), a crnel king of Epeirus, 104.) [L.S.]
who was the terror of all mortals. He was a son ECHI'ON, a painter and statuary, who flou
of Eocoenor and Phlogea. His daughter. Metope rished in the 107th Olympiad (b. c. 352). His
nr Amphissa, who had yielded to the embraces of most noted pictures were the following: Father
her lover Aechmodicus, was blinded by her father, Liber ; Tragedy and Comedy ; Scmiramis passing
and Aechmodicus was cruelly mutilated. Echetus from the state of a handmaid to that of a queen,
farther gave his daughter iron barleycorns, pro with an old woman carrying torches before her ; iu
mising to restore her sight, if she would grind them this picture the modesty of the new bride was ad
into flour. (Horn. Od. xviii. 83, &c, xxi. 307 ; mirably depicted. He is ranked by Pliny and
Apoilon. Rhod. iv. 1093 ; Euatath. ad Horn. p. Cicero with the greatest painters of Greece, Apelles,
1«3!>.) [L. S.] Melanthius, and Nicomachus. (Plin. xxxir. 8. s.
ECHIDNA ("Ex-"1"1), a daughter of Tartarus 19; xxxv. 7. s. 32 ; 10. s. 36. § 9.) The picture
and Ge (Apollod. ii. 1. § 2), or of Cbrysaor and in the Vatican, known as *• the Aldobrandini Mar
CaDirrboe (Hesiod. Tktcg. 295), and according to riage," is supposed by some to be a copy from the
others again, of Peiras and Styx. (Paus. viii. 18. " Bride " of Echion. ( Kugler, Handbook d. h'uiist-
LI.) Echidna was a monster, half maiden and gach. p. 236; MUUcr, Arch. d. KunsL, § 140, 3.)
If serpent, with black eyes, fearful and blood Hirt supposes that the name of the painter of
thirsty. She was the destruction of man, and be Alexander's marriage, whom Lucian praises so
came by Typhon the mother of the Chimaera, of highly, Action, is a corruption of Echion. (Gesch.
the many-beaded dog Orthus, of the hundred- d. Mid. Kiinste, pp. 265—268.) [P. S.J
headed dragon who guarded the apples of the Hea- E'CHIUS ("Ex"".)' Two mythical personages
perides, of the Colchian dragon, of the Sphinx, of this name occur in the Iliad ; the one a Greek
Cerberus, Scylla, Gorgon, the Lemaean Hydra, of and a son of Mecisteus, was slain by Politcs (viii.
the eagle which consumed the liver of Prometheus, 333, xv. 839), and the other, a Trojan, was slain
aad of the Nemean lion. (lies. Thcog. 307, &c. ; by Patroclus. (xvi. 416.) [L. S.]
ApoUod. ii. 3. § 1, 5. §§ 10, 11, iii. 5. § 8 j Hy ECHO ('Hx*>)) an Oreade, who when Zeus was
trin. Fab. Praef. p. 3, and Fab. 151.) She was playing with the nymphs, used to keep Hera at a
killed in her sleep by Argus Panoptes. (Apollod. distance by incessantly talking to her. In this
ii- '.. § 2.) According to Hesiod she lived with manner Hera was not able to detect her faithless
Tyjfcoa in a cave in the country of the Arimi, husband, and the nymphs had time to escape.
whereas the Greeks on the Euxine conceived her Hem, however, found out the deception, and she
to haie tived in Scythia. When Heracles, they punished Echo by changing her into an echo, that
said, carried away the oxen of Geryones, he also is, a being with no controul over its tongue, which
visited the conntry of the Scythians, which was is neither able to speak before anybody else lias
then still a desert. Once while he was asleep spoken, nor to be silent when somebody else has
there, his horses suddenly disappeared, and when spoken. Echo in this state fell desperately in love
ne woke and wandered about in search of them, he with Narcissus, but as her love was not returned,
caste into the country of Hylaea. He there found she pined away in grief, so that in the end there
thr monst/T Echidna in a cave. When he asked remained of her nothing but her voice. (Ov. Met.
theiher she knew anything about his horses, she iii. 356—401.) There were in Greece certain
answered, that they were in her own possession, porticoes, called the Porticoes of Echo, on account
b2
4 ECPHANTIDES. EGILIUS.
of the echo which was heard there ; thus, there is obtained by Nake from a comparison of Suidas
was one stoa at Hermione with a threefold, and (s. v. Eiit) with Hephaestion (xv. 13, p. 96, Gaisf. ;
one at Olympia with a sevenfold echo. (Paus. ii. see Gaisford's note). Ecphantides was said to have
35. § 6, v. 21. § 7.) Compare Wiesler, DieNymphe been assisted in composing his plays by his slave
Echo : einc hinstmytkologUche AUiandlunn. Go'ttin- Chokrilus. [P. S.]
gen. 1844. [L. S.] E'DECON ('ESfKoii-), an Iberian chief, called
ECLECTUS or ELECTUS, originally, it would Edesco by Livy. He came to Scipio at Tarraco,
appear, the frecdman of L. Verus, after whose in B. c. 209, and offered to surrender himself " to
death he enjoyed the protection of M. Aurelius, the faith of the Romans." requesting, at the same
became subsequently the chamberlain of Ummidius time, that his wife and children, who were among
Quadratus, and after his destruction was chosen to the hostages that had fallen into Scipio's hands at
fill the same office in the household of Commodus. the capture of New Carthage, might be restored to
The circumstances under which Eclectus, in con him. Scipio granted his prayer, and thereby greatly
junction with Laetus and Marcia, contrived the increased the Roman influence in Spain.
death of the tyrant and then forced the vacant Edecon was the first chief who, after the retreat
throne upon Pertinax, along with whom he eventu of Hasdrubal to the Pyrenees, saluted Scipio as
ally perished, are described elsewhere. [Com king, — a homage which the latter knew better
modus ; Laetus ; Marcia ; Pertinax.] than to accept. (Polyb. x. 34, 35, 40; Liv. xxvii.
(Capitolin. Ver. 9, expressly declares that the 17, 19.) [E. E.]
Eclectus who was the frecdman of Verus was the EDO'NUS ('H5Wo>), the mythical ancestor of
individual who murdered Commodus, while in the Edones in Thrace. (Steph. Byz. s. v. 'Howeioi.)
Dion Cassius, lxxii. 4, he is first introduced as the The name is therefore used also in the sense of
chamberlain of Quadratus. See also Dion Cass, "Thracian," and as Thrace was one of the principal
lxxii. 19, 22, lxxiii. 1 ; Capitolin. Pcrtin. 4, 11 ; seats of the worship of Dionysus, it further signifies
Herodian, i. .51, &c, ii. 1; Zonar. xii. 5.) [W. R] "Dionvsioc" or " Bacchantic." (Ov. Rem. Am,
Q. ECLO'GIUS or EULO'GIUS. According 593 ; Hor. Carm. ii. 7. 27.) [L. S.]
to the commonly received text of Suetonius ( Vitell. EDU'LICA or EDUSA, a Roman divinity,
1 ), Q, Eclagius or Eulogius was the author of a who was worshipped as the protectress of children,
little work on the history and genealogy of the and was believed to bless their food, just as Potina
Vitellii, in which the origin of the family was and Cuba blessed their drinking and their sleep.
traced from Faunus, king of the Aborigines. It (Augustin, de Cir. Dei, iv. 11 ; Vorro, ap. Ncm.
must be remarked, however, that the existence of p. 108; Arnob. iii. 25; Donat. ad Terent. Phorm.
a writer bearing this appellation depends upon a 11,11.) [L.S.]
conjectural emendation of Casaubon, who supposes EERIBOEA. [Eriboea.]
that his name at full length was Q. Vitellius Eclogita EETION ("HeiW), a king of the Placian Thcbe
or Eulogittt, and that he was a freedman of the in Cilicia, and father of Andromache and Podes.
emperor whose pedigree he investigated. [W. R.] (Horn, it vi. 396, xvii. 575.) He and seven of
ECPHA'NTIDES ('EKcpaxTiJTjs), an Athenian his sons were slain by Achilles (//. vi. 415, 4c),
comic poet of the old comedy, flourished after who proposed the mighty iron ball, which Eetion
Magnes, and a little before Cratinus and Tele- had once thrown, and which had come into the
cleides. (Nake, ChoerUus, p. 52.) He is called possession of Achilles, as one of the prizes at the
by Aspasius (ad Aristot. Eth. Nicom. iv. 2) toik funeral games of Patroclus. (II. xxiii. 826, &c.)
dyxaiw iroAoiOTOToi' vonyrfa which words some Among the booty which Achilles made in the
writers understand as implying that he was town of Eetion, we find especial mention of the
older than Chionides and Magnes. But we have horse Pedasus and the phorminx with a silver
the clear testimony of Aristotle (Poet. v. 3), that neck, on which Achilles played in his tent. (//.
all the poets before Magnes furnished their cho xv. 153, ix. 186.) There are two other mythical
ruses at their own expense, whereas the name personages of this name. (//. xxi. 40, &c. ; Paus.
of a person who was choragus for Ecphantides is ii. 4. § 4.) [L. S.]
mentioned also by Aristotle. (Polit. viii. 6.) EGE'RIA. [Aegeria.]
Again, a certain Androcles, to whom Cratinus and EGE'RIUS, the son of Aruns, who was the
Telecleidcs often refer, was also attacked by Ec brother of L. Tarquinius Priscus [Aruns, No. 1],
phantides, who could not, therefore, have flourished was bora after the death of his father ; and as De-
long before those poets. (Schol. Aristoph. Vap. maratus, the father of Aruns, died shortly after the
1 182.) The date of Ecphantides may be placed death of his son without knowing that his daughter-
about 01. 80 (b. c. 460), and onwards. The mean in-law was pregnant, none of his property was left
ing of the Burname of Kawias, which was given to to Egerius, from which circumstance, according to
Ecphantides by his rivals, has been much disputed, the legend, he derived his name. When the town
but it seems to imply a mixture of subtlety and of Collatia was taken by his uncle Tarquinius
obscurity. He ridiculed the rudeness of the old Priscus, Egerius was left in command of the place,
Megaric comedy, and was himself ridiculed on the and henceforth received, according to Dionysius,
same ground by Cratinus, Aristophanes, and the surname of Collatinus (though this name is
others. (Hesych. s. v. Kaircfos ; Schol. Aristoph. usually confined to his son L. Tarquinius Collatinus).
Vesp. 151 ; Nike, ClwerU. p. 52 ; Lehrs, QuaesU Egerius was afterwards sent against Fidenae in com
Epic. p. 23 ; Meineke, p. 36.) mand of the allied forces of Rome. [Collatinus.]
There is only one certain title of a play by Ec (Liv. L 34, 38 ; Dionvs. iii. 50, 57, comp. iv. 64.)
phantides extant, namely, the Stmipoi, a line of EGESI'NUS. [Hegesinus.]
which is preserved by Athenaeus (hi. p.96, b., c). EG ESTA. [Ackstks.]
Another play, Ilvpawos, is ascribed to him by L. EGI'LIUS, one of the three commissioners
Make on conjectural grounds ; but Meineke as who superintended the foundation of the colony
cribes it to Antiphaiies. Another title, fl«i»w«s, planted ut Luca, B.C. 177. (Liv.xli. 17.) [CP.M.J
EGNATIUS. EILEITHYIA. 6
EGNATIA GENS, a family of Samnite origin, father, a member of the senate, and retained that
■K at least of whom settled at Teanum. At the dignity when his father's name was struck off the
end of the social war the greater part of these ap rolls. He was disinherited by his father. (Cic.
pear to have removed to Rome, where two of them pro Cluenl. 48.)
were admitted into the senate (Cic pro Cluenl. 48), 5. Egnatius, probably a son of No. 4, accom
though a branch of the family seems still to hare panied Crassus on his expedition against the Par
remained at Teanum. (Cic ad All. vi. 1, mentions isians, and after the great defeat which Crassus
ore Egnatius Sidicinus.) We find the following sustained (b. c. 53), escaped from the scene of the
■nana borne by members of this gens : Celer, disaster with 300 horsemen. (Plut. Crassus, 27.)
MiXims, RtTFis and Veratiits. [C. P. M.] Appian (B. C. iv. 21) mentions two Egnatii,
EGNATIA MAXIMILLA, a descendant of father and son, who were included in the proscrip
that branch of the Egnatia gens which bore the tion of the year B. c. 43, and were slain by a sin
surname of Maximus, is mentioned by Tacitus gle blow, while locked in each other's arms. They
(Amm. xt. 71) as the wife of Glicius Gallus, who were perhaps the same with the two last.
was banished by the emperor Nero. She accom 6. Egnatius Sidicinus, mentioned by Cicero
panied her husband in his exile. [C. P. M.] as having had some money transactions with him.
EGNATIUS. 1. Geluus Egnatius, was {Ad Alt. vi. 1. §23.) (Egnatia Gens.]
leader of the Samnites in the third great Samnite 7. Egnatius, a poet who wrote before Virgil.
war, which broke oat n. c 298. By the end of Macrobius (Sat. vi. 5) quotes some lines from his
the second campaign, the Samnites appeared en poem De Rerum Natura. [C. P. M.]
tirely subdued ; but in the following year Gellius EGNATULEIUS, the name of a plebeian gens
Egnatius marched into Etruria, notwithstanding at Rome. The names of two only belonging to it
the presence of the Romans in Samnium, and have come down to us.
roused the Etruscans to a close co-operation against 1. C. Egnatuxeius, c. f., whose name is found
Rome. This had the effect of withdrawing the upon a coin figured below. The obverse represents
Roman troops for a time from Samnium ; but the the head of Apollo with C. Eunatvlei. C. (F.),
forces of the confederates were defeated by the and the reverse Victory and a trophy, with
combined armies of the consuls L. Volumnius and Rom(a) beneath. The letter Q indicates that the
Appro* Claudius. In the fourth campaign (a c. coin was a Quinarius or half a Denarius. (Eckhel,
295) Egnatius induced the Gauls and Umbrians Doctr. Num. voLv. p. 205.)
to join the confederacy ; but in consequence of the
withdrawal of the Etruscans and Umbrians, the
Gaols and Samnites fell back beyond the Apen
nines, and were met by the Romans near the
town of Sentinmn. A decisive battle, signalized
by the heroic devotion of P. Decius, ensued, in
which the confederate army was defeated, and
Xjrnatius slain. (Liv. x. 18—29.) 2. L. Egnatuleius, was quaestor in the year
2. MiRics Egnatius, one of the principal b. c. 44, and commanded the fourth legion, which
leaders of the Italian allies in the social or Marsian deserted from Antony to Octaviauus. As a re
war, which broke out B. c. 90. He was doubtless ward for his conduct on this occasion, Cicero pro
one of those twelve commanders, who were to be posed in the senate that he should be allowed to
chosen year by year by the allies, to serve under hold public offices three years before the legal time.
two consuls. ( Diod. Fragm. voL x. p. 186, ed. Bip.) (Cic Phil. iii. 3, 15, iv. 2, v. 19.) [C. P. M.]
In Livy be is called the leader of the Samnites. The EIDO'MENE (EiSojutwj), a daughter of Pheres
first of his exploits which we have mentioned is the and wife of Amythaon in Pylos, by whom she be
capture of Yenafrum, of which he made himself came the mother of Bias and Melampus. (Apollod.
Batter through treachery, and where he destroyed i. 9. § 11.) In another passage (ii. 2. § 2) Apol-
two cohorts. Not long after, near Teanum, in a de lodorus calls her a daughter of Abas. [L. S.j
file cf Mens Massicus, he fell unexpectedly on the EIDOTHEA (EiSoflt'o), a daughter of the
army of the consul L. Caesar, which he put to aged Proteus, who instructed Menelaus, in the is
tight. The Romans fled to Teanum, but lost a land of Pharos at the mouth of the river Aegyptus,
great number of men in crossing the Savo, over in what manner he might secure her father and
which there was but a single bridge. In the fol compel him to say in what way he should return
lowing year Egnatjus was killed in battle with the home. (Horn. Od. iv. 365, &c.)
Romans under the praetors C. Cosconius and Luc- There are three other mythical personages of
ccms. (Lir. EpU. Ixxv. ; Appian, B. C. i. 40, 41, this name. (Hygin. Fab. 182; Schol. ad Soph.
45.) Antui. 972 ; Anton. Lib. 30.) [L. S.]
It has been ingeniously conjectured (by Prosper EILEITHYIA (EiAefSuui), also called Elei-
Merrsite, in his JEtsai sur la Guerre Socwle) that thyia, Eilcthyia, or Elcutho. The ancients derive
the M. Marias of Sidicinnm mentioned by A. Gel- her name from the verb l\t$Buv, according to
firts as) bring not cteitatis nobilissimus homo, and which it would signify the coming or helping god
who was treated with such gross indignity by one dess. She was the goddess of birth, who came to
cf the consuls, probably of the year b. c 123, was the assistance of women in labour ; and when she
either the father or a near relative of Marios Eg- was kindly disposed, she furthered the birth, but
catins. when she was angry, she protracted the labour
3. Cn. Egnatius, a roan of somewhat disrepu and delayed the birth. These two functions were
table character, was admitted into the Roman se originally assigned to different EiKttBviai. (Horn.
nate, but was subsequently expelled by the censors. //. xi. 270, xvi. 187, xix. 103 ; comp. Paus. i. 44.
(Cic pro Ctent. 48.) §3; Hesych.s. v. EiAtiflufou.) Subsequently, how
4. Egnatius, a son of the former, was, like his ever, both functions were attributed to one divi
6 EIRENE. ELAGABALUS.
nity, and even in the Liter Homeric poems the occurs only on coins, and she is there represented
Cretan Eileithyia alone is mentioned. (Horn. as a youthful female, holding in her left arm a cor
Hymn, in Apoll. Del. 98, &c., Od. xix. 188.) Ac nucopia and in her right hand an olive branch or
cording to the Iliad the Eileithyiae were daughters the staff of Hermes. Sometimes also she appears
of Hera, the goddess of marriage, whom they obey in the act of burning a pile of arms, or carrying
ed. (Horn. II. xix. 119; comp. Pind. Nem. vii. init.j com-ears in her hand or upon her head. (Hirt.
Ov. Met. ix. 285, &c; Anton. Lib. 29.) Accord Mytliol. Bilderb. ii. p. 104.)
ing to Hesiod (Theog. 922) Zeus was the father of 2. A daughter of Poseidon and Melanthea, from
Eileithyia, and she was the sister of Hebe and whom the island of Calauria was, in early times,
Ares. (Apoltod. i. 3. § 1.) Artemis and Eileithyia called Eirene. (Plut. Quaes*. Gr. 19.) [L. S.]
were originally very different divinities, but there ELAEU'SIUS ("EAcuouo-iot), if the name be
■were still some features in their characters which correct, must have lived in or before the first
afterwards made them nearly identical. Artemis century after Christ, as he is quoted by Soranus
was believed to avert evil, and to protect what was (de Arte Obstetr. p. 210), who calls him one of the
young and tender, and sometimes she even assisted followers of Asclepiades, and says he was one of
women in labour. Artemis, moreover, was, like those physicians who considered that there were
Eileithyia, a maiden divinity; and although the certain diseases peculiar to the female sex, in op
latter was the daughter of the goddess of marriage position to some other medical writers who held
and the divine midwife, neither husband, nor lover, the contrary opinion. He wrote a work on chronic
nor children of her are mentioned. She punished diseases (XpoVia), of which the thirteenth book is
want of chastity by increasing the pains at the birth referred to by Soranus, but of which nothing now
of a child, and was therefore feared by maidens. remains. [W. A. 0.]
(Theocrit. xxvii. 28.) Frequent births, too, were ELAGA'BALUS. The Roman emperor com
displeasing to her. In an ancient hymn attributed monly known by this name, was the son of Julia
to Olen, which was sung in Delos, Eileithyia was Socmias and Sextus Varius Marcellus, and first
called the mother of Eros. (Paus. i. 18. § 5. ix. 27. cousin once removed to Caracal la. [See genealogical
§ 2.) Her worship appears to have been first table prefixed to the article Caracalla.] He
established among the Dorians in Crete, where was born at Emesa about a. d. 205, and was
she was believed to have been born in a cave in originally called Varius Avitus Bassianus, a series
the territory of Cnossus. From thence her wor of appellations derived from his father (Varius),
ship spread over Delos and Attica. According to maternal grandfather ( Avitus), and maternal great
a Delian tradition, Eileithyia was not born in grandfather (Bassianus). While yet almost a
Crete, but had come to Delos from the Hyperbo child he became, along with his first cousin Alex
reans, for the purpose of assisting Leto. (Herod, ander Severus, priest of Elagabalus, the Syro-
iv. 35.) She had a sanctuary at Athens, contain Phoenician Sun-god, to whose worship a gorgeous
ing three carved images of the goddess, which were temple was dedicated in his native city. The
covered all over down to the toes. Two were be history of his elevation to the purple, to which in
lieved to have been presented by Phaedra, and the earlier portion of his life he was not supposed
the third to have been brought by Erysichthon to possess any claim, was effected in a very singu
from Delos. (Paus. i. 8. § 15.) Her statues, how lar manner by his grandmother, Julia Maesa. She
ever, were not thus covered everywhere, as Pausa- had long enjoyed the splendours and dignities of
nias asserts, for at Aegion there was one in the imperial court in the society of her sister,
which the head, hands, and feet were uncovered. Julia Domna, the wife of Septimius Severus and
(Paus. vii. 23. § 5.) She had sanctuaries in va the mother of Geta and Caracalla. But after tho
rious places, such as Sparta (Paus. iii. 17. § 1, 14. murder of the latter by Macrinus, Maesa was com
§6), Cleitor (viii. 21. § 2), Messene (iv. 31. § 7), pelled to return to Syria, there to dwell in un-
Tcgea (viii. 48. § 5), Megara (i. 44. § 3), Her- honoured retirement. While still smarting under
mione (ii. 35. § 8), and other places. a reverse peculiarly galling to her haughty temper,
The Elionia, who was worshipped at Argos as she received intelligence that the army was already
the goddess of birth (Plut. Quaest. Rom. 49), was disgusted by the parsimony and rigid discipline of
probably the same as Eileithyia. (Bbttiger, 7ft- their new ruler, and was sighing for the luxury
thyia oder die Hexe, Weimar, 1799 j Midler, Dor. enjoyed under his predecessor. Maesa, skilled in
ii. 2. § 14.) [L. S.] court intrigues and familiar with revolutions, quickly
EIO'NEUS ('Hiovfvs), a son of Magnes, and perceived that this feeling might be turned to her
one of the suitors of Hippodameia, was slain by own advantage. A report was circulated with in
Oenomaus. (Paus. vi. 21. § 7 ; Schol. ad Eurip. dustrious rapidity that Elagabalus was not the son
Phoeti. 1748.) There are three other mythical of his reputed father, but the offspring of a secret
personages of this name. (Horn. //. vii. 11, x. 435; commerce between Soemias and Caracalla. The
Dia.) [L. S.] troops stationed in the vicinity to guard the Phoe
EIRE'NE (Eipiim). 1. The goddess of peace. nician border had already testified their admiration
After the victory of Timotheus over the Lacedae of the youth, whom they had seen upon their
monians, altars were erected to her at Athens at visits to Emesa gracefully performing the imposing
the public expense. (Corn. Nep. Timoth. 2 ; Plut. duties of his priesthood, and, having been further
dm. 13.) Her statue at Athens stood by the side propitiated by a liberal distribution of the wealth
of that of Amphiaraus, carrying in its arms Plutus, hoarded by Maesa, were easily persuaded to receive
the god of wealth (Paus. i. 8. § 3), and another Elagabalus with his whole family into the camp,
stood near that of Hestia in the Prytaneion. (i. 18, and to salute him as their sovereign by the title of
§ 3.) At Rome too, where peace (Pax) was wor M. Aurelius Antoninus, as if he had really been
shipped, she had a magnificent temple, which was the undoubted progeny and lawful heir of their
built by the emperor Vespasian. (Suet Vespas. 9 ; late monarch. These proceedings took place on
Paus. vi. 9. § 1.) The figure of Eirene or Pax the 16th of May, a. d. 218. Macrinus having re
ELAGABALUS. ELATUS. 7
ceiled information of what had happened, de parrots, with assembling companies of guests who
spatched Julianas with a body of troops to quell were all fat, or all lean, or all tall, or all short, or
tie insurrection. Bat these, instead of obeying all bald, or all gouty, and regaling them with mock
the orders of their general, were prevailed upon to repasts ; had he been content to occupy his leisure
join the mutineers. Whereupon Macrinus ad hours in solemnizing the nuptials of his favourito
vanced in person to meet his rival, was signally deity with the Trojan Pallas or the African Urania,
defeated in a battle fought on the borders of Syria and in making matches between the gods and god
and Phoenicia, and having escaped in disguise was desses all over Italy, men might have laughed
soon afterwards discovered, brought back, and put goodnaturedly, anticipating an increase of wisdom
to death. [Macrinus.] The conqueror hastened with increasing years. But unhappily even these
to Antioch, from whence he forwarded a letter to trivial amusements were not unfrequently accom
the senate, in which he at once assumed, without panied with cruelty and bloodshed. His earnest
waiting for the form of their consent, all the desig devotion to that god whose minister he had been,
nation* of Caesar, Imperator, son of Antoninus, and to whose favour he probably ascribed his eleva
grandson of Severn*, Pius, Felix, Augustus, and tion, might have been regarded as excusable or
Proconsul, together with the tribunitian authority. even justifiable had it not been attended with
At the same time he inveighed against the persecution and tyranny. The Roman populace
treachery of Macrinus towards his master, his low would with easy toleration have admitted and wor
birth, and his presumption in daring to adopt the shipped a new divinity, but they beheld with dis
title of emperor, concluding with a promise to con gust their emperor appearing in public, arrayed in
sult the best interest* of all classes of the com- the attire of a Syrian priest, dancing wild measures
vranity, and declaring that he intended to set up and chanting barbaric hymns ; they listened with
Augustus, whose age when he first grasped the horror to the tales of magic rites, and of human
reins of power he compared with his own, as a victims secretly slaughtered; they could scarcely
model for imitation. No resistance to these claims submit without indignation to the ordinance that
was testified on the part of the senate or people, an outlandish idol should take precedence of their
for we find from a curious inscription, discovered fathers' gods and of Jupiter himself, and still less
some years ago at Rome, that the Fratres Arvales could they consent to obey the decree subsequently
aurmbled in the Capitol on the 1 4th of July, that promulgated, that it should not be lawful to offer
is scarcely more than five weeks after the decisive homage at Rome to any other celestial power. But
victory over Macrinus, in order to offer up their by far the blackest of his offences were his sins
annual vows for the health and safety of their young against the decencies of both public and private
prince, who is distinguished by all the appellations life, the details of which are too horrible and too
enumerated above. disgusting to admit of description. (Dion Cass,
Elagabalus entered upon his second consulship lxxvii. 30—41, lxxix. ; Herodian, v. 4—23;
in A. r>. 219, at Xieomedeia, and from thence pro Lamprid- Elagab. ; Capitolin. Motrin. ; Eutrop.
ceeded to Rome, where he celebrated his accession viii. 13; Aurel. Vict, de Cues, xxiii., Epii. xxiii.)
by magnificent games, by prodigal largesses, and A coin of Elagabalus is given under Paula, the
by laving the foundation of a sumptuous shrine for wife of Elagabalus. [W. R.]
ha tutelary deity. Two years afterwards, when ELAPHUS ('EAopoj), the fifteenth in descent
h- had rendered himself alike odious and con from Aesculapius, the son of Chrysus and tho
temptible by all manner of follies and abominations, father of Hippolochus II., who lived probably in
he was persuaded by the politic Maesa to adopt the island of Cos in the sixth and fifth centuries
his first cousin, Alexander Severus, to proclaim B. c. (Said. ». v. 'lmroicpd'Tris ; Thessali Oratio,
him Caesar, and nominate him consul-elect. Soon ap. Hippocr. Opera, vol. iii. p. 840.) [W. A. G.]
after, having repented of these steps, he endeavoured EXARA ('EAapa), a daughter of Orchomenus
to procure the death of his kinsman, but was frus or Minyas, who became by Zeus the mother of tho
trated, partly by the watchfulness of his grand giant Tityus ; and Zeus, from fear of Hera, con
mother and partly by the zeal of the soldiers, with cealed her under the earth. (Apollod. i. 4. § 1 ;
whom Alexander was a great favourite. A repeti Apollon. Rhod. L 762 ; Eustath. ad Horn. p. 1583;
tion of a similar attempt the year following (a. d. Miiller, Orcliom. p. 185, 2d. edit.) [L. S.]
222) proved his own destruction; for a mutiny E'LASUS CEAoo-os). There are two Trojans
having arisen among the praetorians in consequence, of this name, one of whom was slain by Patroclus
he was slain along with Soemias in the camp while and the other by Neoptolemus. (Horn. II. xvi.
endeavouring to appease their fury. The two 696 ; Paus. x. 26. § 1.) [L. S.]
bodies were dragged through the streets and cast E'LATUS CE*otoj). 1. A son of Areas by
■Mo the Tiber, and hence the epithet or nickname Leaneira, Metaneira, or by the nymph Chrysope-
of TAmmtu, one of the many applied in scorn to leia. He was a brother of Azan and Apheidas,
the tyrant after bis death. and king of Arcadia. By his wife Laodiee he had
The reign of this prince, who perished at the four sons, Stymphalus, Aepytus, Cyllen, and IV
age of eighteen, after having occupied the throne rens. (Apollod. iii. 9. § 1, 10. § 3 ; Paus. viii. 4.
far three years, nine months, and four days, dating § 2.) He is also called the father of Ischys (Pind.
from the battle of Antioch, was characterised Pyth. iii. 31) and of Dotis. (Steph. Byz. a. v. Aw-
throughout by an accumulation of the most fantastic tioi>.) He is said to have resided on mount Cyl-
foGr, and the roost frantic superstition, together lene, and to have gone from thence to Phocis,
w-.th impurity so bestial that the particulars almost where he protected the Phocians and the Delphic
transcend the limits of credibility. Had he con sanctuary against the Phlegyans, and founded the
fined himself to the absurd practical jokes of which town of Elateia. (Paus. L c, x. 34. § 3.) A sta
so many have been recorded ; had he been satisfied tue of his stood in the market-place of Elateia, and
with Kipping on the tongues of peacocks and another at Tcgea. (Paus. x. 34. § 3, viii. 48. § fi.)
nightingales, with feeding lions on pheasant* and 2. A prince of the Lapithae at Larissa in 'Mica
I! ELECTRA. ELEOS.
aaly, was married to Hippeia, by whom he became himself known to Electra. All being thus cleared
the father of Caencus and Polyphemus, both of up, they travelled together to Mycenae, where
whom took part in the expedition of the Argonauts. Orestes killed the usurper Aletcs, and Electra
(Hygin. Fab. 1 1 ; Ov. Met. xii. 497.) He is some married Pylades. The Attic tragedians, Aeschylus,
times confounded with the Arcadian Elatus. (Miil- Sophocles, and Euripides, have used the story of
ler, Orchom. pp. 186, 191, 2d. edit) There are Electra very freely : the most perfect, however, is
four more mythical personages of this name. (Horn. that in the " Electra" of Sophocles. When Ae
//. vi. 33, Od. xxii. 268 ; Apollod. ii. 5. § 4 ; Apol- gisthus and Clytaemnestra, after the murder of
lon. Uhod. L 101.) [L. S.] Agamemnon, intended to kill young Orestes also,
ELECTRA ('H\(KTfa), i. e. the bright or bril Electra saved him by sending him under the pro
liant one. 1. A daughter of Oceanus and Tethys, tection of a slave to king Strophius at Phanote in
and the wife of Thaumas, by whom she became l'hocis, who had the boy educated together with
the mother of Iris and the Harpies, Ae'llo and his own son Pylades. Electra, in the mean
Ocypete. (Horn. Hymn, in Cer. 419 j Hes. Theog. time, was ever thinking on taking revenge upon
266 ; Apollod. i. 2. §§ 2, 6 ; Paus. iv. 33. § 6 ; the murderers of her father, and when Orestes had
Serv. ad Aen. iii. 212.) grown up to manhood, she sent secret messages to
2. A daughter of Atlas and Pleione, was one of him to remind him of his duty to avenge his fa
the seven Pleiades, and became by Zeus the mother ther. At length, Orestes came with Pylades to
of Jasion and Dardanus. (Apollod. iii. 10. § 1, Argos. A lock of hair which he had placed on
12. §§ 1, 3.) According to a tradition preserved the grave of his rather, was a sign to Electra that
in Servius {ad Am. i. 32, ii. 325, iii. 104, vii. 207) her brother was near. Orestes soon after made
she was the wife of the Italian king Corythus, by himself known to her, and informed her that he
whom she had a son Jasion; whereas by Zeus she was commanded by Apollo to avenge the death of
was the mother of Dardanus. (Comp. Serv. ad Aen. his father. Both lamented their misfortunes, and
i. 384, iii. 167; Tzetz. ad Lymph. 29.) Diodorus Electra urged him to carry his design into effect
(v. 48) calls Harmonia her daughter by Zeus. Orestes then agreed with her that he and Pylades
She is connected also with the legend about the should go into the house of Clytaemnestra, as
Palladium. When Electro, it is said, had come as strangers from Phocis, and tell her that Orestes
a suppliant to the Palladium, which Athena had was dead. This was done accordingly, and Ae
established, Zeus or Athena herself threw it into gisthus and Clytaemnestra fell by the hand of
the territory of Ilium, because it had been sullied Orestes, who gave Electra in marriage to his friend
by the hands of a woman who was no longer a Pylades. (Comp. Aeschyl. Eumcnides, and Euri
pure maiden, and king Ilus then built a temple to pides, Orestes.) She became by him the mother of
Zeus. (Apollod. iii. 12. § 3.) According to others Medon and Strophius. Her tomb was shewn in
it was Elcctra herself that brought the Palladium later times at Mycenae. (Paus. ii. 16. § 5.)
to Ilium, and gave it to her son Dardanus. (Schol. 5. A servant of Helen, was painted by Polyg-
ad Eurip. Phoen. 1 1 36.) When she saw the city notus in the Lesche at Delphi, in the act of kneel
of her son perishing in flames, she tore out her ing before her mistress and fastening her sandals.
hair for grief, and was thus placed among the stars (Paus. x. 25. § 2.)
as a comet. (Serv. ad Aen. x. 272.) According to A sixth Electra occurs among the daughters of
others, Electra and her six sisters were placed Danaus. (Apollod. ii. 1. § 5.) [L.&]
among the stars as the seven Pleiades, and lost ELE'CTRYON {'HXtKrpiay), a son of Perseus
their brilliancy on seeing the destruction of Ilium. and Andromeda, was king of Mycenae or Mideia
(Serv. ad Virg. Georg. i. 138 ; Eustath. ad Horn, in Argolis. (Paus. ii. 25. § 8.) He was married
p. 1 1 55.) The fabulous island of Elcctris was be to Anaxo, the daughter of Alcaeus, by whom he
lieved to have received its name from her. (Apol- had several children. (Apollod. ii. 4. § 5, &c.)
lon. Rhod. L 916.) The tradition about him is given under Amphi
3. A sister of Cadmus, from whom the Electrian tryon. Another Electrvon is mentioned by Dio
gate at Thebes was said to have received its name. dorus (iv. 67). [L. S.]
(Paus. ix. 8. y 3 ; Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. i. 916.) ELECTRYO'NE ('H*«cTpuJn)), a daughter of
4. A daughter of Agamemnon and Clytaemues- Helios and Rhodos. (Diod. v. 56 ; Schol. ad Find.
tra, is also called Laodice. (Eustath. ad Horn. p. 01. vii. 24.) The name is also used as a patrony
742.) She was the sister of Iphigeneia, Chrysothe- mic from Electryon, and given to his daughter,
niis, and Orestes. The conduct of her mother and Alcmene. (Hes. Sad. Here. 16.) [L. S.]
Aegisthus threw her into grief and great suffering, ELECTUS. [Eclbctus.]
and in consequence of it she became the accomplice ELEIUS fHAtws). 1. A son of Poseidon and
of Orestes in the murder of his mother. Her story, Eurydice, the daughter of Endymion, was king of
according to Hyginus {Fab. 122), runs thus : On the Epeians and father of Augeas. (Paus. v. 1.
receiving the false report that Orestes and Pylades § 6, &c.)
had been sacrificed to Artemis in Tauris, Aletcs, 2. A son of Amphimachus and king of Elis.
the son of Aegisthus, assumed the government of In his reign the sons of Aristomachus invaded
Mycenae ; but Electra, for the purpose of learning Peloponnesus. (Paus. v. 3. § 4.)
the particulars of her brother's death, went to Del 3. A son of Tantalus from whom the country
phi. On the day she reached the place, Orestes of Elis was believed to have received its name.
and Iphigeneia likewise arrived there, but the (Steph. By*. »• "• Trttis.) [L. S.]
same messenger who had before informed her of FLEOS ("EA»oi), the personification of pity or
the death of Orestes, now added, that he had been mercy, had an altar in the agora at Athens. "The
sacrificed by Iphigeneia. Electra, enraged at this, Athenians," says Pausanias (i. 17. § 1). "are the
snatched a firebrand from the altar, with the in only ones among the Hellenes that worship this
tention of putting her sister's eyes out with it divine being, and among all the gods this is the
But Orestes suddenly came to the spot, and made most useful to human life in all its vicissitudes."
ELEUTHER. EL1AS. 9
Tb jsc who Implored the assistance of the Athc- ELEUTHEREUS ('EAfuOfpeiis), a surname of
loii sach a* Adrastus and the Heiacleidae, ap- Dionysus, which he derived either from Eleuthcr,
jrachwf as suppliants the altar of Eleos. (Apollod. or the Boeotian town of Eleutherae ; but it may
ii. 8. § 1, iii. 7. § 1 ; Schol. ad Soph. Oed. Col. also be regarded as equivalent to the Latin Liber,
25* ) [L. S.] and thus describes Dionysus as the deliverer of man
ELEPHANTIS. the writer of certain amatory from care and sorrow. (Paus. i. 20. § 2, 38. § 8 ;
works (nulla Elrphanlidoa libelli), the character of Plut Quaest. Rom. 101.) The form Eleutherius is
which is sufficiently eTident from the notices con certainly used in the sense of the deliverer, and
tained in Martial and Suetonius. We know not occurs also as the surname of Zeus. ( Plut Sympos.
with certainty the sex of the author, nor in what vii. in fin.; Find. Ol. xiif 1 ; Strab. ix. p. 412;
language the pieces were composed, nor whether Tacit. Ann. xv. 64.) [L. S.]
ikey were expressed in prose or verse; but the ELIAS ("HXicu). This name, which is of
gramrrntiql form of the name seems to indicate Hebrew origin, belongs to several Greek writers,
that the person in question was a female, and that chiefly ecclesiastics, of the Byzantine empire.
she was either a Greek by birth or of Greek ex There were several prelates of the name in the
traction. By the historians of literature she is Oriental patriarchates and bishoprics, and several
generally ranked among the poetesses. (Martial, writers, chiefly ecclesiastics, in the Oriental tongues,
Ep. xii.*43. 5 ; Suet Tib. 43 ; Priapei. iii. ; Sui- for whom see Assemanni, Bibliotheca Orienlulu, and
•W, •. v. 'A<rrvaraff<rc ) Galen quotes a treatise Fabric. BibL Graec. vol.ix. p. 257, xL p. 614. We
xsfi torimriMam by this or some other Elephantis. give only those belonging to Greek biography. In
(Fabric BiU. Graec toL viii. p. 158 ; comp. Span- Latin the name is frequently written Helias.
heim, dt Praestastia et Csu Numism. Diss. ix. p. 1. 2. 3. Elias. There were three patriarchs of
771.) [W. R] Jerusalem of this name. Elias I. was patriarch from
ELEPHrTNOR fEAefnfwp), a son of Chalco- a. d. 494 or 495 till his deposition by a council held
dan. and prince of the Abantcs in Euboea, whom at Sidon, whose decree was enforced, a.d. 51 3, by the
he led against Troy in thirty or forty ships. He emperor Anastasius I. He died in exile a. d. 518.
there fell bv the hand of Agenor. (Horn. II. ii. Elias II. held the patriarchate from a. d. 760, or
540, iv. 463 ; Hygin. Fab. 97 ; Diet. Cret. i. 17.) earlier, to 797, with the exception of an interval,
Hyginus calk his mother Imenarete, and Tzetzes when he was expelled by an intrusive patriarch
(ad Lycapk. 1029) Melanippe. He is also men Theodoras. He was represented at the second
tioned among the suitors of Helen (Apollod. iii. general council of Nicaea, a. d. 787, by Joannes, a
10. $ 8), and was said to haTe taken with him to presbyter, and Thomas, principal of the convent of
Troy the sons of Theseus, who had been entrusted St Arsenius near Babylon in Egypt : these eccle
to his care. (Pint Tka. 35; Paus. i. 17. § 6.) siastics were also representatives of the patriarchs
According to Tzetxes, Elephenor, without being of Alexandria and Antioch. Elias III. was pa
aware of it, killed his grandfather, Abas, in con triarch at least as early as 881, when he sent a
sequence of which he was obliged to quit Euboea. letter to Charles le Gros and the prelates, princes,
When therefore the expedition against Troy was and nobles of Gaul. A Latin version of the letter of
undertaken, Elephenor did not return to Euboea, Elias to Charlemagne (for it is scarcely probable
but assembled the Abantcs on a rock on the Euri- that the original was in that language) was pub
pus. opposite the island. After the fall of Troy, lished in the Spicilegium of D'Achery. Elias died
which, according to some accounts, he survived, he about A. D. 907. (Papebroche, Tractatia prelimmaru
went to the island of Othronos near Sicily, and, de Epuoopis et Patriarchis Sancton Hierosolymuanae
driven away thence by a dragon, he went to Eccletiae in the Acta Sanctorum : Maii, vol. iii. with
Aaantia in'lllyria. (Lycophr. 1029,&c) [L. S.] the Appendix in vol. vii. p. 696, &c. ; Labbe, Con
ELEUSl'.NA or ELEUSI'NIA ('EAcwnWa), cilia, vol. vii. ; D'Achery, Spicileg. vol. iii. p. 363,
a surname of Demeter and Persephone, derived ed. Paris, 1723.)
fr»m Eleusis in Attica, the principal seat of their 4. Elias of Charax. A Manuscript in the
worship. (Virg. Geora. i. 163 ; Phornut. N. D. library of St. Mark at Venice contains a citation,
27 ; Steph- Byi. ». c. 'EAewrfj.) [L. S.] printed by Villoison, from a Greek treatise on ver
ELECSIS ("EAswrfi), a son of Hermes and sification by " Helias, a monk of Charax." Vil
Daeira, the daughter of Ocean us. The town of loison states that the passage cited by him is, in
EW&sii in Attica was believed to hare derived its several MSS. of the King's Library at Paris, im
same from him. (Pans. i. 38. § 7 ; Apollod. i. 5. properly ascribed to Plutarch. Harless incorrectly
| 2; Hygin. Fab. 147.) He was married to represents Villoison as speaking of two works of
Cothonea or Cyntinia. (Hygin. 1. c. ; Serv. ad Helias on versification, and without, or rather
r*% Geary, i 19.) [ !,. S. | against authority, connects the name of Elias of Crete
ELEUSIS ('EAewrij), is quoted by Diogenes with them. Part of this work is printed by Her
Laertio* (i. 29) as the author of a work on Achilles mann in an Appendix to his edition of Dracon of
(wt^i •AxtXAe^.f). (L. S.] Stratoniceia. [Dracon.] (Villoison, Anccd.Graec.
ELEUTHER ('EAeuftfp), a son of Apollo and vol. ii. pp. 85, 86 ; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. vi. p. 338.)
Aetboss, the daughter of Poseidon, was regarded 5. Elias of Critk. There are several works
an the founder of Eleutberae in Boeotia. (Steph. extant ascribed to Elias Cretensis, whom Radcr,
Byx, «. t. "XXtuOfpai.) lie was the grandfather Care, Fabricius, and others, suppose to hare been
of Jasias and Pocmander, the founder of Tanagra. Elias, bishop (or rather metropolitan) of Crete,
(Paus. ix. 20. f 2.) He is said to have been the who took part in the second general council of
fcrst that erected a statue of Dionysus, and spread Nicaea, a. n. 787. (Labbe, Concilia, vol. vii.)
the worship of the god. (Hygin. Fab. 225.) There Leunclavius considers that the author was a differ
are two other mythical personages of the same ent person from the prelate, and places the former
aame. (Plot, Qmeit. Or. 39 ; Steph. Byz. ». e. in the sixth century or thereabout (Prooemium
TMhfmi.) [I.. S.J in Sti GreyorU Nuzianzcni Opera.) Oudin, who
in ELIAS. ELLOPION.
has examined the subject most carefully, agrees some extracts from the same Elias in a MS. in the
with Lcunclavius in distinguishing the writer from Library of St. Mark at Venice. But nothing ap
the prelate, and deduces from the internal evidence pears to be known of the writer beyond his name.
of his works that the writer lived about A. D. 1 120 (Fabric Bibl. Grace, vol xi. p. 616.)
or 1130. 9. Elias Syncbllus. Leo Allatius has men
He wrote (1) Commentaries on teveral of the tioned some hymns or poems addressed to the Vir
Orations of Gregory Nazianzen. There are gin Mar}', remarkable for their beauty, piety, and
several MSS. extant of these commentaries in the elegance : he promised to publish them, but did
original Greek, but we believe they have never not fulfil his intention. Among the writers of them
been printed. A Latin version of them, partly he names Elias Syncellus. (Allatius, Notes to his
new, partly selected from former translations, was edition of Eustatliius of Antioch, p. 284.)
published by Billius with his Latin version of Montfaucon mentions a black-letter MS. appa
Gregory's works, and has been repeatedly reprinted. rently in Latin, belonging at that time to the mon
(2.) A Commentary on the KAi'jio^, Climar, astery of Cannes in Languedoc, entitled Reouies
M Scala Parodist," or Ladder of Paradise ofJoannes in Clementinas, by Elias or Helias. But who
or John surnamed Scholasticus or Climacus. This this Elias was, is not stated, nor whether the work
commentary, which has never been published, but was a version from the Greek, which the name of
is extant in MS., is described by Rader in his the writer would lead us to suppose. A MS. en
edition of the Climax, as very bulky. Some ex titled Theorica et Practica, by " Helias Salomon,"
tracts are embodied in the Scholia of a later com is also mentioned by Montfaucon, but we know
mentator given by Rader. nothing of the writer. (Montfaucon, Bibliotheca
(3.) An Ansicer respecting virgins espoused Bibliolheoarum, pp. 515, 1241.) [J.'C. M.]
before the age of puberty. This is extant in MS. ELICAON or HELICAON ('EAunfw), of
in the King's Library at Paris, in the catalogue of Rhegium, a Pythagorean philosopher. He is
which the author is described as the metropolitan mentioned along with other Pythagoreans, who
of Crete. gave good and wholesome lawB to Rhegium, and
(4.) . Answers to Dionysius the Monk on his endeavoured to make practical use of the phi
seven different questions, given by Binendius {Juris losophical principles of their master in the adminis
Orient Libri, iii. p. 185) and Leunclavius (Jus Gr. tration of their country. (Iamblich. Vit. Pythag.
Rom. i. p. 335). 27,30,36.) " [L. &]
It is not known that any other works of his ELI'CIUS, a surname of Jupiter at Rome,
are extant. Nicolaus Commenus in his Praeno- where king Numa dedicated to Jupiter Elicius an
tiones Mystagogicae cites other works, but they are altar on the Aventinc (Liv. i. 20.) The same
probably lost. One was On the Morals of Hie king was said to have instituted certain secret
Heathens, and the others were Answers to the rites to be performed in honour of the god, which
Monks of Corinth, To the Monks of A sea, and were recorded in his Commentarii. (Liv. i. 31.)
To the Solitary Monks. Harless incorrectly as The origin of the name as well as the notion of
cribes to Elias of Crete the work of Kiwis or Helias Jupiter Elicius is referred to the Etruscans, who
of Charax [see No. 4] on versification. (Cave, by certain prayers and sacrifices called forth
Hist. Lit. vol. i. p. 641 ; Rader, Isagoge ad Scalam (eliciebant or evocabani) lightning or invited Jupiter
Si. Joannis Climaci, prefixed to his edition of that to send lightning. (Plin. H. N. ii. 54 ; Ov. Fast.
work ; Oudin, Contmentarii de Scriptor. et Scriptis iii. 327, &c. ; Varro, de Ling. Lot. vi. 94.) The
Ecclesiasticis, vol. ii. col. 1066, &c ; Fabric BibL object of calling down lightning was according to
Grace, vol. viii. p. 430, ix. p. 525, xi. p. 615; Livy's explanation to elicit prodigies ejr mentibus
Catalogus Librorum Manuscriptorum Bibliothccae divinis ; and when the god appeared or sent his
Rcgiae, Paris, 1740.) lightning in anger, it was an unfortunate sign to
6. Elias, called, from the ecclesiastical office the person who had invited it. Seneca (Qpaest.
which he held, Ecdicus ("EkSikos), or " the De Nat ii. 49) attests that the ancients distinguished
fender," was the author of a Greek work on the a kind of lightning or fulmina, called fulmina Iws-
Ascetic life, extant in MS. in the Imperial Library pitalia, which it was possible for man to draw
at Vienna, and in the King's Library at Paris. down, and Pliny mentions Numa, Tullus Hostilius,
The work is said to be entitled Unyn valovaa. and Poraena, among the persons who in early
A Latin version of a part is given in the Biblio- times had called down lightning, though Tullus
theca Patrum, vol. xxii. p. 756, &c. ed. Lyons, 1677. and his family perished in the attempt. Some
In the catalogue of the King's Library at Paris is modern writers think that the belief in the pos
a Greek MS. containing, among other things, a sibility of calling down lightnings arose out of
Florilegium, or selection, said to be by " Helias, certain observations or experiments in electricity,
Presbyter ct Defensor." (Montfaucon, Bibliotheca with which the ancients were acquainted, and
BiUiothecarum, p. 548 ; Catal. Codd. MStorum some have even ventured upon the supposition
Biblioth. Rcgiae, vol. ii. Nos. ccclxil 6, dccclviii. that the ancients, and the Etruscans in particular,
21, Paris, 1740; Cave, Hist. Lit. vol. ii. Dissert knew the use of conductors of lightning, which,
i. p. 7 ; Fabric BibL Grace. voL xi. p. 615.) though they cannot draw lightning from heaven,
7. Ellas, called "the Monk." Leo AllatiuB in yet conduct it towards a certain point. Servius
his De Symeonum Scriptis Diatriba (p. 101) men (ad Virg. Eclog. vi. 42) goes even so far as to say
tions a discourse irpotipriov, on the Nativity, by that the art of drawing down lightning was known
Elias the Monk. (Cave, Hist Lit. vol. ii. Diss. i. to Prometheus. [L. S.]
p. 7, ed. Oxford, 1740—43.) ELIONIA. [Eilkithyia.]
8. Elias, called " the Philosopher," There ELISSA. [Dido.]
are in the Medicean Library at Florence Prolego ELLO'PION ("EAAoirfow), of Peparethus, a
mena to the EiVctTary?} of Porphyry taken from the Socratic philosopher, who is mentioned only by
writings of " Elias the Philosopher," and there are Plutarch. (De Gen. Socrat. p. 578, f.) [L. S.]
ELVA. EMMENIDAE. 11
Y.LWPS fEAAo^), a »on of Ion or Tithonus, fought at the Lake Rcgillus, where he commanded
fnsc 'ham Ellopia in Enboea derived its name. the left wing. The lays of that battle sung of his
( jt-ih. x. p. 445 ; Steph. Bvx. t. c. 'EAAoria ; combat with Octavius Mamilius, by whom his arm
U-ath. ad Horn. p. 280.) ' [US.] was pierced through. (Liv. it 19 ; Dionys. v. 58,
ELPE'NOR(>EA«tj»'««p), one of the companions vi.2, 4, 5, 11.)
tf Odysseus, who were metamorphosed by Circe • 2. L. Aebutius T. f. T. n. Elva, son of the
imto twine, and afterwards back into men. In preceding, consul with P. Scrvilius Priscus Structus
toxicated with wine, Elpenor one day fell asleep in B. c. 463, was carried off in his consulship liy
c-a the roof of Circe's residence, and in his attempt the great plague which raged at Rome in that year.
to rise he fell down and broke his neck. (Horn. (Liv. iii 6 ; Dionys. ix. 87 ; Diod. xi 79 ; Ores,
Od. x. 55A, &c) When Odysseus was in the ii 12.)
lower world, he met the shade of Elpenor, who 3. Postumus Aibutius Elva Cornickn, con
implored him to born his body and to erect a sul with M. Fabius Vibulanus in a c. 442, in
monament to him. (Od. xi. 57.) After his return which year a colony was founded at AWea, and
to the island of Circe, Odysseus complied with magister equitum to the dictator Q. Servilius Pris
this request of his friend. (Od. xii. 10, &c. ; comp. cus Structus in B. c. 435. (Liv. iv. 11,21 ; Diod.
JaTen. it. 22 ; Or. Ibu, 487.) Elpenor was xii. 34.)
painted by Polygnotus in the Lesche at Delphi. 4. M. Aebdtius Elva, one of the triumviri
(Pan*, x. 29.) Servius (ad Acn. vi 107) relates for founding the colony at Ardea in B. c. 442.
that FJpeoor was killed by Odysseus himself for (Liv. iv. 11.)
necr'nnsntic purposes. [L. S.] 5. M. Akbutius Elva, praetor in B.c. 168,
ELPI'DIUS ('Eas-Biot), is called a remarkable when he obtained Sicily as his province. (Liv.
man and food of learning. Lcontius, in his com xliv. 17.)
mentary mi the " Phaenomena" of Aratus, says, E'LYMUS ("EAuuos), a Trojan, a natural son
that be had constructed for Elpidius a sphaera ac of Anchises and a brother of Eryx. (Tzetz. ad
cording to the description of Aratus, and Fabricius Lycoph. 959.) Previous to the emigration of
( BiU. Or. it. p. 94, note) supposes that this Elpi Aeneias, Elymus and Aegcstus had fled from Troy
dius is the same as the patrician who was sent as to Sicily, and had settled on the banks of the river
ambassador to Chaganns, king of the Avan, in the Crimisus, in the country of the Sicani. When
first year of the reign of the emperor Mauritius, afterwards Aeneias also arrived there, he built for
and who is mentioned by Cedrenus and other them the towns of Aegesta and Elyme, and the
wnten of that period. [L. S.] Trojans who settled in that part of Sicily called
ELPI'DIUS, or H ELPIDIUS CEA»/5ioi),one themselves Elymi, after Elymus. (Dionys. Hal.
of the physicians of Theodoric the Great, king of A. R. i 52, &c.) Strabo (xiii. p. 608) calls him
toe Ostrogoths, a- d. 493—526, whom he attended Elymnus, and says that he went to Sicily with
in his last ilinesa. (Procop. de lidlo Goth. lib. i. Aeneias, and that they together took possession of
p. 167. ed. HdscheL) He was a Christian, and Eryx and Lilybaeum. Elymus was further be
in deacon's orders, and probably a native of Milan. lieved to have founded Asca and Entella in Sicily.
There is extant a letter to him from king Theo (Virg. Am. v. 73, with Servius's note.) [L. S.1
doric (ap. Caasiod. Conor, iv. 24), and four from EMANUEL. [Manubl.]
Kanodius. (EpuL. TO 7, viii 8, ix. 14, 21 ; ap. EMA'THION ('HimOiuv), a son of Tithonus
Srmondi Opera, roL i) [W. A. G.] and Eos, and a brother of Memnon. (Hes.
ELPINI'CE ("EXxuriioi), daughter of Miltiades, Theog. 985.) He was king of Arabia, and was
and sister of Cimon. According to some accounts slain by Heracles. (Apollod. ii. 5. § 11; Q. Smyrn.
she was only his half-sister, and he therefore made iii. 300.) There are two other mythical personages
ber bis wife, the Athenian law permitting marriage of this name. (Ov. Met. v. 105 ; Virg. Aen. ix.
with a sister, if she was not cVosufroiot. He gave 571.) [L. S.]
ber. however, afterwards in marriage to Callias, who E'MATHUS ('H/iofloi), a son of Macedon and
had fallen in love with her, and who made this the brother of Pierus, from whom Emathia, that is
condition of paying for Cimon the fine which had Macedonia, was believed to have derived its name.
been imposed upon Miltiades. [vol. i. p.567,b.] The (Eustath. oo! Horn. p. 980.) The daughters of
character of Elpinice does not stand high, and we Pierus (the Pierides) are sometimes called after
hear of a suspected intrigue of her's with Polyg- their uncle Emathides. (Ov. Met. v. 669.) [L. S.l
notua, the painter. When Cimon was accused of E'MILUS ("EuiAoj) of Aegina, made the gold
baring taken bribes from Alexander I., king of and ivory statues of the Hours sitting on thrones
Macedonia, Elpinice went to Pericles to entreat his in the temple of Hera at Olympia. (Paus. v. 17.
fartcarance. He put her off at the time with a $ 1.) There is no other mention of this artist,
jest, but he refrained on the trial from pressing and there can be no doubt that Valckenaer is right
stnasiy the charge against her brother. Cimon is in reading SjdAir. Some MSS. give 'EfiiXu and
said also to hare negotiated with Pericles, through 'AuiAij. [Smilis.] [P. S.]
Eipimce. the terms on which he was to return EMME'NIDAE ('Eu^.WJcu), a princely family
from exile. (Plut. Cm. 4, 14, Perid. 10; Nepos, at Agrigentum, which traced its origin to the
CSsa. I.) [E. E.j mythical hero Polyneices. Among its members
ELVA. the name of a patrician family of the we know Emmenides (from whom the family de
Aebatfa reus. rived its name) the father of Aenesidamus, whose
1. T. AziscTiCB T. p. Elva, consul with P. Ve- sons Theron and Xenocrates ore celebrated by
tarius Geminus Cicuriaus in B. c. 499, in which Pindar as victors at the great games of Greece.
year Fidenae was besieged and Crusjumeria taken. Theron won a prixc at Olympia, in OL 76 (b. c.
In the following year, according to the date of 476), in the chnriot-race with four full-grown
nost annalists, KIra was magister equitum to the horses, and Xenocrates gained prizes in the horse
dictator A. Posttuniiu Albinua in tlie great battle race at the Pythian, Isthmian, and Pannthenaic
J2 EMPEDOCLES. EMPEDOCLES.
games. (Pind. OL ii. 48, iii. 38, PgA. vi. S, with for diseases," &c. (Karsten, p. 142, v. 392, &c;
the Scholiast, and Bockh's Explicat. ad Pind. pp. compare the accounts of the ostentation and haugh
114, &c, 119, 122, 127, 135; MiiUer, Orchom. tiness of Empedocles, p. 29, &c.) In like manner
p. 332, 2nd edit.) [L. S.] he promises remedies against the power of evil and
EMPANDA, or PANDA, was, according to of old age ; he pretends to teach men how to break
Festus (s. v. Empanda), a dea paganorum. Varro the vehemence of the unwearied winds, and how
(ap. Non. p. 44 ; comp. Gell. xiii. 22 ; Amob. to call them forth again ; how to obtain from dark
iv. 2) connects the word with pandere, but absurdly rainy clouds useful drought, and tree-feeding rivers
explains it by panem dare, bo that Empanda would from the drought of summer (ibid. v. 425, &c.),—
be the goddess of bread or food. She had a sanc promises and pretensions, perhaps, expressive of
tuary near the gate, called after her the porta his confidence in the infant science, which had only
Pandana, which led to the capitoL (Festus, s. v. commenced its development, rather than in his
Pandana ; Varro, de Ling. Lot. v. 42.) Her own personal capability. With equal pride he
temple was an asylum, which was always open, and celebrates the wisdom of the man — the ancient
the suppliants who came to it were supplied with historians themselves did not know whether ho
food from the funds of the temple. This custom meant Pythagoras or Parmenides —who, possessed
at once shews the meaning of the name Panda or of the richest mental and intellectual treasures,
Empanda : it is connected with pandere, to open ; easily perceived everything in all nature, whenever
she is accordingly the goddess who is open to or with the full energy of his mind he attempted to
admits any one who wants protection. Hartung do so. (Ibid. y. 440, &c.) The time was one of
(die Relit/ion der Rom. ii. p. 76, &c.) thinks that a varied and lively mental movement, and Em
Empanda and Panda are only surnames of pedocles was acquainted or connected by friendship
Juno. [L. S.] with the physicians Acron and Pausanias (Diog.
EMPE'DOCLES ('EuireSoKAijj), of Acragas Laert. viii. 60, 61, 65, 69 ; Plut. de Is. el Os. p.
(Agrigentum), in Sicily, flourished about Olymp. 383 ; Plin. H. N. xxix. 3 ; Suid. s. v. ; comp.
84, or b.c. 444. (Diog. Laert. viiL 74; comp. 51, Fragm. v. 54, 433, &c), with Pythagoreans, and
52; Simon Karsten, Empedoclis Agrigent. Carmin. it is said with Parmenides and Anaxagoras also
Jielitpiiae, p. 9, &c.) His youth probably fell in (Diog. Laert. viii. 55, 56, &c. ; comp. Karsten, p.
the time of the glorious rule of Theron, from 01. 47, &c.) ; and persons being carried away by that
73 to 01. 77; and although he was descended from movement, believed themselves to be the nearer the
an ancient and wealthy family (Diog. Laert. viii. goal the less clearly they perceived the way that
51), Empedocles with enthusiasm joined the revo led to it, and they regarded a perfect power over
lution—as his father, Meton, had probably done nature as the necessary consequence of a perfect
before—in which Thrasydaeus, the Bon and suc knowledge of it.
cessor of Theron, was expelled, and which became Timaeus and Dicaearchus had spoken of the
the watchword for the other Greek towns to shake journey of Empedocles to Peloponnesus, and of the
off the yoke of their monarchs. (Diog. Laert. viii. admiration which was paid to him there (Diog.
72.) His zeal in the establishment of political Laert. viii. 71, 67 ; Athen. xiv. p. 620) ; others
equality is said to have been manifested by his mentioned his stay at Athens, and in the newly-
magnanimous support of the poor (ibid. 73), by his founded colony of Thurii, B. c. 446 (Suid. s. r.
inexorable severity in persecuting the overbearing 'Axpuv ; Diog. Laert. viii. 52) ; but it was only
conduct of the aristocrats (Timaeus, ap. Diog. L. untrustworthy historians that made him travel in
viii. 64, comp. 65, 66), and in his declining the so the east as far as the Magi. (Plin. II. N. xxx. 1,
vereignty which was offered to him. (Aristot. ap. &c. ; comp. Karsten, p. 39, &c.) His death is
Diog. viii. 63 ; compare, however, Timaeus, ibid. said to have been marvellous, like his life : a tradi
66, 76 ) His brilliant oratory (Satyr, ap. Diog. tion, which is traced to Heracleides Ponticus, a
viii. 58 j Timaeus, ibid. 67), his penetrating know writer fond of wonderful things, represented him
ledge of nature and of circumstances, and the repu as having been removed from the earth, like a
tation of his marvellous powers, which he had divine being ; another said that he had perished in
acquired by curing diseases, by his successful the flames of mount Aetna. (Diog. Laert. viii.
exertions in removing marshy districts, averting 67, 69, 70, 71 ; Hor. ad Pison. 464, &c. ; comp.
epidemics and obnoxious winds (Diog. Laert. viii. Karsten, p. 36, &c.) But it is attested by the
60, 70, 69 ; Plut. de Curios. Princ. p. 515, adv. authority of Aristotle, that he died at the age of
Col. p. 1 126 ; Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 27, and others), sixty, and the statements of later writers, who
spread a lustre around his name, which induced extend his life further, cannot be set up against
Timaeus and other historians to mention him more such a testimony. (Apollon. ap. Diog. Lain. viii.
frequently. Although he himself may have been 52, comp. 74, 73.) Among the disciples of Em
innocent of the name of "avertcr" or "controller pedocles none is mentioned except Gorgias, the
of storms" (KwAutrare/icw, d\(£av4fjias) and of a sophist and rhetorician, whose connexion with our
magician (-vimji), which were given to him (Karsten, philosopher seems to be alluded to even by Plato.
/. c. p. 49, &c.), still he must have attributed to (Diog. Laert. viii. 58 ; Karsten, p.56, oic) Among
himself miraculous powers, if in the beginning of the works attributed to Empedocles, and which
his Kadap/iot he said of himself—he may, however, were all metrical compositions (see the list in
have been speaking in the name of some assistant Karsten, p. 62, &c), we can form an opinion only
daemon — " An immortal god, and no longer a on his KaSapfiot and his didactic poem on Nature,
mortal man, I wander among you, honoured by all, and on the latter work only from the considerable
adorned with priestly diadems and blooming fragments still extant. It consisted of 2000 hexa
wreaths; to whatever illustrious towns I go, I meter verses, and was addressed to the above-
am praised by men and women, and accompanied mentioned Pausanias, — its division into three
by thousands, who thirst for deliverance, some books was probably made by later grammarians.
being desirous to know the future, others remedies (Diog. Laert. viii. 77 ; Karsten, p. 70, &c) The
EMPEDOCLES. EMPEDOCLES. 13
K*sfte>*»C a poem said to hare consisted of 3000 to reduce that which appears to us as a coming into
venws. seems to have recommended particularly a existence to a process of mixture and separation of
pod moral conduct as the means of averting epi unalterable substances ; but for the same reason
demics and other evils. (See the fragments in they were obliged to give up both, the Heracleitean
Ksrcten. p. 144, vers. 403, &c ; comp. Aristot. supposition of one original fundamental power, and
Elk. Sic vn. 5 ; Endem. vi. 3.) Empedocles was the earlier Ionic hypothesis of one original sub
undoubtedly acquainted with the didactic poems of stance which produced all changes out of itself and
Xeoophanes and Parmenides (Hermipp. and Theo- again absorbed them. The supposition of an origi
phrast. ap. Diog. Lacrt viii. 55, 56)—allusions to the nal plurality of unalterable elementary substances
latter can be pointed out in the fragments,—but he was absolutely necessary. And thus we find in
seems to have surpassed them in the animation and the extant fragments of the didactic poem of Em
richness of his style, and in the clearness of his pedocles, the genuineness of which is attested be
descriptions and diction ; so that Aristotle, though, yond all doubt by the authority of Aristotle and
on the cne hand, he acknowledged only the metre other ancient writers, the most unequivocal state
as a point of comparison between the poems of ment, made with an evident regard to the argu
Empedocles and the epics of Homer, yet, on the mentation of Parmenides, that a coming into
ether hand, had characterised Empedocles as existence from a non-existence, as well as a complete
Homeric and powerful in his diction. {Poet. 1 , ap. death and annihilation, are things impossible ; what
/Jig. Lacrt rui 57.) Lucretius, the greatest of all we call coming into existence and death is only
didactic pacts, speaks of him with enthusiasm, and mixture and separation of what was mixed, and
evidently marks him as his model. (See especially the expressions of coming into existence and de
Lorrrt. i. 727; 4c) We are indebted for the first struction or annihilation are justified only by our
comprehensive collection of the fragments of Em being obliged to submit to the usus loquendi.
pedocles, and of a careful collection of the testi (Fragm. 77, &c, 345, &c) The original and un
monies of the ancients concerning his doctrines, to alterable substances were termed by Empedocles
Ft. \Y. Store (Empedocles Agrigeniivus, Lipsiae, the roots of things (reWapa rwv vdvrav pifa^ccTa,
1805), and lately Simon Karsten has greatly dis Fragm. vers. 55, &c, 74, &c.) ; and it was he who
tinguished himself for what he has dons for the first established the number of four elements, which
criticism and explanation of the text, as well as were afterwards recognized for many centuries,
for tie light he has thrown on separate doctrines. and which before Empedocles had been pointed
(Fhuwpkarxm Gratcanm tetcrum reliquiae, vol. out one by one, partly as fundamental substances,
ii_ containing Empedodn Agrigenlini Curmin. He- and partly as transition stages of things coming
it-pa*. Amstelodami, 1838.) into existence. (Aristot. Metaphya. i. 4, 7, de
Acquainted as Empedocles was with the theories General, et dorr. ii. 1 ; comp. Ch. A. Brandis,
of the Klratic* and the Pythagoreans, he did not Handbuch d. Gesch. der Gricch. Rom. Philos. i.
adopt the fundamental principles either of the one p. 195, &c) The mythical names Zeus, Hera,
or the other schools, although he agreed with the Nestis, and Ai'doneus, alternate with the common
hater in his belief in the migration of souls (Fragm. terms of fire, air, water, and earth ; and it is of
vei.l,4e_ 380, 4c, 350-53, 410, &c. ; comp. little importance for the accurate understanding of
Karsten, p. 509, 4c), in the attempt to reduce his theory, whether the life-giving Hera was meant
the relations of mixture to numbers, and in a few to signify the air and Ai'doneus the earth, or
•ther point*. (Karsten, p. 426, 33, 428, &c, Ai'doneus the air and Hera the earth, although the
435; compare, however, Ed. Zeller, die Fhiloeopliie former is more probable than the latter. (Fragm.
«W Grieek. p. 169, 4c, Tubingen, 1844.) With 55, &c, 74, cVc. ; comp. Brandis, I. c p. 198.) As,
the Eleatics he agreed in thinking that it was im however, the elementary substances were simple,
possible to conceive anything arising out of nothing eternal, and unalterable (Karsten, p. 336, &c),
{Frjgm. vers. 81, 4c' 119, Ax, 345, &c; comp. and as change or alteration was merely the con
Pxrmenid. Fragvu, ed. Karsten, vers. 47, 50, 60, sequence of their mixture and separation, it was
ftc_ G6, 68, 75), and it is not impossible that he also necessary to conceive them as motionless, and
Bay have borrowed from them also the distinction consequently to suppose the existence of moving
between knowledge obtained through the senses, powers — the necessary condition of mixture and
ar.d knowledge obtained through reason. (Fragm. separation—as' distinct from the substances, and
49,4c, 108; Parmenid. Fragm. 49, 108.) Aris equally original and eternal. But in this manner
totle with justice mentions him among the Ionic the dynamic explanations which the earlier physio
physiulogJMa, and he places him in very close rela logists, and especially Iferacleitus, had given of
ted to the atomistic philosophers and to Anoxagoras. nature, was changed into a mechanical one. In
(Mttapift. i. 3, 4, 7, Fhys. i. 4, de General, et order here again to avoid the supposition of an
Cjtt. i. a, de Coda, iii. 7.) All three, like the actual coming into existence, Empedocles assumed
whole Ionic physiology, endeavoured to point out two opposite directions of the moving power, the
thai which formed the basis of all changes, and to attractive and repulsive, the uniting and separat
explain the latter by means of the former ; but ing, that is, love and hate (Nfi/toi, Arjpts, Kotos—
they could not, like Heracleitns, consider the 4uAnj, ♦iAoTTfr, 'Apuovin, STOp-Yrf), as equally
coming into existence and motion as the existence original and elementary (Fragm. 88, &c, 1 38, &c,
of things, and rest and tranquillity as the non 167, &c. j Aristot. Metaphya. i. 4; Karsten, p.
existence, hecanse they had derived from the 346, &c); whereas with Heracleitus they were
Eleatics the conviction that an existence could only different manifestations of one and the same
jut as little pass over into a non-existence, as, rice fundamental power. But is it to be supposed that
renal, the latter into the former. In order, never those two powers were from the beginning equally
theless, to establish the reality of changes, and active ? and is the state of mixture, i. e. the world
cwseqoently the world and its phaenomena, against and its phaenomena, nn original one, or wub it
the deductions of the Eleatics, they were obliged preceded by a state in which the pure elementary
11 EMPEDOCLES. EMPYLUS.
substances and the two moving powers co-existed the same cause, his six original beings (Aristot. de
in a condition of repose and inertness? Empe- Anim. iii. 3, Metaphys. i. 57; Fragm. 321, &c,
docles decided in favour of the latter supposition 31.5, &C, 313, 318, &c), still he clearly distin
(Fragm. vers. 88, &c., 59, &c. ; comp. Plat. Soph. guished the latter as a higher state of development
p. 242 ; Aristot. de Cod. i. 10, Phys. Auxult i. 4, from the former ; he complains of the small extent
viii. 1), which agreed with ancient legends and of our knowledge obtainable through our body
traditions. This he probably did especially in or (Fragm. 32, &c), and advises us not to trust to
der to keep still more distinctly asunder existences our eyes or ears, or any other part of our body,
and things coming into existence ; and he conceived but to see in thought of what kind each thing is
the original co-existence of the pure elementary by itself (Fragm. 49, &c, comp. 108, 356, &c) ;
substances and of the two powers in the form of a but he attributes the thinking cognition to the
sphere (artpdipos ; comp. Karsten, p. 183, &c), deity alone. (Fragm. 32, &c, 41, &c., 354, 362,
which was to indicate its perfect independence and &c.) We are, however, by no means justified in
self-sufficiency. As, however, these elementary supposing that Empedocles, like the Eleatics, con
substances were to exist together in their purity, sidered that which is perceptible through the
without mixture and separation, it was necessary senses, i. e. the world and its phaenomena, to be a
to suppose that the uniting power of love predomi mere phantom, and the unity of the divine sphere,
nated in the sphere (Aristot. Metaphys. B.^. 4, that is, the world of love, which is arrived at only
A 21, de General, et Corr. i. 1), and that the by thought, to be the sole existence. (II. Ritter
separating power of hate was in a state of limited in Wolf's Analect. L p. 423, &c, Gcseh. der Philos.
activity, or, as Empedoclcs expresses it, guarded i. p. 541, &c. ; Brandis, in the Wteinisck. Museum,
the extreme ends of the sphere. (Fragm. vers. 58, iii. p. 124 ; comp. Zeller, I. c. p. 184, &c.)
comp. 167, &c) When the destructive hate rises Further investigations concerning Empedocles's
into activity, the bond which keeps the pure ele derivation of the different kinds of sensuous per
mentary substances together in the sphere is dis ception, and of the mutual influence of things upon
solved (vers. 66, &c); they separate in order one another in general, from the coincidence of
partly to unite again by the power of love : and effluxes and corresponding pores, as well as the
this is the origin of our world of phaenomena. But examination of the fragments of his cosmologic and
that the elementary substances might not be com physiologic doctrines, must be left to a history of
pletely absorbed by this world and lose their Greek philosophy. [Ch. A. B.]
purity, Empedocles assumed a periodical change of E'MPODUS ("EjuiroJos), an otherwise unknown
the sphere and formation of the world (Fragm. vers. writer, whose cbro/iiTUioi'ev/xaTa are mentioned by
88, &c, 167, &c.) ; but perhaps also, like the Athenaeus. (ix. p. 370.) Casaubon proposed to
earlier Ionians, a perpetual continuance of pure read Tlotrtthtavios instead of *'E,uttoSl»s ; but our
fundamental substances, to which the parts of the ignorance about Empodus is not sufficient to justify
world, which are tired of change, return and pre such a conjecture. [L. S.]
pare the formation of the sphere for the next period EMPORIUS, a Latin rhetorician, author of
of the world. (H. Ritter in Wolfs Analccl. ii. three short tracts entitled 1. De Ethopoeia ac Loco
p. 445, &c, Gesch. der Philos. i. p. 555, &c ; but Communi Liber ; 2. Dcmonstrativae Materia* prae-
comp. Zeller, /. c. p. 191, &c.) The sphere being ceptum ; 3. De Deliberativa Specie. He is believed
the embodiment of pure existence was with him to have flourished not earlier than the sixth cen
also the embodiment or representative of the deity, tury, chiefly from the circumstance that he refers
either conceiving the deity as a collectivity, or in his illustrations to the regal power rather than to
mainly as the uniting power of love. (Fragm. vers. the imperial dignity, which he would scarcely have
70 ; comp. Aristot de General, et Corr. ii. 6, Me done had he lived before the revival of the kingly
taphys. B. 4, de Anim. i. 5.) But as existence is title.
not to be confined to the sphere, but must rather Emporius was first edited by Beatus Rhenanns,
be at the foundation of the whole visible world, so along with some other authors upon rhetoric, Basil.
the deity also must be active in it. But Empedocles 4 to. 1 521 ; the pieces named above will all be found
was little able to determine the how of this divine in the " Antiqui Rhetores Latini" of F.Pitboeus,
nctivity in its distinction from and connexion with 4to., Paris, 1599, p. 278. [W. R,]
the activity of the moving powers : he, too, like EMPU'SA (*Ennroinra), a monstrous spectre,
the Eleatics (Xenophan. Fragm. 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, ed. which was believed to devour human beings. It
Karsten), strove to purify and liberate the notion could assume different forms, and was sent out by
of the deity: "not provided with limbs, He, a Hecate to frighten travellers. It was believed
holy, infinite spirit, passes through the world with usually to appear with one leg of brass and the
rapid thoughts," is the sublime expression of Em other of an ass. (Aristoph. Ran. 294, Modes.
pedocles. (Fragm. vers. 359, &c., comp. 317.) 1094.) Whenever a traveller addressed the
Along with this, however, he speaks of the eternal monster with insulting words, it used to flee and
power of Necessity as an ancient decree of the gods, utter a shrill sound. (Philostr. Vit. Apoll. ii. 4.)
and it is not clear whether the necessary succession The Lamiae and Mormolyceia, who assumed the
of cause and effect, or an unconditional predestina form of handsome women for the purpose of attract
tion, is to be understood by it ; or, lastly, whether ing young men, and then sucked their blood liko
Empedocles did not rather leave the notion of vampyrs and ate their flesh, were reckoned among
Necessity and its relation to the deity in that the Empusae. (Philostr. ViL Apoll. iv. 25; Suid.
mysterious darkness in which we find it in the «. t>.) [L. S.]
works of most philosophers of antiquity. E'MPYLUS, a rhetorician; the companion, as
We perceive the world of phaenomena or changes we are told by Plutarch, of Brutus, to whom he
through the medium of our senses, but not so its dedicated a short essay, not destitute of merit, on
eternal cause; and although Empedocles traced the death of Caesar. It is not stated to what
both sensuous perception and thought to one and country he belonged. " Empylus the Rhodian "
ENANTIOPHANES. ENCELADUS. 15
i* ratationed in a passage of Quintilian, where the mation of the present text of the Basilica, appears
text i* very doubtful, as an orator referred to by from his being several times named in the text it
Cicero, bat no such name occurs in any extant self, as in iii. p. 258, where he cites Theophilus ;
work of the latter.—(Plut. Brut. 2 ; QuintU. i. 6. ii. p. 560, where he cites the Code of Justinian ;
f 4. and Spalding's note). [\V. R.] i. 99, where he cites the Novells of Justinian.
E"NALUS fE»aX«). The Penthelides, the According to the Scholium on the Basilica (ii. p.
firm settlors in Lesbos, had received an oracle from 548, ed. Heimbach), he seems to have written
Amphitrite commanding them to sacrifice a bull to notes upon the Digest. That he was alive after
Poseidon and a virgin to Amphitrite and the Ne the death of Justinian appears from Basil, iii. p.
reides, am soon as they should, on their journey to 230 (ed. Heimbach), where he cites a Novell of
Leaboa, come to the rock Mesogeion. The leaders of Justin. On the other hand, Assemanni thinks that
the colonku accordingly caused their daughters to he wrote after the composition of the Basilica,
draw lots, the result of which was, that the daugh which, in the Scholium, Basil, i. p. 262, he appears
ter of Smintheus or Phineus was to be sacrificed. to cite ; but it is very likely that here, as in many
When she was on the point of being thrown into other places, that which was originally a citation
the tea, her lover, Enalus, embraced her, and leaped from the Digest has been subsequently changed for
with her into the deep. But both were saved by convenience into a reference to the Basilica. In
dolphins. Once the sea all around Lesbos rose in Basil, iii. p. 440, he cites Gregorius Doxapater,
•oca fcigh billows, that no one ventured to ap whom Pohl (followed by Zachariae), on the sup
proach it ; Enalus alone had the courage to do so, posed authority of Montfaucon, places in the first
and when be returned from the sea, he was fol half of the 12th century ; but we have slunvii
lowed by polypi, the greatest of which was carry- [Doxapatbr] that there is no ground for identi
in* a stone, which Enalus took from it, and dedi fying Gregorius Doxapater with the Doxapater
cated in a temple. (Plat. Sept. Sapient. Conviv. p. mentioned by Montfaucon.
163, e. sfc SatlerL ammaL p. 984. d.) [L.S.] An eminent jurist of the time of Justinian is
ENA.VTIOTHANES. Cujacius, in his Pre frequently cited in the Basilica, and in the Scholia
face to the 60th book of the Basilica, prefixed to on that work by the appellation of the Anonymous.
th^ 7th vnlume of Fabrofs edition of that work, This writer composed an Index or abridgment of
■apposes Enantiophanes to be the assumed name the Novells of Justinian, and was the author of
c4* a Graeeo- Roman jurist, who wrote «-«pl eVairio- Paratitla (a comparison of parallel passages) in the
fuiii', or concerning the explanation of apparent Digest. To this work the treatise on apparently
lepal inconsistencies ; and Suarex (Noiii. Basil. discordant passages would form a natural sequel;
g Zo) says that Phonos, in his Nomocanon, men- and Mortreuil (Histoire du Droit Byzanlin, i. p.
boos having written such a work. Fabricius, in a 296) makes it probable that Enantiophanes and
note npon the work of Suarez (which is inserted the Anonymous were the same persons; for in
in the BtViolieea Graeeo), states that Balsamo, in BasiL vi. p. 251 SchoL, a passage is ascribed to
hi* Preface to the Nomocanon of Photius, refers to Enantiophanes, which, in Basil, vi. p. 260, SchoL,
Enantiophanes. Assemanni, however, shews (BibL is attributed to the Anonymous.
Jstr. Orient, ii- 18, p. 389) that there is no reason Biener (Gesciickte der Noctllen Justisdans, p.
to attributing a work s-e/4 ivamQ$ay£v to Pho- 56) threw out the conjecture, that the Anonymous
tma, that there is no passage in his Nomocanon was no other than Julianus, the author of the Latin
relating to such a work, and that the sentence Epitome of the Novells; and Zachariae (Anecdota,
ra which Balsamo is supposed by Fabricius to refer p. 204-7) attempts to establish this conjecture.
to Enantiophanes has no inch meaning. The Mortreuil seems disposed to identify the three.
TrarTw^mrir /JiSAior is cited in Basil, v. p. 726. In order to facilitate investigation, we subjoin a
Enantiophanes (Basil, vi. p. 250) cites his own list (formed from Reiz and Fabricius) of passages
book dc Lraatix et Mortis Causa Donationibus, and in the Basilica where the name of Enantiophanes
the Tistper/patpi, or annotation, of Enantiophanes is occurs.
cted in Basil, vii. p. 496. The period when the ju Basil, i. pp. 70, 99, 100, 109, 260, 408, 262,
rist lived who bears this name, has been a subject 265, 266, ii. pp. 540, 560, 609, 610, 628, iii.
of ranch dispute. Reiz (ad Theopiilum, pp. 1234, pp. 43, 170, 2511, 318, 393, 394, 412, v. p. 726,
1226) thinks that Enantiophanes wrote before the vi. 250, 251, 260, vii. 496, 499, 565, 640, 641.
composition of the Basilica, and marks his name (Heimbach, de Basil Oriy. pp. 76-79.) [J. T. G.]
with an asterisk as an ascertained contemporary of ENARr/PHORUS CEvarffopos), a son of
Justinian. In Basil, iii. p. 318 Enantiophanes Hippocoon, was a most passionate suitor of Helen,
calls Stephanos his master; but this is by no when she was yet quite young. Tyndareus, there
Eseans conclusive. Assemanni, misled by Papado- fore, entrusted the maiden to the care of Theseus,
po"i thinks that the Stephanus here meant lived (Apollod. iii. 10. § 5 ; Plut. Ties. 31.) Enare-
ande; Alexias Comnenus, and was not the Stepha phorus had a heroum at Sparta. (Paus. iii. 15.
nos who was one of the compilers of Justinian's §2.) [L.8.]
lUrest. The contemporary of Justinian, however, ENA'RETE. [Aeolus, No. 1.]
was undoubtedly the person intended ; but Stepha- ENCE'LADUS ('ZyiciKaSos), a son of Tarta
sm was one of those early Graeco-Roman jurists rus and Ge, and one of the hundred-armed giants
who, like Donininaa, Patricius, and Cyrillus, are who made war upon the gods. (Hygin. Fab. Pracf.
thought by Zachariae (Amecdota, p. viii.) to have p. 1 ; Virg. Aen. iv. 179 ; Ov. Ep. ex Pont. ii. 2.
been called by subsequent jurists masters or teachers 12, Amor. iii. 12. 27.) He was killed, according
in a (jrneral sense. (Compare Basil. 11. tit. i. s. 67, to some, by Zeus, by a flash of lightning, and bu
«cL od. jfeimbach, i. p. 646.) Zachariae places ried under mount Aetna (Virg. Aen. iii. 578); and,
r-Tantiophanes among the jurists who lived before according to others, he was killed by the chariot of
-ne lime of Uasileius Macedo. ( Hist. Jur. (Jr. Horn. Athena (Paus. viii. 47. § 1 ), or by the spear of
, § 20. 1, 2.) That he lived before the for- Seilenus. (^aio. Cyclops,"!.) In his flight Atheiia
16 ENDOEUS. ENDYMION.
threw upon him the island of Sicily. (Apollod. i. the time of Peisistratus and his sons, about a c
6. § 2.) There are two other fabulous beings of 560. (Thiersch, Epochal, pp. 124, 125.) His
this name. (Apollod. ii. 1. § S ; Eustath. ad Horn. works were : 1 . In the acropolis at Athens a sit
p. 918.) [L.S.] ting statue of Athena, in olive-wood, with an in
ENCO'LPIUS. [Pktronius.] scription to the effect that Callias dedicated it, and
ENCO'LPIUS is named by Lampridius as the Endoeus made it Hence his age is inferred, for
author of a life of the emperor Alexander Severus, the first Callias who is mentioned in history is the
with whom he lived upon terms of intimacy. opponent of Peisistratus. (Herod, vi. 121.) 2. In
(Lamprid. Alex. Sev. 17, 48.) the temple of Athena Polias at Erythrae in Ionia,
A book published by Thomas Elyot, a man a colossal wooden statue of the goddess, sitting on
celebrated for his learning in the reign of Henry a throne, holding a distaff in each hand, and having
VIII., under the title " The Image of Governance a sun-dial (tto'Aos) on the head. 3. In connexion
(Imago Imperii) compiled of the Actes and Sen with this statue, there stood in the hypaethrum,
tences notable of the most noble emperor Alex before the visit of Pausanias to the temple, statues
ander Severus, translated from the Greek of Eu- of the Graces and Hours, in white marble, also by
colpius (Encolpins) into English," Lund. 1540, Endoeus. 4. A statue of Athena Alea, in her
1541, 1544, 1549, 4to., 1556, 1594, 8vo., is a fa temple at Tegea, made entirely of ivory, which
brication. [VV. R.] was transported to Rome by Augustus, and set up
ENDKIS {'EvSvls), a daughter of Chiron, who in the entrance of his forum. (Pans. i. 26. § 5 ;
was married to Acacus, by whom she became the vii. 5. § 4 ; viii. 46. § 2 j Athenag. Lrqat. pro
mother of Peleus and Telamon. (Apollod. iii. 12. Christ, p. 293, a.) [P. S.j
§ 6.) Pausanias (ii. 29. § 7) calls her a daughter ENDY'MION fExJiyiW), a youth distin
of Sciron. [L. S.] guished for his beauty, and renowned in ancient
E'NDIUS ("EvSios), of Sparta, son of Alcibiadcs, story by the perpetual sleep in which he spent his
member of a family whose connexion with that of life. Some traditions about Endymion refer us to
the Athenian Alcibiadcs had ina previous generation Elis, and others to Caria, and others again are a
introduced into the latter this Lacedaemonian name. combination of the two. According to the first set
It is he apparently who was one of the three am of legends, he was a son of Aethlius and Calyce, or
bassadors sent by Sparta in 420 a c. to dissuade of Zeus and Calyce, and succeeded Aethlius in the
Athens from the Argive alliance. They were kingdom of Elis. (Paus. v. 1. § 2.) Others again
chosen, says Thucydides, from the belief of their say that he expelled Clymenus from the kingdom of
being acceptable to the Athenians, and possibly in Elis, and introduced into the country Aeolian set
particular with a view to conciliate his guest, Alci tlers from Thessaly. (Apollod. i. 7. § 5, &c. ;
biades, who probably made use of this very advan Paus. v. 8. § 1.) Conon (NarraL 14) calls him a
tage in effecting the deception by which he de son of Zeus and Protogeneia, and Hyginus (Fab.
feated their purpose. He was elected ephor in the 271) a son of Aetolus. He is said to have been
nutumn of 413, the time of the Athenian disaster married to Asterodia, Chromia, Hyperippe, Nei's,
at Syracuse, and through him Alcibiadcs, now in or Iphianassa ; and Aetolus, Paeon, Epeins, Eury-
exile, inflicted on his country the severe blow of dice, and Naxus are called his children. He was,
bringing the Lacedaemonians to the coast of Ionia, however, especially beloved by Selene, by whom
which otherwise would at any rate have been post he had fifty daughters. (Paus. v. 1. § 2.) He
poned. His influence decided the government to caused his sons to engage in the race-course at
lend its first succour to Chios ; and when the Olympia, and promised to the victor the succession
blockade of their ships in Peiraeeus seemed likely in his kingdom, and Epeius conquered his brothers,
to put a stop to all operations, he again persuaded and succeeded Endymion as king of Elis. He was
Endius and his colleagues to make the attempt. believed to be buried at Olympia, which also con
Thucydides says that Alcibiades was his Tarpucis tained a statue of his in the treasury of the Meta-
is ra fjL&Xurra £eVof ; so that probably it was with pontians. (Paus. vi. 19. $ 8, 20. § 6.) According
him that Alcibiades resided during his stay at to a tradition, believed at Heracleia in Caria, En
Sparta. (Thnc. v. 44, viii. 6, 12.) To these dymion had come from Elis to mount Latmus in
facts we may venture to add from Diodorus (xiii. Caria, whence he is called the Latmian (Lal7nius;
52, .53) the further statement, that after the defeat Paus. v. 1. § 4; Ov. Art Am. iii. 83, Trut. ii.
at Cysicus, a c. 4 1 0, he was sent from Sparta at 299). He is described by the poets either as a
the head of an embassy to Athens with proposals king, a shepherd, or a hunter (Theocrit. iii. 49,
for peace of the fairest character, which were, how xx. 37 with the Scholiast), and while he was slum
ever, through the influence of the presumptuous bering in a cave of mount Latmus, Selene came
demagogue Cleophon, rejected. Endius, as the down to him, kissed, and lay by his side. (Comp.
friend of Alcibiades, the victor of Cyzicus, would Apollon. Rhod. iv. 57.) There also he had, in
naturally be selected ; and the account of Diodo later times, a sanctuary, and his tomb was shewn
rus, with the exception of course of the oration he in a cave of mount Latmus. (Paus. v. 1. § 4;
writes for Endius, may, notwithstanding the Strab. xiv. p. 636.) His eternal sleep on Latmus
silence of Xenophon, be received as true in the is assigned to different causes in ancient story.
main. [A. H. C] Some said that Zeus had granted hiin a request,
ENDOEUS ("EvSoios), an Athenian statuary, and that Endymion begged for immortality, eter
is called a disciple of Daedalus, whom he is said to nal Bleep, and everlasting youth (Apollod. i. 7.
have accompanied when he fled to Crete. This § 5.) ; others relate that he was received among
statement must be taken to express, not the time the gods of Olympus, but as he there fell in love
at which he lived, but the style of art which he with Hera, Zeus, in his anger, punished him by
practised. It is probable that ho lived at the same throwing him into eternal sleep on mount Latmus.
period as Dipoenus and Scyllis, who are iu the (Schol. ad Theocrit. iii. 49.) Others, lastly, state
same way called disciples of Daedalus, namely, in that Selene, charmed with his surpassing beauty,
ENNIUS. ENNIUS. 17
«eat him to sleep, that she might be able to kiss enemy to the Muses, and subsequently, when
hisi without being observed by him. (Cic. TuscuL Censor, dedicated a joint temple to Hercules and
L 38.) The stones of the fair sleeper, Endyminn, the Nine. Through the son of Nobilior, Ennius,
tie darling of Selene, are unquestionably poetical when far advanced in life, obtained the rights of a
fictions, in which sleep is personified. His name citizen, a privilege which at that epoch was
and all his attributes confirm this opinion : Endy- guarded with watchful jealousy, and very rarely
rcion nmifies a being that gently comes over one ; granted to an alien. From the period, however,
he is colled a king, because he has power over all when he quitted Sardinia, he seems to have made
bring creatures ; a shepherd, because he slumbered Rome his chief abode ; for there his great poetical
m the cool caves of mount Latmus, that is, " the talents, and an amount of learning which must
mount of oblivion.** Nothing can be more beau have been considered marvellous in those days,
tiful, lastly, than the notion, that he is kissed by since he was master of three languages,—Oscan,
the soft raTS of the moon. (Comp. Plat. Phaed. p. Latin, and Greek,—gained for him the respect
72. b ; Or. Am. L 13. 43.) There is a beautiful and favour of all who valued such attainments ;
statue of a sleeping Endymion in the British and, in particular, he lived upon terms of the
Mtnrcm. [L. S.] closest intimacy with the conqueror of Hannibal
ENI'PEUS ("Ercrevf), a river-god in Thessaly, and other members of that distinguished family.
who was beloved by Tyro, the daughter of Salmo Dwelling in a humble mansion on the Aventine,
nella. Poseidon, who was in love with her, attended by a single female slave, he maintained
awmted the appearance of Enipeus, and thus himself in honourable poverty by acting as a pre
visited her, and she became by him the mother of ceptor to patrician youths ; and having lived on
twin, Pebas and Neleus. (Apollod. i. 9. § 8.) happily to a good age, was carried off by a disease
Ovid (Met. vL 116) relates that Poseidon, having of the joints, probably gout, when seventy years
assumed the form of Enipeus, begot by Iphimedeia old, soon after the completion of his great under
tiro sons. Otusand Ephialtes. Another river-god taking, which he closes by comparing himself to a
of the same came occurs in Elis, who is likewise race-horse, in these prophetic lines :—
connected with the legend about Tyro. (Strab. viii. Like some brave steed, who in his latest race
p. 356.) | L.S.) Hath won the Olympic wreath ; the contest o'er,
E'NNIA, called Exnia Thrasylla by Dion Sinks to repose, worn out by age and toil.
Cawius. and Exnia N azvia by Suetonius, was the At the desire of Africanus, his remains were
wife of Macro and the mistress of Caligula. Her deposited in the sepulchre of the Scipios, and his
huvbacd murdered Tiberius in order to accelerate bust allowed a place among the effigies of that
the accession of Caligula j but this emperor, like a noble house. His epitaph, penned by himself in
true tyrant, disliking to see those to whom he was the undoubting anticipation of immortal fame, has
under cbiizarjon, put to death Ennia and her hus- been preserved, and may be literally rendered
I-and. (I>icn. Cass, lviii. 28, lix. 10 ; Tac Ann. thus :—
vi. 4.5 : Suet. Cal. 12, 26.) Romans, behold old Ennius ! whose lays
ES'SIVS, whom the Romans ever regarded Built up on high your mighty fathers* praise !
with a sort of filial reverence as the parent of Pour not the wail of mourning o'er my bier,
their literature—notttr Ewnuu, our own Ennius, as Nor pay to me the tribute of a tear :
he is styled with fond familiarity — was born in the Still, still I live ! from mouth to mouth I fly !
rocsui»aip of C. Mamilius Turrinus and C. Vale Never forgotten, never shall I die !
rias Falto, B.c 239, the year immediately follow The works of Ennius are believed to have exist
ing that in which the first regular drama had been ed entire so late as the thirteenth century (A. G.
?iiibited on the Roman stage by Livius Androni- Cramer, Haitschronick, p. 223), but they have
eaa. The place of his nativity was Rudiae, a long since disappeared as an independent whole,
GtUbrian Tillage among the hills near Brundu- and nothing now remains but fragments collected
■axa. He claimed descent from the ancient lords from other ancient writers. These amount in all
of Messapia ; and after he had become a convert to many hundred lines ; but a large proportion
•j t>ie Pythagorean doctrines, was wont to boast being quotations cited by grammarians for tho
tiat the spirit which had once animated the body purpose of illustrating some rare form, or deter
d the immortal Homer, after passing through mining the signification of some obsolete word, aro
cany tenements, after residing among others in a mere scraps, possessing little interest for any one
pear-<k, and in the sage of Crotona, had even- but a philologist. Some extracts of a longer and
taatlrr paused into his own frame. Of his early more satisfactory character are to be found in
hisjiay we know nothing, except, if we can trust Cicero, who gives us from the annals,—the dream
the l/jr.*e poetical testimony of Silius and Clau- of Ilia (18 lines) ; the conflicting auspices observed
ciaa, that he served with credit as a soldier, and by Romulus and Remus (20 lines) ; and the speech
ro«e v» the rank of a centurion. When M. Por- of Pyrrhus with regard to ransoming the prisoners
qsi Ostn. who had filled the office of quaestor (8 lines) : besides these, a passage from the An*
muirr Scip-o in the African war, was returning dromache (18 lines) ; a curious invective against
home, he fsrond Ennius in Sardinia, became ac itinerant fortune-tellers, probably from the Satires ;
quainted with his high powers, and brought him and a few others of less importance. Aulus Gel-
a hi» train to Rome, our poet being at that time lius has Baved eighteen consecutive verses, in
about the age of thirty-eight. But his military which the duties and bearing of a humble friend
ardour was not yet quenched ; for twelve years towards his superior are bodied forth in very spi
afterwards he accompanied M. Fulviua Nobilior rited phraseology, forming a picture which it was
Aaring the Aetolian campaign, and shared his believed that the poet intended for a portrait of
r~i.npL It is recorded that the victorious gene himself, while Macrobius presents us with a battle-
ral, at the instigation probably of liis literary piece (8 lines), where a tribune is described as gal
friend, consecrated the spoil* captured from the lantly resisting the attack of a crowd of foes.
rot. n.
18 ENNIUS. ENNIUS.
Although under these circumstances it is ex facts ; he was left to work his will upon the rnde
tremely difficult to form any accurate judgment ballads of the vulgar, the wild traditions of the
with regard to his absolute merits as a poet, we old patrician clans, and the meagre chronicles of
are at least certain that his success was triumph the priests. Niebuhr conjectures that the beautiful
ant For a long series of years his strains were history of the kings in Livy may have been taken
read aloud to applauding multitudes, both in the from Ennius. No great space, however, was al
metropolis and in the provinces ; and a class of lotted to the earlier records, for the contest with
men arose who, in imitation of the Homeristae, Hannibal, which was evidently described with
devoted themselves exclusively to the study and great minuteness, commenced with the seventh
recitation of his works, receiving the appellation book, the first Punic war being passed over alto
of Ennianistae. In the time of Cicero he was gether, as we are told by Cicero. (Brut. 19.)
still considered the prince of Roman song (En- II. Fabulae. The fame of Ennius as a dramatist,
?tium summum Epicum poetam—de Opt. G. 0. 1. was little inferior to his reputation as an epic bard.
Summits jwcta nontcr—pro Ball). 22) ; Virgil was His pieces, which were very numerous, appear to
not ashamed to borrow many of his thoughts, and have been all translations or adaptations from the
not a few of his expressions ; and even the splen Greek, the metres of the originals being in most
dour of the Augustan age failed to throw him cases closely imitated. Fragments nave been pre
into the shade. And well did he merit the grati served of the following tragedies : Achilles, Achilles
tude of his adopted countrymen ; for not only did (Aristarchi), Ajar, Alcmaeon, Alexander, Arulro-
he lay the basis of their literature, but actually macha, Andromeda, Antiope, Athamas, Crcsphontes,
constructed their language. He found the Latin Vulorestes, Erectheus, Eumeuides, Hectoria Lytru,
tongue a rough, meagre, uncultivated dialect, Hecuba, IHona (doubtful), Iphigenia, Medea,
made up of ill-cemented fragments, gathered at Mcdvs, Melanippa or Melamjypus, Nemea, jfeopt-
random from a number of different sources, subject olemus, Phoenijr, Tetamon, Tetepkus, Thyestcs ; and
to no rules which might secure its stability, and of the following comedies, belonging to the class
destitute of any regular system of versification. oipalliatae: Ambracia, Cupvmcula (perhaps Car
He softened its asperities, he enlarged its vocabu pnmadw), Celestix (name very doubtful), 1'ancra-
lary, he regulated its grammatical combinations, tiastcs, s. Pancraliasiae.
he amalgamated into one harmonious whole its For full information as to the sources from
various conflicting elements, and he introduced the whence these were derived, consult the editions of
heroic hexameter, and various other metres, long Hesselius and Bothe, together with the disserta
carefully elaborated by Grecian skilL Even in tions of Osann referred to at the end of this ar
the disjointed and mutilated remains which have ticle.
been transmitted to us, we observe a vigour of III. Satirae. In four (Porphyr. ad Hor. Sat. i.
imagination, a national boldness of tone, and an 10), or according to others (Donat. ad TerenU
energy of expression which amply justify the Phorm. ii. 2. 25) in six books, of which less than
praises so liberally launched on his genius by the twenty-five scattered lines are extant, but from
ancients ; and although we arc perhaps at first these it is evident that the Satirae were composed
repelled by the coarseness, clumsiness, and antique in a great variety of metres, and from this circum
fashion of the garb in which his high thoughts are stance, in all probability, received their appella
invested, we cannot but feel that what was after tion.
wards gained in smoothness and refinement is a IV. Scipio. A panegyric upon the public career
poor compensation for the loss of that freshness of his friend and patron, Africanus. The measure
and strength which breathe the hearty spirit of adopted seems to have been the trochaic tetram
the brave old days of Roman simplicity and free eter catalectic, although a line quoted, possibly by
dom. The criticism of Ovid, M Eunius ingenio mistake, in Macrobius (Sat. vi. 4) is a dactylic
niaximus arte rudis," is fair, and happily worded ; hexameter. The five verses and a half which wo
but the fine simile of Quintilian, " Knnium sicut possess of this piece do not enable us to decide
sacros vetustate lucos adoremus, in quibus grandia whether Valerius Maximus was entitled to term it
et antiqua robora, jam non tantam habent speciem, (viii. 14) rude et impolilum praeconinm. (Suidas,
quantam religionem," more fully embodies our s. v. "Y.WWS ; Sthol. vet. ad Hor. Sat. ii. 1. l(i.)
sentiments. Some scholars have supposed that the Scipio was
We subjoin a catalogue of the works of Ennius, in reality a drama belonging to the class of the
in so far as their titles can be ascertained. praetedtatae.
I. Amialium Libri xviii. The most important V. Asotus. Varro and Festus when examining
of all his productions was a history of Rome in into the meaning of certain uncommon words, quote
dactylic hexameters, commencing with the loves from " Ennius in Asoto," or as Scaliger, very erro
of Mars and Rhea, and reaching down to his own neously, insists " in Sotadico." The subject and
times. The subject was selected with great judg nature of this piece are totally unknown. Many
ment. The picturesque fables, romantic legends, believe it to have been a comedy.
and chivalrous exploits with which it abounded, VI. Epicharmus. From a few remnants, amount
afforded full scope for the exercises of his poetical ing altogether to little more than twenty lines we
powers ; he was enabled to testify gratitude to gather that this must have been a philosophical
wards his personal friends, and to propitiate the didactic poem in which the nature of the gods tn0
nobles as a body, by extolling their own lofty human mind and its phaenomena, the physical
deeds and the glories of their sires ; and perhaps structure of the universe and various kindred
no theme could have been chosen so well calcu topics, were discussed. From the title we con
lated to awaken the enthusiasm of all ranks clude, that it was translated or imitated from
among a proud, warlike, and as yet unlettered Epicharmus the comic poet, who was a disciple of
people. His fancy was cramped by none of those Pythagoras and is known to have written Da
fetters imposed by a series of well ascertained | Hcrum Natura,
ENNIUS. ENNODIUS. 19
VTI. PI*ig*tica,Plugetia,Hedfpbagetica. These the different portions, but to have made considera
and assay other titles haTe been assigned to a work ble additions to the relics previously discovered.
upon edible fishes, which Ennius may perhaps hare The new verses were gathered chiefly from a work
trassJated bora Archettratua. [Abchksthati s.] by L. CalpdrniuB Piso, a contemporary of the
ijeren lines in dactylic hexameters hare been younger Pliny, bearing the title De Continentia
rmrrred by Apoleios exhibiting a mere catalogue Veterum Poetarum ad Trajanum Prindpem, a MS.
U names and localities. They are given, with of which Merula tells us that he examined hastily
mv preliminary remarks, in WernsdorPs Poet. in the library of St. Victor at Paris, accompanying
Lot Mix. toL i- pp. 157 and 187. See also this statement with an inexplicable and most sus
Apcleius, Apolog. p. 299 ed. Elmenh. ; P. l'itli- picious remark, that he was afraid the volume
«eu», Epijramnu vet. iv. fin. ; Parrhas. Epist.. 65 ; would be stolen. It is certain that this codex, if
Tnllerns. OUxrvoO. erii. i. 14 ; Scaliger CotolecL it ever existed, has long since disappeared, and the
m fort. p. 21 5; Tumeb. Adrers. xxi. '-' 1 ; Salmas. lines in question are regarded with well-merited
<*i So/in- p. 794, ed. Traj. ; Burmann, AnlioL Lot suspicion. (Niebuhr, Lecture* on Roman History,
ii 135 ; Fabric. DM. Lot. Kb. iv. e. 1. § 7. edited by Dr. Schmitz, Introd. p. 35 ; Iloch, Da
VIII. Ep+jrxmmata. Under this head we have Ennianorum Annalium Fragmentis a P. Merula
two short epitaphs upon Scipio Africanus, and one auetis, Bonn, 1839.)
upon Ennias himself, the whole in elegiac verse, The Amala from the text of Merula were re
extending collectively to ten lines. printed, but not very accurately, with some trifling
IX. Pntreptina. The title seems to indicate additions, and with the fragments of the Punic
that this was a collection of precepts exhorting the war of Naevius, by E. S. {Ernst Spangenberg),
r.-ader to the practice of virtoe. We cannot, how 8vo. Lips. 1825.
ever, tell much about it nor even discover whether The fragments of the tragedies were carefully
it ana written in prose or verse, since one word collected and examined by M. A. Delrio in his
only is known to us, namely patmibus quoted by Syntagma Tragoediae Laiinae, vol., i. Antv. 4to,
Caarisioa. 1593; reprinted at Paris in 1607 and 1619: they
X. Praeerpta. Very probably the same with the will be found also in the Collectanea veterum Trugi-
preceding. From the remains of three lines in corum of Scriverius, to which are appended the
Priscian we conclude that it was composed in emendations and notes of G. J. Vossius, Lug. Bat.
iambic trimeters. 8vo, 1620. The fragments of both the tragedies
XL Srwhrmae. Angelo Mai in a note on Cic De and comedies are contained in Bothe, Poetarum
JtVp. u. 8, give* a few words in prose from Latii scenicorum fragmenta, Halberst. 8vo. 1 823.
*" Enniut in Sabinis " without informing as where The fragments of the Medea, with a dissertation
he found them. Columns has pointed out that in on the origin and nature of Roman tragedy, were
Maerobnu, Sat vi. 5, we ought to read " Ennius published by H. Planck, dotting. 4to. 1806, and
in libro Saararwm quarto " instead of Sabmarum the fragments of the Medea and of the Hecuba,
a* it stands in the received text. compared with the plays of Euripides bearing the
XII. Emiemenu, a translation into Latin same names, are contained in the Analecla Critica
prow of the fcsa irttypiipn of Eubemerns [Eu- Poetis Romanorum scetiicae reliquias illuttrantia of
Hmajirs.] Several short extracts are contained Osann, Berolin. 8vo. 1816.
b Lsctantias, and a single word in the De Re (See the prefaces and prolegomena to the editions
Rustics of Varro. of the collected fragments by Hesselius, and of the
Ceosorinns (c 19) tells us, that according to annals by E. S. where the whole of the ancient
LcBms the year consisted of 366 days, and hence authorities for the biography of Ennius are quoted
it has been conjectured that he was the author of at full length ; Caspar Sagittarius, Commentatio de
■osse astronomical treatise. But an expression of vita ei tcriptis Livii Andronici, Naevii, Ennii, Caecilii
this sort may hare been dropped incidentally, and Statii, &c, Altenburg. 8vo. 1 672 ; O. F. de Franck-
is not sufficient to justify such a supposition with cnau, Dissertatio de Morbo Q. Ennii, Witt. 4to.
er farther evidence. 1694 ; Domcn. d'Angelis, delta patria tTEnnio
The first general collection of the fragments of dissertaziane, Rom. 8vo. 1701, Nap. flvo. 1 7 1 2 ;
Eauas is that contained in the " Fragmenta ve- Henningius Forclius, De Emtio diatribe, Upsal.
tr-aa Poeianun Latinonrm " by Robert and Henry 8vo. 1707 ; W. F. Kreidmnnnus, de Q. Em.io
J^sepbecs, Paris, 8vo. 1564. It is exceedingly im Orotic, Jen. 4to. 1754; Cr. Cramcrus, Dissertatio
perfect and does not include any portion of the sistens Horatii de Ennio effatum, Jen. 4to. 1755;
Ejhemeros, which being in prose was excluded C. G. Kuestner Chrestomathia juris Enuiani, &c,
frills the Lean. Lips. 8vo. 1762.) [W. R.]
Mora more complete and accurate are " Q. Ennii ENNO'DIUS, MAGNUS FELIX, was born
poetae vetostissimi, quae supersunt, fragmenta," at Aries about A. D. 476, of a very illustrious
collected, arranged, and expounded, by Hieronymns family, which numbered among its members and
Colaama, Neapol. 4to. 1590, reprinted with consi connexions many of the most illustrious personages
derable additions, comprising the commentaries of of that epoch. Having been despoiled while yet a
Delrio aad O. J. Voss, by Hesaelius, professor of boy of all his patrimony by the Visigoths, he was
history and eloquence at Rotterdam, Amstel. 4 to. educated at Milan by an aunt, upon whose death
1 707. This mast be considered as the best edition he found himself at the age of sixteen again re
of the collected fragments which has yet appeared. duced to total destitution. From this unhappy
Fire yean after Colomna's edition a new position he was extricated by a wealthy marriage,
edition of the A mala was published at Lcyden but having been prevailed upon by St. Epiphanius
Utsv 1595) by Panllns Merula, a Dutch lawyer, to renounce the pleasures of the world, he received
who professed not only to hare greatly purified ordination as a deacon, and induced his wife to
la? text, and to have introduced many important enter a convent. His labours in the service of the
corrections in the arrangement and distribution of Church were so conspicuous that he was chosen
c2
20 ENNODIUS. ENTELLUS.
bishop of Pa via in a. d. 511, and in 514 was eventually prompted him to devote his life to the
sent, along with Fortunatus, bishop of Catania, and service of God. It is dedicated to Elpidius, a
others, by Pope Hormisda to Constantinople in deacon and physician.
order to combat the progress of the Eutychian 7. Paraenesis didascalioa ad Ambrosium et liea-
heresy. The embassy having proved unsuccessful tum, an exhortation, in which poetry is combined
in consequence of the emperor, who was believed with prose, urging two youths to the practice of
to be favourable to the opinions in question, having virtue.
refused to acknowledge the authority of the Roman 8. Praeceptum de celltdanis episcoporum. The
pontiff, Ennodius was despatched a second time in ceUulani were the contubernales whom bishops,
517, along with Peregrinus, bishop of Misenum, presbyters, and deacons were required to retain as
bearing a confession of faith, which the eastern constant companions uad amoliendas maledicorum
churches were invited or rather required to sub caluranias." (See Ducange, Glossar.) In this tract
scribe. On this occasion the envoy was treated they are called concellanei.
with great harshness by Anastasius, who not only 9. Petitorium quo Gerontius puer Agapili abvo-
dismissed him with ignominy, but even Bought his lutus est. On the manumission of a slave by his
life, by causing him to embark in a crazy vessel, master in the church.
which was strictly forbidden to touch at any 1 0. Ccrei pasehalis benedictiones dune.
Grecian port. Having escaped this danger, Enno 1 1 . Oratioiwa. A series of short essays or decla
dius returned to his diocese, where he occupied mations, twenty eight in number, which the author
himself with religious labours until his death in himself names dictioncs, classified according to their
a. ». 521, on the 17th of July, the day which subjects. Of these six are sacrae, seven scAolasticac,
after his canonization was observed as his festival. ten controvcrsiac, five cthicae.
The works of this prelate, as contained in the 1 2. Carmina. A large collection of poems, most
edition of Sirmond, are the following :— of them short occasional effusions, on a multitude
1. Epistolarum ad Diversos Lihri IX. A col of different topics, sacred and profane. Fourteen
lection of 497 letters, including one composed by are to be found interspersed among his epistles and
his sister, the greater number of them written other prose works, and one hundred and seventy-
during the pontificate of Symmachus (493—514). two form a separate collection.
They for the most part relate to private concerns The writings of Ennodius might serve as an ex
and domestic occurrences, and hence possess little emplification of all the worst faults of a corrupt
general interest. They are remarkable for gentle style. Nothing can be more affected than the form
ness and piety of tone, but some persons have of expression, nothing more harsh than the diction.
imagined that they could detect a leaning towards They are concise without being vigorous, obscure
semipelagianism. The charge, however, has not without being deep, while the use of figurative
been by any means substantiated. language, metaphors, and allegories, is pushed to
2. Panegyricus Theodorico regi dictus. A com Buch extravagant excess that whole pages wear the
plimentary address delivered in the presence of the aspect of a long dull enigma.
Gothic monarch at Milan, or at Ravenna, or at A considerable number of the works of this
Rome, probably in the year a. d. 507. It is some father appeared in the ** Monumenta S. Patrum
times included in the collections of the ** Panegy- Orthodoxographa,'* Basil, fol., 1569 ; they were
nci Vetercs," and is considered as one of the first published separately by Andr.SchottUB, Tonmc.
principal sources for the history of that period, 8vo. 161 1, but will be found in their most complete
although obviously no reliance can be placed on and best form in the edition of Sirmond, Paris.
the statements contained in an effusion of such 8vo. 1611, and in his Opera, vol. i. fol., Paris.
a character. [Drkpanius.] It will be found, 1696, and Venet. 1729; also in the Pibl. Pair.
with notes, in Manso, GescJticJtfc des Ostgoth. Reichs, Max.* Lugdun. 1677, vol. ix., and in other largo
p. 433. collections of the fathers.
3. Libellus adverstts eos qui contra synodum Martenne and Durand {Collect. Monumm. vol.
scribcrc pracsumscrunf. A powerful and argumen v. p. 61) have added a new oration and- a short
tative harangue, read before the fifth Roman letter to Venantius.
synod held in a. d. 503, and adopted as part of (See the Vita Ennodii prefixed to the edition
their proceedings, in defence of the measures sanc of Sirmond. A very full biography is given by
tioned by the synod of the previous year, against Funccius also, De incrti ac decrepiia L. L. senec-
schismatics, and in support of the jurisdiction of tute, c. iii. § xx., c. vi. § viii., c. viii. § x., c 11*
the Roman pontiff generally. §xxxi) ' [W.R.J
4. Vita bcatutsiyni viri Epiphanii Ticinensis epis- E'NNOMUS ("TEwojioj), a Mysian and ally of
cojri. A biography of St. Epiphanius, his predeces the Trojans, who was killed by Achilles. (Horn. //.
sor in the see of Pavia, who died in a. n. 496. ii. 858, xvii. 218.) Another person of this name
This piece is valued on account of the light which occurs in the Odyssey (xi. 422). [L. S.]
it throws upon the history of the times, and is con ENORCHES'CE^pxiiOi n son of Thycstes by
sidered one of the most interesting and agreeable his sister Daeta, was burn out of an egg, and built
among the works of Ennodius, which, to say the a temple to Dionysus, who was hence called Dio
truth, are for the most part rather repulsive. It nysus Enorches, though Enorches may also describe
will be found in the collections of Surius and the the god as the dancer. (Tzetz. ad Lycoph. 212 ;
Bollandists under the 22nd of January. Hesvch. $. v.) [L. S.]
5. Vila beati Antonii monachi Livinensis, a pane ENTELLUS, a Trojan, or a Sicilian hero, from
gyric upon a holy man unknown save from this whom the town of Entella, in Sicily, was believed
tract. to have received its name. (Virg. Aen. v. 389, with
6. Eitcharisticum de vila, a thanksgiving for re Servius.) Tzetzes (ad Lycoph. 953) states, that
covery from a dangerous malady, during which the Entella was so called from Entella, the wife of
author was first led to those thoughts which Aegestcs. * [L.S.]
EOS. EPAENKTUS. 21
rTN'TOCHUS, a sculptor, whose Oceanus and mortals. (Horn. Oil. v. 1, &c., xxiii. 244 ; Virg.
Jipiter were in the collection of Asinius Pollio. Aen. iv. 129, Georg. i. 446 ; Horn. Hymn in Merc.
(Pun. H. A', xxxvi. 5. s. 4. $ 10.) [P. S.] 185 j Thcocrit. ii. 148, xiii. 11.) In the Homeric
ENTCRIA ("ErrofHo), the daughter of a Ro poems Eos not only announces the coming Helios,
seau countryman- Cronos (Saturn) who was once but accompanies him throughout the day, and her
bocpitably received by him, became, by his fair career is not complete till the evening ; hence Bhe
daughter, the lather of four sons, Janus, Hymnus, is sometimes mentioned where one would have ex
Fsustua, and Felix. Cronos taught the rather the pected Helios (Od. v. 390, x. 144) ; and the tragic
cultivation of the Tine and the preparation of wine, writers completely identify her with Hemera, of
rejoining him to teach his neighbours the same. whom in later times the same myths are related as
This was done accordingly, but the country people, of Eos. (Paus. i. 3. § 1, iii. 18. § 7.) The later
who became intoxicated with their new drink, Greek and the Roman poets followed, on the whole,
thooght it to be poison, and stoned their neighbour the notions of Eos, which Homer had established,
to death, whereupon his grandsons hung themselves and the splendour of a southern aurora, which
in their grief. At a much later time, when the lasts much longer than in our climate, is a favourite
Romans were visited by a plague, they were told topic with the ancient poets. Mythology repre
ot the Delphic oracle, that the plague was a punish- sents her as having carried off several youths dis
Dent for the outrage committed on Entoria's father, tinguished for their beauty. Thus she carried
and Latatios Catnlns caused a temple to be erected away Orion, but the gods were angry at her for it,
to Cronos on the Tarpeian rock, and in it an altar until Artemis with a gentle arrow killed him.
with fan- faces. (Pint. J'aralLGr. el Horn. 9.) [L.S.] (Horn. Od. v. 121.) According to Apollodorus (i.
EJTYA'LIUS (TUtxiAioj), the warlike, fre 4. § 4 ) Eos carried Orion to Delos, and was ever
quently occurs in the Iliad (never in the Odyssey) stimulated by Aphrodite. Cleitus, the son of
either as an epithet of Ares, or as a proper name Mantius, was carried by Eos to the seats of the
inMead of Ares, (xvii.211, ii. 651, vii. 166, viii. immortal gods (Od. it. 250), and Tithonus, by
264, xiu. 519, xvfi. 259, xriii. 309, xx. 69 j comp. whom she became the mother of Emathion and
Find. OL xiiL 102, Aias. ix. 37.) At a later time, Memnon, was obtained in like manner. She
fc rw*rt-r. Enyalius and Ares were distinguished as begged of Zeus to make him immortal, but forgot
t«o different gods of war, and Enyalius was looked to request him to add eternal youth. So long as
upon as a son of Arcs and Enyo, or of Cronos and he was young and beautiful, she lived with him at
Rhea. (Aristoph. Pai, 457 ; Diouys. A. R. iii. the end of the earth, on the banks of Oceanus ;
48 -, Ecstath. ad Hon. p. 944.) The name is and when he grew old, she nursed him, until at
evidently derived from Enyo, though one tradition length his voice disappeared and his body became
derived it from a Thracian Enyalius, who received quite dry. She then locked the body up in her
into his house those onlj who conquered him in chamber, or metamorphosed it into a cricket.
single combat, and for the same reason refused to (Horn. Hymn, in Ven. 218, &c. ; Horat. Curm. i.
receive Ares, but the latter slew him. (Eustath. 22. 8, ii. 16. 30 ; Apollod. iii. 12. § 4 ; lies.
md //ox. p. 673.) The youths of Sparta sacrificed Theog. 984 ; Serv. ad Virg. Georg. i. 447, iii. MS,
ynsmg dogs to Ares under the name of Enyalius Aen. iv. 585.) When her son Memnon was going
( Pas*, in. 14. § 9), and near the temple of Hippo- to fight against Achilles, she asked Hephaestus to
athusta, at Sparta, there stood the ancient fettered give her arms for him, and when Memnon was
statue cf Enyalins. (Paus. iii. 15, § 5 ; comp. killed, her tears fell down in the form of morn
*»»« ) Dionysus, too, is said to have been sur- ing dew. (Virg. Aen. viii. 384.) By Astracus
samed Enyahus. (Macrob. Sat. i. 19.) [L.S.] Eos became the mother of Zephyrua, Boreas, No-
E'N YO* (Trim), the goddess of war, who de- tus, Heosphorus, and the other stars. (Hesiod.
Eghta in bloodshed and the destruction of towns, Tltcog. 378.) Ccphalus was carried away by her
an*i accompanies Mars in battles. (Horn. 11. v. from the summit of mount Hymettus to Syria, and
Iii 5S> ; Eustath. p. 140.) At Thebes and by him she became the mother of Phaeton or
Orchomenos, a festival called 'Oito\JXa was cele- Tithonus, the father of Phaeton ; but nfterwards
h-atod in honour of Zeus, Demetcr, Athena and she restored her beloved to his wife Procris. (lies.
Esto, and Zeos was said to have received the sur- Theog. 984 ; Apollod. iii. 14. $ 3 ; Paus. i.
mamt of Homololus from Homolots, a priestess of 3. § 1 j Ov. Mel. vii. 703, &c. j Hygin. Fab.
Eavo. (Suid. a. r. ; comp. M'uller, Orchom. p. 189 ; comp. Cephalus.) Eos was represented in
229, 2nd edit.) A statue of Enyo, made by the the pediment of the kingly stoa at Athens in tho
saw of Praxiteles, stood in the temple of Ares at act of carrying off Cephalus, and in the same
Athena- (Paus. i. 8. j 5.) Among the Graeae in manner she was seen on the throne of the Amy-
Hestod {T\eog. 273) there is one called Enyo. claean Apollo. (Paus. i. 3. § 1, iii. 18. j 7.) At
Rrtpeetmg the Roman goddess of war see Bel- Olympia she was represented in the act of praying
Iffii. 1 1,. S.J to Zeus for Memnon. (v. 22. $ 2. ) In the works
EOS CHars), in Latin Aurora, the goddess of of an still extant, she appears as a winged goddess
the nv«niaz red, who brings up the light of day or in a chariot drawn by four horses. [L. S.]
from the east. She was a daughter of Hyperion EPACTAEl'S or EPA'CTIUS ('Eira*T<uos or
asd Theis or Eoryphassa, and a sister of He 'EirdKTwj), that is, the god worshipped on tho
lios and Selene, (lies. Theog. 371, &c. ; Horn. coast, was used as a surname of Poseidon in Samoa
Jffwm m SoL ii.) Ovid (Met. ix. 420, Fast. iv. (Hesych. ». v.), and of Apollo. (Orph. Argun.
373) calls her a daughter of Pallas. At the close 1296 ; Apollon. Rhod. i. 404.) [L. S.]
i{ night she rose from the couch of her beloved EPAE'NETUS ('ETafrrroj), a culinary author
Tehucoa, and on a chariot drawn by the swift frequently referred to by Atnenaeus, wrote one
henrt Lampus and Phaeton she ascended up to work "On Fishes" (Tlfjil 'Ixfh.'w', Athen. vii.
h«Tro from the river Oceanus, to announce the p. 328, f.), and another "On the Art of Cook
coming light of the ran to the gods as well as to ery " ('O^opTwrutoj, Athen. ii. p. 58, b., iii. p. 88,
22 EPAMINONDAS. EPAMINONDAS.
c, vii. pp. 294, d., 297, c, 304, d., 305, e., 312, b., came forward and took part decisively with Pelo
313, b.,ix. pp. 371, e., 395, f., xii. p. 516, c, xiv. pidas and his confederates. (Plut. Pelop. 5, 12,
p. 662, d.) de Gen. Soc. 3 ; Polyaen. ii. 2 j Xen. Hell. v.
EPA'GATHUS, a profligate freedman, who 4. § 2, &c.) In & c. 371, when the Athenian
nlong with Theocritus, a personage of the same envoys went to Sparta to negotiate peace, Epami
class and stamp with himself, exercised unbounded nondas also came thither, as an ambassador, to
influence over Caracalla, and was retained in the look after the interests of Thebes, and highly dis
service of his successor. After the disastrous tinguished himself by his eloquence and ready wit
battle of Antioch, he was despatched by Macrinus in the (lt-hate which ensued on the question whether
to place Diadumenianus under the protection of Thebes should be allowed to ratify the treaty in
the Parthian king, Artabanus; and at a subse the name of all Boeotia, thus obtaining a recogni
quent period we find that the death of the cele tion of her claim to supremacy over the Boeotian
brated Domitius Ulpianus was ascribed to his towns. This being refused by the Spartans, the
machinations, although the causes and circum Thebans were excluded from the treaty altogether,
stances of that event are involved in deep obscu and Cleombrotus was sent to invade Boeotia. The
rity. Alexander Severus, apprehensive lest some result was the battle of Leuctra, so fatal to the
tumult should arise at Rome, were he openly to Lacedaemonians, in which the success of Thebes is
take vengeance on Epagathus, nominated him said to have been owing mainly to the tactics of
Praefect of Egypt j but soon afterwards recalling Epaminondas. He it was, indeed, who most
him from thence, caused him to be conducted to strongly urged the giving battle, while he em
Crete, aud there quietly put to death. [Macri ployed all the means in his power to raise the
nus ; Diadumenianus ; Ulpianus]. (Dion. Cass. courage of his countrymen, not excluding even
Ixxvii. 21, btxviii. 39, lxxx. 2.) [W. R.] omens and oracles, for which, when unfavourable,
EPAINE ('Eirainj), that is, the fearful, a sur he had but recently expressed his contempt. (Xen.
name of Persephone. (Horn. II. ix. 457.) Plu Hell. vi. 3. §§ 18—20, 4. §§ 1—15 ; Diod. xv.
tarch (ili'. Aud. port p. 23, a.) derives the name 38, 51—56 ; Plut. Ages. 27, 28. Pelop. 20-23,
from oiVus, which suggests, that it might also be Cam. 19, Reg. et Imp. Apoph. p. 58, ed. Tauchn.,
understood in a euphemistic sense as the praised De seips. at. inn. laud. 1 6, De San. Tuend. Praec.
goddess. 1 1.. S.] 23 ; Paus. viii. 27, ix. 13 ; Polyaen. ii. 2 ; C.
EPAMINONDAS CEitojmu««&8m, 'Eireuwrai- Nep. Epam. 6 ; Cic. Tusc. Disp. i. 46, de Off. i.
8as), the Theban general and statesman, son of 24 ; Suid. s. v. 'ETranivoLvljas.) The project of
Polymnis, was bom and reared in poverty, though Lycomedos for the founding of Megalopolis and the
his blood was noble. In his early yean he is said union of Arcadia was vigorously encouraged and
to have enjoyed the instructions of Lysis of Taren- forwarded by Epaminondas, B. c. 370, as a barrier
turn, the Pythagorean, and we seem to trace the against Spartan dominion, though we need not
practical influence of this philosophy in several suppose with Pausanins that the plan originated
passages of his later life. (Plut. Pelop. 3, de Gen. with him. (Xen. HeU. vi. 5. v 6, &c. j Paus.
Soc.S, &c; AeL V. II. it 43, iii. 17, v. 5, xii. viii. 27, ix. 14 ; Diod. xv. 59 j Aristot. Polil. ii.
43; Paus. iv. 31, viii. 52, ix. 1 3 ; C. Nep. Epam. 2, ed. Bekk.) In the next year, a c. 369, the
1,2; comp. Fabric Bibl. Grace, vol. i. p. 851, first invasion of the Peloponnesus by the Thebans
and the works of Dodwell and Bentley there re took place, and when the rest of their generals were
ferred to.) His close and enduring friendtdiip with anxious to return home, as the term of their com
Pelopidas, unbroken as it was through a long mand was drawing to a close, Epaminondas and
series of years, and amidst all the military and Pelopidas persuaded them to remain and to advance
civil offices which they held together, strikingly against Sparta. The country was ravaged as far
illustrates the tendency which contrast of character as the coast, and the city itself, thrown into the
has to cement attachments, when they have for utmost consternation by the unprecedented sight
their foundation some essential point of similarity of an enemy's fires, and endangered also by
and sympathy. According to some, their friend treachery within, was saved only by the calm firm
ship originated in the campaign in which they ness and the wisdom of Agesilaus. Epaminondas,
served together on the Spartan' side against Man- however, did not leave the Peloponnesus before he
tineia, where Pelopidas having fallen in a battle, had inflicted a most serious blow on Sparta, and
apparently dead, Epaminondas protected his body planted a permanent thorn in her side by the
at the imminent risk of his own life, B. c. 385. restoration of the Mcssenians to their country and
(Plut. Pelop. 4 j Xen. HeU. v. 2. § 1, &c ; Diod. the establishment of a new city, named Messene,
xv. 5, 12 ; Paus. viii. 8.) When the Theban on the site of the ancient Ithome,—a work which
patriots engaged in their enterprise for the recovery was carried into effect with the utmoBt solemnity,
of the Cadmeia, in u. c. 379, Epaminondas held and, as Epaminondas wished to have it be
aloof from it at first, from a fear, traceable to his lieved, not without the special interposition of gods
Pythagorean religion, lest innocent blood Bhould and heroes. [Aristomenks.] Meanwhile the
be shed in the tumult. To the object of the Lacedaemonians had applied successfully for aid to
attempt, however,— the delivery of Thebes from Athens ; but the Athenian general, Iphicrates,
Spartan domination,—he was of course favourable. seems to have acted on this occasion with less than
He had studiously exerted himself already to raise his usual energy and ability, and the Theban army
the spirit and confidence of the Theban youths, made its way back in safety through an unguarded
urging them to match themselves in gymnastic pass of the Isthmus. Pausanias tells us that Epa
exercises with the Lacedaemonians of the citadel, minondas advanced to the walls of Athens, and
and rebuking them, when successful in these, for that Iphicrates restrained his countrymen from
the tameness of their submission to the invaders ; marching out against him ; but the several accounts
and, when the first step in the enterprise had been of these movements are by no means clear. (Xen.
taken, and Archias and Lconiiades were slain, he Hell. vi. 5. § 22, &c., 33—52, vii. 1. § 27; Arist.
EPAMINONDAS. EPAMINONDAS. 23
PoS. S. 9, ed. Bekk. ; Plut. PeL 04, Ages. 31— §§ 41—43 ; Diod. xv. 75.) In B. c. 36.1, when
34; Pwi it. 62—67 ; Pans. iv. 26, 27, ix. 14 ; the oligarchical party in Arcadia had succeeded in
Potrb. iv. 33 ; C. Nep. Iph. 21.) On their return bringing about a treaty of peace with Elis, the
home Epaminondas and Pelopidas were impeached Theban officer in command at Tegea at first joined
by their enemies on a capital charge of having re in the ratification of it j but afterwards, at the in
tained their command beyond the legal term. The stigation of the chiefs of the democratic party, ho
fact itself was true enough, but they were both ordered the gates of Tegea to be closed, and ar
honourably acquitted, Epaminondas having ex rested many of the higher class. The Mantineians
pressed fada willingness to die if the Thebans would protested strongly against this act of violence, and
record that he had been put to death because he prepared to resent it, and the Theban then released
had humbled Sparta and taught his countrymen to the prisoners, and apologized for his conduct. Tho
fare and to conquer her armies. Against his ac Mantineians, however, sent to Thebes to demand
cusers he was philosophical and magnanimous that he should be capitally punished ; but Epami
crouch, unlike Pelopidas, to take no measures of nondas defended his conduct, saying, that he had
retaliation. (Pint Pelap. 25, Dt taps. cit. am. acted more properly in arresting the prisoners tlmn
lamd. 4, Ref. el Imp. Apopk. p. 60, ed- Tauchn. ; in releasing them, and expressed a determination
Paw. ix. 14 ; Aet V. II. xiii. 42 ; C. Nep. Epam. of entering the Peloponnesus to carry on the war
7, 8.) [Pelopidas ; Mzxiclbidas.] in conjunction with those Arcadians who still sided
In the spring of 368 he again led a Theban army with Thebes. (Xen. Hell. vii. 4. §§ 12—40.) The
into the Peloponnesus, and having been vainly op alarm caused by this answer as symptomatic of an
posed at the Iithmus by the forces of Sparta and overbearing spirit of aggression on the part of
ber allies, including Athens, he advanced against Thebes, withdrew from her most of the Pelopon-
Sk-yon sad Peileoc, and obliged them to relinquish nesians, though Argos, Messenia, Tegea, and Me
their alliance with the Lacedaemonians ; but on his galopolis still retained their connexion with her.
return, he was repulsed by Chabrias in an attack It was then against a formidable coalition of states,
which he made on Corinth. It seems doubtful including Athens and Sparta, that Epaminondas
whether his early departure home was owing to invaded the Peloponnesus, for the fourth time, in
the rising jealousy of the Arcadians towards Thebes, B. c. 362. The difficulties of his situation were
or to the arrival of a force, chiefly of Celts and great, but his energy and genius were fully equal
Iberians, sent by Dionvsius I. to the aid of the to the crisis, and perhaps at no period of his life
Spartans. (Xen. HelLm. 1. §§ 15—22 ; Diod. were they so remarkably displayed as at its glo
xt. 68—70; Pans. ix. 15.) In the same year we rious close. Advancing to Tegea, he took up his
find him serving, but not as general, in the Theban quarters there; but tho time for which he held his
army which was sent into Thessaly to rescue Pelo command was drawing to an end, and it was neces
pidas from Alexander of Pherae, and which Diodo- sary for the credit and interest of Thebes that the
m teUs us was cared from utter destruction only expedition should not be ineffectual. When then
by the ability of Epaminondas. According to the he ascertained that Agesilaus was on his march
same anihor, he held no command in the expedition against him, he set out from Tegea in the evening,
in question because the Thebans thought he had and marched straight on Sparta, hoping to find it
not pursued as vigorously as he might his advan undefended ; but Agesilaus received intelligence of
tage over the Spartans at the Isthmus in the last his design, and hastened back before his arrival,
campaign. The disaster in Thessaly, however, and the attempt of the Thebans on the city was
proved to Thebes his value, and in the next year baffled. [Ahcbidamus III.J They returned ac
(3*7) he was sent at the head of another force to cordingly to Tegea, and thence marched on to
release Pelopidas, and accomplished his object, ac Mantineia, whither their cavalry had preceded
cording to Plutarch, without even striking a blow, them. In the battle which ensued at this place,
and bv the mere prestige of his name. (Diod. xv, and in which the peculiar tactics of Epaminondas
71,72,75; Plut. Pelop. 28, 29.) It would ap- were brilliantly and successfully displayed, he him
\ it so, it is a noble testimony to his vir- self, in the full career of victory, received a mortal
-that the Thebans took advantage of his ab wound, and was borne away from the throng, lie
sence on this expedition to destroy their old rival was told that his death would follow directly on
■Jrcbflsnenns,—a design which they had formed the javelin being extracted from the wound ; but
izaraediaiely after their victory at Leuctra, and he would not allow this to be done till he had
wbjch had been then prevented only by his remon been assured that his shield was safe, and that tho
strances. (I>iod. xt. 57, 79 ; Paus ix. 15 ; Thirl- victory was with his countrymen. It was a dis
wsD's O'reeet, voL T. pp. 120, 121.) In the spring puted point by whose hand he fell : among others,
of 366 he invaded the Peloponnesus for the third tho honour was assigned to Gryllus, tho son of
tine, with the view chiefly of strengthening the Xenophon. He was buried where lie died, and
intsrnce of Thebes in Acliaia, and so indirectly his tomb was surmounted by a column, on which
with ihe Arcadians as well, who were now more a shield was suspended, emblazoned with the de
than half alienated from their former ally. Hav vice of a dragon—symbolical (says Pausanias) of
ing obtained assurances of fidelity from the chief his descent from the blood of the ZirapTm, the
men m the several states, he did not deem it ne children of the dragon's teeth. ( Xen. HelU vii. 5 j
cessary to pat down the oligarchical governments Isocr. Ep. ad Arch. § 5 ; Diod. xv. 82—87; Plut.
which had been established under Spartan protec Ayes. 34, 35, Apoph. 24; Paus. viii. 11, ix. 15;
tion ; tot the Arcadians made this moderation a Just. vi. 7, 8 ; Cic. ad Fam. v. 12, de Fin. ii. 30 ;
ground of complaint against him to the Thebans, Suid. i. v. 'EvauivweSar ; C. Nep. Epam. 9 ; Po-
and the latter then sent harmosts to the different lyb. iv. 33.) The circumstances of ancient Greece
Achaean cities, and act up democracy in all of supplied little or no scope for any but the narrowest
tina, s-hich, however, was soon overthrown every- patriotism, and this evil is perhaps never more ap
i by a counter-revolution. (Xen. Hell. vii. 1. parent than wben wc think of it in connexion with
21 EPAPHRODITUS. EPEIUS.
the noble mind of one like Epaminondas. We do example, on Homer's Iliad and Odyssey (Steph.
indeed find him rising above it, as, for instance, in Byz. ». tf. AicSoii-n ; Etym. M. s. w. aapm. Kt^a-
his preservation of Orchomenus ; but this was in Kyvla), an Itfynais tls 'Ofiripov na\ U'wSapor
sjrite of the system under which be lived, and (Eudoc. p. 128), a commentary on Hesiod's " Shield
which, while it checked throughout the full expan of Heracles," and on the Atria of Callimachus,
sion of his character, sometimes (as in his vindica which is frequently referred to by Stephanus of
tion of the outrage at Tegea) seduced him into Byzantium and the Scholiast on Aeschylus. He
positive injustice. At the best, amidst all our ad is also mentioned several times in the Venetian
miration of his genius and his many splendid qua Scholia on the Iliad. (Comp. Visconti, Iconograph.
lities, we cannot forget that they were directed, Grecq. i. p. 266.) [L. S.]
after all, to the one petty object of the aggrandize E'PAPHUS ("Eiro<pos), a son of Zeus and lo,
ment of Thebes. In the ordinary characters of who was born on the river Nile, after the long wan
Grecian history we look for no more than this ;— derings of his mother. He was then concealed by
it comes before us painfully in the case of Epami- the Curetcs, by the request of Hera, but lo sought
nondas. (.VI. V. H. vii. 14 ; Cic. </<• Oral. iii. 34, and afterwards found him in Syria. Epaphus, who
de Fin. ii. 1 9, Bnd. 13, Tusc. IHsp. L 2 ; Polyb. subsequently became king of Egypt, married Mem
vi. 43, ix. 8, xxxii. 8, Fragm. Hist. IS; C. Nep. phis, the daughter of Nilus, or according to others,
Epam. 1 0 j Acsch. de Fah. Leg. p. 42.) [E. E.] Cassiopeia, and built the city of Memphis. He
EPAPHRODlTUSfErappoSiToj). l.Afreed- had one daughter Libya, from whom Libya
roan of Caesar Octavianus ; he was sent by Octa- (Africa) received its name, and another bore the
vianus, together with C. Proculeius, to queen name of Lysianassa. (Apollod. ii. 1. §j 3, 4, 5.
Cleopatra to prepare her for her fate. The two § 11 ; Hygin. Fab. 145, 149, 275 ; comp. Herod,
emissaries, however, made the queen their prisoner, iii. 27, 28.) Another mythical being of this name
and kept her in strict custody, that she might not is mentioned by Hyginus. (Fab. init.) [L. S.]
make away with herself ; but she nevertheless suc E'PAPHUS, is called a vir peritissimus, and
ceeded in deceiving her gaolers. (Dion Cass. Ii. seems to have written a work on Delphi, of which
II, 13.) the seventeenth book is quoted. Servius (ad Aen.
2. A freedman and favourite of the emperor iii 89) and Macrobius (Sal. iii. 6) both quote the
Nero, who employed him as his secretary. During same statement from his work. [L. S.]
the conspiracy which put an end to Nero's rule, EPA'RCHIDES ('Eirapx(Bris)' is mentioned as
Epaphroditus accompanied his master in his flight, a writer by Athenaeus in two passages (i. p. 30, ii.
and when Nero attempted to kill himself, Epa p. 61), both of which relate to Icarus, but it is
phroditus assisted him. For this service, however, impossible to conjecture the nature of the work
he had afterwards to pay with his own life, for of Eparchides. [L. S.]
Dotnitinn first banished and afterwards ordered EPEIGEUS ('Eir€i7«is), a Myrmidone and son
him to be put to death, because he had not exerted of Agacles, who having killed his father, was
himself to save the life of Nero. The philosopher obliged to flee from Budeion. He took refuge in
Epictetus was the freedman of this Epaphroditus ; the house of Pcleus who sent him with Achilles
but whether he is the same as the Epaphroditus to to Troy, where he was killed by Hector. (Horn.
whomjosephusdedicated his "Jewish Antiquities," II. xvi. 570.) [L. S.]
and on whom he pronounces in his preface a high EPEIUS ('EmuJj). 1. A son of Endymion.
culogium for his love of literature and history, is [Endymion.]
very uncertain, and it is generally believed that 2. A son of Panopeus, called the artist, who
Josephus is speaking of one Epaphroditus who went with thirty Bhips from the Cyclades to Troy.
lived in the reign of Trajan and was a freedman (Diet. Cret. i. 17.) About the close of the Trojan
and procurator of this emperor. (Tac. Ann. xv. war, he built the wooden horse under the protec
55 ; Sueton. Nero, 49, Vomit. 14 ; Dion Cass, tion and with the assistance of Athena. (Od. viii.
lxiii. 27, 29, lxvii. 14 ; Arrian, Dissert. Epict. i. 492, xi. 523 ; //. xxiii. 664, &c, 840 ; Paus. ii.
26 ; Suidas, s. v. 'EirlKTrrros ; comp. the commen 29. § 4.) According to Justin (xx. 2) the inhab
tators on Josephus.) From all these persons of itants of Metapontum, which he was believed to
the name of Epaphroditus, we must distinguish the have founded, shewed in a temple of Athena the
one whom the Apostle Paul mentions as his com tools which he had used in constructing the horse.
panion. (I'hilipp. ii. 25, iv. 18.) [L. S.] In the Homeric poems he appears as a mighty and
EPAPHRODITUS, M. ME'TTIUS, of Chac- gallant warrior, whereas later traditions assign to
roneia, a Greek grammarian. He was a disciple of him an inferior place among the heroes at Troy.
Archias of Alexandria, and became the slave and Stesichorus (ap. Eustatli. ad Horn, p. 1 323 ; Athen.
afterwards the freedman of Modestus, the praefect x. p. 457) called him the water-bearer of the At-
of Egypt, whose son Pitclinus had been educated reidae, and as such he was represented in the tem
by Epaphroditus. After having obtained his ple of Apollo at Carthca. His cowardice, further,
liberty, he went to Rome, where he resided in the is said to have been so great, that it became pro
reign of Nero and down to the time of Nerva, and verbial. (Hesych. *. «.) According to Virgil (Aen.
enjoyed a very high reputation for his learning. ii. 264), Epeius himself was one of the Greeks
He was extremely fond of books, and is said to concealed in the wooden horse, and another tradi
have collected a library of 30,000 valuable books. tion makes him the founder of Pisa in Italy.
He died of dropsy at the age of seventy-five. (Serv. ad Aen. x. 179.) There were at Argos
Suidas («. v. 'Kiracppobnot), from whom this ac very ancient carved images of Hermes and Aphro
count is derived, does not specify any work of our dite, which were believed to be the works of Epeius
grammarian, but concludes his article by merely (Paus. ii. 19. § 6), and Plato (Ion, p. 533, a.)
saying that he left behind him many good works. mentions him as a sculptor along with Daedalus
We know, however, from other sources, the titles and Theodoras of Samos. Epeius himself was
of some grammatical works and commentaries : for painted by Polygnotus in the Lesche of Delphi in
EPHIALTES. EPH1PPUS. 2.3
tl? »c; rf throwing down the Trojan wall, above conciled ; Thirlwall's Greece, vol. iii. pp. 23, 24 ;
t» jjici rose the bead of the wooden horse. (Paus. Diet, of Ant, s. r. Areiopagus; and the authors
x. 2& f 1. [L. S.] mentioned by C. F. Hermann, Pol. Ant. § 109,
£P£TIATUS CETiiporot), of Pharae in Achaia, note 6.) The services of Ephialtes to the demo
was ejected general of the Achaeans in it. c. 219, cratic cause excited the rancorous enmity of some
by the intrigues of Apelles, the adviser of Philip of the oligarchs, and led to his assassination during
V. of Macedonia, in opposition to Timoxenus, who the night, probably in a c. 456. It appears that
was supported by Aratus. Eperatus was held in the time of Antiphon (see de Coed. Her. p. 1 37)
universally in low estimation, and was in fact the murderers had not been discovered ; but we
totally unfit for his office, on which he entered in learn, on the authority of Aristotle (an. Plut. Pe-
E. c. 218, so that, when his year had expired, he ricl. 10), that the deed was perpetrated by one
left numerous difficulties to Aratus, who succeeded Aristodicus of Tanagra. The character of Ephi
him. (Polyb. iv. 82, v. 1, 5, 30, 91 ; Plut^rai. altes, as given by ancient writers, is a high and
48.) [K. K] honourable one, insomuch that he is even classed
ETHEL'S ("E^woi), a son of the river-god with Aristeidcs for his inflexible integrity. Hera-
Caystrus, who was said, conjointly with Cresus, to cleides Ponticus tells us that he was in the habit of
hare built the temple of Artemis at Ephesus, and throwing open his grounds to the people, and giv
to have called the town after himself. (Paus. vii. ing entertainments to large numbers of them,—a
2- 1 4.) [L. 8.] statement which seems inconsistent with Aelian's
EPHIALTES (iJfwjATiis), one of the giants, account, possibly more rhetorical than true, of his
who in the war against the gods was deprived of poverty. (Plut dm. 10, Dem. 14; Ael. V. H. ii.
his left eye by Apollo, and of the right by Hera 43, xi. 9, xiii. 39 ; Val. Max. iii. 8. Ext 4 ; He-
cles. (ApoQed. L 6. § 2.) Respecting another racl. Pont. 1.)
personam of thii name see Alokidak. [L. S.] 3. One of the Athenian orators whose surrender
EPH IALTES CE«WAtt)s). 1. A Malian, who, was required by Alexander in B. c. 335, after the
in a. c 4 SO, when Leonidas was defending the destruction of Thebes, though Demades prevailed
pass of Thermopylae, guided the body of Persians on the king not to press the demand against any
calied the Immortals over the mountain path (the but Charidemus. (Arr. Ana//, i. 10; Plut Dem.
Anapapa), and thus enabled them to fall on the 23, Phoc. 17; Diod. xrii. 15; Suid. s. v. "Arrl-
r-ar of the Greeks. Fearing after this the ven varpos. )
geance of the Spartans, he fled into Thessaly, and 4. Plutarch (Alex. 41) mentions Ephialtes and
a price was set on Mb head by the Amphictyonic Cissus as those who brought to Alexander the in
roucil. He ultimately returned to his country, telligence of the treachery and flight of Harpalus
and was put to death by one Athenades, a Trachi- in B. c. 324, and were thrown into prison by the
rian, (or some cause unconnected with his treason, king as guilty of calumny. The play of the comic
but not further mentioned by Herodotus. (Her. poet Phrynichus, called " Ephialtes," does not
vii. 21.-?. Ac ; Pans. i. 4 ; Strab. i. p. 20 ; Poly- seem to have had reference to any of the above
acn. vii. I A.) persons, but rather to the Nightmare. (Meinekc,
2. An Athenian statesman and general, son of Hist. CriLCom. Grace, pp. 152— 154.) [E. E.]
Soohmkies, or, according to Diodorus, of Simonides, EPHICIA'NUS. [Ipuicianus.]
was a friend and partisan of Pericles, who is said EPHIPPUS ('Eipimroi), of Olynthus, a Greek
ty Piutareh to have often put him forward as the historian of Alexander the Great. It is commonly
main extensible agent in carrying poh'tical measures believed, though no reason is assigned, that Ephip-
when be did not choose to appear prominently pus lived about or shortly after the time of Alex
himself. (AeL V. H. ii. 43, iii. 17; Pint. Perk. 7, ander. There is however a passage in Arrian
Rrip. Grrend. Prate 15; Mod. xi. 77.) Thus, when (Anab. iii. 5. $ 4) which would determine the age
the Spartans sent to ask the assistance of the of Ephippus very accurately, if it could be proved
Aihenians against Ithome in B. c. 461, he endea that the Ephippus there mentioned iB identical
vored to prevent the people from granting the re- with the historian. Arrian says, that Alexander
caest urging them not to raise a fallen rival, but before leaving Egypt appointed Aeschylus (tho
'j* leave the spirit of Sparta to be trodden down ; Rhodian) and Ephippus toV XaXia&tus, superin-
and we raid him mentioned in particular as chiefly tendants ('nrio-Koiroi) of the administration of
isstrumental in that abridgment of the power of Egypt The reading toV XaXxiSias, though
the Areiopagus, which inflicted such a blow on the adopted by the recent editors of Arrian, is not in
<>ii2arehica] party, and against which the M Eume- all MSS-, and some editions read XaA/ctooVa or
aiaW" of Aeschylus was directed. (Arist. Polit. XaAKTjSdVa ; but if we might emend XaXKtSea,
r. 12. ed. Bekk"; Diod. l.c; Plut. O'a. 10, 15, we should have reason for supposing that tho
16. 1'crH. 7, 9; Cic de Rep. i. 27.) By this mea person mentioned by Arrian is the same as Ephip
sure Plutarch teHs ns that he introduced an un pus of Olynthus, for Olynthus was the principal
mixed democracy, and made the city drunk with town in Chakidice, and Ephippus might just as
liberty; Hut be does not state clearly the precise well be called a native of Olynthus as of Chalci
power* of which the Areiopagus was deprived, nor dice. If the Ephippus then in Arrian be the same
is it ra»y to decide this point, or to settle whether as the historian, he was a contemporary of Alex
it was the authority of the roart or the council that ander and survived him for some time, for he wrote
Pfrides and Epbialtes assailed. (For a full discus- an account of the king's burial. The work of
sea of the question the reader is referred to Miil- Ephippus is distinctly referred to by Athenacus
»?, £•*«,. §§ 35—37 ; Wachsmuth, Hint. Ant. only, though Diodorus and others also seem to
nL 2. p. 75, &c Eng. transl. ; Hermann, Ojmsc. have made use of it Athenaeus calls it in some
v/l iv. pp. 299—302, where the passages of De- passages irepl ttJs 'AAf^avSpou Kal 'HQaHrrlwvos
raotheoei [r. Arist. p. 641] and of Lysias [de >i«toAAo7^j, and in others he has Tcupijj or rtAevriiv
Catd. End. p. 94] are ably and satisfactorily re- instead of utTaMaryijs, so that at all events wo
20 EPHORUS. EPHORUS.
most conclude that it contained an account of the rfjroSfikt. p. 626, ed. Aldus), and from Seneca (it
burial of Alexander as well as of his death. From Tranq. Anim. 6) it might almost appear, that
the few fragments still extant, it would appear that Ephorus began the career of a public orator.
Ephippus described more the private and personal Isocrates, however, dissuaded him from that
character of his heroes than their public careers. course, for he well knew that oratory was not
(Athen. iii. p. 120, it. p. 146, x. p. 434, xii. pp. tho field on which Ephorus could win laurels, and
537, 538.) It should be remarked that by a sin he exhorted him to devote himself to the study
gular mistake Suidas in his article Ephippus gives "and composition of history. As Ephorus was of
an account of Ephorus of Cumae. Pliny (Elench. a more quiet and contemplative disposition than
lib. xii., xiii.) mentions one Ephippus among the Theopompus, Isocrates advised the former to write
authorities he consulted upon plants, and it is ge the early history of Greece, and the latter to take
nerally believed that he is a different person from up the later and more turbulent periods of history.
our historian; but all the writers whom Pliny (Suidas ; Cic. de Orat. iii. 9 j Phot. BM. Cod.
mentions along with him, belong to the period of 176, 260.) Plutarch (de Stoic. Repugn. 10) relates
Alexander, so that it is by no means improbable that Ephorus was among those who were accused
that he may be Ephippus of Olynthus. All that of having conspired against the life of king Alex
is known about Ephippus and the fragments of his ander, but that he successfully refuted the charge
work, is collected by R. Geier, in his Alexandri when he was summoned before the king.
Magni Histor. Scriptores, aetate supparcs, Lips. The above is all that is known respecting the
1844, pp. 309—317. [L. S.] life of Ephorus. The most celebrated of all his
EPHIPPUS ('Efwiroi), of Athens, was a works, none of which have come down to us,
comic poet of the middle comedy, as we learn was — 1. A History ('loropiai) in thirty books.
from the testimonies of Suidas (s. v.), and Antio- It began with the return of the Heracleidae,
chus of Alexandria (Athen. xi. p. 482, a), and from or, according to Suidas, with the Trojan times,
the allusions in his fragments to Plato, and the and brought the history down to the Biege of
Academic philosophers (Athen. xi. p. 509, c. d.), Pcrinthus in B. c. 341. It treated of the history
and to Alexander of Pherae and his contempora of the barbarians as well as of that of the Greeks,
ries, Dionysius the Elder, Cotys, Theodorus, and and was thus the first attempt at writing a uni
others. (Athen. iii. p. 112, f. xi. p. 482, d.) The versal history that was ever made in Greece. It
following are the known titles of his plays : "Apre- embraced a period of 750 years, and each of tho
/us, Boiaipis, rripv6rns, 'E^itoXt), 'Ecptjfloi, Kfpmj, thirty books contained a compact portion of the
KvSuv, Navay6s9'Of3e\ta<p6poi,"Onotot, ITeta-atrnf j, history, which formed a complete whole by itself.
Sainpol, *iAiipa, An epigram which Eustathius Each also contained a special preface and might
ascribes to Ephippus (ad Iliad, xi. 697, p. 879. bear a separate title, which either Ephorus himself
38) is not his, but the production of some un or some later grammarian seems actually to have
known author. (Comp. Athen. x. p. 442, d.) There given to each book, for we know that the fourth
are some fragments also extant from the unknown book was called Eupflurn. (Diod. iv. 1, v. 1, xvi.
plays of Ephippus. (Meineke, Fragm. Com. Grace. 14,26; Polyb. v. 33, iv. 3; Strab. vii. p. 302;
vol. L pp. 351—354, iii. pp. 322—340 ; Fabric. Clem. Alex. Slrom. i. p. 403.) Ephorus himself
BiU. Grace, vol. ii. pp. 297, 298, 440.) [P. S.] did not live to complete his work, and it was
E'PHORUS ("E<popos). 1. Of Cumae, a cele finished by his son Demophilus. [Hemophilus,
brated Greek historian, was, according to Suidas, No. 1.] DiylluB began his history at the point at
to whom we are indebted for our information re which the work of Ephorus left off. As the work
specting his life, a son either of Demophilus or is unfortunately lost, and we possess only isolated
Antiochus ; but as Plutarch (Ei ap. Delph. p. fragments of it, it is not possible in all cases to
389, a.) mentions only the former name, and as determine the exact contents of each book ; but the
Ephnrus's son was called Demophilus (Athen. vi. two collectors and editors of the fragments of
p. 232), we must believe that the father of Ephorus Ephorus havedone so,as far as it is feasible. Among
was called Demophilus. Ephorus was a contem the other works of Ephorus we may mention—
porary of Theopompus, and lived about b. c. 408, 2. Uepl aJpTHioVw, or on inventions, in two books.
a date which Marx, one of his editors, strangely (Suidas ; Athen. iv. p. 182, viii. p. 352, xiv. p.
mistakes for the time at which Ephorus was born. 637 ; Strab. xiii. p. 622.) 3. Imnayixa imxd-
Ephorus must have survived the accession of Alexan pu>r. (Plut. de VU. ei Foes. Homer. 2.) This
der the Great, for Clemens of Alexandria (Strom. work, however, seems to have been nothing but a
i. p. 403) states that Ephorus reckoned 735 years chapter of the fifth book of the iVropfoi. 4. Iltpl
from the return of the Heracleidae down to a c ^i(eas. (Theon, Froyymn. 2, 22 ; comp. Cic. Oral.
333, or the year in which Alexander went to Asia. 57.) This work, too, like a few others which are
The best period of his life must therefore have mentioned as separate productions, may have been
fallen in the reign of Philip. Ephorus was a pupil only a portion of the History. Suidas mentions
of Isocrates in rhetoric, at the time when that some more works, such as Uepl dyaBHv jcal kojcwv,
rhetorician had opened his school in the island of and Tlapao'6£wv ruv inaffraxov #is\\ia. of which,
Chios ; butnotbeingvery much gifted by nature, like however, nothing at all is known, and it is not
most of his countrymen, he was found unfit for impossible that they may have been excerpta or
entering upon life when he returned home, and his abridgments of certain portions of the History,
father therefore Bent him to school a second time. which were made by late compilers and published
(Plut. VU. X Orat. p. 839, a.) Iii order not to under his name.
disappoint his father again, Ephorus now zealously As for the character of Ephorus as an historian,
devoted himself to the study of oratory, and his we have ample evidence that, in accordance with
efforts were crowned with success, for he and the simplicity and sincerity of his character, ha
Theopompus were the most distinguished among desired to give a faithful account of the events he
the pupils of Isocrates (Menand. Rhct. Aiaipcs. had to relate. He shewed his good sense in not
EPHORUS. EPHRAEM. 27
attempting to write a history of the period previous Galienus in this account, it should be observed, is
to the return of the Heracleidae ; but the history only a correction of Volaterranus, for the common
of the subsequent time is still greatly intermixed reading in Suidas is roAtiroS. (Comp. Marx, Eplwr.
vita fables and mythical traditions ; and it must be Fragm. p. 7.) [L. S.]
acknowledged that his attempts to restore a genuine E'PHORUS, an Ephesian painter, and teacher
history by divesting the traditions from what he ofAPBLLES. (Suid. ». t>. 'AireAArJj.) [P. S.]
considered mythical or fabulous, were in most EPHRAEM. The name is variously written
cases highly unsuccessful, and sometimes even Ephraem, Ephraemus, Ephraim, Ephraimius, Eph
absurd and puerile. He exercised a sort of criti rem, Ephremus, and Euphraimius : it belongs to
cism which is anything bat that of a real historian several ecclesiastical writers of the Greek and
(Strab. xii. p. 550), and in some instances he Oriental churches.
forced bis authorities to suit his own views. For 1. Ephrkmus. To a writer so called, and to
the early times he seems to have preferred the whose name no distinctive epithet can be attached,
logographer* to the epic poets, though the latter, is ascribed the account of Saints Abram and
too, were not neglected. Even the later portions Mary {Ada SS. Atiramti ct Mariae) in the Ada
of his history, where Ephorus had such guides as Sanctorum Martii, voL ii. p. 436, &c Papebroche,
Herodotus, Thucydides, and Xenophon, contained in his introduction to the account, conjectures that
such discrepancies from his great predecessors, and the writer lived about the middle of the sixth cen
on points on which they were entitled to credit, tury. The account, of which ho is the author, is
that F-phorus, to say the least, cannot be regarded sometimes ascribed (as in the Catalogue of the
as a sound and safe guide in the study of history. King's Library at Paris A. d. 1740) but incorrectly
The severest critic of Ephorus was Timaeus, who to Ephraem the Syrian. It has also been ascribed,
never neglected an opportunity of pointing out his but incorrectly, to Ephrem of Caria and Ephrem o.
inaccuracies ; several authors also wrote separate Mylasa. [Nos. 3 and 7 below.]
Louis against Ephorus, such as Alexinus, the pupil 2. Ephraimius (E<ppoi|iuoi), or, as Theophancs
of Eubuiides (IHog. Laert. ii. 1 06, 1 1 0), and Straw writes the name, Euphraimius (EiKj>paf>uos),
the Peripatetic. (Diog. Laert, v. 59.) Porphyrins patriarch of Antioch, or, as it was then
(ap. Euseh. Praep. Ernng. x. 2) charges Ephorus called, Theopolis. If the designation given him
with constant plagiarisms; but this accusation is by Theophanes (6 'Am'Sios) indicates the place
undoubtedly very much exaggerated, for we not of his birth, he was a native of Amida in Ar
ctuv rind no traces of plagiarism in the fragments menia, near the source of the Tigris. His first
extant, bat we frequently find Ephorus disputing employments were civil : and in the reign of the
the statements of his predecessors. (Joseph, c. emperor Justin I. he attained to the high dignity
,4/Moa. i. 3.) Polybius (xii. 25) praises him for of Count of the East. While in this office he
his knowledge of maritime warfare, hut adds that received, according to a curious story, recorded
he was utterly ignorant of the mode of warfare on in the AtipoWpuw, or Pratum SpirUuale, writ
bad ; Strabo (via. p. 332) acknowledges his ten by Joannes Moschus, but erroneously ascribed,
merits, by saying that he separated the historical by ancient as well as modem writers, to Sophronius
from the geographical portions of his work ; and, in patriarch of Jerusalem, an intimation of the ec
regard to the latter, he did not confine himself clesiastical dignity to which he was destined to
to mere lists of names, but he introduced investi attain. In the years 525 and 526, Antioch was
gations concerning the origin of nations, their con nearly destroyed by successive shocks of an earth
stitutions and manners, and many of the geogra quake, and by a fire which had been occasioned by
phical fragments which have come down to us the overthrow of the buildings. Among the suf
contain lively and beautiful descriptions. (Polyb. ferers was Euphrasius the patriarch, who was
ix. 1 ; Strab. ix. p. 400, &c, x. pp. 465, 479, &c) buried in the ruins of the falling edifices ; and the
As regards the style of Ephorus, it is such as might people, grateful for the compassionate care which
be expected from a disciple of Isocrates : it is clear, Ephraimius manifested for them in their distress,
land, and elaborately polished, but at the same chose him successor to the deceased prelate. His
time diffuse and deficient in power and energy, bo elevation to the patriarchate is generally placed in
that Ephorus is by no means equal to his master. the year 526, but perhaps did not take place till
(Polyb. xii. 28; Dionys. de Comp. Verb. 26; the year following. His conduct as patriarch is
Detnetr. Ilto! ifuip. § 68 ; Dion Chrysost. Oral. highly eulogized by ecclesiastical writers, who
xviii. p. 256, ed. MoreL ; Plut. PericL 28 ; Phi- speak especially of his charity to the poor, and of
laatc VU. Soph. L 17; Cic Orat 51; Phot. /(•/,'. the real and firmness with which he opposed he
Cad. 176.) The fragments of the works of Ephorus, resy. His zeal against heretics was manifested in
the number of which might probably be much in a curious encounter with an heretical stylite, or
creased if Diodorus had always mentioned his pillar-saint, in which the heretic is said to have
authorities, were first collected by Meier Marx, been converted by the miraculous passing of the
Cariarahe, 1815, 8vo_ who afterwards published patriarch's robes, unconsumed, through the ordeal of
some additions in Fricdemann and Secbode's Mis- fire. He condemned, in a synod at Antioch, those
cestui. CriL ii 4, p. 754, &c. They are also con who attempted to revive the obnoxious sentiments
tained in C and Th. Muller's Fragm. Ilatorkor. of Origen ; and wrote various treatises against the
Orate, pp. 234—277, Paris, 1841, 3v-o. Both Nestorians, Eutychians, Severians, and Accphali,
editors have prefixed to their editions critical dis and in defence of the Council of Chalcedon. But,
sertations on the life and writings of Ephorus. toward the close of his life, he was obliged by the
2. Of Comae, called the Younger, was likewise Emperor Justinian, under a threat of deposition,
an historian, bat he is mentioned only by Suidas, to subscribe the condemnation of three of the
according to whom he wrote a history of Galienus decrees of the Council of Chalcedon, which he had
in twenty-seven books, a work on Corinth, one on hitherto so earnestly supported. Facundus of
the Aleuadae, and a few others. The name Hermin, the strenuous advocate of the condemned
*J« EPHRAEM. EPHRAEM.
decrees, reproaches Ephraimius on this occasion, and 6. Ephraemus of Edessa, commonly calico!
with justice, as more solicitous for the preservation the Syrian. [See below.]
of his office than for the interests of what he 7. Ephrem, bishop of Mvlaba in Caria [see
deemed divine and important truth. Ephraimius Nos. 1 and 3]. The time when he lived is uncer
died soon after this transaction, a. d. 546, or per tain ; but religious honours were paid to his me
haps 545, after a patriarchate, according to Theo- mory in the fifth century at Leuce (near
phanes, of eighteen years, or, according to other Mylasa), where his body was buried. (Acta Sane-
calculations, of twenty years. tommy S. Eusebiae Vita, cap. 3, Januar. vol. ii.
The works of Ephraimius are known to ub only p. 600.) [J. C M.]
by the account of them preserved in the Biblio- EPHRAEM or EPHRAIM, a Syrian, born at
theca of Photius, who says that three volumes Nisibis, flourished a. d. 370. He spent his youth
written in defence of the dogmas of the Church, in diligent study, and devoted himself at first to
and especially of the decrees of the Council of a monastic life, but afterwards went to Edessa,
Chalcedon, had come down to his day : but he where he was ordained deacon. He refused to
gives an account only of two. The first compre proceed to the higher orders of the ministry, and is
hended, 1. An epistle to Zcndnus^ a scholasticus or even said to have played the part of Brutus, by
advocate of Emcsa, and one of the sect of the Ace- feigning madness in order to avoid elevation to the
phali ; 2. Some ejmtles to the emjwrar Justinian ; bishopric. He formed a close friendship with
3. Epistles to Anthimust bishop of Trapczus* Do- Basil, bishop of Cacsareia, and shared his acrimony
metianus Synclcticus, metropolitan ofTarsits, Brazes against the Arians and other heretics, whom he
the Persian^ and others; 4. An act ofa synod (ffvvo- attacks with the violence characteristic of his age.
5tK7} xpafis) held by Ephraimius respecting certain He appeared in a truly Christian light at the time
unorthodox books ; and, 5, Panegyrical and otlier of a famine at Edessa, when he not only assisted
discourses. The second volume contained a trea the suffering poor with the greatest energy and
tise in four books, in which were defences of Cyril most zealous kindness, but also actively exerted
of Alexandria and the synod of Chalcedon against himself in urging the rich to deny themselves for
the Nestorians and Eutychians ; and answers to their brethren's good. Sozomen (iii. 15) speaks
some theological questions of his correspondent the with admiration of the manner in which Chris
advocate Anatolius. (Phot. BibL Codd. 228, 229 ; tianity had subdued in him a naturally irascible
Facundus, iv. 4 ; Evagrius, Eccles. Hist. iv. 5, C ; temper, and illustrates it by a pleasing anecdote,
Joannes Moschus (commonly cited as Sophronius) amusing from its quaint simplicity. At the con
Pratum Spiritualty c. 36, 37 in Difrfioth. Patrumy clusion of a long fast, Ephraein's servant let fall
vol. xiii. ed. Paris, 1654; Theophanes, Chrono the dish in which he was bringing him some food.
graph, ad Ann. 519 (Alex. Era =526 Common His alarm at having thus spoiled his master's dinner
Era) and table ad Ann. 537, 538 ; Baronhis, An was removed by hearing him say, u Never mind,
nates; Cave, Hist. Liter, vol.i. p. 507, cd. 1740-3 ; since the food has not come to us, we will go to
Fabric BU4. Grace, vol. x. p. 750.) it." Whereupon Ephraem sat down on the floor
3. Ephrem, or rather Ephraem ('E^ootJw), and ate the scraps left in the fragments of the
of Caria, a monk of unknown date, writer of a broken dish. He died about a. d. 378, and in
Greek hymn or prayer given by Raynaeus (Dissert, his last illness forbad the recitation of any funeral
Prelim, de. Acoluthiis Officii Graeei, p. lxviii. in oration over his remains, and desired that his
the Acta Sanctorum JuniL, vol. ii.) This Ephrem obsequies should be conducted in the simplest
is not to be confounded with Nos. 1 and 7- manner. He knew no language but his native
4. Ephraim (*E^poJfi), bishop of Cherson. In Syrian, though nearly all his works are translated
the title of his only published work he is called into Greek, and were formerly held in such high
archbishop, and some moderns style him M martyr." esteem, that portions of them were sometimes read
He is the author of an account of a miracle in churches after the gospel for the day. Most of
wrought by the relics or the interposition of Cle his writings were collected by Gerard Voss, who
ment of Rome, on the body of a child, who had turned them into Latin, and published them (1) at
been overwhelmed by the sea in a pilgrimage to Rome a. d. 1589-93-97, (2) at Cologne in 1603,
Clement's submarine tomb. The account is print (3) at Antwerp in 1619. Voss's edition is in
ed in the Patres Apostolici of Cotelerius (vol. i. three volumes. The first consists of various treatises,
p. 815. ed. Amsterdam, 1724,) and in the De partly on subjects solely theological, as the Priest
Probatis Sanctorum Fitfu, of Surius, 29 Aba An hood, Prayer, Fasting, &c, with others partly
other piece of Ephraim on the Miracles of St. theological and partly moral, as Truth, Anger,
Clement, evidently different from the foregoing, is Obedience, Envy. The second contains many
noticed by Leo Allatius, who calls the writer Eph- epistles and addresses to monks, and a collection
raemius; but Cotelerius was not able to obtain it, of apophthegms. The third consists of several
or he would have printed it with the foregoing. treatises or homilies on parts of Scripture and
(Cotelerius, I.e.; Allatius, De Symeonum Scriptis, characters in the Old Testament, as Elijah, Daniel,
pp. 90,96 ; Fabric. Bibl. Grace, vol. vii. p. 21, viii. the Three Children, Joseph, Noah. Photius gives
254 ; Catal. MSS. Biblioth. Regiae. Paris, 1740.) a list of 49 homilies of Ephraem (Cod. 196), but
5. Ephraem of Constantinople, a chrono- which of these are included in Voss's edition it is im
grapher who flourished apparently about the be possible to ascertain, though it is certain that many
ginning of the fourteenth century. His chronicle, are not Another edition of Ephraem's works in
written in Iambic verse, is repeatedly cited by Syriac, Greek, and Latin, was published also at
Allatius (De Psellis* p. 22, IJiatriba de Georgiisy Rome with notes, prefaces, and various readings,
pp. 327, 341, 354, &c., ed. Paris. 1651), and is " studio Sim. Assemanni, P. Benedicti et Steph.
probably extant in the Vatican Library in MS. but Evodii Assemanni," 6 vols. fol. 1732-46. The
has never been published. (Fabric. Bibl. Grace. Greek version of several of his writings from
vol. vii. p. 472, viii. 79, 254.) eighteen MSS. in the Bodleian library, was pub
EP1CHARIS. EPICHARMUS. 29
usbed by Edw. Thwaites at Oxford, 1709. There as no witnesses had been present at the communi
fare been several editions of separate works. cation, Epicharis easily refuted the accusation. She
Epkraem is also said to be the author of an was, however, kept in custody. Subsequently,
immense number of songs. He began to write when the conspiracy was discovered, Nero ordered
them in opposition to Harmonius, the son and her to be tortured because she refused naming any
disciple of Bardesanes the heretic, who composed of the accomplices j but neither blows, nor fire, nor
poetry involving many serious errors of doctrine, the increased fury of her tormentors, could extort
some of which were not only of an heretical but any confession from her. When on the second or
eTen of an heathen character, denying the resurrec third day after she was carried in a sedan-chair—
tion of the body, and containing views about the for her limbs were already broken—to be tortured
nature of the soul extracted from the writings of a second time, she strangled herself on her way by
pagan philosophers. These songs had become great her girdle, which she fastened to the chair. She
favourites among the common people, and Ephraem, thus acted, as Tacitus says, more nobly than many
to oppose their evil tendency, wrote other songs in a noble eques or senator, who without being tortured
similar metres and adapted to the same music of a betrayed their nearest relatives. (Tac Ann. xv.
pious and Christian character. (Sozomen, /. c ; 51, 57 ; Dion Cass. lxii. 27.) [L. S.J
Theodoret, ir. 27 ; Cave, Script. EccL Hist. Liter. EPICHARMUS ('Ein'xapuoi), the chief comic
part 1. sec 4 ; C. Lengerke, Commentatio Critica poet among the Dorians, was born in the island of
dt Efltncmo Syria SS. ixterprtic, qua simul Ver- Cos about the 60th Olympiad (b. c. 540). Hig
riomi Syriacae. anam Pex&ito vocatU, Lectionet father, Elotbales, was a physician, of the race of
variae ex Epkramo Commentary coUectae^ exhiben- the Asclepiads, and the profession of medicine
tur, HaDe, 1828, and De Epkraemi Syri arte seems to have been followed for some time by Epi-
iermem^tiea Mxr, 1831.) [O. E. L. C] charmus himself, as well as by his brother.
E*PHTKA {'lApvpa), a daughter of Oceanus, At the age of three months he was carried to
from whom Ephyraea, the ancient name of Cor Megara, in Sicily; or, according to the account
inth was derived. (Paus. ii. 1. § 1 ; Virg. Georg. preserved by Suidas, he went thither at a much
ir. 343.) [L. S.] later period, with Cadmus (b. c. 484). Thence he
EPlBATrRIUS ('E«-i6aTife>ios), the god who removed to Syracuse, with the other inhabitants
conducts men on board a ship, a surname of of Megara, when the latter city was destroyed by
Apollo, under which Diomedes on his return from Gelon (b. c. 484 or 483). Here he spent the re
Troy built him a temple at Troetene. (Paus. ii. mainder of his life, which was prolonged through
31 ! 1.) In the same sense Apollo bore the sur out the reign of Hieron, at whose court Epicharmus
name nfXuSino!. (Apollon. Rhod. i. 404.) [L.S.] associated with the other great writers of the time,
EPICASTE ('Es-utaVrij), a daughter of Menoe- and among them, with Aeschylus, who seems to
ceus, and wife of Laius, by whom she became the have had some influence on his dramatic course.
mother of Oedipus, whom she afterwards un He died at the age of ninety (b. c 450), or, ac
wittingly married. She is more commonly called cording to Lucian, ninety-seven (b, c. 443). The
Jocastr. (Horn. Od. xi. 271; Apollod. iii. 5. § 7, city of Syracuse erected a statue to him, the in
Ac. ; see Osntprs.) Respecting Epicaste, the scription on which is preserved by Diogenes Lae'r-
daughter of Calvdon, see Agxnor, No. 4 ; a third tius. (Diog. Lae'rt viii. 78 ; Suid. s. v. ; Lucian,
Epicaste is mentioned by Apollodorus. (ii. 7. Macrob. 25 ; Aelian, V. H. ii. 34 ; Plut. Moral.
I 8.) [L. S.] pp. 68, a., 1 75, c. ; Marmor Parium, No. 55.)
EPICELEUSTUS ('ET«e>euoToi), a native of In order to understand the relation of Epichar
Crete, who lived probably in the second or first mus to the early comic poetry, it must be remem
century B. c He is mentioned by Erotianus bered that Megara, in Sicily, was a colony from
C'iyn. Itippocr. p. 8) as having abridged and Megara on the Isthmus, the inhabitants ofwhich
dirk-rently arranged the work by Baccheius on the disputed with the Athenians the invention of
obsolete words found in the writings of Hippo comedy, and where, at all events, a kind of comedy
crates. [VV.A.G.J was known as early as the beginning of the sixth
EPI'CHARIS ("Evi'xopit), a freedwoman of century b. c. [Susarion.] This comedy (whether
bad repute, who was implicated in the conspiracy it was lyric or also dramatic, which is a doubtful
of Piso against the life of Nero, in A. D. 65, in point) was of course found by Epicharmus existing
which the philosopher Seneca also was involved. at the Sicilian Megara; and he, together with
-According to Polyaeaus (viii. 62), she was the Phormis, gave it a new form, which Aristotle de
mistress of a brother of Seneca, and it may be that scribes by the words to iiaIDovs roitar (Poet. 6 or
through this connexion she became acquainted with 5, ed. Ritter), a phrase which some take to mean
the pjot of the conspirators, though Tacitus says comedies with a regular plot ; and others, comedies
that it was unknown by what means she had ac on mythological subjects. The latter seems to be
quired her knowledge of it She endeavoured by the better interpretation ; but either explanation
all means to stimulate the conspirators to carry establishes a clear distinction between the comedy
their plan into effect. But as they acted slowly of Epicharmus and that of Megara, which seems to
and with great hesitation, she at length grew tired, have been little more than a sort of low buffoonery.
and resolved upon trying to win over the sailors of With respect to the time when Epicharmus be
the fleet of Misenum in Campania, where she was gan to compose comedies, much confusion has
staying. One Volusins Proculus, a chiliarch of arisen from the statement of Aristotle (or an in
the neet, appears to have been the first that was terpolator), that Epicharmus lived long before
initiated by her in the secret, but no names were Chionides. (Poet. 3 ; Cuionides.) We have,
mentioned to him. Proculus had no sooner ob however, the express and concurrent testimonies of
tained the information than he betrayed the whole the anonymous writer On Comedy (p. xxviii.), that
;Jnt to Nero. Epicharis was summoned before the he flourished about the 73rd Olympiad, and of
emperor, bat as no name* had been mentioned, and Suidas (». v.), that he wrote six years before the
SO EPICHARMUS. EPICLEIDAS.
Persian war (b. c. 485-4). Thus it appears that, sententious wisdom of the Pythagorean philosopher
like Cratinus, he wtis an old man before he began His language was remarkably elegant : he was
to write comedy ; and this agrees well with the celebrated for his choice of epithets : his plays
fact that his poetry was of a very philosophic abounded, as the extant fragments prove, with
character. (Anon, de Com. £ e.) The only one of yvuaai, or philosophical and moral maxims, and
his plays, the date of which is certainly known, is long speculative discourses, on the instinct of ani
the Noo-oi, B. c. 477. (Schol. Find. Pyth. i. 98 ; mals for example. Miiller observes that " if the
Clinton, sub am.) We have also express testimony elements of his drama, which we have discovered
of the fact that Elothales, the father of Epicharmus, singly, were in his plays combined, he must have
formed an acquaintance with Pythagoras, and set out with an elevated and philosophical view,
that Epicharmus himself was a pupil of that great which enabled bim to satirize mankind without dis
philosopher. (Diog. Lai-rt. I. c; Said. a. v.; Plut. turbing the calmness and tranquillity of his thoughts ;
Numo, 8.) We may therefore consider the life of while at the same time his scenes of common life
Epicharmus as divisible into two parts, namely, his were marked with the acute and penetrating genius
life at Mcgara up to n. c 484, during which he which characterized the Sicilians." In proof of
was engaged in the study of philosophy, both the high estimate in which he was held by the an
physical and metaphysical, and the remainder of cients, it may be enough to refer to the notices of
his life, which he spent at Syracuse, as a comic him by Plato (Tkeaet. p. 152, e.) and Cicero.
poet. The question respecting the identity of Epi (7usc i. 8, ad Alt. i. 19.) It is singular, how
charmus the comedian and Epicharmus the Pytha ever, that Epicharmus had no successor in his
gorean philosopher, about which some writers, both peculiar style of comedy, except his Bon or disciple
ancient and modem, have been in doubt, may now Deinolochus. He had, however, distinguished
be considered as settled in the affirmative. (Menag. imitators in other times and countries. Some
ad Lai'rt. I. c ; Perizon. ad Aetian. V. H. ii. 34 ; writers, making too much of a few words of Aris
Clinton, Fast. Hell. vol. ii. Introd. p. xxxvi.) totle, would trace the origin of the Attic comedy
The number of the comedies of Epicharmus is to Epicharmus ; but it can hardly be doubted that
differently stated at 52 or at 35. There are still Crates, at least, was his imitator. That Plautus
extant 35 titles, of which 26 are preserved by imitated him is expressly stated by Horace {Episl.
Athcnaeus. The majority of them are on mytho ii. 1. 58),—
logical subjects, that is, travesties of the heroic " Plautus ad exemplar Siculi properare Epicbarmi.'*
myths, and these plays no doubt very much resem The parasite, who forms so conspicuous a charac
bled the satyric drama of the Athenians. The ter in the plays of the new comedy, is first found
following are their titles :—'AKicvar'AfivKos, B(Sk- in Epicharmus.
%at, Bovaipts, AeuKaXivv, Ai6vwroi,~HGt\s yafios, The formal peculiarities of the dramas of Epi
"Htpaiaros ^ Kuaaaral, KukAoii^, A6yos r.al Ao- charmus cannot be noticed here at any length.
yeiva, 'Oovatrcvs ail-ro/ioAos, 'Oovvatiis vavaySs, His ordinary metre was the lively Trochaic Tetra
2f ipr\vts, "Zmfrnv. 2<f>ey£, Tpvts, 4>jAo*T7JTns. But meter, but he also used the Iambic and Anapaestic
besides mythology, Epicharmus wrote on other metres. The questions respecting his scenes, num
subjects, political, moral, relating to manners and ber of actors, and chorus, are fully treated in the
customs, and, it would seem, even to personal work of Grysar.
character ; those, however, of his comedies which Some writers attribute to Epicharmus separate
belong to the last head are rather general than philosophical poems ; but there is little doubt that
individual, and resembled the subjects treated by the passages referred to are extracts from his
the writers of the new comedy, 60 that when the comedies. Some of the ancient writers ascribed to
ancient writers enumerated him among the poets Epicharmus the invention of some or all of those
of the old comedy, they must be understood as re letters of the Greek alphabet, which were usually
ferring rather to his antiquity in point of time attributed to Palamedes and Simonides.
than to any close resemblance between his works The fragments of Epicharmus are printed in the
and those of the old Attic comedians. In fact, we collections of Morellius (Scntentiae vet. Comic.,
have a proof in the cose of Crates that even Paris, 1553, 8vo.), Hertelius (Collect. Fragm.
among the Athenians, after the establishment of Comic., Basil. 1560, 8vo.), H. Stephanus (Foesis
the genuine old comedy by Cratinus, the mytholo PhUosopkka, 1573, 8vo.), and Hugo Grotius (Ex
gical comedy still maintained its ground. The cerpt, ex Trag. et Comoed., Paris, 1626, 4to.), and
plays of Epicharmus, which were not on mytholo separately by H. P. Kruseman, Harlem. 1834.
gical subjects, were the following :—'AypoxrTtvos Additions have been made by Welcker (Zeitschrifi
(Sicilian Greek for 'Aypo7itos), 'Apxayal, tt kuI fur die AUerthumswissenschaft, 1835, p. 1123), and
fcJaAatrira, AitpiAiu. 'EAirlj ^ IIAo&tos, 'Eopra teal others. The most important modern work on Epi
Notroi, 'EiriWicior, 'H/xfoAsiToy, Gcapoi, Meyapls, charmus is that of Grysar, de Dorientium Comoedia,
Mfji^s/O/nSa, ITcpiaAAos, Tltpffai, Ul&uv, TpiataLots, Colon. 1828; the second volume, containing the
Xopeuorres, Xurpat. A considerable number of fragments, has not yet appeared. (See also Fabric.
fragments of the above plays are preserved, but Bibl. Grace, vol. ii. p. 298 ; Harless, de Fpieharmo,
those of which we can form the clearest notion Essen, 1822 ; Miiller, Dorians, bk. iv. c. 7 ; Bode,
from the extant fragments are the Marriage of Geschiehtc d. Hetlen, Dicktkunst, vol. iii. part i.
Hebe, and Hephaestus or the Revellers. Miiller has p. 36.) [P. 8.]
observed that the painted vases of lower Italy often EPICLEIDAS CEirucAfBaj), brother of Cleo-
enable us to gain a complete and vivid idea of those mencs III., king of Sparta. According to Pausa-
theatrical representations of which the plays of nios (ii. 9. § 1. 3), Clcomenes poisoned Eurydami-
Epicharmus are the type. das, his colleague of the house of Proclus, and
The Btyle of his plays appears to have been a shared the royal power with his brother Epicleidas.
curious mixture of the broad buffoonery which dis The latter afterwards fell in the battle of Sellasia,
tinguished the old Mcgarian comedy, and of the B. c. 222. [C. P. M.]
EPICRATES. EPICTETUS. 31
EP1CLES CXxwXflf), a medical writer quoted an Athenian comic poet of the middle comedy, ac
by EnQanoi (Gloss. Hipfocr. p. 16), who wrote cording to the testimony of Athcnaeus(x. p. 422, f.),
a cpnueeBtary on the obsolete words found in the confirmed by extant fragments of his plays, in
wrianp of Hippocrates, which he arranged in which he ridicules Plato and his disciples, Speu-
alphabetical order. He lived after Baccheius, sippus and Menedemus, and in which he refers to
and therefore probably in the second or first cen- the courtezan Lais, as being now far advanced in
tUTB-C. [W. A.G.I years. (Athen. ii. p. 59, d., xiii. p. 570, b.) From
EPI'CRATES ("ETi/rpdVijj), an Athenian, who these indications Meineke infers that he flourished
took * prominent part in public affaire after the end between the 101st and 108th Olympiads (n. c.
of the Peloponnesan war. He was a zealous mem 376—348). Two plays of Epicrates, "E/tTovos and
ber of the democratical party, and had a share in 'AKTiAoti are mentioned by Suidas (s. v.), and are
the overthrow of the Thirty Tyrants (Dtiin. de quoted by Athenaeua (xiv. p. 655, £, xiii. pp. 570,
Fih. LeyaL p. 430) ; bnt afterwards, when sent on b-, 605, e.), who also quotes his 'AJuafoVts- (x. p.
an embassy to the Persian king Artaxerxes, he 422. f.) and AtWpaToj (vi. p. 262, <£), and in
was accused not only of corruption, in receiving forms us that in the latter play Epicrates copied
mosey from Artaxerxes, but also of peculation. (Lys. some things from the AuoTrparos of Antiphanes.
Or. 27, c Epicraiaa, p. 806, &c.) Hegesan- Aelian (AT.,,4. xii. 10) quotes the Xopdj of Epi
der (op. Aliau ri. p. 251, a.) and Plutarch (Pe- crates. We have also one long fragment (Athen. ii.
lop. SO) my, that be so grossly flattered Arta- p. 59, c) and two shorter ones (Athen. xi. p. 782,
itnes as to propose that instead of nine archons, f, ; Pollux, ir. 121) from his unknown plays.
nine ambassadors to the Persian king should be (Meineke, Frag. Com. Graec. voL i. pp. 414, 415,
annullv chosen by the Athenians. Plutarch also vol. iii. pp. 365—373; Fabric BM. Graec voL
says that be did not deny the charge of corruption. ii. pp. 440, 441.) [P.S.]
He serins, however, to have been acquitted (Plut. EPICTE'TUS ('EirfitTTrror), of Hierapolis in
and Ath. ILa.) probably through the powerful in Phrygia, a freedman of Epaphroditus, who was
terest possessed by himself and by his fellow cri himself a freedman and a servile favourite of Nero,
minal, Pbonm'sius. (Dionys. Vii. Lys. 32.) He had lived and taught first at Rome, and, after the ex
been guiity of corruption on a former occasion also, pulsion of the philosophers by Domitian, at Nico-
bat had bees equally fortunate in escaping punish polis, a town in Epeirus, founded by Augustus in
ment. (Lys. I. c.) This first offence of his was commemoration of his victory at Acti mil. Although
probably on the occasion when Timocratea the he was favoured by Hadrian (Spartian, Hadr. 16)
Kbodian was sent by Tithranstes to bribe the —which gave occasion to a work which was un
Greek states to attack Sparta (a c. 395); for doubtedly written at a much later time, the "Al-
though Xenophon (HeU. iii. 5. § 1.) asserts, that tercatio Hadriani cum Epicteto" (see especially
the Athenians did not receive any money from Ti- Heumann, Acta Philos. i. 734)—yet he does not
roocrates (a statement suspicious on the face of it), appear to have returned to Rome; for the dis
Pausaaias (iii. 9. § 4) has preserved an account courses which Arrian took down in writing were
that at Athens bribes were taken by Cephalus and delivered by Epictetuswhen an old man atNicopolis.
Eperatea. (Dissert, i.25, 19, with Schweighaiiser's note.) The
The above statement of the acquittal of Epi- statement of Themistius (Ond. v. p. 63, ed.Harduin)
rrates on the charge of corruption in his embassy to that Epictetus was still alive in the reign of the
Artaxerxes, seems at first sight opposed to the two Antonines, which is repeated by Suidas (s. t\),
rjtiement of Demosthenes (de Fall. La/at. pp. 430, seems to rest upon a confusion of names, since M.
421 >, that be was condemned to death, and that he Aurelius Antoninus, who was an enthusiastic ad
«as actually banished. But, in fact, Demosthenes mirer of Epictetus, does not mention him, but
ras to be referring to a distinct and third occa- Junius Rusticus, a disciple of Epictetus, among his
swu on which Epicrates was charged with corrup teachers ; in like manner, A. Gellius, who lived in
tion ; fcr in his repetition of the charge there is the the time of the Antonines, speaks of Epictetus as
Bspartant head, kbto+iv&6u*hh rwv avuu&.yt*v, of belonging to the period which had just paused
vnictt we find nothing in the oration of Lysias, away. ( M. Antonin. i. 7, vii. 29, with Gataker's
la*, which is jnst the charge we should expect to note; Gellius, vii. 19.) Besides what is here
be made against the Athenian envoy who took mentioned, only a few circumstances of the life
part in accepting the peace of Antalcidas (a c of Epictetus are recorded, such as his lameness,
3ts7 ) ; and that Epicratea was really that envoy is which is spoken of in very different ways, his
tie ctore probable from the tact, which is expressly poverty, and his few wants. The detailed biogra
stated, that it was Epicrates who recommended phy written by Arrian has not come down to us.
laal peace to the Athenians. (SchoL Aristcid. i. (Simplic Prooem. Comment in Epictet. Enchirid.
p. 2S3, ed. Dindorf.) iv. p. 5, ed. Schweigh.)
Epicrates and Phormitius were attacked by It is probable that he was still a slave (Arrian,
Aristophanes (Eaies. 68— 72, Ban. v. 965, and Dissert, i. 9, 29 ) when C. Musonius Ruftis gained
rjchi.1) aad by Plato, the comic poet, who made him for the philosophy of the Porch, of which ho
their embusy the subject of a whole play, the remained a faithful follower throughout life. In
npie&tu. Both are ridiculed for their large what manner he conceived and taught it, we see
beards, and for this reason Epicrates was called with satisfactory completeness from the notes which
taiKTfcfit. (Comp. Etym. Mag. s.r. ; Suid. ». t\, we owe to his faithful pupil, Arrian ; although of
and *,& wiirjtsr ; Harpocrnt. *. v. p. 162, cum not. Arrian 's eight books of commentaries four are lost,
Msntsac et Vales. ; Eput. Socrat. 13. p. 29 ; Plat. with the exception of a few fragments. Epictetus
fktmir. p.227,b. ; Meineke, Hut. CrU.Com. Graec. himself did not leave anything written behind him,
■rp. 182, 183 ; Bergk, de Rdiuu. Com. Alt. Ant. pp. and the short manual or collection of the most es
3»—394.) [P- S ] sential doctrines of Epictetus, was compiled from
EPI'CRATES ('Ei-utfidViij), of Ambracia, was his discourses by Arrian. (Simplic t» Enchirid.
32 EPICTETUS. EPICTETUS.
Prooem.) The manual (Enchiridion) and com our opinion upon it, are in our power (i. 12. 37} J
mentaries of Arrian, together with the explanations in our choice we are free (i. 12. 9, 17. 28, 19. 9) ;
of Simplicity to the former, and Bomo later para nothing that is external of us, not even Zeus, can
phrases, have been edited by Schweighaiiser, who overcome our choice : it alone can control itself,
has added the notes of Upton, his own, and those (i. 29. 12, ii. 1. 22, iv. 1, ii. 2. 3, iii. 3. 10, i. 1.
of some other commentators. (Epicteieae Philoso- 23, iv. 1. 69.) Our choice, however, is determined
pkiae Monumenta, post J. Uptoni aliorumque euros, by our reason, which of all our faculties sees and
alidil et illustravit J. Schweigliauter, Lipsiae, 1799, tests itself and everything else. (i. 1. 4, i. 20.)
1800, 6 vols. 8to.) Reason is our guide (to $ynixoyiK6v), and capable
We may apply to Epictetus himself what he of conquering all powers which are not subject to
says of his Stoic master, viz. that he spoke so im freedom (ii. 1. 39 ; comp. iii. 3) ; it is the govern
pressively, and so plainly described the wickedness ing power given to man (to Kvpiuov, i. 1. 7, 17.
of the individual, that every one felt struck, as 21); hence only that which is irrational cannot be
though he himself had been spoken to personally. endured by it. (i. 2.) It is by his reason alone that
(Dissert, hi. 23, 29, comp. c. 15, i. 9.) Being man is distinguished from the brute (ii. 9. 2, iii.
deeply impressed with his vocation as a teacher, 1. 25): he who renounces his reason and allows
he aimed in his discourses at nothing else but himself to be guided by external things, is like a
winning the minds of his hearers to that which was man who has forgotten his own face (i. 2. 14) ;
good, and no one was able to resist the impression and he who desires or repudiates that which is
which they produced. (Arrian, Ep. ad L. Gcll. i. beyond his power, is not free. (i. 4. 19.)
p. 4.) Far from any contempt of knowledge, That which is in accordance with reason coin
he knows how to value the theory of forming cides with that which is in accordance with nature
conclusions and the like. (Dissert i. 7, 1, &c, and pleasing to God. (i. 12. 9, 26. 2, iii. 20. 13,
comp. i. 8, 1, &c, i. 17, ii. 23, 25.) He only ii. 10. 4, L 12. 8.) Our resemblance to God (i.
desired that logical exercises, the study of books 12. 27), or our relationship to the Deity (i. 9. 1,
and of eloquence, should not lead persons away 11), and the coincidence of our own will with the
from that of which they were merely the means, will of God (ii. 17. 22, comp. 19. 26, iii. 24. 95,
and that they should not minister to pride, haugh iv. 1, 89. 103, 4. 39), consist in our acting in ac
tiness, and avarice, (i. 8. 6, &c., 29. 55, ii. 4. 1 1, cordance with reason and in freedom. Through
9. 17, 16. 34, 17. 34, 21. 20, iii. 2. 23, 17. 28, reason our souls are as closely connected and mixed
24. 78.) He never devotes any time to disquisi up with the Deity, as though they were parts of
tions which do not, either directly or indirectly, him (i. 14. 6, ii. 8. 11, 13, 17. 33) ; for mind,
contribute towards awakening, animating, and knowledge, and reason, constitute the essence of
purifying man's moral conduct, (i. 17. 15, 29. 58, God, and are identical with the essence of good. (ii.8.
ii. 19. 10; comp. iv. 8. 24, 6. 24.) 1, &c.) Let us therefore invoke God's assistance in
The true Cynic —and he is the same as the our strife after the good (ii. 18. 29, comp. i. 6. 21),
Stoic, the philosopher,—is. in the opinion of Epic let us emulate him (ii. 14. 13), let us purify that
tetus a messenger of Zeus, Bent to men to deliver which is our guide within us (iii. 22. 19), and let
them from their erroneous notions about good and us be pure with the pure within us, and with tho
evil, and about happiness and unhappiness (iii. 22. Deity! (ii. 18. 19.)
23), and to lead them back into themselves, (ii. The prophet within us, who announces to us the
39.) For this purpose he requires natural grace nature of good and evil (ii. 7. 2), is the daemon,
fulness and acuteness of intellect (ii. 90), for his the divine part of every one, his never-resting and
words are to produce a lively impression. incorruptible guardian, (i. 14. 12.) He manifests
The beginning of philosophy, according to him, himself in our opinions, which have something
is the perception of one's own weakness and of common with one another and are agreeing with
one's inability to do that which is needful, (ii. 11. one another (i. 22. 1 ); for they are the things which
1; comp. iii. 23. 34, ii. 17. 1.) Along with this are self-evident, and which we feel obliged to carry
perception we become aware of the contest which into action, though we may combat them. (ii. 20.
is going on among men, and we grow anxious to I.) That which is good we must recognise as
ascertain the cause of it, and consequently to dis such a thing : wherever it appears, it draws us to
cover a standard by which we may give our deci wards itself, and it is impossible to reject the con
sion (ii. II. 13, &c.) : to meditate upon this and ception of good. (iii. 3. 4, comp. i. 4. 1.) The opi
to dwell upon it, is called philosophizing, (ii. 24 ; nions just described are the helps which nature has
comp. iii. 10. 6.) The things which are to be given to every one for discovering that which is
measured are conceptions, which form the material ; true. (iv. 1. 51.) Wherever they are not recog
the work which is to be constructed out of them, nized, as is the case with the followers of the New
is their just and natural application, and a con Academy, our mind and modesty become petrified,
trol over them. (iii. 22. 20, 23. 42.) This just (i. 5. 3.) To investigate this criticism of what is
choice of conceptions and our consent to or decision in accordance with nature, and to master it
in their favour (irpoafpe<nj, ovyKaTaflftny), consti in its application to individual things, is the
tute the nature of good. (ii. 1. 4, 19. 32.) Only object of all our scientific endeavours (i. 11. 15),
that which is subject to our choice or decision is and ths mastery is obtained only by the cultiva
good or evil ; all the rest is neither good nor evil ; tion of our mind and by education. (taiScta ; i. 2.
it concerns us not, it is beyond our reach (i. 13. 9, 6, 22. 9, ii. 17. 7.) The practice in theory is the
25. 1, ii. 5. 4) j it is something external, merely a easier part ; the application in life is the more dif
subject for our choice (i. 29. 1, ii. 16. 1, 19. 32, ficult one, and is the object of all theory, (i. 2G. 3,
iv. 10. 26): in itself it is indifferent, but its appli 29. 35.) We find that as far as practical appli
cation is not indifferent (ii. 5. 1, 6. 1), and its ap cation is concerned, many men are Epicureans and
plication is either consistent with or contrary to effeminate Peripatetics, though they profess tho
nature, (ii. 5. 24.) The choice, and consequently doctrines of the Stoics and Cynics, (ii. 19. 20, 12.
EPICTETUS. EPICURUS. ?,:,
I, 18. 26, iii. 26. 13, iv. 1. 138, 4. 14. 43, 6. 15.) philosopher was expected to shew in his relation
In order to obtain a mastery in the application of to the vicissitudes of the world and of man. The
miraJ principle* to life, a continued practice is re maxim suffer and abstain (from evil) (Fragm. 179 ;
quired ; bat this practice is first and chiefly to be comp. Dissert, iv. 8. 25 j Gell. xvii. 19), which
directed towards a control of our conceptions, and he followed throughout his life, was based with
thereby also of our passions and desires, which are him on the firm belief in a wise and benevolent
themselves only modes of conception (ii. 18. I, &c^ government of Providence ; and in this respect he
29, it. 10. 26), and as such they press and force approaches the Christian doctrine more than any
ra ; one person being more under the influence of of the earlier Stoics, though there is not a trace in
thU kind, and another more under the influence of the Epictctea to shew that ho was acquainted with
another kind ; for which reason every one, according Christianity, and still less, that he had adopted
to his personal peculiarity, must oppose to them a Christianity, either in part or entirely. (Chr.Crelius,
continued practice, (i. 25. 26, ii. 16. 22.) This De vxtpauipms et da&pots Epicteti Dissertut. Lip-
first and most essential practice must be accompa siae, 1711 — 16 ; comp. Brucker in Temp. Helvct.
nied by a second, which is directed towards that iii. 2. p. 260.) [Ch. A. B.]
which is appropriate (duty), and a third, the object EPICTETUS ('EWicrnTor), a physician men
of which is surety, truth, and certainty ; but the tioned by Symmachus (Epist. x. 47), who attained
hater mast not pretend to supplant the former. to the title and dignity of Archiater in the time of
(iii. 2. 6, 12. 12, Sec.) The unerring desire after Theodosius the Great, a. D. 379-395. [W.A.G.]
what is good, the absolute avoidance of what is EPICU'RIUS ('Eironwpiot), the helper, a sur
bad. the desire ever directed towards the appro name of Apollo, under which he was worshipped
priate, carefully-weighed resolutions, and a full at Bassae in Arcadia. Every year a wild boar
consent to them, are the nerves of the philosopher, was sacrificed to him in his temple on mount Ly-
(ii. 8. 29.) Through them he acquires freedom caeus. He had received this surname because he
acd entire independence of everything which is had at one time delivered the country from a pes
not subject to his choice (iv. 4. 39, iii. 22. 1 3), tilence. (Paus. viii. 38. $ 6, 41. $ 5.) [L. S.]
and in confiding submission he leaves the manage EPICU'RUS ("Eirficoi/poi), a celebrated Greek
ment of it to Providence, whose universal rule philosopher and the founder of a philosophical
cannot escape the eye of an unbiassed and grateful school called after him the Epicurean, He was a
observer of the occurrences in the world. (i. 6. 9, son of Neocles and Charestrata, and belonged to
4,12,13,14,16, 30, ii. 14. 26, iii. 17.) In this the Attic demos of Gargettus, whence he is some
sobnussiTe confidence, and the consciousness of its times simply called the Gargettian. (Cic. adFam. xv.
necessity, in order to be able to preserve unchanged 16.) He was born, however, in the island of Samos,
our outward peace of mind in all the occurrences in it. c. 342, for his father was one of the Athenian
of life, in sorrow and in want, we see the spirit of cleruchi, who went to Samos and received lands
the modern, and we may say, ennobled Porch ; the there. Epicurus spent the first eighteen years of
same rplrit is expressed in the energy and purity his life at Samoa, and then repaired to Athens, in
of its sentiments, and in the giving up of principles B. c. 323, where Xenocrates was then at the head
whose harshness and untenableness arose from the of the academy, by whom Epicurus is said to have
inflexible and abstract consistency of the earlier been instructed, though Epicurus himself denied
Porch. it. (Diog. Lnert x. 13 ; Cic. de Nat. Deor. i. 26.)
Epietetas is well aware, that man, at such, is a He did not, however, stay at Athens long, for after
sarmber of the great cosmic community of gods and the outbreak of the Lamian war he went to Colo
aen. and also that he is a member of the commu phon, where his father was then residing, and en
nities of state and family, and that he stands to gaged in teaching. Epicurus followed the example
then in the same relation as a limb to the whole of his father : he collected pupils and is said to
flfjmic body, and that therefore he can attain his have instructed them in grammar, until gradually
fail development only with them. (ii. 5. 26, 10. 3, his attention was drawn towards philosophy.
fc-2. 19, 13.) He recognizes the necessity of Epicurus himself asserted that he had entered upon
I've and confidence (ii. 22. 4, 1), and he demands his philosophical studies at the early age of four
sf the Cynic, that is, the true philosopher, to re- teen, while according to others it was not till five
caence marriage and family life, only that he may or six years later. Some said that he was led to
ierote himself with alt hi» powers to the service of the study of philosophy by his contempt of the
the deity, and to the duties of an unlimited phi- rhetoricians and grammarians who were unable to
kathropy. (iii. 22. 67. &c.) It is true that with explain to him the passage in Hesiod about Chaos ;
Eojcetus. too, the place of a political system and a and others said that the first impulse was given to
corn deraUe portion of ethics, are supplied by the him by the works of Democritus, which fell into his
nieai of a philosopher,—but how could a living hands by accident. It is at any rate undeniable
convuwsaess of the nature of a state have been that the atomistic doctrines of Democritus exer
firmed ia his time and in his circumstances ? In cised a very great influence upon Epicurus, though
hi» endeavours to establish in himself and others a he asserted that he was perfectly independent of
moral ru&dard, unaffected by the corruptions of all the philosophical schools of the time, and en
his age, he does not perceive its close and necessary deavoured to solve the great problems of life by
etxinexion with the active and unchecked scientific independent thought and investigation. From
and artistic efforts. But he acknowledges their Colophon Epicurus went to Mytilene and Lamp-
a>cral importance more than his predecessors, and sacus, in which places he was engaged for five years
he is impressed with the conviction, that the indi in teaching philosophy. In a, c. 30t>, when he
vidual must live for the whole, although he is not had attained the age of 35, he again went to
*hW to determine the how in a manner productive Athens. He there purchased for eighty minae a
*f treat remits. Above all things, however, ho garden —the famous Kijnoi 'EriKovpov—which ap
gave up the proud self-sufficiency which the Stoic parently was situated in the heart of the city, and in
vol n.
34 EPICURUS. EPICURUS.
which he established his philosophical school. Sur states that he wrote about 300 volumes (itiKivSpoi).
rounded by numerous friends and pupils and by his His works, however, are said to have been full of re
three brothers, Neocles, Charidemus, and Aristobu- petitions and quotations of authorities. A list of the
lus, who likewise devoted themselves to the study best of his works is given by Diogenes (x. 27, &c),
of philosophy, Epicurus spent the remainder of his and among them we may mention the Ilepl ipuaews
life in his garden at Athens. His mode of living m 37 books, IUpl drdpMv ko.1 ntvov, 'Etito/xt) twv
was Bimple, temperate, and cheerful, and the asper Tpds tpuffitcovSi Tlpov roils Meyapinous Siairopt'at,
sions of comic poets and of later philosophers who Kiptai 84{ai, riepl rekovs, Utpl Kptrijplov ff Ktxvt&v,
were opposed to his philosophy and describe him as Xaip^Sv^os 1$ ircpl ftewi', Tlcpl fiicev in three books,
a person devoted to sensual pleasures, do not seem JIcol ttjs iv rrj drSfjiat yaivias, ITcol etfiapfjLfVTjs,
entitled to the least credit, although they have suc Tltpl ctowAwr, Uepl SiKcuoavyifS fcal twk dWoiv
ceeded in rendering his name proverbial with pos dpeTwv, and 'EitkttoW. Of his epistles four are
terity for a sensualist or debauchee. The accounts preserved in Diogenes, (x. 22, 35, &c, 84, &c.,
of his connexion with Leontium, Marmarium, and 122, &c.) The first is very brief and was ad
other well known hetaerae of the time, perhaps be dressed by Epicurus just before his death to Ido-
long to the same kind of slander and calumny in meneus. The three others are of far greater im
which his enemies indulged. The life in Diogenes portance : the first of them is addressed to one
Laertius affords abundant proof that Epicurus was Herodotus, and contains an outline of the Canon and
a man of simple, pure, and temperate habits, n the Physica ; the second, addressed to Py thocles, con
kind-hearted friend, and even a patriotic citizen. tains his theory about meteors, and the third, which
He kept aloof from the political parties of the is addressed to Menoeceus, gives a concise view of
time, and took no part in public affairs. His his ethics, so that these three Epistles, the genuine
maxim was \dS( Biwaas, which was partly the ness of which can scarcely be doubted, furnish us
result of his peculiar philosophy, and partly of the an outline of his whole philosophical system. An
political condition of Athens, which drove men to abridgement of them is preserved in Eudocia,
seek in themselves happiness and consolation for p. 173, &c. They were edited separately by
the loss of political freedom. During the latter Nttmberger in his edition of the tenth book of
period of his life Epicurus was afflicted with severe Diogenes Laertius, Niirnberg., 1791, 8vo. The
sufferings, and for many years he was unable to letters, to Herodotus and Pythocles were edited
walk. In the end his sufferings were increased separately by J. G. Schneider under the title of
by the formation of a stone in his bladder, which Epicuri Physica el flfeteorologica duabus Epis-
terminated fatally after a severe illness of a fort tolis comprehensa^ Leipzig, 1813, 8vo. These
night. He bore his sufferings with a truly philo letters, together with the above mentioned Kifpiai
sophical patience, cheerfulness, and courage, and 5o'|<u, that is, forty-four propositions containing the
died at the age of 72, in Olymp. 127. 2, or B. c. 270. substance of the ethical philosophy of Epicurus,
His will, which is preserved in Diogenes Laertius which are likewise preserved in Diogenes, must be
(x. 16, &c.), shews the same mildness of character our principal guides in examining and judging of
and the same kind disposition and attachment to the Epicurean philosophy. All the other works of
his friends, which he had manifested throughout Epicurus have perished, with the exception of a
life. Among his many pupils Epicurus himself considerable number of fragments. Some parts of
gave the preference to Metrodoms of Lampsacus, the above-mentioned work, Tltpl d>rfo~ews, espe
whom he used to call the pfiilosopher, and whom he cially of the second and eleventh books, which
would have appointed to succeed him (Diog. treat of the dfSwAa, have been found among the
Laert. x. 22, &c.) ; but Metrodorus died seven rolls at Herculaneum, and are published in C.
years before his master, and in his will Epicurus Corsini's Volumin. Herculan. vol. ii. Naples, 1 809,
appointed Hermarchus of Mytilene his successor from which they were reprinted separately by
in the management of his school at Athens. J. C. Orelli, Leipzig, 1818, 8vo. Some fragments
Apollodorus, the Epicurean, wrote a life of Epicu of the tenth book of the same work have been
rus, of which Diogenes made great use in his ac edited by J. Th. Kreissig in his Comment, de
count of Epicurus, but this is now lost, and our Srjllust. Histor. Fraym. p. 237, &e. If we may
principal source of information respecting Epicurus judge of the style of Epicurus from these few
is the tenth book of Diogenes Laertius, who how remains, it must be owned that it is clear and
ever, as usual, only puts together what he finds in animated, though it is not distinguished for any
others ; but at the same time he furnishes us some other peculiar merits.
very important documents, such its his will, four With regard to the philosophical system of Epi
letters and the K6piat 5^at, of which we shall curus, there is scarcely a philosopher in all antiquity
speak below. With the account of Diogenes who boasted so much as EpicuniB of being inde
we have to compare the philosophical poem of Lu pendent of all his predecessors, and those who
cretius, and the remarks and criticisms which are were believed to have been his teachers were
scattered in the works of later Greek and Roman treated by him with scorn and bitter hostility.
writers, nearly all of whom, however, wrote in a He prided himself upon being an avrob'ib'aKTos,
hostile spirit about Epicurus and his philosophy but even a superficial glance at his philosophy
and must therefore be used with great caution. shews that he was not a little indebted to the
Among them we must mention Cicero in his philo Cyrenaics on the one hand and to Democritus
sophical treatises, especially the De Fittibus, on the other. As far as the ethical part of his phi
and the De Naiura Dcorum ; Seneca in his losophy is concerned thuB much may be admitted,
letter to Lucilius, and some treatises of Plutarch in that, like other systems of the time, it arose from
his so-called Aforalia. the peculiar circumstances in which the Greek
Epicurus appears to have been one of the most Btatcs were placed. Thinking men were led to
prolific of all the ancient Greek writers. Diogenes seek within them that which they could not find
Laertius (x. 2C), who calls him jroAtrypmpi^TaTos, without. Political freedom had to a great extent
EPICURUS. EPICYDES. 35
•!iopp*ired, and philosophers endeavoured to cstab- laborious business of creating the world ; and as
laJl an internal freedom based upon ethical princi the government of the world would interfere with
ples and to maintain it in spite of outward oppres their happiness, he conceived the gods aa exercising
sion, no less than to secure it against man's own no influence whatever upon the world or man.
passions and evil propensitiea. Perfect independ The number of pupils of Epicurus who propa
ence, self reliance, and contentment, therefore, gated his doctrines, was extremely great ; but his
were regarded aa the highest good and as the philosophy received no further development at
qualities which alone could make men happy, and their bands, except perhaps that in subsequent
at human happiness was with Epicurus the ultimate times his lofty notion of pleasure and happiness
end of all philosophy, it was necessary for him to was reduced to that of material and sensual plea
make ethics the most essential part, and as it were sure. His immediate disciples adopted and followed
the centre of his whole philosophy, lie had little his doctrines with the most scrupulous conscien
esteem for logic and dialectics, but as he could not tiousness : they were attached and devoted to their
altogether do without them, he prefixed to his master in a manner which has rarely been equalled
ethics a canon, or an introduction to ascertain the either in ancient or modern times : their esteem,
criterimn which was to guide him in his search love, and veneration for him almost bordered upon
after truth and in distinguishing good from evil. worship ; they are said to have committed his
His criteria themselves were derived from sensuous works to memory ; they had his portrait engraved
perception combined with thought and reflection. upon rings and drinking vessels, and celebrated
We obtain our knowledge and form our concep his birthday every year. Athens honoured him
tions of things, according to him, through «?5wAo, with bronze statues. But notwithstanding the
i. e. images of things which are reflected from them, extraordinary devotion of his pupils and friends,
and paw through our senses into our minds. Such whose number, says Diogenes, exceeded that of
a theory is destructive of all absolute truth, and a the population of whole towns, there is no philoso
mere momentary impression upon our senses or pher in antiquity who has been so violently at
feelings is substituted for it. His ethical theory tacked, and whose ethical doctrines have been so
was based upon the dogma of the Cyrenaics, that much mistaken and misunderstood, as Epicurus.
pleasure constitutes the highest happiness, and The cause of this singular pbaenomenon was partly
matt consequently be the end of all human exer a superficial knowledge of his philosophy, of which
tions. Epicurus, however, developed and ennobled Cicero, for example, is guilty to a very great extent,
th» theory in a manner which constitutes the and partly also the conduct of men who called
peculiarity and real merit of his philosophy, and themselves Epicureans, and, taking advantage of
which gained Cor him to many friends and admirers the facility with which his ethical theory was made
both in antiquity and in modern times. Pleasure the handmaid of a sensual and debauched life, gave
with him was not a mere momentary and transitory themselves up to the enjoyment of sensual plea
sensation, but he conceived it as something lasting sures. At Rome, and during the time of Roman
and imperishable, consisting in pure and noble ascendancy in the ancient world, the philosophy of
mental enjoyments, that is, in drapa^ia and dvovta, Epicurus never took any firm root ; and it is then
or the freedom from pain and from all influences and there that, owing to the paramount influence
which disturb the peace of our mind, and thereby of the Stoic philosophy, we meet with the bit
oar happiness, which is the result of it. The terest antagonists of Epicurus. The disputes
MsutBA boamm. according to him, consisted in this for and against his philosophy, however, are not
peace of mind ; and the great problem of his ethics, confined to antiquity; they were renewed at the
therefore, was to shew how it was to be attained, time of the revival of letters, and are continued to
and ethics was not only the principal branch of the present day. The number of works that
philosophy, but philosophy itself, and the value have been written upon Epicurus and his philoso
sad importance of all other kinds of knowledge phy is prodigious (Fabric. BiU. Graec. vol. iii.
s^re estimated by the proportion in which they p. £84, etc.); we pass over the many histories of
retributed towards that great pbject of human Greek philosophy, and mention only the most
life, or in which they were connected with ethics. important works of which Epkurus is the special
His peace of mind was based upon tppoKnirir, which subject. Peter Oassendi, de Vita et Moribus Epi-
s» described as the beginning of everything good, curi commentarius lilris octo constant, Lugdun.
as the origin of aD virtues, and which he himself 1647, and Hag. Comit. 1656, 4to. ; Gassendi,
therefore occasionally treated as the highest good Syntagma Philosophise Epicuri, Hag. Comit. 1659,
itself. 4to., London, 1668, l'2mo., Amsterdam, 1684;
In the physical part of his philosophy, he fol J. Rondel, La Vie a"Epicure, Paris, 1679, 12mo.,
lowed the atomistic doctrines of Democritus and La Haye, 1686, l'-'mo.; a Latin translation of this
Diagoras. His views are well known from Lucre- work appeared at Amsterdam, 1693, 12mo., and
tmtS poem Dt Renm Natara, It would, an English one by Digby, London, 1712, 8vo. ;
however, appear that sometimes he misunderstood Batteux, La Morale (TEpicure, Paris, 1758, 8vo. ;
the views of his predecessors, and distorted them Bremer, Versuch einer Apologie des Epicur, Berlin,
by introducing things which were quite foreign to 1776, 8vo. ; Warnekros, Apologie und Leben Epi~
them ; sometimes he appears even in contradiction cars, Greifswald, 1795, 8vo. ; and especially Stein-
with himself. The deficiencies are most striking hart in Ersch u. Gruher, AUgem, Encydop. vol. xxxv.
in hi* views concerning the gods, which drew upon p. 459, &c
kirn the charge of atheism. His gods, like every Diogenes Laertius (x. 26) mentions three other
thing else, consisted of atoms, and our notions of persons of the name of Epicurus, and Menage on
them are based upon the ttSuSa which are reflected that passage points out three more; but all. of
frrn them and pass into our minds. They were them are persons concerning whom nothing is
acd always had been in the enjoyment of perfect known. [L. S.]
tippiness, which had not been disturbed by the | EPICY'DES (*Eir»n»nj). 1. A Syracusan by
3ii EPIDAURUS. EPIOENES.
origin, but born and educated at Carthage, and the according to those of Elis a son of Apollo. ( Apol-
eon of a Carthaginian mother, his grandfather lod. ii. 1. $ 2 ; Paus. ii. 26. $ 3.) [L. S.]
having been banished by Agathoclea, and having EPI'DIUS, a Latin rhetorician who taught the
settled at Carthage. (Polyb. vii. 2 ; Lit. xxiv. 6.) art of oratory towards the close of the republic,
He served, together with his elder brother Hippo numbering M. Antonius and Octavianus among
crates, with much distinction in the army of his scholars. His skill, however, was not sufficient
Hannibal, both in Spain and Italy; and when, to save him from a conviction for malicious accu
after the battle of Cannae, Hieronymusof Syracuse sation (calumnia). We are told that he claimed
sent to make overtures to Hannibal, that general descent from EpUlius Nuncionus (the name is pro
selected the two brothers as his envoys to Syracuse. bably corrupt), a rural deity, who appears to have
They soon gained over the wavering mind of the been worshipped upon the banks of the Samus.
young king, and induced him to desert the Roman (Sueton. de Oar. Rhet. 4.) [W. R.]
alliance. (Polyb. vii. 2—5; Liv. xxiv. 6—7.) C. EPI'DIUS MARULLUS. [Marullus.]
But the murder of Hieronymus shortly after, and EPIDO'TES ('EinoWnjs), a divinity who was
the revolution that ensued at Syracuse, for a time worshipped at Lacedaemon, and averted the anger
deranged their plans : they at first demanded of Zeus Hicesius for the crime committed by Pau-
merely a safe-conduct to return to Hannibal, but sanias. (Paus. iii. 17. $ 8.) Epidotes, which
soon found that they could do more good by their means the " liberal giver," occurs also as a sur
intrigues at Syracuse, where they even succeeded name of other divinities, such as Zeus at Mantineia
in procuring their election as generals, in the place and Sparta ( PauB. viii. 9. § 1 ; Hesych. s. ».), of
of Andranodorus and Themistus. But the Roman the god of sleep at Sicyon, who had a statue in
party again obtained the upper hand ; and Hippo the temple of AsclepiuB there, which represented
crates having been sent with a force to Leontini, him in the act of sending a lion to sleep (Paus. ii.
Epicydes joined him there, and they set at defiance 10. § 3), and lastly of the beneficent gods, to
the Syracusan government. Leontini was, indeed, whom Antoninus built a sanctuary at Epidaurus.
quickly reduced by Marcellus, but his cruelties (Paus. ii. 27. §7.) [L. S.]
there alienated the Syracusans, and still more the EPI'GENES ('Eito^kijj), son of Antiphon, of
foreign mercenaries in their service ; a disposition the demus of Cephisia, is mentioned by Plato
of which Hippocrates and Epicydes (who had made among the disciples of Socrates who were with
their escape to Erbessus) ably availed themselves, him in his last moments. Xenophon represents
induced the troops sent against them to mutiny, Socrates as remonstrating with him on his neglect
and returned at their head to Syracuse, of which of the bodily exercises requisite for health and
they made themselves masters with little difficulty, strength. (Plat. Apol. p. 33, Phaed. p. 59 ; Xen.
B. c 214. (Liv. xxiv. 21 —32.) Marcellus im Man. iii. 12.) [E. E.]
mediately proceeded to besiege Syracuse, the EPI'GENES CEm-y^KTis). 1. An Athenian
defence of which was conducted with ability and poet of the middle comedy. Pollux indeed (vii.
vigour by the two brothers, who had been again 29) Bpeaks of him as vltav tij kkiukuv, but the
appointed generals. When the Roman commander terms "middle" and "new," as Clinton remarks (K
found himself obliged to turn the siege into a H. vol. ii. p. xlix.), are not always very carefully
blockade, Epicydes continued to hold the city applied. (See Arist. Elk. Nic. iv. 8. § 8.) Epigenes
itself, while Hippocrates conducted the operations himself, in a fragment of his play called Mvyn°-Tloy
in other parts of Sicily. The former was, however, (op. Ath. xi. p. 472, f.) speaks of Pixodarus,
unable to prevent the surprise of the Epipolae, prince of Curia, as " the king's son" ; and from
which were betrayed into the hands of Marcellus ; this Mcineke argues (Hist. Crit. Com. Graec p.
but he still exerted his utmost efforts against the 354), that the comedy in question musth ave been
Romans, and co-operated zealously with the army written while Hecatomnus, the father of Pixoda
from without under Himilco and Hippocrates. rus, was yet alive, and perhaps about B.C. 380.
After the defeat of the latter he went in person to We find besides in Athenaeus (ix. p. 409, d.), that
meet Bomilcar, who was advancing with a Cartha there was a doubt among the ancients whether the
ginian fleet to the relief of the city, and hasten his play called 'Ajrvupfou dtpavurii6s should be assigned
arrival ; but, after the retreat of Bomilcar, he to Epigenes or Antiphanes. These poets therefore
seems to have regarded the fall of Syracuse as in must have been contemporaries. [See vol. i. p. 204,
evitable, and withdrew to Agrigentum. (Liv. b.] The fragments of the comedies of Epigenes
xxiv. 33— 39, xxv. 23 —27.) Here he appears to have been collected by Meineke (vol. iii. p. 53/ ;
have remained and co-operated with the Numidian comp. Poll. vii. 29 ; Ath. iii. p. 75, c, ix. p- 384,
Mutines, until the capture of Agrigentum (b. c. a., xi. pp. 469, c, 474, a,, 480, a, 486, c, 502, e.).
210) obliged him to fly with Hanno to Carthage, 2. Of Sicyon, who has been confounded by
after which his name is not again mentioned. some with his namesake the comic poet, is men
(Liv. xxvi. 40.) tioned by Suidas (s. ii. ©eo-iru) as the most ancient
2. A Syracusan, surnamed Sindon, one of the writer of tragedy. By the word '* tragedy" here"
lieutenants of the preceding, who were left by him we can understand only the old dithyramliic and
in command of Syracuse when he retired to Agri satyrical TpaytfSla, into which it is possible that
gentum : he was put to death by the Roman Epigenes may have been the first to introduce
party, together with his colleagues. (Liv. xxv. other subjects than the original one of the fortunes
28.) of Dionysus, if at least we may trust the account
3. Of Olynthus, a general under Ophelias of which we find in Apostolius, Photius, and Suidas,
Cyrene, who took Thimbron prisoner at Teuchira. of the origin of the proverb otoiv vpos *&* ^"*~
(Arr. up. Phot, p. 70, a.) [E. H. B.] waov. This would clearly be one of the earnest
EPIDAURUS ('ETriJoupoi), the mythical foun steps in the gradual transformation of the old
der of Epidaurus, a son of Argos and Evadne, but dithymmbic performance into the dramatic tragedy
according to Argive legends a son of Pelops, and of later times, and may tend to justify the state
EPIGONI. EPIMENIDES. 37
Bent which ascribe* the invention of tragedy to of Laodamas, after whose fall they took to flight
the Sicyoniaiia. We do not know the period at to protect themselves within their city. On the
which Epigenes flourished, and the point was a part of the Epigoni, Aegialeus had fallen. The
doubtful one in the time of Suidas, who says (a. v. seer Teiresias, however, induced the Thebans to
Swrir) that, according to some, he was the 16th quit their town, and take their wives and children
before Thetpis, while, according to others, he with them, while they sent ambassadors to the
almost immediately preceded him. (See Miiller, enemy to Bue for peace. The Argives, however,
Dor. iv. 7. § 8 ; Meineke, Hist. Crit. Com. Grace took possession of Thebes, and razed it to the
p. 354 ; Anst. Poi'L 3 ; Fabric DiU. Grate rol. ground. The Epigoni sent a portion of the booty
h. pp. 160, 303, toL iv. p. 10 ; Did. of Ant. p. and Manto, the daughter of Teiresias, to Delphi,
S80. a.) [E. K.]
and then returned to Peloponnesus. The war of
EPI GENES fETrysViit) of Byzantium is sup the Epigoni was made the subject of epic and
posed to hare hved about the time of Augustus by tragic poems. (Paus. ix. 9. $ 3.) The statues
fnroe, and several centuries earlier by others ; noof the seven Epigoni were dedicated at Delphi.
thing, in tact, is known of his date, except what (Paus. x. 10. § 2.) [L. S.J
may be inferred from the slight mention of him EPI'GONUS ('Ewf-yoi-ot) of Thessalonica, the
by Seneca. Pliny, and Censorinus. According to author of two epigrams in the Greek Anthology.
Seneca (.Vol. Qitoest. vii. 30.), Epigenes professed
(Brunck. Anal. vol. it p. 306 ; Jacobs, vol. iii. p.
to have studied in Chaldea, from whence he 19, vol. xiii. p. 889.) [P.S.]
brouzht, among other things, the notions of the EPI'GONUS, a Greek statuary, whose work*
ChaidVarts on comets, in his account of which he were chiefly in imitation of other artists, but who
is held to differ much from Apollonius Myndius displayed original power in two works, namely, a
[see his life], though it is not, we think, difficult to
trumpeter, and an infant caressing its slain mother.
reconcile the two. Pliny (H.N. rii. 56) has a pas It is natural to suppose that the latter work was
sage about Epigenes, which states that he assertsan imitation of the celebrated picture of Aristeides.
the Chaldeans to haTe had observations recorded on (Plin. xxiv. 8. s. 19. § 29.) [P. S.]
brick (eoct&bm tattradis) for 720 (?) years, and EPILY'CUS ('Eit(Aukoj), an Athenian comic
that Berosus and Critodemus say 420 (?) years. poet of the old comedy, who is mentioned by
But among the various readings are found 720 an ancient grammarian in connexion with Aristo
r\~irrrr1 and 420 tbomtand, which seem to be the phanes and Philyllius, and of whose play KupaKiaxos
true* ones* for on them Pliny goes on to remark a few fragments are preserved. (Suid. s. v.; Athen.
™ Ex quo apparet attentat litterarum usus." Fa- iv. pp. 133, b., 140, a., xiv. p. 650, c, xv. p. 691,
bricins and Bayle (Diet arL Babylon) adopt the c; Bekker, Anted, p. 411. 17 ; Phot Lex. s. r.
larger readings, and also Bailly, who takes them TfTTryoVtor; Meineke, Frag. Com. Grate, vol. i. p.
to mean days. Pliny may perhaps seem to say 269, ii. pp. 887, 889 ; Bergk, de Relit]. Com. Att.
that Epigenes is the first author of note who made
Ant. p. 431.) An epic poet of the same name, a
any such assertion about the Chaldeans : u Epi brother of the comic poet Crates, is mentioned
genes . . . docet gravis anctor imprimis ; n and thus
by Suidas («. v. Kpdrnr). [P. S.J
interpreted, he is made to mean that Epigenes was EPI'MACHUS, a distinguished Athenian archi
elder than Berosus, and therefore than Alexander tect and engineer, built the Helepolis of Demetrius
the Great. YVeidler adopts this conclusion on dif Poliorcetes. (Vitruv. x. 2.) [P. S.]
ferent and rather hvpothetical grounds. EPIME'DES ('Ewi/Mfont), one of the Curetes.
[A. De M.](Paus. v. 7. § 4, 14. § 5 ; comp. Cubetrs ; Dac-
EPIGE'NIUS, comes et magister memoriae, tvli.) [L. S.]
one of the commission of sixteen, appointed by EPIME'NIDES CEs-iuei-Bni). 1. A poet and
Taeodosius in A. D. 435, to compile the Theodosian
prophet of Crete. His father's name was Dosi-
Code, and one of the eight who actually signalized
ades or Agesarces. We have an account of him
tbemsefves in its composition. [Diodorus, voL i.in Diogenes Laertius (i. c 10), which, however, is
p. 1018.] a very uncritical mixture of heterogeneous tradi
[J. T. G.]
EPI'GOXI fErryo"'), that is, the heirs or tions, so that it is difficult, if not altogether impos
descendants. By this name ancient mythology sible, to discover its real historical substance. The
soderstands the sons of the seven heroes who hadmythical character of the traditions of Epimenides
sudertaken an expedition against Thebes, and hadis sufficiently indicated by the fact of his being
perished there. [Adrastus.] Ten years after called the son of a nymph, and of his being reck
that catastrophe, the descendants of the seven oned among the Curetes. It seems, however,
heroes went against Thebes to avenge their fathers,
pretty clear, that he was a native of Phaestus in
sad this war is called the war of the Epigoni. Crete (Diog. Laert. i. 109; Plut. Sol. 12; de
According to some traditions, this war was underDefect. Orac. 1 ), and that he spent the greater part
taken at the request of Adrastus, the only surriver
of his life at Cnossus, whence he is sometimes
•f the srrtn heroes. The names of the Epigoni called a Cnossian. There is a story that when yet a
are art the same in all accounts (Apollod. iii. 7.
boy, he was sent out by his father to fetch a Bheep,
12,4c; Diod. iv. 66; Pans. x. 10. §2; Hygin. and that seeking shelter from the heat of the mid
Pah. 71); hit the common lists contain Alcmaeon,day sun, he went into a cave. He there fell into
Aegialeu. Diomedea, Promachus, Sthenelus, Ther- a sleep in which he remained for fifty-seven years.
smder. and Euryalus. Alcmaeon undertook the On waking he sought for the sheep, not knowing
command, in accordance with an oracle, and col how long he had been sleeping, and was astonished
lected a considerable band of Argives. TbeThebans
to find everything around him altered. When he
"arched out against the enemy, under the commandreturned home, he found to his great amazement,
that his younger brother had in the meantime
* Diodoms (ii. 8) says the Chaldeans claim for grown an old man. The time at which Epimenides
tiMttdves 473,000 years. lived, is determined by his invitation to Athens,
38 EPIMENIDES. EPIPHANIUS.
when he had already arrived at an advanced ape. allusion to Epimenides seems to be made in St.
He was looked upon by the Greeks as a great eage Paul's Epistle to Titus (i. 12). Comp. Fabric.
and as the favourite of the gods. The Athenians Bibl. Grace, vol. i. pp.30, &c, 844 ; Hbckh, Kreta,
who were visited by a plague in consequence of vol. iii. p. 246, &c j Bode, Gesch. dcr llellcn. Dichik.
the crime of Cylon [Cylon], consulted the Del vol. i. p. 463, &c, and more especially C. F. Hein-
phic oracle about the means of their delivery. rich, Epimenides aus Creta, Leipzig, 1801, 8vo.
The god commanded them to get their city puri 2. The author of a History of Rhodes, which
fied, and the Athenians sent out Nicias with a was written in the Doric dialect (Diog. Lae'rt. i.
ship to Crete to invite Epimenldes to come and 115; Schol. ad Pind. (X. vii. 24, ad ApoUon. Rhod.
undertake the purification. Epimenidcs accord i. 1 125, iii. 241, iv. 57 j Eudoc. p. 81 ; Heinrich,
ingly came to Athens, about B. c. 596 or Olymp. Epimenid. p. 1 34.)
46, and performed the desired task by certain 3. The author of a work on genealogies. (Diog.
mysterious rites and sacrifices, in consequence of Laerti. 115.) [L.S.]
which the plague ceased. The grateful Athenians EPIME'THEUS. [Prometheus and Pan
decreed to reward him with a talent and the vessel dora.]
which was to carry him back to his native island. EPINI'CUS CEifcurar), an Athenian comic
But Epimenides refused the money, and only de poet of the new comedy, two of whose plays are
sired that a friendship should be established be mentioned, "y-*oflaW6iuvai and VLrricnrroKtiuis.
tween Athens and Cnossus. Whether Epimenides The latter title determines his date to the time of
died in Crete or at Sparta, which in later times Antiochus the Great, about B. c. 217, for Mnesip-
boasted of possessing his tomb (Diog. Lae'rt i. tolemus was an historian in great favour with that
115), is uncertain, but he is said to have attained king. (Suid. s. t>.; Eudoc. p. 166; Athen. x. p. 432,
the age of 154, 157, or even of 299 years. Such b., xi. pp. 469, a., 497, a., 500, f. ; Mcineke, Frag.
statements, however, are as fabulous as the story Com. Grace, vol. i. p. 481, iv. pp. 505-508.) [P.S.]
about his fifty-seven years' sleep. According to EPI'PHANES, a surname of Antiochus IV.
some accounts, Epimenides was reckoned among and Antiochus XI., kings of Syria, [see vol. i.
,the seven wise men of Greece (Diog. Lae'rt. Prooem. pp. 198, 199], and also of Antiochus IV. king of
$ 13 ; Plut. Sol. 12) ; but all that tradition has Commagene, one of whose sons had likewise the
handed down about him suggests a very different same surname, and is the one meant by Tacitus,
character from that of those seven, and he must when he speaks (Hut. ii. 25) of " Rex Epipha-
rather be ranked in the class of priestly bards and nes." [Sec vol. i. p. 194.]
sages who are generally comprised under the name EPIPHA'NIUS ('Exi^iot). 1. Of ALEX
of the Orphici ; for everything we hear of him, is ANDRIA, son of the mathematician Theon, who ad
of a priestly or religious nature : he was a puri dresses to him his commentaries on Ptolemy.
fying priest of superhuman knowledge and wisdom, (Theon, Commentary on Ptolemy, ed. Halma, Paris,
a seer and a prophet, and acquainted with the 1821 —22.) Possibly this Epiphanius is one of
healing powers of plants. These notions about the authors of a work vtpl ppovruiv koX a/rrparuv,
Epimenides were propagated throughout antiquity, by Epiphanius and Andreas, or Andrew, formerly
and it was probably owing to the great charm at in the library of Dr. George Wheeler, canon of
tached to his name, that a series of works, both in Durham. ( Catal. MSS. Angliae ct Hiberniat;
prose and in verse, were attributed to him, though Oxon. 1697.)
few, if any, can be considered to have been genu 2. Bishop of Constantia (the ancient Salamis),
ine productions of Epimenides ; the age at which he and metropolitan of Cyprus, the most eminent of
he lived was certainly not an age of prose composition all the persons of the name of Epiphanius. (See
in Greece. Diogenes Laertius (i. 112) notices as below.)
prose works, one on sacrifices, and another on the 3. Of Constantia and metropolitan of Cyprus,
Political Constitution of Crete. There wa6 also distinguished from the preceding as the Younger,
a Letter on the Constitution which Minos had given was represented at the third council of Constanti
to Crete ; it was said to have been addressed by nople (the sixth general council) by the bishop of
Epimenides to Solon ; it was written in the modern Trimithus, one of his suffragans. Several of the dis
Attic dialect, and was proved to be spurious by courses which have been regarded as written by
Demetrius of Magnesia. Diogenes himself has the great Epiphanius are by acuter judges ascribed
preserved another letter, which is likewise ad either to this Epiphanius, or to a third of the same
dressed to Solon ; it is written in the Doric dia name and bishopric. [No. 4 below.] A work
lect, but is no more genuine than the former. 'The extant in MS. in the Library of St Mark at Venice,
reputation of Epimenides as a poet may have rested and in the Imperial Library at Vienna, is also by
on a somewhat surer foundation ; it is at any rate some ascribed to this writer or the following.
more likely that he should have composed such (Labbe, Concilia, vol. vi. col. 1058; Fabric Hill.
poetry as Xpvapol and Kaflap/io/ than any other. Grace, vol. viii. pp. 258, 273, &c, x. pp. 249, 276,
(Suidas, ». v. 'Ertfitvltris ; Strab. x. p. 479 ; 279, 302 ; Pctavius, Preface to the second volume of
Paus. i. 14. § 4.) It is, however, very doubtful his edition of Epiphanius ; Oudin, Commentarivs do
whether he wrote the Nrcau kcll Qtoyovta of the Scriptor. Ecdes. vol. ii. 318. 19.)
Curctes and Corybantes in 5000 verses, the epic 4. Third bishop of Constantia of the name.
on Jason and the Argonauts in 6500, and the epic A letter of his, congratulating Joannes or John on
on Minos and Rhadamanthys in 4000 verses ; all his restoration to the patriarchate of Constantinople
of which works are mentioned by Diogenes. There (a. d. 867), is given, with a Latin version, by
cannot, however, be any doubt but that there ex Labbe. (Concilia, vol. viii. col. 127 6.) See the pre
isted in antiquity certain old-fashioned poems ceding article.
written upon skins j and the expression, 'Ennevl- 5. Of Constantinople. On the death of
Stiov otppa was used by the ancients to designate Joannes or John II., the Cappadocian, patriarch of
anything old-fashioned, obsolete, and curious. All Constantinople, Epiphanius, then a presbyter, was
EPIPHANIUS. EPIPHANIUS. 3'J
chosen to succeed him : he had been the " synccllus" 36 ; Fabric. JBibl. Grace vol. viii. p. 257, xii. pp.
or personal attendant (the functions of the syncellus 660, 674.)
are not determined) of his predecessor. The elec- 6. Of Constantinople (2). The life of St.
ti o o( F.piphauius is stated by Theophanes to have Andreas or Andrew, A 2a\os (the fool), by his
taken place in Feb. a. d. 51*2 of the Alexandrian contemporary and friend Nicephorus, contains va
computation, equivalent to A* D. 519 or probably rious particulars of the history and character of
5'20 of the common era ; the account, transmitted Epiphanius, a young Constantinopolitan, who is
only four days after his ordination, to pope Hor- described as possessed of every desirable endow
nudaa, by the deacon Dioscurua, then at Constan ment of mind and body, and as having manifested
tinople, as one of the legates of the Roman see, the strongest affection and regard for the saint who
riven by Labbe (Concilia, voL iv. p. 1523), was foretold his elevation to the patriarchate of Con
received at Rome on the 7th of April, a. d. 520, stantinople. Nicephorus declares that he lived to
which most therefore have been the year of his see this prophecy fulfilled in the elevation of Epi
election. He occupied the see from A. D. 520 till phanius to that metropolitan dignity, but intimates
his death in a. d. 535. Theophanes places his that he changed his name. The Epiphanius of
death in June, A. D. 529, Alex, comput. = a. d. 53fi this narrative has been by Fabricius confounded
of the common era, after a patriarchate of sixteen with the subject of the preceding article ; but Jan-
van and three months ; but Pagi (Critic, in Baronii ninghus has shewn that as St. Andrew did not live
Ammaia ad ann. 535, No. lviii.) shortens this cal till late in the ninth century and the earlier part of
culation by a year. Epiphanius was one of the the tenth, the Epiphanius of Nicephorus must have
saints of the Gr^ek calendar, and is mentioned in the lived long after the other. As he changed his ■
Mrscloginm translated by Sirletus, but not in that name, he cannot be certainly identified with any of
of the emperor Basil. He was succeeded by An- the patriarchs of Constantinople. Janninghus con
thimas, bishop of Trapezus. jectures that he is identical with Polyeuctus or
Some Letters of Epiphanius to pope Hormisdas, Antonius Ill.(Studita), who occupied the sec in the
and of the pope to him, are extant in Labbe's Con- latter half of the tenth century. (Nicephorus, S.
e&m, TDi.rv.coL 1533-4-7, 1545-6, 1554-5; and Andreas Vita, with the Commentarius Praevius of
is the Condi* of Binius, voL ii. pp. 360-61-64- Janninghus, in the Acta Sanctorum Maii. vol. vi.
65-68 (edit. 1606) ; in the latter they are given ad fin. ; Fabricius, Bibl. Graec vol. viii. p. 257 ;
only in Latin. A decree of Epiphanius, and of a Cave, Hint Lit. voL i. p. 505, ed. Oxford, 1740—
council in which he presided (apparently the coun 43.)
cil of Constantinople in A. D. 520, during the con 7. Hagiopolita, or of Jerusalem. See be
tinuance of which he was elected to the patriarchate), low, No. 8.
condemning and anathematiling for heresy Severus, 8. Described as a monk and presbyter. Al
patriarch of Antioch, Petrus or Peter, bishop of latins (de Symeonum Scriptis, p. 106) gives an
Apamea, and Zoaras, was read at a subsequent account of and extract from a life of the Virgin by
ccuna'j of Constantinople, A. D. 536, under Menas this Epiphanius, which extract is also given by
or Mennas, successor of Anthimius, and appears in Fabricius, in his Codex Apocrypli. N. T. The en
Labbe's CmeMa, voL v. col. 251, seq. Some laws tire work has since been published in the AneaLila
and constitutions of Justinian are addressed to Epi- Literaria of Amadutius (vol. iii. p. 39, Ace.) with
pbanitu. (Justin. Cod. 1. tit. 3. s. 42 ; deEpiscopis a Latin version and introduction. When he lived
et Orris ; Novellae, 3, 5.) is not known : it is conjectured that it was in the
In the library of the king of Bavaria at Munich twelfth century, as he mentions Joannes of Thes-
is a Greek MS. described ( Hardt- Catalog™ MSS. salonica and Andreas of Crete (who lived near the
Grnec. etc Cod. cclvi.) as containing, among other end of the seventh century) among "the fathers,"
things, a treatise by Epiphanius, patriarch of Con and is himself quoted by Nicephorus Callisti
stantinople, on the separation of the Latin and (Eccles. Hist. ii. 23) in the earlier half of the four
Greek churches ; and a MS. in the Bodleian Li teenth century. He wrote also a History of the
brary, Bnrocc cxiv. (CataL MStorum. Angliat Life and acts of St. Andrew the Apostle (Allatins,
a* HAesuiae, Oxon. 1697) contains, with other de Symeon. p. 90) ; and he is probably the author
: by Epiphanius the patriarch On the of an account of Jerusalem and of parts of Syria
i of tie Latins by the Greeks on ac~ (by " Epiphanius Hagiopolita," L e. inhabitant of
comnt of tie Controversy concerning the Procession the Holy City), which he describes as an eye-wit
ofthe Holy Spirit. Allatins also (adv. Creyghtonum) ness. This account was published, with a Latin
dsea Epiphanius Patriarcha, de Origins dissidii version, by Fed. Morellus, in his Expusitio T/iema-
vstrr Graeeos et Latinos, probably the same work tum, Paris, 1620, and again by Allatins, in his
as tbat in the Bavarian MS. But the subjects of SvnniKTa. It may be observed, that Morellus
theare treatises shew they were of later date than published two editions of the Expnsitio Tlicmatmx
»ur patriarch, nor have we the means of determin in the above year, one without the Greek text «?
ing their authorship. An Arabic MS. in the King's Epiphanius, and one with it, A MS. in the Bod
Library at Paris (CataL MStcntm. BUI. Begiae, leian Library (Barocc. cxlii. No. 20) is described
voL i- p. 114, Codex cxvin.) contains what is de as containing " Epiphanii Monachi et Presbyteri
scribed as Camcmum Epitome nee accurata nee anti- Character B. Virginis el Domini Not/tri" (a dif
y-ao, ascribed to Epiphanius. ferent work from that mentioned above); and
The account of Epiphanius' by Evagrius con "ejusdem, ut videtur, dcDissilione Quatuor Evange-
tains two errors. He makes him the successor of listarum circa ResurrectionemCltristi." (Catal. MSS,
AntJtnaius in^m^ of the predecessor; and to have AngL et Ilibern. Oxford, 1697.) Some have con*
been succeeded by Menas or Mennas, who was founded him with Epiphanius the friend and disci
the successor, not of Epiphanius, but of Anthimius. pie of St. Andreas the fool, noticed above, No. 6.
( Labbe and Binius, L e, ; Theophanes, Ckronogra- (Oudin, Comment, de Scripior. el Scriptis Eccles.
saao, ad aanos citaii ; Evagrius, Hist. Eccles. iv. voL ii. pp. 455-6.)
40 EPIPHANIU3. EPIPHANIUS.
9. Called erroneously the Patriarch, author Commentary of Didymus on the Canonical Epistles
of some works on the schism of the Eastern and is said [Didymus, No. 4] to be that given in the
Western churches. See above, No. 5. Bibliotheca Patrum ; but that on the Proverbs has
10. Of Pktra, son of Ulpianus, was a sophist not, we believe, been printed ; the versions of
or rhetorician of considerable reputation. He Epiphanius, Josephus, and Clement of Alexandria,
taught rhetoric at Petra and at Athens. He lived have been printed. That of Epiphanius on Solomon's
also at Laodiceia in Syria, where he was very inti Song was first published by Foggini, at Rome, in
mate with the two Apollinarii, father and son, of 1750, with a preface and notes. (Cassiodorus,
whom the latter afterwards became the founder of Praef. in Histor. Tripart., De Instilutione Divinar.
the sect of the Apollinaristae. The Apollinarii were Literar. cc. 5, 8, II, 17, with the notes of Gare
excommunicated by the bishop of Laodiceia on ac tius ; Sixtus Senensis, Bibliotheca Sancta, lib. iv. ;
count of their intimacy with Epiphanius, who, it was Fabric Bibliofh. Med. et Inf. Laiinitatis, vol. ii.
feared would convert them to the religion of the p. 101, ed. Mansi, Biblioth. Oraec. vol. vii. p. 425,
Greeks ; from which it appears that Epiphanius was a vol. viii. p. 257, vol. xii. p. 299 ; Cave, Ceillier,
heathen. While he was at Athens, Libanius, then a and Foggini, U. cc.)
young man, came thither, but did not apply for Beside the foregoing, there are many persons of
instruction to Epiphanius, then in the height of the name of Epiphanius of whom little or nothing
his reputation, though they were both from Syria ; is known but their names. The ecclesiastics of the
neither is this Epiphanius the person to whom name, who appear in the records of the ancient
Libanius wrote. (Libanius, Eput. Mil.) Epipha councils, may be traced by the Index in Labbe's
nius did not live to be very old ; and both he and Concilia, vol. xvi. [J. C. M.]
his wife, who was eminent for her beauty, died of EPIPHA'NIUS CEiri^ios), bishop of Con
the same disease, an affection of the blood. He stantia and metropolitan of Cyprus, was born at
wrote many works, which are enumerated by Sui Bezanduca, a small town in Palestine, in the
das. They are as follows: 1. Tltpl Kuwwvias district of Eleutheropolis, in the first part of
Kal SttKpopds tw irrdfTfuv. 2. npoyvuvdauara. the fourth century. (Sozomen. vi. 32.) His pa
3. MeAlrcu. 4. Ajuapxoi. o. HoXtfmpxitcos. rents were Jews. He went to Egypt when
6. Aoyoi 'ETTiSeiKTiKot : and, 7. Miscellanies. young, and there appears to have been tainted
Socrates mentions a hymn to Bacchus, recited by with Gnostic errors, out afterwards fell into the
him, attendance on which recitation was the imme hands of some monks, and by them was made a
diate occasion of the excommunication of the Apol strong advocate for the monastic life, and strongly
linarii. (Socrates, Hist. Eecl. ii. 46 ; Sozomen, imbued with their own narrow spirit. He re
Hist. Eccl. v. 25 ; Eunapius, Sophist. Vitae (Epi turned to Palestine, and lived there for some
phanius and Libanius) ; Eudocia, *lwvid\ in the time as a monk, having founded a monastery near
Anecdota Graeca of Villoison, vol. i. j Suidas, ». t>. his native place. In a. d. 367 he was chosen
'ETrupiftos ; the passages in Suidas and Eudocia bishop of Constantia, the metropolis of the Isle of
are the same.) Cyprus, formerly called Salamis. His writings
11. Described as Scholasticus. Sixtus of shew him to have been a man of great reading ;
Sena calls him a Greek, but Ceillier (Auteurs Sacris, for he was acquainted with Hebrew, Syriac,
vol. xvi.) and Cave (Hist Lit. vol. i. p. 405) call Egyptian, Greek, and Latin, and was therefore
him an Italian. He lived about the beginning of called ictvTdyXuotros. But he was entirely with
the sixth century. He was the friend of Cassiodorus out critical or logical power, of real piety, but also
[Cassiodorus], at whose request he translated of a very bigoted and dogmatical turn of mind,
from Greek into Latin the Commentary of Didymus unable to distinguish the essential from the non
on the Proverbs and on Seven of the Canonical essential in doctrinal differences, and always ready
Epistles [Didymus, No. 4.], the Exposition of to suppose that some dangerous heresy lurked in
Solomon's Song, said by Cassiodorus to be by Epi any statement of belief which varied a little from
phanius of Constantia or Salamis. Garetius thinks the ordinary form of expression. It was natural
this exposition was probably written by Philo of that to such a man Origen, whom he could not
Carpasus or Carpathus ; but Foggini vindicates the understand, should appear a dangerous teacher of
title of Epiphanius to the authorship. Whether error ; and accordingly in his work on heresies he
Epiphanius Scholasticus was concerned in the thinks it necessary to give an essential warning
translation of the Jeicish Antiquities of Josephus, against him. A report that Origen's opinions
and of the Notes on same of the Catholic Epistles, were spreading in Palestine, and sanctioned even
from the writings of Clement of Alexandria, which by John, bishop of Jerusalem, excited Epipha
Cassiodorus procured to be made, can only be con nius to such a pitch, that he left Cyprus to inves
jectured, as Cassiodorus does not name the trans tigate the matter on the spot. At Jerusalem he
lators. Sixtus of Sena ascribes to Epiphanius preached so violent a sermon against any abettors
Scholasticus a Catena ( or compilation of com of Origen's errors, and made such evident allusions
ments) on the Psalms, from the Greek Fathers ; to the bishop, that John sent his Archdeacon to
but we know not on what authority. But his beg him to stop. Afterwards, when John preached
principal work was translating and combining into against anthropomorphism (of a tendency to which
one the Ecclesiastical Histories of Sozomen, Socrates, Epiphanius had been suspected) he was followed
and Theodoret The Historia Tripartita of Cassio up to the pulpit by his undaunted antagonist, who
dorus was digested from this combined version. announced that he agreed in John's censure of
He also translated, by desire of Cassiodorus, the Anthropomorphites, but that it was equally neces
Codex Encyclius, a collection of letters, chiefly sary to condemn Origenists. Having excited suf
synodal, in defence of the council of Chalcedon, ficient commotion at Jerusalem, Epiphanius re
which collection has been reprinted in the Concilia paired to Bethlehem, where he was all-powerful
of Binius, Labbe, Coletus, and Harduin, but most with the monks ; and there he was so successful
correctly by the last two. The version of the in his denunciation of heresy, that he persuaded
EPISTHENE3. EPOREDORIX. 41
tome is renounce their connexion with the bishop Cunaxa, and is mentioned by Xenophon as an able
of Jerusalem. After this he allowed his zeal to officer. His name occurs again in the march of
rrt the better of all considerations of church the Greeks through Armenia. (Xen. Anab. i. 10.
order and decency, to such an extent, that he ac § 7, iv. 6. § 1.) [E. E.]
tually ordained Paullinianus to the office of pres EPI'STROPHUS CEir(<rrpo^os), three mythi
byter, that be might perform the ministerial func cal personages of this name are mentioned in the
tions for the monks (who, as usual at that time, Iliad, (ii. 516, Ac, 692, 856.) [L. S.]
were laymen), and so prevent them from applying EPITADAS ('EWJaj), son of Molobrus, was
a Jerusalem to supply this want. John naturally the commander of the 420 LacedaemonianB who
protested loudly against this interference with his were blockaded in the island of Sphacteria in the
diocese, and appealed for help to the two patri 7th year of the Peloponnesian war, b. c. 425. He
archal sees of Alexandria and Rome. Peace was appears to have executed his difficult task with
not restored to the Church for some time. The prudence and ability, and was spared by death in
next quarrel in which Epiphanius was involved the final combat the disgrace of surrender. (Thuc.
nas with Chrysostom. Some monks of Nitria iv. 8, 31, 38.) [A H. C]
tad been expelled by Theophilus, bishop of Alex EPITHERSES('Eiri8^<rT/r), of Nicaea,a gram
andria, as Origenista, but were received and pro marian, who wrote on Attic comic and tragic words
tected at Constantinople [Chrysostomi s]. Upon (wtpl Aegean' 'AttohSi' koI Kafuxav not TpayiKcev ;
this Theophilus persuaded Epiphanius, now almost Steph. Byz. t. v. N(/tom; Erotian. i. v.'AufSrir, p. 88,
in his dotage, to summon a council of Cyprian who gives the name wrongly &4pcrts). If he be
bishops, which he did A. D. 401. This assembly the same as the father of the rhetorician Aemilianus,
passed a sentence of condemnation on Origen's he must have lived under the Emperor Tiberius.
books, which was made known to Chrysostom (Plut. de Def. Orac. p. 419, b.) [P. S ]
by letter; and Epiphanius proceeded in person to EPOCILLUS('Es-<(iciA.Aoj), a Macedonian, was
CoBstantincpk, to take part in the pending dis commissioned by Alexander, in b. c. 330, to con
pute. Chrysostcm was irritated by Epiphanius duct as many of the Thessalian cavalry and of the
interfering in the government of his diocese ; and other allied troops as wished to return home, as
the latter, just before his return home, is reputed fur as the sea-coast, where Menes was desired to
to have given vent to his bad feeling by the make arrangements for their passage to Euboea.
Kxadaloot malediction, " I hope that you will In B. c. 328, when Alexander was in winter
not die a bishop ! " upon which Chrysostom quarters at Nautaca, he sent Epocillus with Sopolis
replied*—* I hope you will never get home ! ™ and Menidas to bring reinforcements from Mace
^soxosnen. viii. 15.) For the credit of that really donia. (Arr. Anab. Hi. 19, iv. 18.) [E. E.]
great and Christian man, it is to be hoped that EPO'NA ("Iinrcwa), from ejms (jinroj), that is,
the story is incorrect ; and as both wishes were equus, was regarded as the protectress of horses.
granted, it bears strong marks of a tale invented Images of her, either statues or paintings, were fre
after the deaths of the two disputants. Epipha- quently seen in niches of stables. She was said
nius died os board the ship, which was conveying to be the daughter of Fulvius Stellus by a mare.
aim back to Cyprus, a. d. 402, leaving us a me (Juven. viii. 157 J Plut. Pamll. Gr. et Horn. p.
lancholy example of the unchristian excesses into 312 ; Hartung, Die Religion der Romer, vol. ii.
whxh bigotry may hurry a man of real piety, p. 154.) [L. S.)
and a sincere desire to do God service. EPO'PEUS ('Ea-anrei/r), a son of Poseidon and
The extant works of Epiphanius are (1) An- Canace. He came from Thessaly to Sicyon, where
araass. a discourse on the faith, being an exposi he succeeded in the kingdom, as Corax died with
tion of the doctrine of the Trinity ; (2) Pana- out leaving any heir to his throne. He carried
nm. a discourse against Heresies, of which he away from Thebes the beautiful Antiope, the
attacks no less than eighty ; (3) An epitome of daughter of Nycteus, who therefore made war
2, called Anaetpkalamtu ; "(4) De Ponderibus et upon Epopeus. The two hostile kings died of the
Misttss ii Her ; (5) Ttco EpUla ; the first to John wounds which they received in the war ; but pre
bishop of Jerusalem, translated by Jerome into vious to his death Epopeus dedicated a temple to
Latin ; the second to Jerome himself, in whose Athena. (Paus. ii. 6. § 1; Apollod. i. 7. § 4.) A
works they are both found. A great number of different tradition about Epopeus is related under
Eprphanias's writings are lost The earliest edi Amphion, No. 1. Pausanias (ii. 1. j 1) calls him
tions were at Basle, in Latin, translated by Cor- a son of AloeuB, whereas he is commonly described
narius, 1543, and again in the following year as a brother of Aloeui. The temple of Athena
mmim et tjpi$ Jo. Hervagii. The edition of Dio- which he had built at Sicyon was destroyed by
dtb-jj Petavina, in Greek and Latin, appeared at lightning, but his tomb was preserved and shewn
Paris, 1.22, 2 vols, fol., and at Leipzig, 1682, there to a very late period. (Paus. ii. 11. § 1.)
with a cncamentary by Valesiua. (Sozomen. /. c. ■ Another mythical being of this name occurs in
HietouyiiL ApaL 1. adv. Rutin, p. 222 ; Cave, Ovid. (Met. hi. 618, &c.) [L. S.]
/fist LkL voL i. ; Neander, Kirchenycscliichtr, voL EPO'PSIUS ('Ewityios), that is, the superin
H.p.l4l4.4c) [G. E. L.C.] tendent, occurs as a surname of several gods, such
EPI'POLE fEwnroAjf), a daughter of Trachion, as Zeus (Apollon. Rhod. ii. 1 1 24), Apollo ( Hesych.
of Carystas in Euboea. In the disguise of a man «. v.; comp. Soph. Phi/oct. 1040), and of Poseidon
she went with the Greeks against Troy ; but when at Megalopolis. (Paus. viii. 30. § 1.) [L. S.]
PaJamedes discovered her sex, she was stoned to EPORE'DORIX, a chieftain of the Aedui, was
doth by the Greek army. (Ptolem. Hephaest. 5.) one of the commanders of the Aeduan cavalry.
Kfipole was also a surname of Demeter at Lace- which, in compliance with Caesar's requisition
iamm. (Hesrch. u v. "EwiwoAAo.) [L. S.] was sent to the aid of the Romans against Vercin-
EPI'STHENES CBs-iowem*). of Amphipolis, getorix, in a a 52. He also informed Caesar of
«smanjed the Greek peltastac at the battle of the designs of Litavicus, who was endeavouring to
4'2 EQUESTER. ERASISTRATUS.
draw the Aedui into the Gallic confederacy against (Ann. iii. 71 ) mentions a temple of Fortnnn Equcs-
Home, and enabled him at first to counteract them. tris at Antium. [L. S.]
But soon afterwards he himself revolted, together L. EQUI'TIUS, said to have been a runaway
with Viridomarus, and this completed the defec slave, gave himself out as a son of Ti. Gracchus,
tion of his countrymen. Ambition was clearly and was in consequence elected tribune of the plebs
his motive, for he was much mortified when the for B. c. 99. While tribune designatus, he took
Gauls chose Vercingetorix for their commander- an active part in the designs of Saturninus, and
in-chief. (Caes. B. G. vii. 34, 38—40, 54, 55, was killed with him in B. c. 100: Appian says
C3 ; Plut. Caes. 26, 27 ; Dion Cass. xl. 37.) He that his death happened on the day on which he
appears to have been the person who was sent in entered upon his office. (Appian, B. C. i. 32, 33;
command of an Aeduan force to the relief of Ver Val. Max. iii. 2. § 18 ; Cic. pro Sest. 47, who calls
cingetorix at Alesia, and a different one from the hira imitivus Gracchus, and pro C. Rabir. 7, where
Eporedorix, who was previously taken prisoner by be is described as ille ex compedibits ataue ergastulo
the Romans in a battle of cavalry, and who Gracchus.)
is mentioned as having commanded the Aedui in a ERASI'NIDES ('Epoo-iWSns), was one of the
war with the Sequani some time before Caesar's ten commanders appointed to supersede Alcibiades
arrival in Gaul (Caes. B. G. vii. 67, 76 ; Dion after the battle of Notium, n. c. 407. (Xen. Hell.
Cass. xl. 40.) [E. E.] i. 5. $16; Diod. xiii. 74 ; Plut. Ale. 36.) Ac
M. E'PPIUS M. p., a Roman senator, and a cording to the common reading in Xenophon (Hell.
member of the tribe Tcrcntina, took an active part i. 6. § 16), he and Leon were with Conon when
in favour of Pompey on the breaking out of the he was chased by Callicratidas to Mytilene. But
civil war in u. c. 49. He was one of the legates we find Erasinides mentioned afterwards as one of
of Q. Metellus Scipio in the African war, and was the eight who commanded at Arginusae (Xen.
pardoned by Caesar, with many others of his party, Hell. i. 6. $ 29; Aristoph. Ran. 1194); cither,
after the battle of Tliapsus in B. c. 46. His name therefore, as Moras and Schneider suggest, Arches-
occurs as one of Scipio's legates on a coin, which tratus must be substituted for both the above
is figured below. The obverse represents a wo names in the passage of Xenophon, or we must
suppose that Erasinides commanded the trireme
which escaped to AthenBwith the news of Conon's
blockade. (Xen. Hell. i. 6. §§ 19—22 ; Lys.
'AtoA. 8wpo5. p. 162 ; Schneid. wl Xen. Hell. i. 6.
§ 16 ; Thirlwall's Greece, vol. iv. p. 119, note 3.)
Erasinides was among the six generals who returned
to Athens after the victory at Arginusae and were
put to death, B. c. 406. Archcdemus, in fact, took
man's head, covered with an elephant's skin, and the first step against them by imposing a fine
likewise an ear of corn and a plough, all of which (ejri£oA?J) on Erasinides, and then calling him to
have reference to the province of Africa, with Q. account before a court of justice for retaining some
Mktel. Scipio Imp. On the reverse there is a public money which he had received in the Hel
figure of Hercules, with Eppivs Leg. F. C. The lespont. On this charge Erasinides was thrown
last two letters probably represent Faciundum or into prison, and the success of the prosecution in
Feriundum Curavit, or Flandum Curavit, and indi the particular case paved the way to the more
cate that the denarius was struck by order of Eppius. serious attack on the whole body of the generals.
It appears from another coin, in which his name (Xen. Hell. i. 7. §§ 1-34 ; Diod. xiii. 101.) [E.E.]
occurs as the legate of Pompey, that after he had ERASI'STRATUS ('Epao-forpaToj), one of the
been pardoned by Caesar he went into Spain and most celebrated physicians and anatomists of anti
renewed the war under Sex. Pompey in B. c. 46 quity, is generally supposed to have been born at
and 45. (Cic. ad Fam. viii. 8. §§ 5, 6, where the lulis in the island of Ceos (Suidas, s. v. 'Zono-iarp. ;
old editions incorrectly read M. Oppius, ad All. Strab. x. 5, p. 389, ed. Tauchn.), though Stepha-
viii. 11, a j Hirtius, Hell. Afric. 89 ; Eckhcl, vol. nus Byzantinus (s. v. Kws) calls him a native of
T. pp. 206, 207.) Cos, Galen of Chios (Introd. c. 4, vol xiv. p. 683),
EPPONI'NA. [Sabinus, Julius.] and the emperor Julian of Samos. (Misopog. p.
E'PRIUS MARCELLUS. [Makcbllus.] '347.) Pliny says he was the grandson of Aristotle
E'PYTUS, a Trojan, who clung to Aeneias in by his daughter Pythias (//. N. xxix. 3), but this
the night, when Troy was destroyed. He was the is not confirmed by any other ancient writer; and
father of Periphas, who was a companion of Julus, according to Suidas, he was the son of Cretoxena,
and who is called by the patronymic Epytides. the sister of the physician Mcdius, and Cleombro-
(Virg. Aen. ii. 340, v. 547, 579 ; Horn. 11. xvii. tus ; from which expression it is not quite clear
323.) [L. S.j whether Cleombrotus was his father or his uncle.
EQUESTER, and in Greek "Imrios, occurs as a He was a pupil of Chrysippus of Cnidos (Diog.
surname of several divinities, such as Poseidon Laert. vii. 7. § 10, p. 186; Plin. H. N. xxix. 3 ;
(Neptune), who had created the horse, and in Galen, de Ven. Sect. adv. Erasistr. c. 7, vol xi. p.
whose honour horse-races were held (Serv. ad 171), Metrodorus (Sext. Empir. c. Mathem. i.
Viry. Georg. i. 12; Liv. i. 9 ; Paus. v. 15. § 4), 12, p. 271, ed. Fabric.) and apparently Theophras-
of Aphrodite (Serv. ad Aen. i. 724), Hera tus. (Galen, de Sang, in Arter. c 7, vol. iv. p. 729.)
(Paus. v. 15. $ 4), Athena (Paus. i. 30. § 4, He lived for some time at the court of Seleucus
31. § 3, v. 15. § 4, viii. 47. § 1), and Arcs. (Paus. Nicator, king of Syria, where he acquired great
v. 15. § 4.) The Roman goddess Fortuna bore reputation by discovering the disease of Antio-
the same surname, and the consul Flaccns vowed chus, the king's eldest son, probably B. c. 294.
a temple to her in B.C. 180, during a battle against Seleucus in his old age had lately married Strato-
the Celtiberians. (Liv. xl. 40, xlii. 3.) Tacitus nice, the young and beautiful daughter of Deme
ERASISTRATUS. ERASISTRATUS. 4:;
trios PoUorcetea, and she had already borne hira numerous pupils and followers, and a medical school
one child. (PluL Demutr. c. 38 ; Appian, de bearing his name continued to exist at Smyrna in
Rrba Syr. e. 59.) Antioehus fell violently in Ionia nearly till the time of Strabo, about the be
lore with his mother-in-law, but did not disclose ginning of the Christian era. (Strab. xii. S, sub fin.)
his passion, and chose rather to pine away in si- The following are the names of the most celebrated
leace. The physicians were quite unable to disco physicians belonging to the sect founded by him :
ver the cause and nature of his disease, and Kra- Apoemantes (Galen, de Venae Sect. adv. Erasislr.
Eistratas himself was at a loss at first, till, rinding c. 2, vol. xi. p. 151), Apollonius Memphites, Apol-
seuing amiss about his body, he began to suspect lophanes (Cael. Aurel. de Morb. Acut. ii. 33, p. 150)
that it must be his mind which was diseased, and Arteraidorus, Charidemus, Chrysippus, Heraclides,
Out be might perhaps be in love. This conjecture Hermogenes, Hicesius, Martialis, Menodorus,
was confirmed when he observed his skin to be Ptolemaeus, Strato, Xenophon. He wrote several
hotter, his colour to be heightened, and his pulse works on anatomy, practical medicine, and phar
quickened, whenever Stratonice came near him, macy, of which only the titles remain, together
while none of these symptoms occurred on any with a great number of short fragments preserv
other occasion; and accordingly he told Seleucus ed by Galen, Caelius Aurelianus, and other an
that his ton's disease was incurable, for that he cient writers ; these, however, are sufficient to
wis in lore, and that it was impossible that his enable us to form a tolerably correct idea of his
pnsaon eoald be gratified. The king wondered opinions both as a physician and an anatomist.
trial the difficulty could be, and asked who the It is in the latter character that he is most cele
lady was. * My wife,'* replied Erasistratus ; upon brated, and perhaps there is no one of the ancient
which Seleoras began to persuade him to give her physicians that did more to promote that branch
up to bis hie. The physician asked him if he of medical science. He appears to have been very
would do so himself if it were Ass wife that the near the discovery of the circulation of the blood,
prince was in love with. The king protested that for in a passage preserved by Galen (de XJsu Pari.
h» would most gladly; npon which Erasistratus vi. 12, vol. iii. p. 465) he expresses himself as
told him that it was indeed his own wife who had follows :—* The vein* arises from the part where
inspired his passion, and that he chose rather to the arteries, that are distributed to the whole body,
die than to disclose his secret. Seleucus was as have their origin, and penetrates to the sanguineous
{rood as his word, and not only gave up Stratonice, [or right] ventricle [of the heart] ; and the artery
bet also resigned to his son several provinces of [or pulmonary win] arises from the part where the
his empire. This celebrated story is told with veins have their origin, and penetrates to the
more or less variation by many ancient authors, pneumatic [or left] ventricle of the heart." The
(Appian, de Rrbms Syr. c 59—61 ; Galen, de Prae- description is not very clear, but seems to shew
tot. ad Epig. c 6. voL xjr. p. 630 ; Julian, A/tso- that he supposed the venous and arterial systems
pao. p. 347, ed. Spanbetm ; Lucian. tie Syria Dea, to be more intimately connected than was generally
if 17, 18; Piin. //. N. xxix. 3 ; Plut. De believed ; which is confirmed by another passage
mur, c 38 ; Suidas, s. r. "tZpaaUrro. ; Jo. Tzetz. in which he is said to have differed from the other
CUL vii. Hist 118; Valer. Max. v. 7), and a ancient anatomists, who supposed the veins to arise
similar anecdote has been told of Hippocrates (So from the liver, and the arteries from the heart, and
mas, Iiia Hippoer. in Hippoer. Optra, vol. iii. p. to have contended that the heart was the origin
8ii), Galen (de PratnoL ad Epig. c 6°. vol. xiv. p. both of the veins and the arteries. (Galen, de Hip
630), Antenna (see Biagr. Diet, of the Use/. pocr. el Plat. Deer. vi. 6, vol. v. p. 552.) With
KmovL Sac), and (if the names be not fictitious) these ideas, it can have been only his belief that
Panadas (Aristaen. EpitL i. 13) and Acestinus. the arteries contained air, and not blood, that hin
(Heliod. ActUop. iv. 7- p. 171.) If this is the dered his anticipating Harvey's celebrated disco
anecdote referred to by Pliny (/. c), as is pro- very. The tricuspid valves of the heart are gene
ushiv the case, Erasistratus is said to have re rally said to have derived their name from Erasis
ceived one hundred talents for being the means tratus; but this appears to be an oversight, as
ec" restoring the prince to health, which (supposing Galen attributes it not to him, but to one of his
the Attic standard to be meant, and to be equal to followers. (De Hippocr. et Plat. Deer. vi. 6, vol. v.
2sii 13s.) would amount to 24,3752.—one of the p. 548.) He appears to have paid particular atten
kqmt medical fees upon record. tion to the anatomy of the brain, and in a passage
Very little more is known of the personal his out of one of his works preserved by Galen (ibid.
tory of Erasistratus : he lived for some time at vii. 3, vol. v. p. 603) speaks as if he had himself dis
Alexandria, which was at that time beginning sected a human brain. Galen says (ibid. p. 602) that
to be a celebrated medical school, and gave up before Erasistratus had more closely examined into
practice in his old age, that he might pursue his the origin of the nerves, he imagined that they arose
a&atouneal studies without interruption. (Galen, from the dura mater and not from the substance of
or Hippxr. et Plat. Deer. vii. 3, voL v. p. 602.) the brain; and that it was not till he was advanced
He prosecuted his experiments and researches in life that he satisfied himself by actual inspection
in this branch of medical science with great that such was not the case. According to Rufus
(access, ud with such ardour that he is said to Ephesius, he divided the nerves into those of sen
have dissected criminals alive. (Cels. de Medic sation and those of motion, of which the former he
i. srae£ p. 6.) He appears to have died in Asia considered to be hollow and to arise from the mem
Ulnar, as Suidas mentions that he was buried branes of the brain, the latter from the substance of
fry mount ilvcilc in Ionia. The exact date
rf hi§ death it not known, but he probably lived * He is speaking of the pulmonary artery,
la s food old age, "*. according to Eusebius, he which received the name aWifr daTTfywvSrjr from
was alive B. c. 258, about forty years after the Herophilus. See Ruf. Ephcs. de Appell. Part.
of Autiocbus and Stratonice. He had Corp. Hum. p. 42.
-14 ERASISTRATUS. ERATOSTHENES.
the brain itself and of the cerebellum. (De Appell. ERASTUS fEpaiTTor), of Scepsis in Troas, is
Part. &c. p. 65.) It is a remarkable instance at mentioned along with Coriscus, a native of the
once of blindness and presumption, to find this same place, among the disciples of Plato (Ding.
acute physiologist venturing to assert, that the Laert. iii. 46 ) ; and the sixth among the letters
spleen (Galen, de Atra Bite, c. 7. vol. v. p. 131), attributed to Plato is addressed to those two Scep-
the bile (id. de Faadt. Natur. ii. 2, vol. ii. p. 78), sians. Strabo (xiii. p. 608) classes both men
and several other parts of the body (id. Comment, among the Socratic philosophers. (Ast, Platan's
in Hippocr. "Zte Alim." iii. 14. vol. xv. p. 308), Lebcn u. Schrifl. p. 519 j C. F. Hermann, Gesch. «.
were entirely useless to animals. In the con System d. Plat. Philos. i. pp. 425, 592, &c.) [L.S.]
troversy that was carried on among the ancients ERA'TIDAE ('EpoTfJai), an ancient illustrious
as to whether fluids when drunk passed through family in the island of Rhodes. The Eratidae of
the trachea into the lungs, or through the oesopha Ialysus in Rhodes are described by Pindar (Oi.
gus into the stomach, Erasistratus maintained the vii. 20, &c. ; comp. Bockh, Explicat. p. 165) as
latter opinion. (Plut. Sympos. vii. 1 ; GelL descended from Tlepolemus and the Heracleidae.
xvii. 11, Macrob. Saturn, vii. 15.) He is also of whom a colony seems to have gone from Argos
supposed to have been the first person who to Rhodes. Damagctus and his son Dingoras be
added to the word dprripla, which had hitherto longed to the family of the Eratidae. [ Da.m.kik-
designated the canal leading from the mouth to tus, Diauoras.] [L. S.]
the lungs, the epithet rpaxtia, to distinguish it E'RATO ('Eparw), a nymph and the wife of
from the arteries, and hence to have been the ori Areas, by whom she became the mother of Eiatus,
ginator of the modern name trachea. He attributed Apheidas, and Azan. She was said to have been
the sensation of hunger to vacuity of the stomach, a prophetic priestess of the Arcadian Pan. (Paus.
and said that the Scythians were accustomed to viii. 27. § 9 ; Arcas.) There are two other
tie a belt tightly round their middle, to enable mythical personages of this name, the one a Muse
them to abstain from food for a longer time and the other a Nereid. (Apollod. i. 3. § 1, 2.
without suffering inconvenience. ( Gell. xvi. § 6 ; Hes. Theoa. 247.) [L. S.]
3.) The irccv^a, or spiritual substance, played a ERATOSTHENES ('EpaTiwWnij). 1. One of
very important part both in his system of physio the Thirty Tyrants. (Xcn. Hell. ii. 3. § 2.) There
logy and pathology : he supposed it to enter the is an oration of Lysias against him {Or. 12), which
lungs by the trachea, thence to pass by the pulmo was delivered soon after the expulsion of the Thirty
nary veins into the heart, and thence to be diffused and the return of Lysias from exile. (Clinton, F.
throughout the whole body by means of the arte H. sub aim. b. c. 403.) 2. The person for whose
ries (Galen, de Differ. Puis. iv. 2, vol. viii. p. 703, slaughter by Euphiletus, the first oration of Lysias
et alibi); that the use of respiration was to fill the is a defence. ( Lvs. p. 2, &c.) [P. S.]
arteries with air (id. de Usu Respir. c. 1. vol. iv. ERATO'STHENES ('EpoToo-flfnji), of Cyrene,
p. 471 ); and that the pulsation of the arteries was was, according to Suidas, the son of Aglaus, accord
caused by the movements of the pneuma. He ing to others, the son of Ambrnsius, and was born
accounted for diseases in the same way, and sup B. c 276. He was taught by Ariston of Chins, the
posed that as long as the pneuma continued to fill philosopher, Lysanias of Cyrene, the grammarian,
the arteries and the blood was confined to the and Callimachus, the poet. He left Athens at the
veins, the individual was in good health ; but that invitation of Ptolemy Evergetes, who placed him
when the blood from some cause or other got forced over the library at Alexandria. Here he continued
into the arteries, inflammation and fever was the till the reign of Ptolemy Epiphanes. He died at
consequence. (Galen, de Venae Sect. adv. Erasistr. the age of eighty, about R c 1 96, of voluntary star
c 2. vol. xi. p. 153, &c. ; Plut. de Pkilosoph. vation, having lost his sight, and being tired of life.
Plac. v. 29.) Of his mode of cure the most re He was a man of very extensive learning : we shall
markable peculiarity was his aversion to blood first speak of him as a geometer and astronomer.
letting and purgative medicines : he seems to have It is supposed that Eratosthenes suggested to
relied chiefly on diet and regimen, bathing, exer Ptolemy Evergetes the construction of the large
cise, friction, and the most simple articles of the armillae or fixed circular instruments which were
vegetable kingdom. In surgery he was celebrated long in use at Alexandria : but only because it is
for the invention of a catheter that bore his name, difficult to imagine to whom else they arc to be
and was of the shape of a Roman S. (Galen, Introd. assigned ; for Ptolemy (the astronomer), though
c. 13. vol. xiv. p. 751.) Further information re he mentions them, and incidentally their antiquity,
jecting his medical and anatomical opinions may be does not state to whom they were due. In these
found in Le Clerc, Hist, de la Mid. ; Haller, Biblioth. circles each degree was divided into six parts. We
Anal, and Biblioth. Medic. Pract.; Sprengel, Hist. know of no observations of Eratosthenes in which
de la Med. ; and also in the following works, they were probably employed, except those which
which the writer has never seen : Jo. Frid. Henr. led him to the obliquity of the ecliptic, which he
Hieronymi Dissert. Inaug. cxhibens Erasistrati must have made to be 23° 51' 20"; for he states
Erasistraieorumque Historiam, Jen. 1790, 8vo. ; the distance of the tropics to be eleven times the
F. H. Schwartz, Herophilus und Erasistratus, eighty-third part of the circumference. This was
cine kistorische Parotide, Inaug. Abhnndl., Wttrz- a good observation for the time : Ptolemy (the
burg, 1826, 8vo.. ; Jerem. Rud. Lichtenstadt, astronomer) was content with it, and, according to
Erasistratus als Vorg'dnger von Braussais, in him, Hipparchus used no other. Of his measure
Hccker's Anna!, der Heilhmde, 1830, xvii. 153. of the earth we shall presently speak. According
2. Erasistratus of Sicyon, must have lived in or to Nicomachus, he was the inventor of the mio--
before the first century after Christ, as he is men Kivor or Cribrum Arithmeticum, as it has since been
tioned by Asclepiades Pharmacion (apud Galen. called, being the well known method of detecting
de Compos. Medicam. sec. Locos, x. .'!, vol. xiii. the prime numbers by writing down all odd num
p. 356). [W.A.G.] bers which do not end with 5, ai.d striking out
ERATOSTHENES. ERATOSTHENES. 45
tsceeasiTely the multiples of each, one after the cess by which we now know, very nearly indeed,
other, so that only prime numbers remain. the magnitude of our own planet. Belambre says
We still possess under the Dame of Eratosthenes that if it were he who advised the erection of the
a vark, entitled K-xrae-r iptauol, giving a slight ac- circular instruments above alluded to, he must be
ceaat of the constellations, their fabulous history, considered as the founder of astronomy : to which
scd the stars in them. It is, however, acknow it may be added that he was the founder of geodesy,
ledged on all hands that this is not a work of without any if in the case. The number of ancient
Enuotthenes. It has been shewn by Bernhardy writers who have alluded to this remarkable opera
in his Eratostkemea (p. 110, &c, Berlin, 1822, tion ( which seems to have obtained its full measure
Stq.) to be a miserable compilation made by some of fame) is very great, and we shall not attempt to
Greek grammarian from the PoiUicon Antronomicon combine their remarks or surmises : it is enough to
*f Hyginus. This book was printed (Or.) in Dr. say that the most distinct account, and one of the
Fell's, or the Oxford, edition of Aratus, 176*2, 8vo.; earliest, is found in the remaining work of Clbo-
aeain (Gr. Lat.) by Thomas Gale, in the Opuscufa mbdes.
Pkysca ii Eliica, Amsterdam, 1688, 8vo.; also by At Syene, in Upper Egypt, which is supposed
Schasbach, with notes by Heyne, Gbttingen, 1795, to be the same as, or near to, the town of Assouan
8vs. ; also by F. K. Matthiae, in his Aratus, (Lat. 24° 10' N., Long. 32° 59' E. of Greenwich),
Frankfort, 181", 8vo., and more recently by A. Eratosthenes was told (that he observed is very
Western-aim, in his Scriptorts /futoriae poeticae doubtful), that deep wells were enlightened to the
6'nrai, pp. '239—267. The short comment on bottom on the day of the summer solstice, and that
Arams, attritrated to Eratosthenes, and first printed vertical objects cast no shadows. He concluded,
by Peter Vidorios, and afterwards by Petavius therefore, that Syene was on the tropic, and its
in his Vranoiogva (1630, fol.), is also named in latitude equal to the obliquity of the ecliptic,
the title of both as being attributed to Hipparchus which, as we have seen, he had determined : he
as well as to Eratosthenes. Petavius remarks presumed that it was in the same longitude as
(says Fahricios) that it can be attributed to neither ; Alexandria, in which he was out about 3", which
for Hipparchus is mentioned by name, also the is not enough to produce what would at that time
month of July, also the barbarous word -Urrpoirif- have been a sensible error. By observations made
*u-» for Orion, which the more recent Greeks never at Alexandria, he determined the zenith of that
used : these reasons do not help each other, for place to be distant by the fiftieth part of the cir
the second shews the work to be posterior to cumference from the solstice, which was equivalent
Eratosthenes, if anything, and the third shews it to saying that the arc of the meridian between the
to be prior. But on looking into this comment we two places is 7° I -'. Cleomedes says that he
rind that dAeTpas-aoW and July (and also August) used the cricd^, or hemispherical dial of Berosus,
are all mentioned in one sentence, which is evi in the determination of this latitude. Delambre
dently* an interpolation ; and the constellation rejects the idea with infinite scorn, and pronounces
Orion is frequently mentioned under that name. Cleomedes unworthy of credit ; and, indeed, it is
Bat Hipparcbtu certainly is mentioned. not easy to see why Eratosthenes should have
The oiily other writing of Eratosthenes which rejected the gnomon and the large circular instru
R-ataini is a letter to Ptolemy on the duplication ments, unless, perhaps, for the following reason :
«f the cube, for the mechanical performance of There is a sentence of Cleomedes which seems to
which he had contrived an instrument, of which he imply that the disappearance of the shadows at
sre-Ds to contemplate actual use in measuring Syene on the day of the Bummer solstice was
the contents of vessels, &c He seems to say that noticed to take place for 300 stadia every way
t- has had his method engraved in some temple or round Syene. If Eratosthenes took his report
pitbc building, with some verses which he adds. about the phenomenon (and we have no evidence
Esteems has preserved this letter in his comment that he went to Syene himself) from those who
•n hook ii prop. 2 of the sphere and cylinder of could give no better account than this, we may
Archimedes. easily understand why he would think the cr-cct-pij
The greatest work of Eratosthenes, and that quite accurate enough to observe with at his own
"»2ieh most always make his name conspicuous in end of the arc, since the other end of it was un
saeatinc history, is the attempt which he made to certain by as much as 300 stadia. He gives 5000
sststsore the magnitude of the earth,— in which he stadia for the distance from Alexandria to Syene, and
bnxnjht forward and used the method which is this round number seems further to justify us in con
rraptsyed to this day. Whether or no he was suc- cluding that he thought the process to be as rough
cetsfal cannot be told, as we shall see ; but it is not as in truth it was. MartianusCapella(p. 194) states
the Leas true that he was the originator of the pro- that he obtained this distance from the measures
made by order of the Ptolemies (which had been
* These are the only months mentioned in the commenced by Alexander); this writer then im
e-J-mnrrit : Orion, which the vulgar call aXerooird- plies that Eratosthenes did not go to Syene himself.
«"•"■, in* rises in July, and Procyon in August. The result is 250,000 stadia for the circumference
It is not stated anywhere else in what month a of the earth, which Eratosthenes altered into
•tar first rises, nor is any other month mentioned 252,000, that his result might give an exact number
at all. Probably some interpolator, subsequent to of stadia for the degree, namely, 700; this, of course,
.lsgr/scsa, introduced this sentence rather to fix should have been 694|. Pliny (//. N. ii. 1 08) calls
tie at-m-eemieal character of the new named months this 31,500 Roman miles, and therefore supposes the
■ his own or his reader's mind, than to give infor- stadium to be the eighth part of a Roman mile, or
sarjon on the constellations. It also appears that takes for granted that Eratosthenes used the
i'rpnitu, was the word which was used by the Olympic stadium. It is likely enough that the
'-Jta (Auirms) for Orion, after July and August Ptolemies naturalized this stadium in Egypt ; but,
aid received their imperial name*. nevertheless, it is not unlikely that an Egyptian
4« ERATOSTHENES. ERATOSTHENES.
■tadium was employed. If we assume the Olym ments quoted by later geographers and historians,
pic stadium (202J yards), the degree of Eratos such as Polybius, Strabo, Marcianus, Pliny, and
thenes is more than /9 miles, upwards of 10 miles*others, who often judge of him unfavourably, and
too great. Nothing is known of any Egyptian controvert his statements ; while it can be proved
stadium. Pliny (I. c.) asserts that Hipparchus, butthat, in a great many passages, they adopt his opi
for what reason he does not Bay, wanted to add nions without mentioning his name. Marcianus
25,000 stadia to the circumference as found by charges Eratosthenes with having copied the sub
Eratosthenes. stance of the work of Timosthenes on Ports (ir«pl
Ainirun'), to which he added but very little of his
According to Plutarch (<fc Plac. Phil. ii. 31 ^Era
own. This charge may be well-founded, but can
tosthenes made the sun to be 804 millions of stadia
from the earth, and the moon 780,000; according not have diminished the value of the work of Era
to Macrobius (in Somn. Scip. i. 20), he made the tosthenes, in which that of Timosthenes can have
diameter of the sun to be 27 times that of the formed only a very small portion. It seems to
earth. (Weidler, Hist. Asiron. ; Fabric. Biltl. have been the very overwhelming importance of
Graec. toI. iv. p. 117, &c ; Delambre, Hist, de the geography of Eratosthenes that called forth a
rAsiron. Anc. ; Petavius, C/ranologion.) [A. DbM.]number of opponents, among whom we meet with
the names of Polemon, Hipparchus, Polybius,
With regard to the other merits of EratoBthenes,
we must first of all mention what he did for geo Serapion, and Marcianus of Heracleia. The frag
graphy, which was closely connected with his ma ments of this work were first collected by L. Anchcr,
thematical pursuits. It was Eratosthenes who Diatribe in Fragm. Geograph. Eratostk^ Gdttingen,
1770, 4to., and afterwards by G. C. F. Seidel,
raised geography to the rank of a science ; for, pre
Eratosth. Geograph. Fragm. Gbttingcn, 1 789, 8vo.
vious to his time, it seems to hare consisted, more
The best collection is that of Bemhardy in his
or less, of a mass of information scattered in books
Eratosthenica.
of travel, descriptions of particular countries, and
the like. All these treasures were accessible to Another work of a somewhat similar nature, en
titled 'Ep/njs (perhaps the same as the KaTcurrepurnol
Eratosthenes in the libraries of Alexandria ; and he
mentioned above), was written in verse and treated
made the most profitable use of them, by collecting
the scattered materials, and uniting them into an of the form of the earth, its temperature, the diffe
organic system of geography in his comprehensive rent zones, the constellations, and the like. (Bern-
work entitled Ttttypwpuai, or as it is sometimes, hardy, Eratosth. p. 110, &c.) Another poem,
'HpryoVt;, is mentioned with great commendation
but erroneously, called, yierypaipoiiieva or yearypa-
by Longinus. (De SuUim. 33. 5 ; comp. Schol. ad
<t>la. (Strab. i. p. 29, ii. p. 67, xv. p. 688 ; Schol.
adApollon.Rhod. iv. 259, 284, 310.) It consisted Horn. II. x. 29; Bernhardy, I.e. p. 150, &c.)
of three books, the first of which, forming a sort of Eratosthenes distinguished himself also as a phi
losopher, historian, and grammarian. His acquire
introduction, contained a critical review of the la
bours of his predecessors from the earliest to hisments as a philosopher are attested by the works
own times, and investigations concerning the form which are attributed to him, though we may not
and nature of the earth, which, according to him, believe that all the philosophical works which bore
was an immovable globe, on the surface of which his name were really his productions. It is, how
traces of a scries of great revolutions were stillever, certain that he wrote on subjects of moral
visible. He conceived that in one of these revolu philosophy, e. g. a work Ilepl 'AyaBwv ko.1 Kok&v
tions the Mediterranean had acquired its present ( Harpocrat. s. v. appLOaToi ; Clem. Alex. Strom, i v.
form ; for, according to him, it was at one time ap. 496), another Utp\ IlAoiSrou Kol rienas (Diog.
large lake covering portions of the adjacent conn-Lacrt. ix. 66 ; Plut. TJiemist. 27), which some be
lieve to have been only a portion of the preceding
tries of Asia and Libya, until a passage was forced
open by which it entered into communication with work, just as a third Tltpl *AAujrfay, which is men
the ocean in the west. The second book contained tioned by Suidas. Some other works, on the other
what is now called mathematical geography. His hand, such as Ilepl t«c KcncL QiKovufpiav Alpto-ccov,
attempt to measure the magnitude of the earth has M«\£raj, and AKfAo-yoi, are believed to have been
been spoken of above. The third book contained erroneously attributed to him. Athenaeus men
the political geography, und gave descriptions of tions a work of Eratosthenes entitled *kpow6r)
the various countries, derived from the works of (vii. p. 276), Epistles (x. p. 418), one Epistle ad
earlier travellers and geographers. In order to bedressed to the Lacedaemonian Agetor (xi. p. 482),
able to determine the accurate site of each place,and lastly, a work called 'Aptorotv, after his teaeher
he drew a line parallel with the equator, running in philosophy, (vii. p. 281.)
from the pillars of Heracles to the extreme east of His historical productions are closely connected
Asia, and dividing the whole of the inhabited earth
with his mathematical pursuits. He is said to>
into two halves. Connected with this work was a have written on the expedition of Alexander the
new map of the earth, in which towns, mountains, Great (Plut. Alar. 3, 31, Sic ; Arrian, Anah. v. 5.
rivers, lakes, and climates were marked according § 3) ; but the statements quoted from it belonged
to his own improved measurements. This impor in all probability to his geographical or chronolo
tant work of Eratosthenes forms an epoch in the gical work. Another on the history of the Gala-
tians ( TaXaTi/fa), of which the 33rd book is quoted
history of ancient geography ; but unfortunately it
is lost, and all that has survived consists in frag-
by Stephanus of Byzantium (s. «. "TSprjKa), waa
undoubtedly the work of another Eratosthenes.
* This is not so much as the error of Fernel's (Schmidt, de Gall. Exped. p. 1.5, &c ; Bernhardy,
measure, which so many historians, by assuming /. e. p. 243, &c.) There was, however, a very im
him, contrary to his own statement, to have used portant chronological work, entitled Xpovoypa<pla
the Parisian foot, have supposed to have been, ac or XpovoypaQi&v, which was unquestionably the
cidentally, very correct. See the Penny Cyclo- production of our Eratosthenes. In it the author
vaalia, Art. " Weights and Measures." endeavoured to fix the dates of all the important
EREBOS. ERGINUs. 17
events in livrarr as veil as political history. (Har- earth, through which the shades pass into Hades.
pocraL ». r. EsS)"* ; Dionys. i. 46 ; Clem. Alex. (Horn. 77. viii. p. 368 ; comp. Hadks. [L. S.]
SErsss. i. p. 1 45.) This work, of which some frag- ERECHTHEUS. [Erichthonius.]
Dwata are still extant, formed a comprehensive E'RESUS ("Epnros), a son of Macar, from
dirocologkal history, and appears to have been whom the town of Eresus in Lesbos derived its
b*M in hi^h esteem by the ancients. Apollodorus name. (Steph. Byz. $. v.) A second otherwise
smi Eosebius made great nee of it, and Syncellus unknown person of this name was painted in the
(p. 96, c) has preserved from it a list of 38 kings Lesche at Delphi. (Paus. x. 27.) [L. S.]
•f the Egyptian Thebes. (Comp. Bernhardy, /. c. EREUTHA'LION ('Ep«u9a\.W), an Arcadian,
p. '-43, &c.) Another work, likewise of a chrono- who, in the armour of Areithous, which Lycurgus
kpcal kind, was the 'OaiatTiorimu. (Diog. Laert. had given him, fought against the Pylians, but
vii. 51 ; A then. iv. p. 154 ; Schol. ad Eurip. He- was slain by Nestor. (Horn. II. iv. 319, vii. 134,
ess. 569.) It contained a chronological list of the &c) [L. S.]
victors in the Olympic games, and other things ERGA'MENES ('EpYcu^ms), a king of Me-
connected with them. (Bernhardy, p. 247, &c.) roe, an Ethiopian by birth, but who had received
AmoTHT his grammatical works we notice that a Greek education. He was the first who over
On cW OidAtiie Comedy (n«ol tt)j 'Apxaias Ka/jup- threw the power of the priests, which had been
4*a?, sometimes simply rieol Kw/ioyo't'as, or Kwfxif- paramount to that of the sovereign, and established
Jii»j. a very extensive work, of which the twelfth a despotic authority. He was contemporary with
boot is quoted. It contained everything that was Ptolemy Philadelphia but we know nothing of
necessary to arrive at a perfect understanding of the relations in which he stood towards that mon
those poetical productions. In the first part of the arch. His name has been discovered in the
work, Eratosthenes appears to have entered even hieroglyphics at Dakkeh, whence it is inferred that
into discussions concerning the structure of thea his dominions extended as far north as that point.
tres, the whole scenic apparatus, the actors, their (Diod. iii. 6 ; Droysen, Hellentimm, voL ii. p. 49,
costumes, declamation, and the like ; and it is 278.) [E. H. B.]
lierefere not improbable that the 'ApxrrtKTWuco'r E'RGANE ('Ep7(<KT|) or E'RGATIS, that is,
(Schol ad ApJlon. Rhod. i 567, iii. 232) and the worker, a surname of Athena, who was be
ravoTpoexitss ( Pollux, x. 1 ), which are mentioned lieved to preside over and instruct man in all kinds
as separate works, were only portions of the first of arts. (Paus. v. 14. $ 5, i. 24. § 3 ; Plut. do
pan of his work on the Old Comedy. After this Fort. p. 99, a.; Hesych. s. v.) [L. S.]
general introduction, Eratosthenes discussed the EnGIAS ('Epytas) of Rhodes, is mentioned as
works of the principal comic poets themselves, such the author of a work on his native island. (Atben.
as Aristophanes, Cratinus, Eupolis, Pherecrates, viii. p. 360.) Gesner and others are of opinion
sad ethers, entering into detailed criticism, and that Ergias is the same person as Erxias, who was
civina explanations both of their language and the the author of Ko\otpwvuu<i. (Athen. xiii. p. 561.)
subjects of their comedies. We still possess a con But which of the two names, Ergias or Erxias, is
siderable number of fragments of this work (col the correct one, cannot be determined. [L. S.]
lected ia Bernhardy, 1. e. pp. 205—237) ; and from ERGI'NUS ('Epyii'oy), a son of Clymenus and
what he says about Aristophanes, it is evident that Buzygc or Budeia, was king of Orchomenos. After
fits jzdiment was as sound as his information was Clymenus 'was killed by Perieres at the festival of
extensive. He is further said to have been engaged the Onchestian Poseidon, Erginus, his eldest son,
ia the criticism and explanation of the Homeric who succeeded him as king, undertook to avenge
poems, and to have written on the life and produc the death of his father. He marched against
tions of that poet ; but nothing certain is known Thebes, and surpassing the enemy in the number
in this respect. For more complete lists of the of his horsemen, he killed many Thebans, and
worts attributed to Eratosthenes, see the Bralos- compelled them to a treaty, in which they bound
lirains of Bernhardv. | 1 ,. S.] themselves to pay him for twenty years an annual
ERATOSTHENES SCHOLA'STICUS, the tribute of 100 oxen. Heracles once met the heralds
aether of four epigrams in the Greek Anthology of Erginus, who were going to demand the usual
(Broach. AmaL toL iii. p. 123 ; Jacobs, vol. iv. p. tribute : he cut off their ears and noses, tied their
S3), to which may be added, on the authority hands behind their backs, and thus sent them to
«fthe Vatican MS% a fifth, which stands in the An Erginus, saying that this was his tribute. Erginus
thology anion? those of Paul the Silentiary (No. now undertook a second expedition against Thebes,
*8> In all probability, Eratosthenes lived under but was defeated and slain by Heracles, whom
ti« emperor Justinian. (Jacobs, Antk. Oraec. Athena had provided with arms. (Apollod. ii. 4.
rti. xm. p. 890 ; Fabric. Bibl. Grate, vol. iv. § 11; Diod. iv. 10; Strab. ix. p. 4 14; Eustath. ad
p. 474.) [P. S.] Horn. p. 272 ; Eurip. Here. fur. 220 ; Theocrit.
ERATCfSTRATUS. [Hbhostratur] xvi. 1 05.) Pausanias (ix. 37. § 2, &c), who agrees
t'RATUS ('Eparo'i), a son of Heracles by with the other writers in the first part of the my-
Isynaste. was king of Argos, and made a suc- thus, states, that Erginus made peace with' Hera
arwful expedition against Asine, which was bc- cles, and devoted all his energy to the promotion
nr.i*d sad taken. (ApoDod. ii. 7. § 8 ; Paus. ii. of the prosperity of his kingdom. In this manner
M. § J.) [L. S.] Erginus arrived at an advanced age without having
F-'HEBOS (*£V««?o»), a son of Chaos, begot either wife or children : but, as he did not wish
Ath-r and Hemera by Nyx, his 6istcr. (Hesiod. any longer to live alone, he consulted the Delphic
TIosjl 123.) Hyginns {Fish, p. 1) and Cicero (rfe oracle, which advised him to take a youthful wife.
As* Dnr. ni. 17) enumerate many personifica- This he did, and became by her the father of Tro-
tsns of abstract notions as the offspring of Erebos. phonius and Agamedes, or. according to Eustathius
7»e name signifies darkness, and is therefore ap- {I.e.) of Azeus. Erginus is also mentioned among the
soed also to the dark and gloomy space under the Argonauts, and is said to have succeeded Tiphys
4fi ERICHTHONIUS. ERIDANUS.
as helmsman. (Schol. ad Apollon. Mod. i. 185, ii. the Panathenaea, and to have built a temple of
896.) When the Argonauts took part in the fu Athena on the acropolis. When Athena and Po
neral games which Hypsipyle celebrated at Lem- seidon disputed about the possession of Attica,
iins in honour of her father Thoas, Erginus also Erichthonius declared in favour of Athena. (Apol
contended for a prize ; but he was ridiculed by the lod. iii. 14. $ 1.) He was further the first who
Lemnian women, because, though still young, he used a chariot with four horses, for which reason
had grey hair. However, he conquered the sons he was placed among the stars as auriga (Hygin.
of Boreas in the foot-race. (Pind. 01. iv. 29, &c, P. A. l.c; Virg. Georg. i. 205, iii. 113; Aclian,
with the Schol.) Later traditions represent our V. H. iii. 38) ; and lastly, he was believed to have
Erginus as a Milesian and a son of Poseidon. made the Athenians acquainted with the use of
(Apollon. Rhod. i. 185, &c. j Orph. Argon. 150; silver, which had been discovered by the Scythian
Apollod. i. 9. § 1 6 ; Hygin. Fab. 1 4 ; com p. Mul- king Indus. (Hygin. Fab. 274.) He was buried
ler, Orchom. p. 179, &c. 2nd edit.) [L. S.] in the temple of Athena, and his worship on the
ERGI'NUS ('Ep7i»os), a Syrian Greek, who acropolis was connected with that of Athena and
betrayed the citadel of Corinth into the hands of Poseidon. (Apollod. iii. 14. § 6; Serv. ad Aen. vii.
Aratus, by informing him of a secret path by 761.) His famous temple, the Erechtheium, stood
which it was accessible. For this service he re on the acropolis, and in it there were three altars,
ceived 60 talents from Aratus. At a subsequent one of Poseidon, on which sacrifices were offered
period he made an attempt to surprise the Peiraeeus, to Erechtheus also, the second of Rules, and the
in order to free the Athenians from the yoke of third of Hephaestus. (Paus. i. 26. § 6.)
Antigonus Gonatas : but failed in the enterprise, Erechtheus II., as he is called, is described as a
which was disavowed by Aratus. (Plut. Aral. grandson of the first, and as a son of Pandion by
cc. 18—22,33.) [E. H. B.] Zeuxippe, so that he was a brother of Butes,
ERIBOEA ('EplSoio). There are three mythical Procne, and Philomela. (Apollod. iii. 14. § 8 j
personages of this name. One was the wife of Paus. i. 5. § 3.) After his father's death, he suc
Aloeus (Horn. II. v. 385, &c.), the second the wife ceeded him as king of Athens, and was regarded
of Telamon (Soph. Ajax, 562; Pind. Istlim. vi. 42), in later times as one of the Attic eponymi. He
and the third an Amazon. (Diod. iv. 16.) [L. S.J was married to Praxithea, by whom he became the
ERIBO'TES ('Ep.6"aST7)s), the son of Teleon, father of Cecrops, Pandoros, Metion, Orneus,
was one of the Argonauts, and appears to have Procris, Creusa, Chthonia, and Oreithyia. (Apol
acted as surgeon, as he is represented as attending lod. iii. 15. § 1 ; Paus. ii. 25. § 5 ; Ov. Met. vi.
on Oilcus when he was wounded. (Apollon. 676.) His four daughters, whose names and
Rhod. Argon. L 73, ii. 1040 ; Hygin. Fab. 14 ; whose stories differ very much in the different tra
Valer. Flacc Argon.) [W. A. G.] ditions, agreed among themselves to die all together,
ERICHTHO'NIUS ('EpixfloVioj). 1. There if one of them was to die. When Eumolpus, the
can be little doubt but that the names Erichthonius son of Poseidon, whose assistance the Eleusinians
and Erechtheus are identical; but whether the had called in against the Athenians, had been
two heroes mentioned by Plato, Hyginus, and killed by the latter, Poseidon or an oracle demand
Apollodorus, the one of whom is usually called ed the sacrifice of one of the daughters of Erech
Erichthonius or Erechtheus I. and the other Erech theus. When one was drawn by lot, the others
theus II., are likewise one and the same-person, as voluntarily accompanied her in dea-th, and Erech
M'uller (Orchom, p. 117, 2d edit.) and others think, theus himself was killed by Zeus with a flash of
is not so certain, though highly probable. Homer lightning at the request of Poseidon . (Apollod. iii.
(IL ii. 547, &c, Od. vii. 81) knows only one 15. § 4 ; Hygin. Fab. 46, 238 ; Plwt. ParaU. Gr.
Erechtheus, as an autochthon and king of Athens ; et Rom. 20.) In his war with the Xleusinians, he
and the first writer who distinguishes two person is also said to have killed Immaradus, the son of
ages is Plato. (Crit. p. 110, a.) The story of Eumolpus. (Paus. i. 5. § 2 •, comp>. Agraulos.)
ErichthoniuB is related thus: When Hephaestus According to Diodorus (i. 29), Erechtheus was an
wished to embrace Athena, and the goddess re Egyptian, who during a famine brought corn to
pulsed him, he became by Ge or by Atthis, the Athens, instituted the worship of Demeter, and
daughter of Cranaus, the father of a son, who had the Eleusinian mysteries.
either completely or only half the form of a ser 2. A son of Dardanus and Bateia. He was the
pent. Athena reared this being without the know husband of Astyoche or Callirrhoe, and father of
ledge of the other gods, had him guarded by a Tros or Assaracus, and the wealthiest of all mortals,
dragon, and then entrusted him to Agraulos, Pan- for 3000 mares grazed in his fields, which were so
drosos, and Herse, concealed in a chest, and for beautiful, that Boreas fell in love with them. He
bade them to open it. (Hygin. Pott. Astr. ii. 13.) is mentioned also among the kings of Crete. (Horn.
But this command was neglected ; and on opening //. xx. 220, &c. ; Apollod. iii. 12. § 2 ; Dionys.
the chest and seeing the child in the form of a ser i. 62 ; Ov. Fast. iv. 33 ; Serv. ad Aen. viii. 1 30 ;
pent, or entwined by a serpent, they were seized Strab. xiii. p. 604.) [L. S.]
with madness, and threw themselves down the ERI'DANUS ('Hpltafot), a river god, a son of
rock of the acropolis, or, according to others, into Oceanus and Tethys, and father of Zeuxippe. (He-
the sea. The serpent escaped into the shield of siod. Throg. 338; Hygin. Fab. 14.) He is called
Athena, and was protected by her. (Apollod. iii. the king of rivers, and on its banks nmber was
14. § 6; Hygin. Fab. 166; Paus. i. 2. § 5, 18. § 2; found. ( Virg. Georg. i. 482 ; Ov. Met. ii. 324.) In
Eurip. Jon, 260, &c. ; Ov. Met. ii. 554.) When Homer the name does not occur, and the first writer
Erichthonius had grown up, he expelled Amphic- who mentions it is Hesiod. Herodotus (iii. 15)
tyon, and usurped the government oT Athens, and declares the name to be barbarous, and the inven
his wife Pasithca bore him a son Pandion. (Apol tion of some poet. (Comp. Strab. v. p. 215.) The
lod. /. c.) He is said to have introduced the wor position which the ancient poets assign to the
ship of Athena, to have instituted the festival of river Eridanns differed at different times. £L. S.]
ERINNA. ERIS. J9
KWGOXE CUpryirn.) 1. A daughter of cobs, vol. i. p. 50), of which the first has the genuino
learias, seduced bj Bacchus, who came into her air of antiquity; but the other two, addressed to
father's home. (Or. Met vi. 125 ; Hygin. Fab. Baucis, seem to be a later fabrication. She had a
130; chip. Icarivs.) place in the Garland of Meleager (v. 12).
2. A daughter of Aegisthus and Clytacmnestra, 2. A Greek poetess, who, if we may believe
sad by Orestes the mother of Penthilus. (Paus. Eusebius (Chron.Arm., SyncelL p. 260, a., Hieron.)
ri. 18."* 5.) Hyginus (Fob. 122), on the other was contemporary with Demosthenes and Philip of
baad. relates that Orestes wanted to kill her like Macedon, inOl. 107, B-c. 352. Several good scho
hrr mother, but that Artemis removed her to At lars, however, reject this statement altogether, and
tica, and there made her her priestess. Others only allow of one Erinna. (Fabric Mbl. Graec. vol.
state, that Erigone put an end to herself when she ii. p. 120; Welcker, de Erinna, Comma, S[c. in
heard that Orestes was acquitted by the Areiopagus. Creuzer's Mektemata, pt ii. p. 3 ; Richter, Sappho
(Diet. Cret. n.4.) A third Erigone is mentioned und Erinna; Schneidewin, Delect. Poet. Graec.
by Serrhis. {Ad Firy. Ectog. iv. 6.) [L. S.] Eleg. 3fc p. 323 ; Idem, in Zimmermann's Zeii-
ERI'GON L'S, originally a colour-grinder to the Khrift fur die AlterHumswistemehaft, 1837, p.
painter Nealces, obtained so much knowledge of 209 ; Bode, Gesch. d. Hell. Dichth. vol. ii. pU 2,
hit master's art. that he became the teacher of the p. 448.) [P. S.J
oHebrated painter Pasias, the brother of the mo ERINNYES. rEimsNiDAK.]
deller Aegineta. (Plin. xxxv. 11, s. 40. $ 41.) ERIO'PIS fEpuJinj). There are four mythical
From this statement it follows that he flourished personages of this name. (Horn. II. xiii. 697 ;
abswt a. c 24A [Akginbta.] [P. S.] Schol. ad Find. Pyth. iii. 14 ; Paus. ii. 3. $ 7 ;
ERIGY'ICS (Tpf-rvioj, 'Efryiios), a Mytile- Hesych. s. v.) [L. S.]
naean, son of Larkhus, was an officer in Alexan ERI'PHANIS CHpKfwWs), a n,eiic poetess, and
der's array. He had been driven into banishment author of erotic poetry. One particular kind of
by Philip because of his faithful attachment to love-song was called after her ; but only one line of
Alexander, and returned when the latter came to her's is preserved in Athenaeus (xiv. p. 619), the
the throne in B. c. 336. At the battle of Arbela, only ancient author that mentions her. [L. S.J
a. c. 331, he commanded the cavalry of the allies, E'RIPHUS fEpiipoj), an Athenian comic poet
as he did also when Alexander set ont from Ec- of the middle comedy. According to Athenaeus, he
bataaa in pursuit of Dareins, B. c. 330. In the lived at the same time as Antiphanes, or only a little
same year Erigyius was entrusted with the com later, and he copied whole verses from Antiphanes.
mand of one of the three divisions with which That he belonged to the middle comedy, is suffi
Alexander invaded Hyrcania, and he was, too, ciently shewn by the extant titles of his plays,
among the generals sent against Satibarzancs, whom namely, AfiAos, McAifioio, IleATooTjfj. Eustathius
he slew in battle with his own hand. [Carakus, (ad Horn. p. 1686. 43) calls him \6yios dmfp.
No. 3.J In 329, together with Craterus and ( A then. ii. p. 58, a., iii. p. 84, b. c, iv. pp. 1 34, c,
Hephaestion, and by the assistance of Aristander 137, d., vii. p. 302, c., xv. p. 693, c. ; Antiatt.
the soothsayer, he endeavoured to dissuade Alex p. 98. 26 ; Suidas, s. v. ; Eudoc. p. 167: Meineke,
ander from crossing the Jaxartes against the Scy- Frag. Com. Graec. vol. i. pp. 420, 421, iii. pp.
tians. In 328 he fell in battle against the 556 —558 j Fabric Bibl. Graec. vol ii. pp. 441,
Baraian fugitives. (Ait. A nab. iii. 6, 11, 20, 23, 442.) [P.S.]
58, iv. 4; Diod. xvii. 57; Cnrt. vi. 4. § 3, vii. 3. ERIPHY'LE fEp»d»iAi|), a daughter of Talaus
} i 4. & 32-40, 7. |§ 6-29, viii. 2. § 40.) [RE.] and Lysimache, and the wife of Amphiaraus, whom
ERINXA ('Hparra). There seem to have been she betrayed for the sake of the necklace of Har-
two Greek poetesses of this name. 1 . A contem monia. (Horn. Od. xi. 326 ; Apollod. i. 9. f 3;
porary and friend of Sappho (about B. c 612), A.MPHIARAITR, ALCMABON, HaRHONIA.) [L. S.]
»»■> died at the age of nineteen, but left behind ERIPHY'LUS, a Greek rhetorician, who is
her poems which were thought worthy to rank mentioned by Quintilian (x. 6. § 4), but is other
via those of Homer. Her poems were of the epic wise unknown. [L. S.]
gam : the chief of them was entitled "HAokott), ERIS ("Epis), the goddess who calls forth war
lit IjataJT: it consisted of three hundred lines, of and discord. According to the Iliad, she wanders
wtieh only four are extant. (Stob. Flor. cxviii. 4; about, at first small and insignificant, but she soon
Attn, vn. p. 283, d.; Bergk, Pail Lyr. Grate, p. raises her head up to heaven (iv. 44 1 ). She is the
432.) It was written in a dialect which was a friend and sister of Ares, and with him she de
ss.mii> of the Doric and Aeolic, and which was lights in the tumult of war, increasing the moaning
spoken at Rhodes, where, or in the adjacent island of men. (iv. 445, v. 518, xx. 48.) She is insatiable
•f Telos, Erinna was bom. She is also called a in her desire for bloodshed, and after all the other
Lesbian and a Mytilenaean, on account of her re gods have withdrawn from the battle-field, she
sidence in Lesbos with Sappho. (Suidas, s. v. ; still remains rejoicing over the havoc that has been
Eastath. ad IL ii. 726, p. 326.) There are several made. (v. 518, xi. 3, &c, 73.) According to He-
evrraxM apon Erinna, in which her praise is ce- siod (Thcog. 225, &c), she was a daughter of
Xirated, sad her untimely death is lamented. Night, and the poet describes her as the mother
(Brunek.J»oivol.i.p.241,n.81,p.-218,n.3.5,vol.ii. of a variety of allegorical beings, which are the
s. 1 9, n. 47, voL in. p, 26 1 , n. 523, 524, vol. it p. 4G0.) causes or representatives of man's misfortunes. It
Tke outage last cited, which is from the Eephrasit was Eris who threw the apple into the assembly
rf Christodoras (tv. 108— 110) shews, that her of the gods, the cause of so much suffering and
■stae wa« erected in the gymnasium of Zeuxippus war. [Paris.] Virgil introduces Discordia as a
st Brrantimn. Her statue by Naucydcs is men- being similar to the Homeric Eris ; for Discordia
*sob1 by Titian. (Orat. ad Grate. 52, p. 113, appears in company with Mars, Bellona, and the
W'cna.)' Three epigrams in the Greek Anthology Furies, and Virgil is evidently imitating Homer.
in- ascribed to her (Brunck, A naL vol. i. p. 58 ; Ja- (^c».viii. 702 ; Scrv. adAcn. i. 31, vi. 280.)[L.S.1 '
roi.a
50 EROS. EROS.
ERIU'NIUS ("Epiowioj) or ERINNES, the own daughter Aphrodite, so that Zeus was at once
giver of good fortune, occurs as a surname of Her his father and grandfather. ( Virg. Cir. 134.) Eros
mes, but is also used as a proper name instead of in this stage is always conceived and was always
HermeB. (Horn. II. xxiv. 440, 457, Od. viii. 322; represented as a handsome youth, and it is not
Aristoph. Ban. 1 143.) [L. S.] till about after the time of Alexander the Great
ERO'PHILUS, a distinguished engraver of that Eros is represented by the epigrammatists and
gems, was the son of Dioscorides. He lived, there the erotic poets as a wanton boy, of whom a thou
fore, under the early Roman emperors. He is only sand tricks and cruel sports are related, and from
known by a beautiful gem, bearing the head of whom neither gods nor men were safe. He is
Augustus, on which his name appears, though generally described as a son of Aphrodite ; but as
partially defaced. (Meyer zu Winckelmann, B. xi. love finds its way into the hearts of men in a man
c. 2. $ 18, AlMldungen, No. 92 ; MiiUer, Arch. d. ner which no one knows, the poets sometimes de
Kami. 8200, n. 1.) [P. S.] scribe him as of unknown origin (Theocrit. xiii. 2),
ERO'PON, an officer in the confidence of or they say that he had indeed a mother, but not
Perseus, king of Macedonia, who sent him in b. c. a father. (Meleagr. Epigr.bO.) In this stage Eros
168 to negotiate an alliance with Euraenes II., has nothing to do with uniting the discordant ele
king of Pergamus, against the Romans. Livy ments of the universe, or the higher sympathy or
sayB that Eropon had been engaged before on love which binds human kind together ; hut he is
secret services of the same nature. (Liv. xliv. 24, purely the god of sensual love, who bears sway
27, 28.) This name should perhaps be substituted over the inhabitants of Olympus as well as over
for KpiwfKoira in Polyb. xxix. 3. [E. E.] men and all living creatures : he tames lions and
EROS ('Ep«s), in Latin, AMOR or CUPI'DO, tigers, breaks the thunderbolts of Zeus, deprives
the god of love. In the sense in which he is usu Heracles of his arms, and carries on his sport
ally conceived, Eros is the creature of the later with the monsters of the sea. (Orph. Hymn. 57 ;
Greek poets ; and in order to understand the an Virg. Edog. x. 29; Mosch. Idyll, vi. 10; Theocrit.
cients properly we must distinguish three Erotes : iii. 15.) His arms, consisting of arrows, which he
viz. the Eros of the ancient cosmogonies, the Eros carries in a golden quiver, and of torches, no
of the philosophers and mysteries, who bears great one can touch with impunity. (Mosch. Idyll, vi. ;
resemblance to the first, and the Eros whom we Theocrit. xxiii. 4 ; Ov. Trist. v. 1, 22.) His ar
meet with in the epigrammatic and erotic poets, rows are of different power : some are golden, and
whose witty and playful descriptions of the god, kindle love in the heart they wound ; others are
however, can scarcely be considered as a part of blunt and heavy with lead, and produce aversion
the ancient religious belief of the Greeks. Homer to a lover. (Ov. Met. i. 468 ; Eurip. Ipktg. Jul.
does not mention Eros, and Hesiod, the earliest 548.) Eros is further represented with golden
author that mentions him, describes him as the wings, and as fluttering about like a bird. (Comp.
cosmogonic Eros. First, says Hesiod {Theog. 120, Eustath. ad Horn. p. 987.) His eyes are some
<->:.), there was Chaos, then came Ge, Tartarus, times covered, so that he acts blindly. ( Theocrit.
and Eros, the fairest among the gods, who rules x. 20.) He is the usual companion of his mother
over the minds and the council of gods and men. Aphrodite, and poets and artists represent him,
In this account we already perceive a combination moreover, as accompanied by such allegorical beings
of the most ancient with later notions. According as Pothos, Himeros, Dionysus, Tyche, Peitho, tho
to the former, Eros was one of the fundamental Charites or Muses. (Pind. Ol. i. 41; Anacr.
causes in the formation of the world, inasmuch as xxxiii. 8 ; Hesiod, Theog. 201 ; Paus. vi. 24. § 5,
he was the uniting power of love, which brought vii. 2G. $ 3, i. 43. § G.) His statue and that of
order and harmony among the conflicting elements Hermes usually stood in the Greek gymnasia.
of which Chaos consisted. In the same metaphy (Athen. xiii. p. 551 ; Eustath. ad Horn. p. 1596.)
sical sense he is conceived by Aristotle {Afctaph. i. We must especially notice the connexion of
4); and similarly in the Orphic poetry (Orph. Eros with Anteros, with which persons usually con
Hymn. 5; coiup. Aristoph. Av. 695) he is de nect the notion of " Love returned." But originally
scribed as the first of the gods, who sprang from Anteros was a being opposed to Eros, and fighting
the world's egg. In Plato's Symposium (p. 1 78,b) against him. (Paus. i. 30. § 1, vi. 23. $ 4.) This
he is likewise called the oldest of the gods. It is conflict, however, was also conceived as the rivalry
quite in accordance with the notion of the cosmo existing between two lovers, and Anteros accord
gonic Eros, that he is described as a son of Cronos ingly punished those who did not return the love
and Ge, of Eileithyiu, or as a god who had no of others ; so that he is the avenging Eros, or a
parentage, and came into existence by himself. deus ultor. (Paus. i. 30. § 1 ; Ov. Met. xiii. 750,
(Paus. ix. c 27-) The Eros of later poets, on the &c. ; Plat. I'haedr. p. 255, d.) The number of
other hand, who gave rise to that notion of the Erotes (Amores and Cupidines) is playfully ex
god which is most familiar to us, is one of the tended ad libitum by later poets, aud these Erotes
youngest of all the gods. ( Paus. /. c. ; Cic. de Nat. are described either as sons of Aphrodite or of
Deor. iii. 23.) The parentage of the second Eros nymphs. Among the places distinguished for their
is very differently described, for he is called a son worship of Eros, Thespiae in Boeotia stands fore
of Aphrodite (either Aphrodite Urania or Aphro most : there his worship was very ancient, and the
dite Pandcmos), or Polynmia, or a son of Poms old representation of the god was a rude stono
and Penia, who was begotten on Aphrodite's birth (Paus. ix. 27. § 1), to which in later times, how
day. (Plat. I. c. ; Sext. Emp. adv. Math. i. 540.) ever, the most exquisite works of art were added.
According to other genealogies, again, Eros was a (Eustath. ad Horn. p. 266.) At Thespiae a quin
son of Hermes by Artemis or Aphrodite, or of quennial festival, the Erotidia or Erotia, were cele
Ares by Aphrodite (Cic. de Nat. Ikor. iii. 23), or brated in honour of the god. (Paus. /. c; Athen.
of Zephyrus and Iris (Plut. Amat. 20 ; Eustath. xiii. p. 561.) Besides Sparta, Samos, and Parion
a<l Horn. p. 555), or, lastly, a son of Zeus by his on the Hellespont, he was also worshipped at
EROTIANUS. ERYMANT1IUS. 51
Athens, where he had an altar at the entrance of 8vo., Greek and Latin, containing also the glos
the Academy. (Pans. i. 30. § 1.) At Megan hia saries of Galen and Herodotus, a learned and
statue, together with those of Himeros and Pothos, copious commentary, and good indices. It has also
stood in the temple of Aphrodite. ( Paus, i. 43. § 6, been published with some editions of the works of
camp, in. 36. § S, vi 24. § 5, vii. 26. § 3.) Hippocrates. [W. A. G.]
Among the thxnirs sacred to Eros, and which fre ERO'TIUS, vicarius and quaestor, one of the
quently appeal with him in works of art, we may commission of Sixteen, appointed by Theodosius
nation the rose, wild beasts which are tamed by in J. i). 435, to compile the Theodosian Code.
Him, the hare, the cock, and the ram. Eros was a He does not appear, however, to have taken any
£»<nrite subject with the ancient statuaries, but distinguished part in its composition. [Diodorus,
his representation seems to have been brought to vol. i. p. 1018.] [J. T. G.]
perfection by Praxiteles, who conceived him as a ERU'CIA GENS, plebeian. Only one member
fall-grown youth of the most perfect beauty. (Lu- of this gens is mentioned in the time of the repub
oan. Am. ii. 17 ; Plm. H. N. xxxvi. 4, 5.) In lic, namely, C. Erucius, the accuser of Ser.Roscius of
huer tunes artists followed the example of poets, Amelia, whom Cicero defended in b. c. 80. From
and represented him as a little boy. (Hirt, MytnoL Cicero's account he would appear to have been a
Bidnh. n. p. 216, 4c. ; Welcker, Zattckrifl fur man of low origin. (Cic. pro Rose. 13, 16, 18—
«w alit A'wz, p. 475.) Respecting the connexion 21, 29, 32.) His name also appears as one of the
between Eros and Psyche, see Psyche. [L. S.] accusers of L. Varenna, who was likewise defended
EROS ("Eoqm ) occurs in three ancient Latin by Cicero, but in what year is uncertain. [Va-
inscriptions as the name of one or more physicians, rbnus.] He was called by Cicero in his speech
one of whoni is supposed to hare been physician for Varenus Antoniatter, that is, an imitator of the
to J aha. the daaghter of the emperor Augustus. orator Antonius. (Cic Fragm. pro Varen. 8, p.
There is extant a short work, written in bad 443, ed. Orelli.) The Ericius ('Ept'xios) who is
Latin, and entitled " Cnrandarum Aegritudinum mentioned by Plutarch (Sull. 16, 18) as one of
Mubebriiun ante et post Partum Liber unicus," Sulla's legates in the Mithridatic war, is supposed
wfaicti has semetimes been attributed to Eros. by Drumann (Gack. Horns, vol. iii. p. 68) to be a
The style, however, and the fact that writers are false reading for Hirtius, but we ought perhaps to
qooted in it who lived long after the time of read Ericius.
Angastos, prove that this supposition is not correct Under the empire, in the second century after
It has ab» been attributed to a female named Christ, a family of the Erucii of the name of Clams
Trouua, under whose name it is generally quoted ; attained considerable distinction. [Claris.]
bat C. G. Graner, who has examined the subject E'RXIAS. [Eroias.]
in a dissertation entitled " Neque Eros, neque ERYCI'NA ('Epi/Klnj), a surname of Aphrodite,
Trotula, sed Salernitanos quidam Medicos, isque derived from mount Eryx, in Sicily, where she had
Christianas, Aactor Libelli est qui Dt Morbis a famous temple, which was said to have been built
Ma/tcrum UHcribitur" (Jenae, 1773, 4to.), proves by Eryx, a son of Aphrodite and the Sicilian king
that this also is incorrect. The work is of very Butes. (Diod. iv. 83.) Virgil {Aen. v. 760) makes
little value, and is included in the Aldine collec Acneias build the temple. Psophis, a daughter of
tion, entitled *" Medici Antiqui omnes qui Latinis Eryx, was believed to have founded a temple of
Lttteris," 4c, foL, Venet. 1547, and in the collec- Aphrodite Erycina, at Psophis, in Arcadia. (Paus.
aoa of writer* * Gynaeciorum," or " on Female viii. 24. § 3.) From Sicily the worship of Aphro
Diseases," Basil. 4to,' 1 566. It was also published dite (Venus) Erycina was introduced at Rome
in 1778, Lips. 8vot, together with H. Kommann, about the beginning of the second Punic war(Liv.
' De Virgnram %aXa^r &c [ W. A. G.] xxii. 9, 10, xtiii. 30, &c), and in it. c 181 a tem
EROTIA'NUS CEfwrioWj), or, as he is some- ple was built to her outside the Porta Collatina.
taaes nJUAl Hcrodknus ('HpaStavos), the author (Liv. xl. 34 ; Ov. Fast. iv. 871, Rem. Amor. 549 ;
of a Greek work still extant, entitled T«r ira' Strab. vi. p. 272 ; comp. Cic. in Vcrr. iv. 8 ; Horat.
ImapajTci Access* 2wF«7«ryif, Forum, quae apud Carm. i. 2. 33; 0v. lleroid. xv. 57.) [L. S.]
Hippacrattm mat, ColleeUo. Itis uncertain whether ERY'CIUS ('Epiinioj), the name of two poets,
be was himself a physician, or merely a gramma whose epigrams are in the Greek Anthology. The
rian, but he appears to have written (or at least to one is called a Cyzicene, the other a Thessaiian ;
have intended to write) some other works on Hip and, from the internal evidence of the epigrams, it
pocrates besides that which we now possess (pp. is probable that the one lived in the time of Sulla,
23. 208, ed. Franx). He must have lived (and and about u. c. 84, the other under the emperor
probably at Rome) in the reign of the emperor Hadrian. Their epigrams are so mixed up, that it
Nero, a. D. 54—68, as his work is dedicated to his is impossible to distinguish accurately between
archiater, Andromachus. It is curious as contain- them, and we cannot even determine which of the
ics the earnest list of the writings of Hippocrates two poets was the elder, and which the younger.
that exists, in which we Bnd the titles of several We only know that the greater number of the epi
treatises bow lost, and also miss several that now grams are of a pastoral nature, and belong to Ery-
farm part of the Hippocratic collection. The rest cius of Cyzicus. (Brunck, Anal. vol. ii. p. 295; Ja
of the work consists of a glossary, in which the cobs, Antk. Grace, vol. iii. p. 9, vol. xiii. pp. 891,
words are at present arranged in a partially 892 ; Fabric. BiU. Grate, vol. iv. p. 474.) [P. S.]
sipoabrtiaJ manner, though it appears that this ERYMANTHUS ('EptS/iav&o!). 1. A river-
•ooVtfarrangement is not that which was adopted god in Arcadia, who had a temple and a statue at
kr tie author himself. It was first published in Psophis. (Paus. viii. 24. § 6 ; Aelian, V. II. ii. 33.)
dark, AVo, /56"4, Pari*, in H. Stephani Didiona- 2. A son of Apollo, was blinded by Aphrodite,
ium Jfedinm ■ a Latin translation by Barth. because he had seen her in the bath. Apollo, in
UtOehiBM appeared in 1566, 4to , Venet ; the revenge, metamorphosed himself into a wild boar,
Am awl betteditioa U that by Franx, Up*. 1780, and killed Adonis. (Ptolcm. Heph. i. 306.)
■3
52 ESAIAS. ESAIAS.
3. A son of Arista* and father of Arrhon, or, determined to quit the world ; one of them distri
according to others, the son of Areas and father of buted his whole property to the poor, the other
Xanthus. (Paus. viii. 24. § 1.) [L. S.] expended his in the foundation of a monastic and
E'RY MAS ('Epi/ias), the name of three different charitable establishment. If the Orations men
Trojans. (Horn. II. xvi. 345, 415 j Virg. Aen. ir. tioned below are correctly ascribed to the Esaias
702.) [L. S.] of Palladius, the first oration (which in the Latin
ERYSICHTHON CEpvolx8t-»>), that is, the version begins "Qui mccum manere vultis, audite,"
tearer up of the earth. 1. A son of Triopas, who &c.) enables us to identify him as the brother that
cut down trees in a grove sacred to Demeter, for founded the monastery. Rufinus in his Lives of
which he was punished by the goddess with fearful the Fathers, quoted by Tillemont, mentions an anec
hunger. (Callim. Hymn, in Ccr. 34, &c ; Ov. Afcl. dote of Esaias and some other persons of monastic
viii. 738, &c.) Milller (Dor. ii. 10. § 3) thinks character, visiting the confessor Anuph or Anub
that the traditions concerning Triopas and Erysich- (who had suffered in the great persecution of Dio
thon (from iptvtipn, robigo) belong to an agricul cletian, but had survived that time) just before his
tural religion, which, at the same time, refers to the death. If we suppose Esaias to have oeen com
infernal regions. paratively young, this account is not inconsistent
2. A son of Cecrops and Agraulos, died without with Cave's opinion, that Esaias flourished a.d.
issue in his father's lifetime, on his return from 370. Assemanni supposes that he lived about the
Uelos, from whence he brought to Athens the an close of the fourth century. He appears to have
cient image of Eileithyia. His tomb was Bhewn lived in Egypt.
at Prasiac. (Apollod. iii. 14. § 2 ; Pans. i. 18. § 5, There are dispersed through the European li
2. § 5, 31. § 2.) [L. S.] braries a number of worksin MS. ascribed to Esaias,
ERYTHRUS ("EpuSpos) 1. A son of Leucon, who is variously designated "Abbas," "Presbyter,"
and grandson of Athamas. He was one of the " Eremita," " Anachoreta." They are chiefly in
suitors of Hippodameia, and the town of Erythrae, Greek. Some of them have been published, either
in Boeotia, was believed to have derived its name in the original or in a Latin version. Assemanni
from him. (Paus. vi. 21. j 7 ; M'uller, Orchom. p. enumerates some Arabic and several Syriac works
210. 2nd edit.) of Esaias, which, judging from their titles, are ver
2. A son of Rhadamanthus, who led the Ery- sions in those tongues of the known works of this
thraeans from Crete to the Ionian Erythrae. (Paus. writer. It is not ascertained whether Esaias the
vii. 3. § 4.) There are two other mythical per writer is the Esaias mentioned by Palladius. Car
sonages of the name of Erythrus, or Erythrius, dinal Bellarmin, followed by the editors of the
from whom the Boeotian Erythrae, and the Ery BiUiotheca Patrum, places the writer in the seventh
thraean Sea, are said to have received their names century subsequent to the time of Palladius ; but
respectively. (Eustath. ad Horn. p. 267 ; Steph. the character of the works supports the opinion that
Byz. s. v. 'EpuSpa ; Curtius, viii. 9.) [L. S.] they belong to the Egyptian monk.
ERYX f/Epuf), the name of three mythical (1.) Chapters on iJie ascetic and peaceful life
personages. (Diod. iv. 83; Apollod. ii. 5. § 10 j (KvpdKaia vepl atr/crjireu'y Kal TJffu^fay), published
Ov. Mel. v. 196.) [L.S.] in Greek and Latin in the Thesaurus Asceticus of
ERYXI'MACHUS ('Epvtfimxos ), a Greek Pierre Possin, pp. 315-325 ; 4to. Paris, 1684. As
physician, who lived in the fourth century B. c, some MSS. contain portions of this work in con
and is introduced in the Convivium of Plato (p. nexion with other passages not contained in it, it is
185) as telling Aristophanes how to cure the probable that the Chapters are incomplete. One
hiccup, and in the mean time making a speech MS. in the King's Library at Paris is described as
himself on love or harmony ("Epos), which he " Esaiae Abbatis Capita Ascetica, in duos libros
illustrated from his own profession. [W. A. G.] divisn, quorum unusquisque praecepta centum com-
ESAIAS ('Hffafas), sometimes written in Latin plectitur."
Isaias. 1. Of Cypbi's, lived probably in the (2.) Precepta seu Cbnsilia posita tironibm, a
reign of John VII. (Palaeologus) about A. D. Latin version of sixty-eight Short Precepts, pub
1430. Nicolaus Comnenus mentions a work of lished by Lucas Holstenius, in his Codex Regula-
his, described as Oratio de Lipsanomachis, as ex rum Monasiicarjtm. (vol. i. p. 6. ed. Augsburg,
tant in MS. at Rome ; and his Epistle in defence 1759.)
of the procession of the Holy Spirit from the Fa (3.) Orationes. A Latin version of twenty-
ther and the Son, in reply to Nicolaus Sclengias, nine discourses of Esaias was published by
is given by Leo Allatius in his Graecia Ortho Pietro Francesco Zini, with some ascetic writ
doxy both in the original Greek and in a Latin ings of Nilus and others, 8vo. Venice, 1574, and
version. Two epistles of Michael Glycas, ad have been reprinted in the Bibliotheca Pairum.
dressed to the much revered (Tifuurar^i) monk They are not all orations, but, in one or two in
Esaiaa are published in the Deliciae Eruditorum stances at least, are collections of apophthegms or
of Giovanni I. ami, who is disposed to identify the sayings. Some MSS. contain more than twenty-
person addressed with Esaias of Cyprus. (Fabric. nine orations : one in the King's Library at Paris
Bibl. Grate, vol. xi. p. 395 ; Wharton, Appendix to contains thirty, wanting the beginning of the first ;
Cave's Hist. LiU. vol. ii. p. 1 30, ed. Oxford, 1 740-3; and one, mentioned by Harless, is said to contain
Lami, Deliciae Eruditorum, vol. viii. pp. 236-279, thirty-one, differently arranged from those in the
Florence, 1739.) Bibliotlteca Patrum.
2. Of Egypt. Palladius in the biographical (4.) Dubiiationes in Visionem Escchielis. A
notices which make up what is usually termed his MS. in the Royal Library of the Escurial in Spain,
Lausiac History, mentions two brothers, Pacisius is described by Montfaucon (Bibliotheca Bibliothe-
(nrafo-ios) and Esaias, the sons of a merchant, carum. p. 619) as containing Sernumes el Dubiia
SiraidSpojuos, by which some understand a Spanish tiones in Visionem Ezechielis, by " Esaias Abbas."
merchant. Upon the death of their father they The Sermones or discourses arc probably those men
ESQUILINUS. ETEONICUS. S3
tiooed above. Of the Ihilaiaiiones no further ac ETEARCHUS ("ETt'apXO')- 1- An ancient
count is given ; but the subject, as far as it is indi king of the city of Axus in Crete, who, according
cated by the title, renders it very doubtful if the to the Cyrenaean accounts, was the grandfather of
work belongs to the Egyptian Monk. Battus I., king of Cyrene. The story of the way
The Atactica and OptaaUa of Esaias, described in which he was induced to plan the death of his
in Catalogues, are perhaps portions or extracts of daughter Phronime, at the instigation of her step
the works noticed above. This is probably the mother, and of the manner in which she was pre
case with the passages given by Cotelerius among served and taken to Cyrene, is told by Herodotus
the "Sayings of the Fathers." (Palladium, Hist. (iv. 154, 155).
Itmwinm, c 18. ed. Meursius, Leyden, 1616; 2. A king of the Ammonians, mentioned by
Tiliemont, Mtmoirts, voL vii. p. 426 ; Cave, Hist. Herodotus (ii. 32) as the authority for Bome ac
Liu voL i. p. 254, ed. Oxford, 1740-3 ; Bibliotic- counts which he heard from certain Cyrenaeans of
ea Pmtrmm, voL xii. p. 384, &c. ed. Lyon, 1677 ; an expedition into the interior of Africa undertaken
As*emanni, BUJwtkeca Oriextalis, vol. iii. par. i. by five youths of the Nasamones. [C. P. M.]
p. 46. note ; Cotelerius, EccUsiae Graecae Monu- ETEMUNDIS, the name prefixed to an epi
smmftz, voL i. p. 445, &c ; Fabric. Bibl. Graec., gram of two lines to be found in Burmann, Antliol.
vaL ix. p. 282, vol. xi. p. 395, Bitliotheca Mediae Lot iii. 283, or n. 547, ed. Meyer, but of whom
H Imsimac Latimitatis, voL U. p. 109 ; Cataloaus nothing is known. [W. R.]
\l2namm BMioiiecac Rcgiac, vol. ii., Paris, 1704.) , ETEOCLES CETtoKhiis.) 1. A son of Andreus
3. The Pxuuiax. The Acta of the Martyrs, and Evippe, or of Cephisns, who was said to have
Sainti Jonas and Barachisius in the Ada Sanc been the first that offered sacrifices to the Charitcs
torum of the BoUandista, are a version of a Greek at Orchomenos, in Boeotia. (Paus. ix. 34. $ 5, 35.
narrative, then, and probably still, extant in the Li « 1 ; Theocrit. xvi. 104 ; SchoL ad Find. Ol. xiv. 1 ;
brary of the Republic of Venice, purporting to be M'uller, Orchom. p. 128.)
drawn up by Esaias. the sou of Adam, one of the 2. A son of Oedipus and Jocaste. After his
horsemen (~ eques,") of Sapor, King of Persia, un father's flight from Thebes, he and his brother
der whom the martyrs suffered. (Ada Sanctorum, Polyneices undertook the government of Thebes
Marti. voL Hi. p. 770, &c) [J. C. M.] by turns. But, in consequence of disputes having
EsQUILI'NUS, a name of several families at arisen between the brothers, Polyneices fled to
Rome, which they obtained from living on the Adrastus, who then brought about the expedition of
Es^uine hill. The name also occurs as an agno the Seven against Thebes. [Adrastus.] When many
men to distinguish a member or a branch of a par of the heroes had fallen, Eteoclcs and Polyneices
ticular family from others of the same name. resolved upon deciding the contest by a single com
1. An agnomen of P. Liltxius Calvls, both bat, but both the brothers fell. (Apollod. iii. 5. § 8,
father and son. [Caivts, Nos. 1, 2.] 6. §§ 1, 5, 8k. ; Paus. ix. 5. § 6 ; romp. Eurip.
2. An agnomen of L. Mixucius Augurinus Phoen. 67 ; Jocaste.) [L. S.]
and Q. Misvatts Acgurinus, though, according ETEOCLUS ('Et&mcXoj) a son of Iphis, was,
to the Fasti, Augurinus would be the agnomen and according to some traditions, one of the seven heroes
EaquUnns the cognomen. [Augurinus II., Nos. who went with Adrastus against Thebes. He had
1,4.] to make the attack upon the Nei'tian gate, where
3. L. or M. Sxkgius Esquiuxus, one of the he was opposed by Megareus. (Aeschyl. Sept. c.
second decernvirate, B. c. 450, (Lir. iii. 35 ; T/ieb. 444, &c. ; Apollod. iii. 6. § 3.) He is said to
Brays, x. 58, xL 23.) have won a prize in the foot-race at the Nemean
4. An agnomen of the Virginii Tricosti. games, and to have been killed by Leades. (Apol
Almost all the members of the Virginia gens had lod. iii. 6. §§ 4, 8.) His statue stood at Delphi,
the surname Tricostus, and those who dwelt on the among those of the other Argive heroes. (Paus. x.
Es^ailine had the surname Esquilinus, just as 10. « 2 ; Eustath. ad Horn. p. 1042.) [L. S.]
taose living on the Caclian hill had the surname ETEONICUS ("ETtdymos), a Lacedaemonian,
Cahioho vra sos. Two members of the gens have who in B. c. 412 was lieutenant under the admiral
tie surname Esquilinus, namely, Opitrr Virgi- Astyochus, and assisted him in his unsuccessful
xics Tascosrts Esquilinus, who was consul in operations against Lesbos. (Thuc. viii. 23.) He
a. c 478, filling the place of C. Servilius Structus was afterwards harmost in Thasos, but in 4 If),
Aaaia, who died in his year of office (Fasti), and together with the Lacedaemonian party, was ex
iis grandson, L. Virgixius Tricostus Esquili- pelled by the Thasians. (Xen. Hell. i. 1. § 32.)
.vrs, consular tribune in B. c. 402. The conduct In 406 we find him serving under Callicratidas,
of the siege of Veii was entrusted to the latter and who left him to blockade Conon in Mytilene, while
his colleague M". Sergios Fidenas, but in conse- he himself went to meet the Athenian reinforce
cueace of their private enmity the campaign was a ments. After the battle of Arginusae, by means
disastrous one. The Capenates and Faiisci ad of a stratagem, Eteonicus succeeded in drawing off
vanced u> the relief of Veii. The two Roman the land forces to Methymna, while he directed
generals had each the command of a separate camp : the naval forces to make with all speed for Chios,
Sergiut was attacked by the allies and a sally from where he found means of rejoining them not long
the tosrn at the same time, and let himself be afterwards. In the course of his stay here, he,
•verpowered by numbers, because he would not with considerable energy and promptitude, defeated
ask his colleague for assistance, and Virginius a plot formed by some of the troops under his
would not send it because it was not asked. In command to seize Chios. (Xen. Jfell. i. 6. § 20,
•wnsMjuence of their misconduct, they were forced 36, &c, ii. 1. § 1, &c.) It is probably this Eteo
lo resign their office before their year had expired. nicus whom we find mentioned in the Anabasis
la die following year they were brought to trial (vii. 1. § 12) apparently serving as an officer under
and condemned by the people to pay a heavy fine. Anaxibius at Byzantium, (a c. 400.) Eleven
(Lir. t. 8, 9, 1 1, 12.) years afterwards (•13')), he is mentioned as being
54 EVAEMON. EVAGORAS.
stationed as harmost in Aegina. (Xen. Hell. v. EVAE'NETUS (EuoiV«-os), the name of two
I. § 1.) [C. P. M.] commentators on the Phaenomena of Aratus, who
ETECNUS ('EtsuwAs), a descendant of Boeotus, are mentioned in the introductory commentary still
and father of Eicon, from whom the Boeotian town (vsiant (p. 1 1 7, ed. Victor.), but concerning whom
of Eteonos derived its name. ( Eustath. ad Ham. p. nothing is known. [L. S.]
265.) [L. S.] EVAE'NETUS, of Syracuse and Catana, was
ETI,EVA. [Gentius.] one of the chief makers of the Sicilian coins. (M'ul-
ETRUSCILLA, HERE'NNIA, wife of the ler, Archaol. d. Kunst, p. 428.) [P. S.]
emperor Deems. The name not being mentioned EVAGES (Eus-yns), of Hydrea, was, according
in history, it was a matter of dispute to what to Dionysius (op. Stepk. Byz. s. v. 'TSpeia), an
princess the coins bearing the legend Herennia illiterate and quite uneducated shepherd, but yet
EtrusdUa Augusta were to be assigned, until a a good comic poet. Meineke thinks this statement
stone was found at Carseoli with the inscription insufficient to give him a place among the Greek
Herrnniae.Cupresseniae. Etruscillab.Auu. comedians. (Hist. CriL Com. Grace, p.528.) [ P.S.]
Coniugi. D.N. Dkci. Aug.Matri. Augg. NN. EVA'GORAS (Eilo/yopoj), the name of two
et . C astror . S. P. Q., from which, taken in com mythical personages. (Apollod. i. 9. § 9, iii. 12.
bination with medals, it appears that her designa § 5;Schol. adApoUon. llhod. i. 156.) [L. S.]
tion in full was Annia Cupressenia Herennia Etrus EVA'GORAS (Ziayioat). 1. King of Salamis
dUa. (Muratori, p. 1036, 4 ; Maffei, Afus. Veron. in Cyprus. He was sprung from a family which
p. 102 ; EckheL, voL vii. p. 347.) [W. R]' claimed descent from Teucer, the reputed founder
ETRUSCUS, HERE'NNIUS, son of the em of Salamis ; and his ancestors appear to have been
peror Decius, upon whose accession in a. d. 249 he during a long period the hereditary rulers of that
received the appellations of Caesar and Princeps city under the supremacy of Persia. They had,
Juventutis. In 251 he was consul, was admitted however, been expelled (at what period we are not
to a participation in the title of Augustus, and to told) by a Phoenician exile, who obtained the so
wards the close of the year was slain along with vereignty for himself, and transmitted it to his
his father in a bloody battle fought against the descendants : one of these held it at the time of
Goths in Thrace. [Decius.] We gather from the birth of Evagoras, the date of which there is no
coins that his designation at full length was Q. means of fixing with any degree of accuracy ; but
Hercnnius Etruscus Messius Trajanus Decius, the he appears to have been grown up, though still a
names Herennius Etruscus being derived from his young man, when one Abdymon, a native of Cit-
mother Herennia EtrusciUa, while the rest were tium, conspired against the tyrant, put him to
inherited from his sire. (Aurel. Vict, de Cats, xxix. death, and established himself in his place. After
Epit. xxix. ; Zonar. xii. 20.) [W. R.] this the usurper Bought to apprehend Evagoras,
ETRUSCUS ("ETpouo-ico'j), of Messenb, the probably from jealousy of his hereditary claim to
author of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology. the government, but the latter made his escape to
(Brunck, Anal, vol.ii. p. 307; Jacobs, vol.iii. p. 20.) Cilicia, and, having there assembled a small band
Nothing more is known of him. Martial (vi. 83, of followers, returned secretly to Salamis, attacked
vii. 39) mentions an Etruscus who was banished the tyrant in his palace, overpowered his guards,
by Domitian. (Jacobs, Anth. Grate, vol. xiii. p. and put him to death. (Isocr. Evay. pp. 191-195 ;
892.) [P.S.] Diod. xiv. 98 ; Theopomp. op. Phot. p. 1 20, a. ;
ETUTA. [Gentius.] Paus. ii. 29. § 4.) After this Evagoras established
ETYMOCLES ('EtujmkAijs) was one of the his authority at Salamis without farther opposition.
three Spartan envoys who, happening to be at If we may trust his panegyrist, Isocrates, his rule
Athens at the time of the incursion of Sphodrias was distinguished for its mildness and equity, and
into Attica (b. c 378), were arrested by the Athe he promoted the prosperity of his subjects in every
nians on suspicion of having been privy to the way, while he particularly sought to extend his
attempt Their assurances, however, to the con relations with Greece, and to restore the influence
trary were believed, and they were allowed to de of Hellenic customs and civilization, which had
part. Etymocles is mentioned by Xenophon and been in some degree obliterated during the period
Plutarch as a friend of Agesilaus, and we hear of of barbarian rule. (Isocr. Evag. pp. 197— 198.)
him again as one of the ambassadors sent to nego He at the same time greatly increased the power of
tiate an alliance with Athens in n. c. 369. (Xen. his subject city, and strengthened his own resources,
HeU. v. 4. §§ 22, 23, 32, vi. 5. § 33 ; Plut. Ayes. specially by the formation of a powerful fleet.
25.) [E. E.] Such was his position in n. c. 405, when, after the
EVADNE (EiWSnj.) 1. A daughter of Poseidon defeat at Aegospotami, the Athenian general Conon
and Pitane. Immediately after her birth, she was took refuge at Salamis with his few remaining gal-
carried to the Arcadian king Aepytus, who brought lies. Evagoras had already received, in return for
her up. She afterwards became by Apollo the mo some services to Athens, the rights of an Athenian
ther of Jamus. (Pind. Ol. vi. 30; Hygin. Fab. 175.) citizen, and was on terms of personal friendship
2. A daughterof Iphis, or Philax. (Eurip. Suppl. with Conon (Isocr. Evay. p. 199, e.; Diod. xiii.
985 ; Apollod. iii. 7. § 1 ; Hygin. Fab. 256. See 1 06) : hence he zealously espoused the Athenian
Capaneus.) There are three other mythical per cause. It is said to have been at his intercession
sonages of the same name. (Apollod. ii. 1.42; Ov. that the king of Persia determined to allow Conon
Amor. iii. 6. 41 ; Diod. iv.53.) [L. S.] the support of the Phoenician fleet, and he com
EVAECHME (EiWxMl), the name of two my manded in person the squadron with which he
thical personages, (Paus. iv. 2. § 1 j comp. Alca- joined the fleet of Conon and Pharnabazus at tho
thous.) [L. S.] battle of Cnidus, b. c. 394. (Xen. HeU. ii. 1.
EVAEMON (EiloiVur), the name of two my § 29 ; Isocr. Evay. pp. 199, 200 ; Paus. i. 3. § 2 ;
thical personages. (Horn. 11. ii. 736 ; Apollod. iii. Ctcsias, ap. Plot. p. 44, b.) For this distinguished
8. § 1.) [L. S.] service a statue of Evagoras was set up by tho
EVAGORAS. EVAGRIUS. 55
Athenian* ia the Cerameicus, by the side of that of this Evagoras. The latter had obtained from the
Conon. (Pans. i. 3. § 2 ; Isocr. Evag. p. 200, c.) Persian king a promise of his father's government
We ban very imperfect information concerning in case he could effect its conquest j but the siege
the relation in which Evagoras stood to the king being protracted, Evagoras by some means incurred
of Persia in the early part of his reign ; but it the displeasure of Artaxerxes, who became recon
stems probable that he was regarded from the first ciled to Pnytagoras, and left him in the possession
with suspicion : the tyrants whom he had suc of Salamis, while he appointed Evagoras to a
ceeded are particularly spoken of as friendly to government in the interior of Asia. Here, how
Persia (Diod. xiv. 98), and we learn from Ctesias ever, he again gave dissatisfaction, and was accused
(ap. Phot. p. 44, b.) that his quarrels with one of of maladministration, in consequence of which he
the other petty states of Cyprus had already called fled to Cyprus, where he was seized and put to
for the interference of the great king before the death. (Diod. xvi. 42, 46.) The annexed coin
battle of Cnidua, The chronology of the succeed belongs to this Evagoras.
ing events is also Tery obscure ; but the most con
sistent view of the matter appears to be that
derived from Theopompus (ap. Phot. p. 120, a.),
that Artaxerzes had previously determined to make
war upon Evagoras, and had even commenced his
preparations, but was unable to engage with vigour
in the enterprise until after the peace of Antalcidas
(a. c 387). (See Clinton, F. H. vol. ii. p. 280 ; and
cctcp. Isocr. Pangyr. p. 70, a. ; Xen. lldl. ir. 8. § 3. Of Lacedaemon, remarkable for having gained
24, v. 1. § 10.) Meantime Evagoras had not only three victories in the chariot-race at the Olympic
extended his dominion over the greater part of games with the same horses, in consequence of
Cyprus, hot had ravaged the coast of Phoenicia which he erected the statue of a quadriga at
with his fleet, prevailed on the Cilicians to revolt Olympia, and honoured his horses with a magni
from Persia, and even (if we may believe Isocrates ficent funeral. (Herod, vi. 103; Aelian, Hist.
and Dudorus) made himself master of Tyre itself. Anim. xii. 40 ; Paus. vi. 10. § 8.)
(Diod. xit. 98, 110, XT. 2 ; Isocrat. Erag. p. 201.) 4. An Achaean of Aegium, accused by Critolaus
At length, however, a great fleet and army were of betraving the counsels of his countrymen to the
assembled under the command of Tiribazus and Romans," b. c. 146. (Polyb. xxxviii. 5.) [E. H. B.]
Orantes, and Evagoras having ventured to oppose EVA'GRIUS (Evd-ypios). 1. Of Antioch,
them with very inferior forces was totally defeated ; was a native of Antioch, the son of a citizen of that
ail the rest of Cyprus fell into the hands of the place, named Pompeianus, and a presbyter appa
satraps, and Evagoras himself was shut up within rently of the church of Antioch. He travelled
the wails of Salamis. But the Persian generals into the west of Europe, and was acquainted with
seem to hare been unable to follow up their advan Jerome, who describes him as a man "acris ac
tage, and notwithstanding this blow the war was ferventis ingenii." During the schism in the pa
allowed to linger for some years. The dissensions triarchate of Antioch, he was chosen by one of the
between his two adversaries at length proved the parties (a. d. 388 or 389) successor to their deceased
safety of Evagoras : Tiribazus was recalled in con- patriarch Paulinus, in opposition to Flavianus. the
i of the intrigues of Orontes, and the latter patriarch of the other party. According to Theo
to conclude a peace with the Cyprian dores, the manner of his election and ordination
by which he was allowed to retain un was altogether contrary to ecclesiastical rule. The
controlled possession of Salamis, with the title of historians Socrates and Sozomen state that Evagrius
king. (Died. zv. 2—4, 8, 9 ; Theopomp. ap. survived his elevation only a short time ; but this
Pkd. p. 120, a. ; Isocr. Evag. p. 201, Panegyr. expression must not be too strictly interpreted, as
p. 70.) This war, which is said to have lasted ten it appears from Jerome that he was living in a. d.
yeas in all, was brought to a close in b. c. 385. 392. He was perhaps the Evagrius who instructed
(Diod. it. 9; Clinton, F. H. vol. ii. pp. 278-281.) Chrysostom in monastic discipline, though it is
Evagoras survived it above ten years. He was to be observed that Chrysostom was ordained a
aajsaticated in 374, together with his eldest son presbyter by Flavianus, the rival of Evagrius in
PBytagoras, by an eunuch named Thrasydaeus ; the see of Antioch. Evagrius had no successor in
bat the murder was caused by revenge for a pri his see, and ultimately Flavianus succeeded in
vate injury, and he seems to have been succeeded healing the division.
without opposition by his son Nicocles. (Theo Evagrius wrote treatises on various subjects
pomp. ap. Pioi. p. 120, a, b. ; ArisL PoL v. 10; (diversarum hypoilwseon tradatus). Jerome says
Disd. xv. 47, and Wesseling, ad he.) Our know the author had read them to him, but had not yet
ledge of the character and administration of Eva published them. They are not extant. Evagrius
goras is derived mainly from the oration of Isocrates also translated the life of St Anthony by Atha-
ia his praise, addressed to his son Nicocles ; but nasius from Greek into Latin. The very free
this is written in a style of undistinguishing pane version printed in the Benedictine edition of
gyric, which must lead us to receive its statements Athanasius (vol. i. pars ii. p. 785, &c.) and in
wish great caution. the Ada Sandorum (Januar. vol. ii. p. 107), pro
2. Apparently a son of the preceding, is men- fesses to be that of Evagrius and is addressed to
tieoed by Diodonu aa joined with Phocion in the his son Innocentius, who is perhaps the Innoccn-
aamMod of an expedition destined to recover tius whose death, A. D. 369 or 370, is mentioned
Cyprus for the king of Persia, from whom it had by Jerome. (Ejmt. 41 ad Hufinum.) Tillemont
revolted, (a c 351.) They succeeded in reducing receives it, and Dollandus {Ada Sand. I. c)
ill the island with the exception of Salamis, which and the Benedictine editors of Athanasius (/. c.)
nt held by Pnytagoras, probably a brother of vindicate its genuineness ; but Cave affirms that
86 EVAGRIUS. EVAGRIUS.
" there is more than one reason for doubting Its rank of a quaestorian or ex-quaestor. (Evagr. Hist,
genuineness ;" and Oudin decidedly denies the Eccles. vi. 24, where see the note of Valesius.)
genuineness both of the Greek text and the version. On the birth of Theodosius, son of the emperor
In the library of Worcester Cathedral is a MS. Maurice (a. d. 584 or 585), Evagrius composed a
described as containing the life of St Antony, piece, apparently a congratulatory address, which
written by Evagrius and translated by Jerome : obtained a farther manifestation of imperial favour
there is probably an error, either in the MS. itself, in the rank of ex-prefect (dri trdpxav), which
or in the description of it. (CcUal. MSS. Angliae designation he bears in the title of his own work,
etHib. rol. ii. p. 17.) and in Nicephorus. (Hist. Eccles. LI.) He accom
Tillemont has collected various particulars of panied the Patriarch Gregory to a synod at Con
the life of Evagrius of Antioch. Trithemius con stantinople (a.d. 589), to the judgment of which
founds him with Evagrius of Pontus. (Socrates, the patriarch had appealed when accused of incest
Jfist. Eccles. v. 15 ; Sozomen, Hist. Eccles. vii. 15 ; and adultery. On his return to Antioch, after
Theodoretus, Hist. Eccles. v. 23 ; Hieronymus (Je the acquittal of Gregory, Evagrius (in October or
rome) de Viris Illwst. 25; Tillemont, Mimoires, November of the same year) married a second
vol. xii. p. 13, &c; Cave, Hist. Lit. vol. i. p. 283, wife, a young maiden. His reputation and influ
ed. Ox. 1740-43; Oudin, de Scriplor. et Scriptis ence are evidenced by the fact that his marriage
Eccles. vol. i. col. 882 ; Trithemius, de Scriptor. was celebrated by a general festival at the public
Eccles. c. 85 ; Fabric Bill. Graec. vol. vii. p. 434, expense ; but the rejoicing was interrupted by a
vol. x. p. 137.) dreadful earthquake, in which, as some computed,
2. The Ascetic, instructed Chrysostom in 60,000 of the inhabitants perished. This is the
monastic discipline. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. voL viii. last incident in the life of Evagrius of which any
p. 455.) He is perhaps the same as Evagrius of thing is known, except the death of his daughter,
Antioch. [No. 1.] already noticed, and the completion of his history,
3. Of Epiphankia, known also as Evagrius in a.d. 593 or 594.
Scholasticus and Ex-Prasfkctus. He was a Evagrius wrote (1) An Ecclesiastical History,
native of Epiphaneia on the Orontes, in the province which extends, besides some preliminary matter,
of Syria Socunda, as we gather from the title of from the third general council, that of Ephosus,
his Ecclesiastical History, where he is called 'Eiri- A. D. 431, to the twelfth year of the reign of the
cnvsvs. (Comp. also his Hist. Eccles. iii. 34.) Emperor Maurice, a. d. 593-4. He modestly
Photius says (Biblioth. Cod. 29), according to the professes that he was not properly qualified for
present text, that he was of a celebrated city such a work (/xi) ftWdj iytl to rotavTa), but says
(xo'Xcur 5s iwupavovs) of Cocle-Syria ; but the text he was induced to undertake it, as no one had yet
is probably corrupt. Nicephorus Callisti {Hist. attempted to continue the history of the Church
Eccles. i. 1, xvi. 31 ) twice cites him as 6 l-riipavris, regularly (hut' ttpfwv) from the time at which the
" the illustrious ;" but this is probably an error, histories of Sozomen and Thcodorct close. He
either in the transcription of Nicephorus or in that has the reputation of being tolerably accurate. His
of his authorities. The birth of Evagrius is fixed credulity and love of the marvellous are charac
by data furnished in his own writings in or about teristic of the period rather than of the individual.
A. D. 536. (Evagr. Hist. Eccles. iv. 29, vi. 24.) Photius describes his style as not unpleasant,
He was sent to school before or when he was four though occasionally redundant ; and (as we under
years old, for he was a schoolboy when he was stand the passage) praises him as being more exact
taken by his parents to the neighbouring city of than the other ecclesiastical historians in the state
Apameia to see the exhibition of "the life-giving ment of opinions : iv ii rp ruv Soyfidruv di>66r-nTi
wood of the Cross," during the alarm caused by aKfH&iis rwv dWuv paAKov ItrropiKuv. Some
the capture of Antioch by Chosroes or Khosru I., however interpret the passage as a commendation
king of Persia, a. d. 540. Two years afterwards of the historian's orthodoxy. Nicephorus Callisti
(a. d. 542), he was near dying from a pestilential (Hist. Eccles. i. 1) notices, that Evagrius dwells
disorder which then first visited the Byzantine much on secular affairs, and enumerates the
empire, and which continued at intervals for above writers from whom he derived his materials,
half a century, if not more, to cause a fearful mor- namely Eustathius the Syrian, Zosimus, Priscus
tality. Evagrius gives a melancholy catalogue of and Joannes, Procopius of Caesarea, Agathias,
his own subsequent losses through it. It took off, " and other writers of no mean character." His
at different times, his first wife, several of his chil history has been repeatedly published. The edi
dren (especially a married daughter, who, with tion of Valesius (Henri de Valois) which compre
her child, died when the pestilence visited Antioch hends the other early Greek Ecclesiastical Histo
for the fourth time, a. d. 591 or 592, two years rians, has a valuable biographical preface, a Latin
before Evagrius wrote his history), and many of translation, and useful notes. It was reprinted
his kindred and domestics. Evagrius was a "scho with some additional " variorum" notes by Read
lasticus" (advocate or pleader), and is often desig ing, 3 vols. fol. Camb. 1 720. (2) A volume of
nated from his profession. It is probable that he Memorials, Letters, Decrees, Orations, and Dispu
practised at Antioch, which, as the capital of the tations, including the Memorials and the address
province of Syria, would offer an important field which procured for Evagrius his rank of Quaestor
for his forensic exertions, and with which city his ian and Ex-praefect. This volume is mentioned in
writings shew that he was familiar. (Comp. Hist. the Ecclesiastical History, but appears to be now
Eccles. i. 18, iii. 28.) He appears to have been lost. Some pieces of little moment have been
the legal adviser of Gregory, patriarch of Antioch; ascribed to Evagrius, but most or all of them incor
and some of his memorials, drawn up in the name rectly. (Evagrius, Hist. Eccles. iv. 26, 29, vi 7,
of the patriarch, obtained the notice and approval 8, 23, 24 ; Photius, Biblioth. Cod. 29 ; Nicepho
of the emperor Tiberius, who gave Evagrius, not as rus Callisti, Hist. Eccles. i. 1, xvi. 31 ; Fabric.
some have understood, the quaestorship, but the Bibl. Grace, vol. vii. p. 432.)
EVAGRIUS. EVAGRIUS. 57
4. Of Pontcs, an eminent ascetic and ecclesias mana, a lady who had devoted herself to a religious
tical writer. The place of his birth was probably life, and had become very eminent, induced him
Ibera, a small town in Pontus, on the shore of the to renounce the world, and give himself up to an
Enxine near the mouth of the Halys ; but the ex ascetic life. He received the monastic garb from
pression* of Nicephorns Callisti would rather imply the hands of Meiania, and departed for Egypt,
that he was of the race of the Iberians, who in the cradle of monasticism, where he spent the re
habited the modern Georgia, on the southern side mainder of bis life. Some copies of Palladius are
of the Caucasus. Palladius, his disciple, says he thought to speak of a visit made by him to Con
was of Pontus, of the city (or rather a city) of the stantinople, in a. D. 394 ; but the passage is obscure,
Iberians (vo'Amk "Wijow, or as one MS., according and TiUemont and the Greek text of Palladius, in
u> TiUemont, has it, iSsipesy), which is ambiguous. the BiUiotheca Patrum, refer the incident to Am-
Jerome calls him ** Hyperborita," an expression mnnius. Socrates states that he accompanied
which MartiansJ, the Benedictine editor of Jerome's Gregory Nazianzen into Egypt ; but there is no
works, alters to "Iberita," and which has given oc reason to think that Gregory visited Egypt at that
casion to other conjectural emendations. (Cotelerius, time. Evagrius's removal into Egypt was pro
Ercia. Orate Mommmenia, vol. iii. p. 543.) His bably late in a. d. 382, or in 383. The remainder
nuher was a presbyter, or perhaps a chorepiscopus. of his life was spent on the hills of Nitria, in one
(HeracUdes, ajmd TiUemont.) He was placed in of the hermitages or monasteries of Scctis or Scitis,
eariv life under the instruction of Gregory Nazian or in the desert " of the Cells," to which, after a
zen." There is extant a letter of Gregory to an time, he withdrew. He was acquainted with se
Evagrius, to whom he expresses his pleasure at the veral of the more eminent solitaries of the coun
growing reputation of one whom he terms ** our try, the two Macarii, Ammonius, and others,
son." and of whom he had been the instructor both whose reputation for austerity of life, sanctity and
in literature and religion. If, as is conjectured, miracles (especially healing the sick and casting
this letter refers to our Evagrius, his father and he out daemons) he emulated. He learned here, says
were of the same name. Gregory also in his will Socrates, to be a philosopher in action, as he
bares a legacy, with strong expressions of regard, had before learned to be one in words. He had
to Evagrios the deacon ; but it is not certain that many disciples in the monastic life, of whom Pal
this is our Evagrius. Evagrius was appointed ladius was one. His approval of the answer
reader by the great Basil, and was ordained deacon which one of the solitaries gave to the person
either by Gregory Nyssen or Gregory Nazianzen. who informed him of the death of his father:
According to Socrates, he was ordained at Con " Cease to blaspheme j for my Father (meaning
stantinople by Gregory Nazianzen ; and Sozomen God) is immortal," shews that Jerome's sarcastic
says, that when Gregory occupied the see of Con remark, that he recommended an apathy which
stantinople, he made Evagrius his archdeacon. If would shew that a man was M either a stone or
these statements are received, the removal of Eva God," was not undeserved. Theophilus, patriarch
grius to Constantinople must be placed during or of Alexandria, would have ordained him a bishop ;
before the short time (a. t>. 379 to 381) of but he fled from him to avoid an elevation which
Gregory's episcopate at Constantinople. But ac he did not covet. Palladius has recorded many
cording to Palladius (whose personal connexion singular instances of his temptations and austeri
with Evagrius would make his testimony preferable, ties ; and, besides a separate memoir of him, has
if the text of his Lausiac History was in a more mentioned him in his notices of several other lead
sstiszsctory state), Evagrius was ordained deacon ing monks. Evagrius died apparently about a. d.
by Gregory Nyssen, and taken by him to the first 399, at the age of fifty-four.
council of Constantinople (the second general coun There is considerable difficulty in ascertaining
cil and left by him in that city, under the pa what were the writings of Evagrius. Some are
tronage of Nectarius, who succeeded Gregory known to us only from the notice of them in an
Nazianzen. The age and intellectual character of cient writers, others are extant only in a Latin
Evagrius disposed him to polemical discussion ; and version, and of others we have only disjointed
** he obtained high reputation in controversy,11 says fragments. As nearly as we can ascertain, he is
Palladius, " in the great city, exulting with the the author of the following works: — 1. Mova,\ds
ardour of youth in opposing every form of heresy." (perhaps we should read Moi'axmtis) t) irepl noax-
Bit popularity was probably increased by the Tiirijf. Fragments of this work, but apparently
beauty of his person, which he set off by great much interpolated, are given in the Monumenta
aseabon to his dress. The handsome deacon won Ecda. Grace of Cotelerius, vol. iii. pp. 68 — 102,
sad returned the affection of a married lady of rank; and in the edition of the Dialogw Vita SI.
bet Evagrius, though vain, was not profligate, and Joanna Chryostomi, erroneously ascribed to Pal
struggled hard against the sinful passion. It is ladius, published by Emmer. Bigotius (4to., Paris,
soubtmL, however, if he would have broken away 1680) pp. 349—355. Possibly the whole work
from the snare, but for an extraordinary dream ; in is extant in these fragments (which are all given
which he dreamed that he took a solemn oath to in the Bibliotheca Patrum of Gallandius, vol. vii.);
leave Constantinople. Deeming himself bound by although a quotation given by Socrates (Hist.
his oath, he at once left the city ; and by this step, Ecda. iii. 7) as from this work (but which Cote
according to Sozomen, preserved not only his vir lerius considers was probably taken from the next-
tue, but his life, which was in imminent danger mentioned work) is not included in it. An intro
from the jealousy of the lady's husband. His first ductory address to Anatolius, given by Cotelerius,
sejnurn after leaving Constantinople, was at Jeru was evidently designed as a preface both to this
salem, Here, recovering from the alarm into which work and the next. A Latin translation of the
ha dream had thrown him, he gave way again to Monaehm was revised by Gennadius, who lived
vanity and the love of dress ; but a long and se toward the close of the fifth century. 2. Vvua-
vere ilhieas, and the exhortation of Meiania Ro- Tixiit J) wpdj toy KaTo^iaiOeWa (or rcpl to5
58 EVAGRIUS. EVALCES.
mrrajKiiGfiTOj) yviiatus, in fifty chapters, and assigned by him, on the authority of his MS.,
'EfoKona XlpoyvaxrrticA Tlpof&^iuna. These two to Evagrius. Gallandius positively ascribes the
pieces, which are by ancient and modem writ sermon to Basil of Caesareia, 12. "Ytrofiir^fULTa (is
ers noticed as distinct works, are by the writer Hapotfitas tov SoAo/iaVror, mentioned by Suidaa
himself, in the address to Anatolius just men (.«. v. EuoVypior). Some understand Suidos to mean
tioned, regarded as one work, in six hundred and not "Notes on the Proverbs," but a "work on
fifty chapters. Perhaps the complete work consti the model of the Proverbs of Solomon," and
tuted the 'Upi, one of the three workB of Eva- suppose that the Jrtxipa are referred to. Fabri
grius mentioned by Palladius. The fifty chapters cius, however, is inclined to regard it as a com
of .the Tvootm6s were first translated into Latin mentary. 13. II«pl tuoytafiuy, and 14. 'Kno^iy-
by Gennadius. It is possible that the " paucas uara vtpl rati* ntydKuv ytp6muv, both mentioned
scntentiolas valde obscures," also translated by by Cotelerius (Eccles. Graec. Mon. vol. iii. pp.547,
Gennadius, were a fragment of the YlpofrKti/MTa : 552) as extant in MS. 15. Trithemius ascribe*
Fabricius thinks that the treatise entitled Capita to Evagrius " a work on the life of the Holy Fa
Gnostica published in Greek and Latin by Suare- thers ;" but he either refers to one of his works on
sius, in his edition of the works of St. Nilus, is " the monastic life," or has been misled by passages
the Tvuotik6s of Evagrius. 3. 'AyrifjirtTtKos (or in Gennadius and Jerome. It is doubtful, however,
'AKrifJpTjTiKa) ford rwv Otlvv ypafwv, wpos robs whether these and several others of his writings
Tetp&frovras Salpovas. This work was translated extant in MS. and variously entitled, are distinct
by Gennadius. It was divided into eight sections works, or simply compilations or extracts from
corresponding to the eight evil thoughts. Fabri some of the above. The genuineness of several of
cius and Gallandius consider that the fragment the above works must be regarded as doubtful.
given by Bigotius (as already noticed) is a portion There are many citations from Evagrius in different
or compendium of this work, the scriptural pas writers, in the Scholia to the works of others, and
sages being omitted. But although that fragment, in the Catenae on different books of Scripture.
a Latin version of which, with some additional Jerome attests that his works were generally read
sentences not found in the Greek, appears in the in the East in their original Greek, and in the West
BiU.oth. Patrum (vol. v. p. 902, ed. Paris, 1610, vol. in a Latin version made "by his disciple Rufinus."
iv. p. 925, ed. Cologn. 1C18, vol. v. p. 698, cd. Paris, Jerome appears to have been the first to raise
1654, and vol. xxvii. p. 97, ed. Lyon, 1677) treats the cry of heresy against Evagrius. The editors of
of the eight evil thoughts, it belongs, we think, to the Bibliotlteca Patrum (except Gallandius) prefix
the Momzxo's rather than the 'Airi^TrrtKo'r. 4. to the portions of his works which they publish a
Srlxypa- Brio, two collections of sentences, pos prefatory caveat. He is charged with perpetuating
sibly in verse, one addressed to Coenobites or the errors of Origen, and anticipating those of Pe-
monks, the other to a virgin, or to women devoted lagiuv Tillemont vindicates him from these
to a life of virginity. A Latin version of these charges. Some of his opinions, as coincident with
appears in the Appendix to the Codex Hepularum those of Origen, were condemned, according to
of Holstenius, 4to., Rome, 1661, and reprinted in Niccphorus Callisti, at the fifth general (second
vol. i. pp. 465—468 of the Augsburg edition of Constantinopolitan) council, a. d. 553. (Socrates,
1759, and in the Bibliotli. Patrum, vol. xxvii. pp. Hist. Eccles. iv. 23 ; Sozomen, Hut. Eccles. vi. 30;
469, 470, ed. Lyon, 1677, and voL vii. of the edi Palladius, Hist. Lausiac c. 86, in the BiU Pa
tion of Gallandius. Jerome, who mentions the trum, vol. xiii., ed Paris, 1 654 ; Hieronymus, ad
two parts of these SW^pa, appears to refer to a Ctesiphontem adv. Pelagianos, Opera, vol. iv. p.
third part addressed " to her whose name of black 476, cd. Martianay, Paris, 1693 ; Greg. Nazianz.
ness attests the darkness of her perfidy," 1. e. to Opera, pp. 870-71, ed. Paris, 1630 ; Gennadius,
Melania Romana ; but this work, if Jerome is cor tie Viris Jtlustr. c. 1 1 ; Suidas, s. v. Eiaypioi and
rect in his mention of it, is now lost. Gennadius Maxdpios ; Nicephorus Callisti, Histor. Eccles. xi.
mentions the two parts, not the third : and it is 37, 42, 43 ; Trithemius, de Scriptor. Eccles. c. 85 ;
possible that, as Cave supposes, these, not the Cotelerius, Eccles. Graec. Alonum. voL iii. p.
Two-Tutor, may constitute the 'ltpd of Palladius. 68, &c, and notes ; Tillemont, Mimoires, vol. x.
5. Twv Kara Muva\wv Tpayfrnruv to atria, extant p. 368, &c ; Fabric. BiU. Graec. vol. vii. p. 434,
in Cotelerius, Eccles. Grace. Mon. vol. iii., and vol. viii. pp. 661, 679, 695, vol. ix. p. 284, &c, vol.
Gallandius, BiU. Patrum, vol. vii., are noticed in x. p. 10; Gallandius, BiUiulh. Patrum, vol. vii.;
the Vitae Patrum of Rosweid, and are perhaps Oudin. Comment, de Scriptor. Eccles. vol. i. p. 883,
referred to by Jerome, who says that Evagrius wrote he. ; Cave, Hist. Lit. vol. i. p. 275, ed. Oxon. 1740-43.)
a book and sentences n«pl 'AvaBtlas ; in which 5. An Evagrius, expressly distinguished by Gen
words he may describe the Movaxis and this work nadius from Evagrius of Pontus, wrote a work
Tuv Kara Movaxvv, both which are contained in celebrated in its day, called Altercatio inter Theo-
one MS. used by Cotelerius. 6. A. fragment Eij phUum Ckristianum et Simeonem Judaeum. It is
to mm (mrT), or the tetragrammaton and other published by Gallandius. (Gennadius, de Viris
names of God used in the Hebrew Scriptures, Illustribus, c. 50 ; Gallandius, Biblioth. Patrum,
?ublishcd by Cotelerius and Gallandius (//. cc.) vol. ix. Proleg. p. xvii. and p. 250, &c.)
. Ketpdkaia \y' Kar' a.Ko\uv01av. 8. TlvtvfiaTiKal 6. An Evagrius, supposed by some to be
yvwfiat Kara iKfdSifrov. 9. "Erepai yvduai. Evagrius of Pontus, but not so if we may judge
These three pieces are published by Gallandius as from the subject, wrote a treatise described as Va-
the works of Evagrius, whose claim to the author riarum Consideraiionum sivede Sermonis Discriminm
ship of them he vindicates. They have been com Capita quinquaainta qitatuor, extant in the MS. in
monly confounded with the works of St. Nilus. the library of the EscuriaL (Fabric. BiU. Graec
10. 1 1. The life of the mojih Packrom ar Pakro- vol. vi. pp. 338, 367.) • [J. C. M.]
mius ; and A Sermon oh the Trinity, both published EVALCES (EuiAirnt), is referred to by Athe-
by Suarcsius among the works of St. Nilus, but naeus (xiii. p. 573) a* the author of a work on
EVANDER. EVANTHES. 59
Fphesa* ("EfcffKuoi). There are a few other per Rome in B. c. 50, in a part of the house of Mem-
sons of the same name, concerning whom nothing mius, and was on friendly terms with Cicero, from
of interest U known. (Xen. Hell. iv. 1. $40; whoso letters we learn that he was a sculptor. He
AndaL Orate, ri. 262.) [ I.. S.] seems to have been a freedman of M. Aemilius
EVANDER (Zvarepos). 1. A ton of Hermes Avianius. (Ad Fam. vii. 23, xiii. 2.) [L. S.]
bj an Arcadian nymph, a daughter of Ladon, who EVANDER, AULA'NIUS, a sculptor and sil
it called Themis or Nieostrata, and in Roman tra ver chaser, born at Athens, whence he was taken
dition* Carmenta or Tiburtis. (Pans. viii. 43. § 2; by M. Antonius to Alexandria. At the over
Pint. QmaaL Horn. 53; Dionys. A. R. i. 31 ; throw of Antony he fell into the power of Octavian,
S<tt. ad An. TiiL 336.) Evander is also called a and was carried among the captives to Rome, where
too of Echemns and Timandra. (Serv. ad Am. he executed many admirable works. Pliny men
rui. ISO.) About tixty years previous to the tions a statue of Diana at Rome by Timotheus,
Tmjaa war, Erander is said to hare led a Pelas- the head of which was restored by Evander. (Plin.
(bd colony from Pallantinm in Arcadia into Italy. xxxri. 5. s. 4. § 10 ; Thiersch, Epochen, pp. 303,
The cause of this emigration was, according to 304.) Some writers suppose that Horace refers to
Ifonrsins, a civil feud among the people, in which his works (Sat. i. 3. 90), but the passage seems to
the party of Erander was defeated, and therefore be rather a satirical allusion to vases prized for
left their country of their own accord. Servius, their antiquity—as old as king Evander. [P. S.]
on the other hand, relates that Erander had killed EVA'NEMUS (Evavifios), the giver of favour
his father at the instigation of his mother, and able wind, was a surname of Zeus, under which
that he ra obliged to quit Arcadia on that ac the god had a sanctuary at Sparta. (Paus. iii. 13.
count. (Serv. ad Ant. viii. 51 ; comp. On. Fait. i. § 5 ; comp. Theocrit. xxviii. 5.) [h. S.)
430.) He landed in Italy on the banks of the EVA'NGELUS (EiWrytXoj), the bearer of
Tiber, at the foot of the Palatine Hill, and was good news. Under this name the shepherd Pixo-
hospitably received by king Turnus. According darus had a sanctuary at Ephesus, where he en
Is Serrios (ad Aen. viii. 562), however, Evander joyed heroic honours, because he had found a
took possession of the country by force of arms, quarry of beautiful marble, of which the Ephesians
and slew Herilus, king of Praeneste, who had built a temple. (Vitruv. x. 7.) [L. S.]
attempted to expel him. He built a town Pallan EVANO'RIDAS (ZiayoptSas) an Elean, was
tinm. which was subsequently incorporated with one of the prisoners taken by Lycus of Pharae,
Rome, and from which the names of Palatium and the lieutenant-general of the Achaeans, in B.c
palatums were believed to have arisen. (Varro, 217, when he defeated Euripides the Aetolian,
o> IJmq. Lai. v. 53.) Evander is said to have who had been sent, at the request of the Eleans,
taught his neighbours milder laws and the arts of to supersede the former commander Pyrrhias. ( Po-
peace and social me, and especially the art of lyli. v. 94.) Pausanias (vi. 8) mentions Evanoridas
writing, with which he himself had been made as having won the boys' prize for wrestling at the
acquainted by Heracles ( Plut. Quaesl. Rom. 56 ), Olympic and Nemean games, and as having drawn
and music ; he also introduced among them the up a list of the Olympic victors, when he after
worship of the Lycaean Pan, of Demeter, Poseidon, wards held the office of 'EMavoSiKti!. (See Did.
Heracles, and Nice. (Liv. i. 5; Dionys. i. 31, &c. ; of Ant. pp. 663, 664.) [E. E.]
Or. Pant L 471, v. 91 ; Pans. L c.) Virgil (Aen. EVANTHES (Euoyfrfs). 1. Of Cyzicus, is
ri. 51 ) represents Evander as still alive at the quoted by Hieronymus (adv. Jovin. ii. 14) as an
time when Aeneias arrived in Italy, and as forming authority for the opinion, that at the time of Pyg
an alliance with him against the Latins. (Comp. malion people were not yet in the habit of eating
Serr. ad Aen. viii. 157.) Evander had a son Pal meat. Whether he is the same as the Evanthes
las, and two daughters, Rome and Dyna. (Virg. of Cyzicus who, according to Pausanias (vi. 4.
Aon. viii. 574; Serr. ad Aen. i. 277 ; Dionys. i. § 10) gained a prize at the Olympian games, is
Si) He was worshipped atPallantium in Arcadia, unknown.
as t hero, and that town was subsequently hon 2. Of Miletus, is mentioned as an author by
oured by the emperor Antoninus with several pri- Diogenes Laertius (i. 29), and seems to have been
vSeres. Erander's statue at Pallantium stood by an historian, but is otherwise nnknown.
the side of that of his son Pallas. At Rome he 3. Of Samos, a Greek historian, who is men
had an altar at the foot of the Arentinc. (Paus. tioned only by Plutarch. (Sol. 11.) There are
vii. 44. § 5 ; Dionys. /. e. ) several passages in which authors of the name of
-1 A son of Priam. (Apollod. iii. 12. § 5; Diet. Evanthes are referred to ; but, their native coun
Cm. iii. 14.) tries not being stated, it is uncertain whether those
J. A son of the Lycian king Sarpedon, who passages refer to any of the three Evanthes here
took part in the Trojan war. (Diod.v.79.) [L.S.] specified, or to other persons of the same name.
EVANDER (Morton), a Phocian, was the Thus Pliny (H. N. viii. 22) quotes one Evanthes
pupil and soccessor of Lacydes as the head of the whom he calls inter auctorcs Graedae non spretus,
Academic School at Athens, about B.C 215. Evan and from whose work he gives a statement respect
der huafrdf was succeeded by his pupil Hegesinus. ing some religious rite observed in Arcadia. One
Conceraiatr the opinions and writings of this philo might therefore be inclined to think him the same
sopher nothing is known. (Diog. Lain, iv. 60 ; as the Evanthes who is quoted by the Scholiast on
Csc Aead. ii. 6.) Several Pythagoreans of the Apollonius Rhodius (i. 1063, 1065) as the author
Btme of Erander, who were natives of Croton, of nv6ti{d. Athenaeus (vii. p. 296) speaks of an
Metapontom, and Leontini, are mentioned by epic poet Evanthes, of whose productions he men
Itchlichas ( Fit. Pytk. 36), and a Cretan Evander tions a hymn to Glaucus. [L. S.)
scan in Plutarch. (Lpand. 23.) | 1 . S.] EVANTHES (EHvOn!), a painter of unknown
EVANDER, AVIA'NIUS, or, as we read in date, two of whose pictures, in the temple of Zeui
ttstc ItSfcv, AVIA'NUS EVANDER, lived at Casius at Pelusium, are described very minutely
GO EUBIUS. EUBULIDES.
and with great affectation, by Achilles Tatius (iii. EUBOEA (EuSoio), a daughter of Asopus, from
6—8). The subjects of them were, the release of whom the island of Euboea was believed to have
Andromeda by Perseus, and the release of Prome derived its name. (Eustath. ad Horn. p. 278.)
theus by Heracles. (Comp. Lucian, de Domo, 22 ; There are three other mythical personages of the
Philostr. Imag. i. 29.) Both subjects are repre same name. (Paus. ii. 17. § 2; Apollod. ii. 7. § 8;
sented on existing works of art in a manner similar Athen. vii. p. 296.) [L. S.]
to that of the pictures of Evanthes. (Miiller, Arch, EUBOEUS (EKSoioi) of Pares, a very cele
d. Kunst, § 396, n. 2, § 414, n. 3 ; Pitt. Ere. iv. brated writer of parodies, who lived about the
7, 61 ; Mus. Barb. v. 32, vi. 50, ix. 39 ; Gell, time of Philip of Macedonia. In his poems, which
Pomp. pi. 42.) [P. S.] Becm to have been written in the style of Homer,
EVA'NTHIUS, a rhetorician and grammarian, he ridiculed chiefly the Athenians. Euboeus and
highly eulogized in the chronicle of St. Jerome, Boeotus are said to have excelled all other paro
died about A. n. 359, is numbered among the an dists. In the time of Athenaens a collection of his
cient commentators on Terence, and is believed by Parodies in four books was still extant, but all of
Lindenbrogius to be the author of the lirevis dis- them are lost with the exception of a few short
sertatio de Tragoedia el Comoedia, comtnonly pre fragments. (Athen. xv. pp. 698, 699; comp. Wc-
fixed to the larger editions of the dramatist. He land, Dissert, de Parodiar. Homeric. Scriptoribus,
has sometimes been confounded with Eugraphius, p. 41. &c) [L. S.]
who belongs to a much later period. (Schofcn, De EUBOTAS (EigtSras), a Cyrenaean, who
Terentio el Donate ejus interprets, 8vo., Bonn. 1821, gained a victory in the foot-race in 01. xcm. (n. c.
p. 37 ; Rufinus, De Metris Terenl. p. 2705, ed. 408), and in the chariot-race in 01. civ. (a c.
Putsch.) [W. R] 364). There is considerable doubt as to the name.
EVARCHUS (EKo/)x°»)» tyrant of the Acarna- Diodorus calls him EWotos, Xenophon EJSorat ;
nian town of Astacus in the first year of the nor is it quite clear whether Pausanias, where he
Peloponnesian war, B. c. 431, was ejected by the mentions him, speaks of two victories gained at
Athenians in the summer and reinstated in the different Olympiads, or of a double victory gained
winter by the Corinthians. (Thuc. i. 30, 33.) on the second occasion. (Paus. vi. 8. § 3, 4. § 2 ;
Nothing is mentioned further either of him or of Diod. xiii. 68 ; Xen. Hellen. i. 2. $ 1.) [C. P. M.]
Astacus, but it is probable that the Athenian in EUBU'LE (EiSft>if*»), a well-informed Pytha
terest was soon restored. (Comp. i. 102.) [A.H.C.] gorean lady, to whom one of the letters of Theano
EVATHLUS (EwaflAoi). 1. An Athenian is addressed. (See J. H. Wolfs Mulierum Grae-
sycophant and sorry orator, mentioned by Aristo carum, quae oral, prosa usae sunt, Fragmenta, p.
phanes. (Acharn. 710, Vesp. 590, and Schol.) He 224.) [L.S.]
was likewise attacked by Plato and Cratinus. EUBU'LEUS (EiiSouXnit). 1. According to
2. A wealthy young Athenian, who placed him an Argive tradition, a son of Trochilus by an Eleu-
self under the tuition of Protagoras, for the purpose sinian woman, and brother of Triptolemus ; whereas,
of learning the art of oratory, promising him a according to the Orphici, Eubuleus and Triptolemus
large sum for his instructions. (According to were sons of Dysaules. (Paus. i. 14. § 2.)
Quintilian, iii. 1. § 10, he paid him 10,000 drach 2. One of the Tritopatores at Athens. (Cic. de
mae.) An amusing story is told by A. Gellius Nat. Dear, iii 21.)
(v. 10; comp. Diog. Laert. ix. 56) of the way in Eubuleus occurs also as a surname of several
which he evaded paying half the money he had divinities, and describes them as gods of good coun
promised. [C. P. M.] sel, such as Hades and Dionysus. (Schol. ad Ni-
E VAX, said to have been a king of Arabia, cand. Alex. 14 ; Orph. Hymn. 71.3; Macrob. Sat.
who is mentioned in some editions of Pliny {H.N. i. 18 ; Plut. Sympos. vii. 9.) [L. S.]
xxv. 4) as having written a work " De Simplicium EUBU'LEUS, a sculptor, whose name is in
Effectibus," addressed to Nero, that is, the emperor scribed on a headless Hermes. The inscription
Tiberius, A. D. 14—37. This paragraph, however, ETBOTAETC nPAjlTEAOTE (sic in Winckel-
is wanting in the best MSS., and has accordingly mann) makes him a son of Praxiteles ; and, accord
been omitted in most modern editions of Pliny. ing to Meyer, there is no doubt that the great
(See Salinas. Prolegom. ad Homon. Hyles Iatr. p. sculptor of that name is meant. The statue still
Ii ; Harduin's Notes to Pliny, I. c.) He is said by exists, but in private hands. (Winckelmann, Get-
Marbodus (or Marbodaeus), in the prologue to his cliiclite d. Kunst, ix. 3, $ 20 ; Visconti, Alas.
poem on Precious Stones, to have written a work Pio-Clem. vi. tab. 22, p. 142.) [P. S.]
on this subject addressed to Tiberius, from which EUBU'LIDES, (ZtgovkiBns). 1. An Athe
his own is partly taken. A Latin prose work, nian, who, having lost a cause, in which he was
professing to belong to Evax, entitled u De Nomi- prosecutor, through the evidence given by a man
nibus et Virtutibus Lapidum qui in Artem Medi- named Euxitheus, revenged himself on the latter
cinae recipiuntur," is to be found in a MS. in the by getting a verdict passed in a very irregular
Bodleian library at Oxford (Hatton, 100), and manner by the members of his deme, that he was
probably in other European libraries. The work not an Athenian citizen. Euxitheus appealed to
of Marbodus has been published and quoted under the dicasts of the Heliaea (see Did. of Ant. s. i:
the name of Evax. (See Choulant, Handbuch der Appellatio, Greek), and succeeded in establishing
Buckerhmde fur die Aeltere Median, 2nd ed. his citizenship. A speech composed in his defence
art. Marbodus.) [W. A. G.] has come down to us among those of Demosthenes,
EU'BIUS (Elteioj). 1. A Stoic philosopher of but is, by some critics, perhaps without sufficient
Ascalon, who is mentioned only by Stephanus of reason, attributed to Lysias. (Dem. c. Eubulid. c. 5.)
Byzantium, (.v. v. 'AoxtUw.) 2. An Athenian, son of Sositheus and Phylo-
2. An author of obscene erotic stories (impurae mache, but adopted by his maternal grandfather,
conditor historiae, Ov. Trist. ii. 416.) [L. S.J Eubulides. On his behalf a suit was commenced
EU'BIUS, sculptor. [Xknocbitus.] against a relative of the name of Macartatus, for
EUBULIDES. EUBULUS. Gl
the recovery of some property. He being still a In the year 1837 the great group of Eubulides
boy, his fetter, Sosithens, appeared for him. De in the Cerameicus was discovered. Near it was a
mosthenes wrote in his defence the speech rods fragment of an inscription . . . XEIP02 KP.im AH2
Maxiirarrmr. En0IH2EN. Another inscription was found near
The name Eubulides was borne by several the Erechtheum, . . .]XE1P KAI ETBOTAIAH2
others of this family, the genealogy of which it is KPfiniAAI EI10IH2AN. (Bockh, Corp. laser.
rather difficult to make ont ; but it appears that i. p. 504, No. 666, comp. Add. p. 916.) From
Eubulides, the grandfather and adoptive father of a comparison of these inscriptions with each
the boy of the same name, was himself the grand other and with Pausanias (viii. 14. § 4),
son of another Eubulides, son of Buselus. (Dem. c. it may be inferred that the first inscription
Matart cc 1-8.) should be thus completed : — ETBOTAIAH2
3. 4. Two individuals of the name of Eubulidas ETXEIP02 KPnniAH2 EITOIH2EN, and that
are mentioned as among the victims of the rapacity there was a family of artists of the Cropeian demos,
of Verres. One eurnamed Grosphus, a native of of which three generations are known, namely,
Centuripae, the other a native of Herbita. (Cic. c Eubulides, Eucheir, Eubulides. The architectural
For. iii. 2,1, v. 42, 49.) [C. P. M.] character of the monument and the forms of the
EUBU'LIDES (EtWwAJSnt), of Miletus, a phi letters, alike shew that these inscriptions must be
losopher who belonged to tbe Megaric school. It referred to the time of the Roman dominion in
is not staled whether be was the immediate or a Greece. (Ross, in the Kunstblatt, 1837, No. 93, Ac.)
later saceessor of Eodeides ( Diog. Laert. ii. 108 )j Thiersch comes to a like conclusion on other grounds.
nor is h said whether he was an elder or younger (Epochen, p. 127.) [P. S.J
contemporary of Aristotle, against whom he wrote EUBU'LUS (EifcouAoj), a son of Carmanor
with great bitterness. (Diog. Laert. ii. 109; Athen. and father of Carme. (Paus. ii. 30. § 3.) This
vii p. 554 ; Aristot. ap. Euseb. Praep. Ev. it. 2. name likewise occurs as a surname of several divi
p. 792.) The statement that Demosthenes availed nities who were regarded as the authors of good
himself of his dialectic instruction (Plut Vit. X counsel, or as well-disposed ; though when applied
Oral. p. 815 ; A pel. Oral, dt Mag. p. 18, ed. Bip.; to Hades, it is, like Eubuleus, a mere euphemism.
Phot. BilJ. Cod. 265, p. 493, ed. Bekk.) is alluded (Orph. Hymn. 17. 12, 29. 6, 55. 3.) [L. S.]
to also in a fragment of an anonymous comic poet, EUBU'LUS, AURELIUS of Eraesa, chief
(ap. Diog. Laert. ii. 108.) There is no mention auditor of the exchequer (toi)j Ka&iAou \iyous
of bis bavins written any works, but he is said to iiriTtTpawiivos) under Elagabalus, rendered him
have invented the forms of several of the most cele self so odious by his rapacity and extortion, that
brated false and captious syllogisms (Diog. Laert. upon the death of his patron the tyrant, he was
L e-), seme of which, however, such as the iiaXav- torn to pieces by the soldiers and people, who had
Saruir and the itparlrnt, were ascribed by others long clamorously demanded his destruction. (Dion
to tbe later Diodorus Cronus (Diog. Laert. i. Ill), Cass, lxxix. 21.) [W. R]
and several of them are alluded to by Aristotle EUBU'LUS, one of the commission of Nine
snd even by Plato. Thus the iyKticaSvunivos, appointed by Theodosius in A. d. 429 to compile a
^taXaSormf or 'HAsrrpo, which are different code upon a plan which was afterwards abandoned.
names for one and the same form of syllogism, as He had before that date filled the office of magister
wefl as the 4-eiAWrot and (repa-riV^r, occur in scriniorum. In a. d. 435, he was named on the
.trittnile (El. S/pi. 24, 25, 22), and partially also commission of Sixteen, which compiled the exist
to Plato ( Eutiyd. p. 276, comp. Theaetct. pp. 1G5, ing Theodosian code upon an altered plan. He
175.) We cannot indeed ascertain what motives then figures as comes and quaestor, with the titles
rjibahdes and other Megarics had in forming such illustris and magnificus. The emperor, however,
•vUofttsns, nor in what form they were dressed up, in mentioning those who distinguished themselves
on account of the scantiness of our information in the composition of his code, does not signalize
spoo this portion of the history of Greek philoso Eubulus. [Diodorus, voL i. p. 1018.] [J.T. G.]
phy ; but we may suppose, with the highest degree EUBU'LUS (EfSovAos), an Athenian, the son
«f probability, that they were directed especially of Euphranor, of the Cettian demus, was a very
against tbe sensualistic and hypothetical proceed- distinguished comic poet of the middle comedy,
b*s of the Stoics, and partly also against the defi- flourished, according to Suidas (>. r.), in the 101st
sitincs of Aristotle and the Platonista, and that Olympiad, B. c. 37|. If this date be correct (and
they were intended to establish the Megaric doc it is confirmed by the statement that Philip, the
trine of tbe simplicity of existence, which could be son of Aristophanes, was one of his rivals), Eubulus
arrived at only by direct thought. (H. Kitter, must have exhibited comedies for a long series of
Cehrr die Megar. Sdttde, in Nvbukr arid BrandW years ; for he ridiculed Callimedon, the contempo
Rhrm. Mm. ii. p. 295, &c ; Brandis, GbjcA. der rary of Demosthenes. (Athen. viii. p. 340, d.) It
Orittk. Rom. Phdot. L p. 122, &c.) Apollonius is clear, therefore, that Suidas is wrong in placing
Cromu, tbe teacher of Diodorus Cronus, and the Eubulus on the confines of the Old and the Middle
Euphantus, are mentioned as pupils of Comedy. He is expressly assigned by the author
[Ch. A. B.] of the Elgmologicon Magnum (p. 451. 30) and by
EUBU'LIDES (EtfAroA/Snt), a statuary, who Ammonius (j. v. iriov) to the Middle Comedy, the
made a great votive offering, consisting of a group duration of which begins very little before him, and
of thirteen statues, namely, Athena, Paeonia, Zeus, extends to a period very little, if at all, after him.
Mnemosyne, the Muses, and Apollo, which he de His plays were chiefly on mythological subjects.
dicated at Athens, in tbe temple of Dionysus, in Several of them contained parodies of passages
the Cenuneicus. (Pans. i. 2. § 4.) Pliny mentions from the tragic poets, and especially from Euri
his statue of one counting on his fingers (xxxiv. 8, pides. There are a few instances of his attacking
s- 19. t 29, according to Harduin's emendation). eminent individuals by name, as Philocrates, Cy-
Eabulides had a son, Euciiairt. dias, Callimedon, Dionysius the tyrant of Syracuse,
62 EUCHEIR. EUCHER1US.
and Callistratus. He sometimes ridicules classes 43, comp. xxxv. 5 ; Thiersch, Epochen, pp. 165,
of persons, as the Thebans in his 'Airi<fir>|. 166; Miiller, Arch. d. Kumt, § 75.) At all
His language is simple, elegant, and generally events, there appear to have been families of artists,
pure, containing few words which are not found in both at Corinth and at Athens, in which the name
writers of the best period. Like Antiphanes, he was hereditary. The following are known.
was extensively pillaged by later poets, as, for 3. Eucheirus (ZSx(iP°s< l°r *> Pausanias gives
example, by Alexis, Ophelion, and Ephippus. the name) of Corinth, a statuary, was the pupil of
Suidas gives the number of the plays of Eubulus Syadras and Chartas, of Sparta, and the teacher of
at 104, of which there arc extant more than 50 titles, Clearchus of Rhegium. (Paus. vi. 4. § 2. ) He
namely, 'A-yicvAJcw, 'Ayxtvys, 'A/«£A<?eia,1Ai'ao-ui$"o- must therefore have flourished about the 65th or
/icroi, 'Arriomf, "AoTvroi, AfJ-yrj, B(\\epo(p6vnjs, 66th Olympiad, b. c 520 or 516. [Chartas,
raFi/jUljSljj, r\avnos, AaiSoAos, AauaAtas is a Pythagoras op Rhboium.] This is probably
corrupt title (Suid. j. v. 'AaicuXuifrfw), for which the Euchir whom Pliny mentions among those
Meineke would read Aap.arrias. AcukoAiW, Aiovu- who made statues of athletes, &c. (//. Ar. xxxiv. 8.
(rios, in which he appears to have ridiculed the s. 19, §34.)
confusion which prevailed in all the arrangements 4. Eucheir, the son of Eubulides, of Athens, a
of the palace of Dionysius (Schol. ad Aristopk. sculptor, made the marble statue of Hermes, in his
Thesm. 136), AuJrvo-or, or, according to the fuller temple at Pheneus in Arcadia. (Paus. viii. 14.
title (Athen. xi. p. 460, e.), 2f|u«A7| il AioVuiros, § 7.) Something more is known of him through
a6\uv, Elpfa], Eopibnj, 'Hx^, 'Ifto'f ^luv, KaAa- inscriptions discovered at Athens, in reference to
Brvpopot, KafiirvKiuv (doubtful), KaTOKoKkwutvos which see Eubulidbs. [P. s. |
(doubtful), KcpKMrer, KA(\f^Spa, KoofdaAdV, Kv- EUCHEIRUS, statuary. [Eucheir, No. 3.]
t'tuTai, iXaxun'i ? ^ At/So, MtJScux, MuA&rtfpis, MNtrof, EUCHE'NOR (Euxifwp), a son of Coeranus
Namop, Nai'iTis-aa, N«ott/i, H"ufos, 'OSWo-dJs, and grandson of Polyi'dus of Megara. He took
t) rlcn'dVTai, OiS'nrous, OiVo^uaos fi TltKoty, 'OA&'a, part in the Trojan war, and was killed. (Paus. i.
'OpScunts, IlauipiAos, nawux'S, nop/ifWfficoj, IIA07- 43. § 5.) In Homer (//. xii. 663) he is called a
ytiv, riopvogoaKos, Uponpis. Upoaoviria rj Kvkios, son of the seer Polyi'dus of 'Corinth. There are two
2Tf0aru7raAi5fs, 24>rYyoirapiui', TiTdaf, TiTover, other mythical personages of this name. (Apollod.
+o:pi{, Xaptrcs, XpucnAAa, YaATpia. (Meineke, ii. 1 . § 5 j Eustath. ad Horn. p. 1 839.) [ L. S.]
Frag. Com. Grace, vol. i. pp. 355—367, vol. iii. EUCIIF.'RIA, the authoress of sixteen elegiac
pp. 203—272 ; Clinton, Fatt. Hell, sub ann. couplets, in which she gives vent to the indignation
B. c. 375 j Fabric. MbL Grace voL iv. pp. 442— excited by the proposals of an unworthy suitor—
444.) [P. S.] stringing together a long series of the most absurd
EUCADMUS (EB/coJ/jos), an Athenian sculp and unnatural combinations, all of which are to be
tor, the teacher of Androsthenes. (Paus. x. 19. considered as fitting and appropriate in comparison
$ 3.) [P. S.] with such an union. The idea of the piece was
EUCA'MPIDAS (E<Wiri'8as), less properly evidently suggested by the Virgilian lines
EUCA'LPIDAS (EthcaA»(Soj), an Arcadian of Mopso Nisa datur ; quid non speremus amantes ?
Maenalus, is mentioned by Demosthenes as one of Jungentur jam grypes equis ; aevoque sequent!
those who, for the sake of private gain, became Cum canibus timidi venient ad pocula damae,
the instruments of Philip of Macedon in sapping while in tone and spirit it bears some resemblance
the independence of their country. Polybius cen to the Ibis ascribed to Ovid, and to the Dime of
sures Demosthenes for his injustice in bringing so Valerius Cato. The presumptuous wooer is called
sweeping a charge against a number of distin a rusticus serao, by which we must clearly under
guished men, and defends the Arcadians and Mes- stand, not a slave in the Roman acceptation of the
senians in particular for their connexion with Phi term, but one of those rillani or serfs who, accord
lip. At the worst, he says, they are chargeable ing to the ancient practice in Germany and Gaul,
only with an error of judgment, in not seeing what were considered as part of the lire stock indissolu
was best for their country ; and he thinks that, ble1 bound to the soil which they cultivated. From
even in this point, they were justified by the re this circumstance, from the introduction here and
sult,—as if the result might not have been differ there of a barbarous word, from the fact that most
ent, had they taken a different course. (Dem. de of the original MSS. of these verses were found in
Cor. pp. 245, 324 ; Polyb. xvii. 14.) [Cinkas.] France, and that the name of Eucherius was com
Eucampidas is mentioned by Pausanias (viii. 27) mon in that country in the fifth and sixth centu
as one of those who led the Maenatian settlers to ries, we may form a guesB as to the period when
Megalopolis, to form part of the population of the this poetess flourished, and as to the land of her
newcity, B. c.371. [E.E.] nativity ; but we possess no evidence which can
EUCHEIR (Ei<x«p), is one of those names of entitle us to speak with any degree of confidence.
Grecian artists, which are first used in the my (Wernsdorf, Poet. Lot. Min. vol. iii. p. lxv. and
thological period, on account of their significancy, p. 97, vol. iv. pt ii. p. 827, vol. v. pt iii p. 1458 ;
but which were afterwards given to real persons. Burmann, Antiiol. Lot. v. 133, or n. 385, ed.
[Cheirisophus.] 1. Eucheir, a relation of Dae Meyer.) [\V. R.]
dalus, and the inventor of painting in Greece, ac EUCHE'RIUS, bishop of Lyons, was bom,
cording to Aristotle, is no doubt only a mythical during the latter half of the fourth century, of an
personage. (Plin. vii. 56.) illustrious family. His father Valerianus is by
2. Eucheir, of Corinth, who, with Eugrammus, many believed to be the Valerianus who about this
followed Demaratus into Italy (b. c 664), and period held the office of Praefectus Galliae, and
introduced the plastic art into Italy, should proba was a near relation of the emperor Avitus. Eu
bly be considered also a mythical personage, desig cherius married Gallia, a lady not inferior to him
nating the period of Etruscan art to which the self in station, by whom he had two sons, Salonius
earliest painted vases belong. (Plin. xxxv. 12. s. and Veranius, and two daughters, Corsortia and
EUCHERIUS. EUCLEIDES. 63
T affix. AboDt the year a. d. 410, while still in the separate tracts are carefully enumerated by
the vigoar of his age, he determined to retire from Schb'nemann, and the greater number of them will
the world, and accordingly betook himself, with be found in the ** Chronologia S. insulae Lerinen-
his wife and family, first to Lerins (Lerinum), and sis," by Vincentius Barralis, Lugdun. 4to. 1613 ;
from thence to the neighbouring island of Lero or in " D. Eucherii Lug. Episc doctiss. Lucubrationes
fit Margaret, where he lived the life of a hermit, cura Joannis Alexandri Brassicani," Basil, fol.
devoting himself to the education of his children, 1531 ; in the BiUiotheca Patrum, Colon, fol. 1618,
to literature, and to the exercises of religion. vol. v. p. 1 ; and in the Bill. Pat. Max. Lugdun.
During his retirement in this secluded spot, he ac fol. 1677, vol. vi. p. 822. (Gennad. de Viris. 111.
quired so high a reputation for learning and sanc c 63 ; Schoenemann, Bibl. Patrum.Lat. ii. § 36.)
tity, that he was chosen bishop of Lyons about This Eucherius must not be confounded with
a. n. 434, a dignity enjoyed by him until his another Gaulish prelate of the same name who
death, which is believed to have happened in 450, flourished during the early part of the sixth cen
under the emperors Valentinianus III. and Marci- tury, and was a member of ecclesiastical councils
anus. Veranius was appointed his successor in held in Gaul during the years a. d. 624, 527, 529.
the episcopal chair, while Salonius became the head The latter, although a bishop, was certainly not
sf the church at Geneva. bishop of Lyons. See Jos. Antelmius, Assertio pro
The following -works bear the name of this pre unico S. Eucherio Lugdunensi epucopo, Paris, 4to.
late : I. IM land* Eremi, written about the year 1726.
a. D. 428, in the form of an epistle to Hilarius of There is yet another Eucherius who was bishop
Aries, It would appear that Eucherius, in his of Orleans in the eighth century. [W. R.]
pssskra fa a solitary life, had at one time formed EUCLEIA (EdicAefa), a divinity who was wor
the project of visiting Egypt, that he might profit shipped at Athens, and to whom a sanctuary was
by the bright example of the anchorets who dedicated there out of the Bpoils which the Athe
thronged the deserts near the Nile. He requested nians had taken in the battle of Marathon. (Pans.
information from Casaianus [Cassianus], who re i. 1 4. § 4.) The goddess was only a personification
plied by addressing to him some of those coliatuma of the glory which the Athenians had reaped in
in which are painted in such lively colours the the day of that memorable battle. (Comp. Bockh,
habits and rules pursued by the monks and ere Corp. Inxript. n. 258.) Eucleia was also used at
mites of the Thebud. The enthusiasm excited by Athens as a surname of Artemis, and her sanctuary
these details called forth the letter bearing the was of an earlier date, for Euchidas died in it.
above title. (Plut. Arist. 20 j EotHiDAS.) Plutarch remarks,
2. Epighla paraemetka ad Valerianum cognatum that many took Eucleia for Artemis, and thus
denalentfm eaatdi et seemtaris philosophiae, composed made her the same as Artemis Eucleia, but that
aboot a. n. 432, in which the author endeavours others described her as a daughter of Heracles and
to detach his wealthy and magnificent kinsman Myrto, a daughter of Menoetius; and he adds that
from the pomps and vanities of the world. An this Eucleia died as a maiden, and was worshipped
edition with scholia was published by Erasmus at in Boeotia and Locris, where she had an altar and
Bs*leiniJ20. a statue in every market-place, on which persons on
3. Lifer forrnnUtrttm fpirilalu intelligentiae ad the point of marrying used to offer sacrifices to her.
Fmreww Jitacm, or, as the title sometimes appears, Whether and what connexion there existed be
De forma tpiritalu inteHectus, divided into eleven tween the Attic and Boeotian Eucleia is unknown,
chapters, containing an exposition of many phrases though it is probable that the Attic divinity was,
and texts in Scripture upon allegorical, typical, as is remarked above, a mere personification, and
sad mystical principles. consequently quite independent of Eucleia, the
4. fsMructvmmm Libri II. ad Salonium filium. daughter of Heracles. Artemis Eucleia had also a
The first book treats ** De Qnaestionibus difficilio- temple at Thebes. (Paus. ix. 17. § 1.) [L. S.]
rihas Yeteris et Novi Testamenti," the second EUCLEIDES (EihcasIotu) of Alkxandrbia.
detains ta Expltcationes nominum Hebraicorum." The length of this article will not be blamed by
5. IfomMae. Those, namely, published by Li- any one who considers that, the sacred writers
vmriui at the end of the "Sermones Catechetici excepted, no Greek has been so much read or so
Theodori Studitae,™ Antverp., 8vo. 1602. variously translated as Euclid. To this it may be
The authenticity of the following is very doubtful. added, that there is hardly any book in our lan
6- I/utoria Pastionig & Mauriiu et Sociurum guage in which the young scholar or the young
Mttrtynm Legionu Feticit Tkcbaeae Atfaunensium. mathematician can find all the information about
7. Etiartatio ad AlonacAm, the first of three this name which its celebrity would make him
printed by Holstenius in his " Codex Regularum," desire to have.
Kmo, 1661, p. 89. Euclid has almost given his own name to the
8. Epitome Operum Caaiani. science of geometry, in every country in which his
The following are certainly spurious : 1 . Com- writings are studied ; and yet all we know of his
mtnlarin m Genetitn. 2. Commentarwrum in private history amounts to very little. He lived,
horw RtipaH Libri IV. 3. Epistola ad Faustinum. according to Proclus (Coram, in End. ii. 4), in the
4. Epatc/a ad PkUonem. 5. Regtda duplex ad time of the first Ptolemy, a c 323—283. The
Mamada. 6. tlomiliarum CoUectvo, ascribed in forty years of Ptolemy's reign are probably those
w» of the larger collections of the Fathers to of Euclid's age, not of his youth ; for had he been
Euaebnu of Emesa, in others to Gallicanus. Eu trained in the school of Alexandria formed by
cherius is, however, known to have composed many Ptolemy, who invited thither men of note, Proclus
Ixwiilies; but, with the exception of those men would probably have given us the name of his
tioned above (5), they are believed to have perished. teacher: but tradition rather makes Euclid the
No complete collection of the works of Eucherius founder of the Alexandrian mathematical school
tai ever been published. The various editions of than its pupil. This point is very material to tho
61 EUCLEIDES. EUCLEIDES.
formation of a just opinion of Euclid's writings ; he Harless thinks that Eudoxtta Bhould be read for
was, we Bee, a younger contemporary of Aristotle Euclid in the passage of Valerius.
(a. c. 384—322) if we suppose him to have been of In the frontispiece to Winston's translation of
mature age when Ptolemy began to patronise litera Tacquet's Euclid there is a bust, which is said to
ture : and on this supposition it is not likely that be taken from a brass coin in the possession of
Aristotle's writings, and his logic in particular, Christina of Sweden ; but no such coin appears in
should have been read by Euclid in his youth, the published collection of those in the cabinet of
if at nil. To us it seems almost certain, from the the queen of Sweden. Sidonius Apollinaris says
structure of Euclid's writings, that he had not (Epist. xi. 9) that it was the custom to paint Euclid
read Aristotle : on this supposition, we pass over, with the fingers extended (loxatis), as if in the
as perfectly natural, things which, on the contrary act of measurement.
one, would have seemed to shew great want of The history of geometry before the time of
judgment. Euclid is given by Proclus, in a manner which
Euclid, says Proclus, was younger than Plato, shews that he is merely making a summary of well
and older than Eratosthenes and Archimedes, the known or at least generally received facts. He
latter of whom mentions him. He was of the begins with the absurd stories so often repeated,
Platonic wet, and well read in its doctrines. He that the Aegyptians were obliged to invent geo
collected the Elements, put into order much of metry in order to recover the landmarks which
what Eudoxus had done, completed many things the Nile destroyed year by year, and that the
of Theaetetus, and was the first who reduced Phoenicians were equally obliged to invent arith
to unobjectionable demonstration the imperfect metic for the wants of their commerce. Thales, he
attempts of his predecessors. It was his an goes on to say, brought this knowledge into Greece,
swer to Ptolemy, who asked if geometry could and added many things, attempting some in a
not be made easier, that there was no royal road general manner (naBokiKwrtpov) and some in a
(mi) thai PaotKiic/lv irparov irpds •ytafneTplay)* perceptive or sensible manner (aiaBnTiKwrfpoy).
This piece of wit has had many imitators ; " Quel Proclus clearly refers to physical discovery in geo
diabic " said a French nobleman to Rohault, his metry, by measurement of instances. Next is
teacher of geometry, " pourrait entendre cela ? " mentioned Ameristus, the brother of Stesichorus
to which the answer was " Ce serait nn diabic qui the poet. Then Pythagoras changed it into the
aurait de la patience." A story similar to that of form of a liberal science (muSeiaj iKtvtipov), took
Euclid is related by Seneca (Ep. 91, cited by Au higher views of the subject, and investigated his
gust) of Alexander. theorems immaterially and intellectually (duAa-s
Pappus (lib. vii. tn prarf.) states that Euclid was koX vofp&s) : he also wrote on incommensurable
distinguished by the fairness and kindness of his quantities (i\6ywv), and on the mundane figures
disposition, particularly towards those who could (the live regular solids).
do anything to advance the mathematical sciences: Barocius, whose Latin edition of Proclus has
but as he is here evidently making a contrast to been generally followed, singularly enough trans
Apollonius, of whom he more than insinuates a lates &\oya by quae rum explicari possunt, and
directly contrary character, and as he lived more Taylor follows him with " such things as cannot
than four centuries after both, it is difficult to give be explained." It is strange that two really learned
credence to his means of knowing so much about editors of Euclid's commentator Bhould have been
either. At the same time we are to remember ignorant of one of Euclid's technical terms. Then
that he had access to many records which are now come Anaxagoras of Clazomenae, and a little after
lost. On the same principle, perhaps, the account him Oenopides of Chios ; then Hippocrates of
of Nasir-eddin and other Easterns is not to be Chios, who squared the lunule, and then Theodorua
entirely rejected, who state that Euclid was sprung of Cyrene. Hippocrates is the first writer of ele
of Greek parents, settled at Tyre j that he lived, at ments who is recorded. Plato then did much for
one time, at Damascus ; that his father's name was geometry by the mathematical character of his
Naucrates, and grandfather's Zenarchns. (August, writings ; then Leodamos of Thasus, Archytas of
who cites Gartz, De Interpr. End. Arab.) It is Tarentum, and Theaetetus of Athens, gave a more
against this account that Eutocius of Ascalon never scientific basis (IviffTTJuoviKwrlpaif avaraffw) to va
hints at it. rious theorems ; Neocleides and his disciple Leon
At one time Euclid was universally confounded cameafter the preceding, the latter of whom increas
with Euclid of Mcgara, who lived near a century ed both the extent and utility of the science, in par
before him, and heard Socrates. Valerius Maximus ticular by finding a test (Siooic/uoV) of whether the
has a story (viii. 1 2) that those who came to Plato thing proposed be possible* or impossible. Eudoxus
about the construction of the celebrated Delian of Cnidus, a little younger than Leon, and the
altar were referred by him to Euclid the geometer. companion of those about Plato [Eudoxus], in
This story, which must needs be false, since Euclid creased the number of general theorems, added
of Megara, the contemporary of Plato, was not a three proportions to the three already existing, and
geometer, is probably the origin of the confusion. in the things which concern the section (of the
cone, no doubt) which was started by Plato him
* This celebrated anecdote breaks off in the self, much increased their number, aud employed
middle of the sentence in the Basle edition of analyses upon them. Amyclas Heracleotes, the
Proclus. Barocius, who had better manuscripts, companion of Plato, Menaechmus, the disciple of
supplies the Latin of it ; and Sir Henry Savile, Eudoxus and of Plato, and his brother Deinostratus
who had manuscripts of all kinds in his own li made geometry more perfect. Theudiusof Magnesia
brary, quotes it as above, with only M for vp6s.
August, in his edition of Euclid, has given this * We cannot well understand whether by two-
chapter of Proclus in Greek, but without saying toV Proclus means geometrically soluble, or possible
from whence he has taken it. in the common sense of the word.
EUCLEIDES. EUCLEIDES. 65
generalized many particular propositions. Cyzici- script supports him : how, then, did he know ?
nu of Athens was his contemporary ; they took He saw that there ought to have been such a defi
different sides on many common inquiries. Hermo- nition, and he concluded that, therefore, there had
tiiaus of Colophon added to what had been done been one. Now we by no means uphold Euclid
br Eudoxus and Theaetetus, discovered elementary as an all-sufficient guide to geometry, though we
propositions, and wrote something on loci. Philip feel that it is to himself that we owe the power of
(• Mrraiw, others read Mtifuuor, Barocius reads amending his writings ; and we hope we may pro
Mendaeus ), the follower of Plato, made many ma test against the assumption that he could not have
thematical inquiries connected with his master's erred, whether by omission or commission.
philosophy. Those who write on the history of Some of the characteristics of the Elements are
geometry bring the completion of this science thus briefly as follows :—
far. Here Proclus expressly refers to written his First. There is a total absence of distinction
tory, and in another place he particularly mentions between the various ways in which we know the
tie history of Endemus the Peripatetic. meaning of terms : certainty, and nothing more, is
Thi* history of Proclus has been much kept in the thing sought. The definition of straightness,
the background, we should almost say discredited, an idea which it is impossible to put into simpler
by editors, who seem to wish it should be thought words, and which is therefore described by a more
that a finished and unassailable system sprung at difficult circumlocution, comes under the same
•oce from the brain of Euclid ; an armed Minerva heading as the explanation of the word " parallel."
from the head of a Jupiter. But Proclus, as much Hence disputes about the correctness or incorrect
a worshipper as any of them, must have had the ness of many of the definitions.
same bis*, and is therefore particularly worthy of Secondly. There is no distinction between pro
confidence when he cites written history as to positions which require demonstration, and those
what was mot done by Euclid. Make the most we which a logician would see to be nothing but
can of his preliminaries, still the thirteen books of different modes of stating a preceding proposition.
tbe Elements must hare been a tremendous advance, When Euclid has proved that everything which
probably even greater than that contained in the is not A is not B, he does not hold himself entitled
Pnncipta of Newton. But still, to bring the state to infer that every B is A, though the two propo
of our opinion of this progress down to something sitions are identically the same. Thus, having
short of painful wonder, we are told that demon shewn that every point of a circle which is not the
stration bad been given, that something had been centre is not one from which three equal straight
written on proportion, something on incommensu lines can be drawn, he cannot infer that any point
rable*, something on loci, something on solids ; from which three equal straight lines are drawn is
that analysis had been applied, that the conic sec the centre, but has need of a new demonstration.
tions had been thought of, that the Elements had Thus, long before he wants to use book i. prop. 6,
been distinguished from the rest and written on. he has proved it again, and independently.
From what Hippocrates had done, we know that Thirdly. ' He has not the smallest notion of
the important property of the right-angled triangle admitting any generalised use of a word, or of part
was known ; we rely much more on the lunules ing with any ordinary notion attached to it.
than on the story about Pythagoras. The dispute Setting out with the conception of an angle rather
about tbe famous Delian problem had arisen, and as the sharp corner made by the meeting of two
same conventional limit to the instruments of geo- lines than as the magnitude which he afterwards
ssecry must have been adopted ; for on keeping shews how to measure, he never gets rid of that
wnhin them, the difficulty of this problem depends. comer, never admits two right angles to make
It will be convenient to speak separately of the one angle, and still less is able to arrive at the
Elements of Euclid, as to their contents ; and after idea of an angle greater than two right angles.
wards to mention them bibliographically, among And when, in the last proposition of the sixth
the other writings. The book which passes under book, his definition of proportion absolutely requires
thia name, as given by Robert Simson, unexcep- that he should reason on angles of even more than
Csnable as Elements of Geometry, is not calculated four right angles, he takes no notice of this neces
to giTe the scholar a proper idea of the elements of sity, and no one can tell whether it was an over
Ksutni ; but it is admirably adapted to confuse, in sight, whether Euclid thought the extension one
th> mind of the young student, all those notions of which the student could make for himself, or
•svcd criticism which his other instructors are whether (which has sometimes struck us as nut
endeavouring to instil. The idea that Euclid must unlikely) the elements were his last work, and he
be perfect had got possession of the geometrical did not live to revise them.
world ; accordingly each editor, when he made In one solitary case, Euclid seems to have made
what he took to be an alteration for the better, an omission implying that he recognized that
assumed that he was restoring, not amending, the natural extension of language by which unity is
original. If the books of Livy were to be re considered as a number, and Simson has thought it
written span the basis of Niebuhr, and the result necessary to supply the omission (see his book v.
declared to be the real text, then Livy would no prop. A), and has shewn himself more Euclid than
more than share the fate of Euclid ; the only dif Euclid upon the point of all others in which
ference being, that the former would undergo a Euclid's philosophy is defective.
larger quantity of alteration than editors hare seen Fourthly. There is none of that attention to
it Is intiie! upon the latter. This is no caricature ; tbe forms of accuracy with which translators have
r.y„ Euclid, says Robert Simson, gave, without endeavoured to invest the Elements, thereby giv
inabL, a definition of compound ratio at the be ing them that appearance which has made many
ginning of the fifth book, and accordingly he there teachers think it meritorious to insist upon their
irvrta, not merely a definition, but, he assures us, pupils remembering the very words of Simson.
the very one which Euclid gave. Not a single manu Theorems are found among the definitions : assump
re*, n.
66 EUCLE1DES. EUCLEIDES.
tinns are made which are not formally set down as an assumption, not as to its truth), and that
among the postulates. Things which really ought two straight lines cannot inclose a space. Lastly,
to have been proved are sometimes passed over, under the name of common notions (koivoI tvvoiat)
and whether this is by mistake, or by intention of are given, either as common to all men or to all
supposing them self-evident, cannot now be known : sciences, such assertions as that—things equal to the
for Euclid never refers to previous propositions by same are equal to one another—the whole is greater
name or number, but only by simple re-assertion than its part—&c Modern editors have put the
without reference; except that occasionally, and last three postulates at the end of the common
chiefly when a negative proposition is referred to, notions, and applied the term axiom (which was
such words as "it has been demonstrated" are not used till after Euclid) to them all. The in
employed, without further specification. tention of Euclid seems to have been, to distin
Fifthly. Euclid never condescends to hint at guish between that which his reader must grant,
the reason why he finds himself obliged to adopt or seek another system, whatever may be his opi
any particular course. Be the difficulty ever so nion as to the propriety of the assumption, and
great, he removes it without mention of its exist that which there is no question every one will
ence. Accordingly, in many places, the unassisted grant. The modern editor merely distinguishes
student can only see that much trouble is taken, the assumed problem (or construction) from the
without being able to guess why. assumed theorem. Now there is no such distinc
What, then, it may be asked, is the peculiar tion in Euclid as that of problem and theorem ;
merit of the Elements which has caused them to the common term vporaffti, translated proposition,
retain their ground to this day ? The answer is, includes both, and is the only one used. An im
that the preceding objections refer to matters mense preponderance of manuscripts, the testi
which can be easily mended, without any alter mony of Proclus, the Arabic translations, the
ation of the main parts of the work, and that no summary of Boethius, place the assumptions about
one has ever given bo easy and natural a chain of right angles and parallels (and most of them, that
geometrical consequences. There is a never erring about two straight lines) among the postulates ;
truth in the results ; and, though there may be and this seems most reasonable, for it is certain
here and there a self-evident assumption used in that the first two assumptions can have no claim
demonstration, but not formally noted, there is to rank among common notions or to be placed in
never any the smallest departure from the limit the same list with " the whole is greater than its
ations of construction which geometers had, from part."
the time of Plato, imposed upon themselves. The Without describing minutely the contents of
strong inclination of editors, already mentioned, to the first book of the Elements, we may observe
consider Euclid as perfect, and all negligences as that there is an arrangement of the propositions,
the work of unskilful commentators or interpo which will enable any teacher to divide it into
lators, is in itself a proof of the approximate truth sections. Thus propp. 1 — 3 extend the power of
of the character they give the work ; to which it construction to the drawing of a circle with any
may be added that editors in general prefer Euclid centre and any radius ; 4—8 are the basis of the
as he stands to the alterations of other editors. theory of equal triangles ; 9— 12 increase the
The Elements consist of thirteen books written power of construction ; 13— 15 are solely on rela
by Euclid, and two of which it is supposed that tions of angles ; 1 6 —2 1 examine the relations of
Hypsicles is the author. The first four and the parts of one triangle J 22—23 are additional con
sixth are on plane geometry ; the fifth is on the structions ; 23— 26 augment the doctrine of equal
theory of proportion, and applies to magnitude in triangles ; 27—31 contain the theory of parallels ;"
general ; the seventh, eighth, and ninth, are on 32 stands alone, and gives the relation between
arithmetic ; the tenth is on the arithmetical cha the angles of a triangle; 33— 34 give the first
racteristics of the divisions of a straight line ; the properties of a parallelogram; 35—41 consider
eleventh and twelfth arc on the elements of solid parallelograms and triangles of equal areas, but
geometry; the thirteenth (and also the fourteenth different forms; 42—46 apply what precedes to
and fifteenth) are on the regular solids, which augmenting power of construction; 47—48 give
were so much studied among the Platonists as to the celebrated property of a right angled triangle
bear the name of Platonic, and which, according to and its converse. The other books are all capable
Proclus, were the objects on which the Elements of a similar species of subdivision.
were really meant to be written. The second book shows those properties of tie
At the commencement of the first book, under rectangles contained by the parts of divided
the name of definitions {opoi), are contained the straight lines, which are so closely connected with
assumption of such notions as the point, line, &c, the common arithmetical operations of multipli
and a number of verbal explanations. Then fol cation and division, that a student or a teacher
low, under the name of postulates or demands who is not fully alive to the existence and diffi
(oJttJjwito), all that it is thought necessary to culty of incommensurables is apt to think that
state as assumed in geometry. There are six common arithmetic would be as rigorous as geo
postulates, three of which restrict the amount of metry. Euclid knew better.
construction granted to the joining two points The third book is devoted to the consideration
by a straight line, the indefinite lengthening of a of the properties of the circle, and is much cramped
terminated straight line, and the drawing of a in several places by the imperfect idea already al
circle with a given centre, and a given distance luded to, which Euclid took of an angle. There
measured from that centre as a radius ; the other are some places in which he clearly drew upon
three assume the equality of all right angles, the experimental knowledge of the form of a circle,
much disputed property of two lines, which meet
a third at angles less than two right angles (we * See Penny Cyclopaedia, art. * Parallels," for
mean, of course, much disputed as to its propriety some account of this well-worn subject.
EUCLEIDES. EUCLEIDES. 67
and made tacit assumptions of a kind which are count of it in the Penny Cyclopaedia, article, " Ir
rarefy met with is his writings. rational Quantities." Euclid has evidently in his
The fourth book treats of regular figures. Eu mind the intention of classifying incommensurable
clid's original postulates of construction give him, quantities : perhaps the circumference of the circle,
by this time, tike power of drawing them of 3, 4, 5, which we know had been an object of inquiry,
znd 15 sides, or of double, quadruple, &c., any of was suspected of being incommensurable with its
these umbers, as 6, 12. 24, etc., 8, 16, Sic. tic. diameter ; and hopes were perhaps entertained
The fifth look is on the theory of proportion. that a searching attempt to arrange the incommen-
It refers to all kinds of magnitude, and is wholly anrables which ordinary geometry presents might
independent of those which precede. The exist, enable the geometer to say finally to which of them,
eace of incommensurable quantities obliges him to if any, the circle belongs. However this may be,
introduce a definition of proportion which seems Euclid investigates, by isolated methods, and in a
at first not only difficult, but uncouth and inele manner which, unless he had a concealed algebra,
gant ; those who have examined other definitions is more astonishing to us than anything in the
know that all which are not defective are but Elements, every possible variety of lines which can
various readings of that of Euclid. The reasons be represented by */ (s/ a i ^ A), a and h repre
fcr this difficult definition are not alluded to, ac senting two commensurable lines. He divides lines
cording to his custom ; few students therefore un which can be represented by this formula into 25
derstand the fifth book at first, and many teachers species, and he succeeds in detecting every possible
decidedly object to make it a part of the species. He shews that every individual of every
coarse. A distinction should be drawn between species is incommensurable with all the individuals
Euclid's definition and his manner of applying it. of every other species ; and also that no line of any
Every one who anderstands it must see that it is species can belong to that species in two different
an appbcatioB of arithmetic, and that the defective ways, or for two different sets of values of a and 6.
and unwieldy forms of arithmetical expression He shews how to form other classes of incommen-
which never were banished from Greek science, surables, in number how many soever, no one of
need not be the necessary accompaniments of the which can contain an individual line which is com
modern use of the fifth book. For ourselves, we mensurable with an individual of any other class;
are ^*t^fiw^ that the only rigorous road to propor and he demonstrates the incommensurability of a
tion is either through the fifth book, or else square and its diagonal. This book has a com
through something much more difficult than the pleteness which none of the others (not even the
fifth book need be. fifth) can boast of: and we could almost suspect
The sixth book applies the theory of propor that Euclid, having arranged his materials in his
tion, and adds to the first four books the proposi own mind, and having completely elaborated the
tions winch, for want of it, they could not contain. tenth book, wrote the preceding books after it, and
It discusses the theory of figures of the same form, did not live to revise them thoroughly.
technically called uxilar. To give an idea of the The eleventh and twelfth books contain the
advance which it makes, we may state that the elements of solid geometry, as to prisms, pyramids,
first book has for its highest point of constructive 4c. The duplicate ratio of the diameters is
power the formation of a rectangle upon a given shewn to be that of two circles, the triplicate ratio
base, equal to a given rectilinear figure ; that the that of two spheres. Instances occur of the method
second book enables us to turn this rectangle into of exhaustions, as it has been called, which in the
i square ; bat the sixth book empowers us to hands of Archimedes became an instrument of dis
make a figure of any given rectilinear shape equal covery, producing results which are now usually
to a rectilinear figure of given size, or briefly, to referred to the differential calculus : while in those
unsuau a figure of the form of one given figure, of Euclid it was only the mode of proving proposi
and of the size of another. It also supplies the tions which must have been seen and believed be
nmaetrical form of the solution of a quadratic fore they were proved. The method of these books
equation. is clear and elegant, with some striking imperfec
The seventh, eighth, and ninth books cannot tions, which have caused many to abandon them,
have their subjects usefully separated. They treat even among those who allow no substitute for the
«f silthmetic, that is, of the fundamental properties first six books. The thirteenth, fourteenth, and
•f numbers, on which the rules of arithmetic must fifteenth books are on the five regular solids : and
he founded. But Euclid goes further than is ne even had they all been written by Euclid (the last
cessary merely to construct a system of computa two are attributed to Hypsicles), they would but
tion, about which the Greeks had little anxiety. ill bear out the assertion of Proclus, that the regu
He is able to succeed in shewing that numbers lar solids were the objects with a view to which
which are prime to one another are the least in the Elements were written : unless indeed we are
their ratio, to prove that the number of primes is to suppose that Euclid died before he could com
infinite, and to point out the rule for constructing plete his intended structure. Proclus was an en
what are ailed perfect numbers. When the mo thusiastic Platonist : Euclid was of that school ;
dern systems began to prevail, these books of Eu and the former accordingly attributes to the latter
clid were abandoned to the antiquary : our elemen a particular regard for what were sometimes called
tary bonks of arithmetic, which till lately were all, the Platonic bodies. But we think that the author
sad now are mostly, systems of mechanical rules, himself of the Elements could hardly have considered
teB as what would have become of geometry if the them as a mere introduction to a favourite specula
earlier books had shared the same fate. tion : if he were so blind, we have every reason to
The tenth book is the development of all the suppose that his own contemporaries could have set
power of the preceding ones, geometrical and arith- him right. From various indications, it can be col
rartJcsL It is one of the most curious of the Greek lected that the fame of the Elements was almost
spenbtthms : the reader will find a synoptical ac- coeval with their publication ; and by the time of
pa
C8 EUCLEIDES. EUCLEIDES.
jMariiius we learn from that writer that Euclid epitome of the whole. Theon the younger (of
was called Kiipioj otoix'iott/J. Alexandria) lived a little before Proclus (who died
The Data of Euclid should be mentioned in con about A. D. 485). The latter has made his feeble
nection with the Elements. This is a book contain commentary on the first book valuable by its his
ing a hundred propositions of a peculiar and limited torical information, and was something of a lumi
intent. Some writers have professed to see in it a nary in ages more dark than his own. But Theon
key to the geometrical analysis of the ancients, in was a light of another sort, and his name has
which they have greatly the advantage of us. played a conspicuous and singular part in the his
When there is a problem to solve, it is undoubtedly tory of Euclid's writings. He gave a new edition
advantageous to have a rapid perception of the steps of Euclid, with some slight additions and altera
which will reach the result, if they can be succes tions : he tells us so himself, and uses the word
sively made. Given A, B, and C, to find D : one *«5ocm, as applied to his own edition, in his com
person may be completely at a loss how to proceed ; mentary on Ptolemy. He also informs us that the
another may see almost intuitively that when A, part which relates to the sectors in the last propo
B, and C are given, E can be found ; from which sition of the sixth book is his own addition : and
it may be that the firet person, had he perceived it, it is found in all the manuscripts following the
would have immediately found D. The formation Snep tSei 8«i£ai with which Euclid always ends.
of data consequential, as our ancestors would per Alexander Aphrodisiensis ( Comment, in priora
haps have called them, things not absolutely given, Analyt. Aristot.) mentions as the fourth of the
but the gift of which is implied in, and necessarily tenth book that which is the fifth in all manu
follows from, that which is given, is the object of scripts. Again, in several manuscripts the whole
the hundred propositions above mentioned. Thus, work is headed as ck tuv Qitavos avvovatiiv. We
when a straight line of given length is intercepted shall presently see to what this led : but now we
between two given parallels, one of these proposi must remark that Proclus docs not mention Theon
tions shews that the angle it makes with the pa at all ; from which, since both were Platonists re
rallels is given in magnitude. There is not much siding at Alexandria, and Proclus had probably
more in this book of Data than an intelligent stu seen Theon in his younger days, we must either
dent picks up from the Elements themselves ; on infer some quarrel between the two, or, which is
which account we cannot consider it as a great step perhaps more likely, presume that Theon's altera
in geometrical analysis. The operations of thought tions were very slight.
which it requires are indispensable, but they ore The two books of Geometry left by Boethius
contained elsewhere. At the same time we cannot contain nothing but enunciations and diagrams
deny that the Data might have fixed in the mind from the first four books of Euclid. The assertion
of a Greek, with greater strength than the Ele of Boethius that Euclid only arranged, and that
ments themselves, notions upon consequential data the discovery and demonstration were the work of
which the moderns acquire from the application of others, probably contributed to the notions about
arithmetic and algebra : perhaps it was the percep Theon presently described. Until the restoration
tion of this which dictated the opinion about the of the Elements by translation from the Arabic,
value of the book of Data in analysis. this work of Boethius was the only European
While on this subject, it may be useful to re treatise on geometry, as far as is known.
mind the reader how difficult it is to judge of the The Arabic translations of Euclid began to be
character of Euclid's writings, as far as his own made under the caliphs Haroun al Raschid and
merits arc concerned, ignorant as we are of the Al Mamun j by their time, the very name of Eu
precise purpose with which any one was written. clid had almost disappeared from the West But
For instance : was he merely shewing his contem nearly one hundred and fifty years followed the
poraries that a connected system of demonstration capture of Egypt by the Mohammedans before the
might be made without taking more than a certain latter began to profit by the knowledge of the
number of postulates out of a collection, the neces Greeks. After this time, the works of the geome
sity of each of which had been advocated by some ters were sedulously translated, and a great im
and denied by others ? We then understand why pulse was given by them. Commentaries, and
he placed his six postulates in the prominent posi even original writings, followed ; but so few of
tion which they occupy, and we can find no fault these are known among us, that it is only from
with his tacit admission of many others, the neces the Saracen writings on astronomy (a science which
sity of which had perhaps never been questioned. always carries its own history along with it) that
But if we are to consider him as meaning to be we can form a good idea of the very striking pro
what his commentators have taken him to be, a gress which the Mohammedans made under their
model of the most scrupulous formal rigour, we can Greek teachers. Some writers speak slightingly of
then deny that he has altogether succeeded, though this progress, the results of which they are too apt
we may admit that he has made the nearest ap to compare with those of our own time : they
proach. ought rather to place the Saracens by the side of
The literary history of the writings of Euclid their own Gothic ancestors, and, making some al
would contain that of the rise and progress of geo lowance for the more advantageous circumstance*
metry in every Christian and Mohammedan na under which the first started, they should view
tion : our notice, therefore, must be but slight, and the second systematically dispersing the remains of
various points of it will be confirmed by the biblio Greek civilization, while the first were concentrat
graphical account which will follow. ing the geometry of Alexandria, the arithmetic
In Greece, including Asia Minor, Alexandria, and algebra of India, and the astronomy of both,
and the Italian colonies, the Elements soon became to form a nucleus for the present state of science.
the universal study of geometers. Commentators The Elements of Euclid were restored to Europe
were not wanting ; Proclus mentions Heron and by translation from the Arabic. In connection
Pappus, aud Aeneas of Hierapolis, who made an with this restoration four Eastern editors may be
EUCLEIDES. EUCLEIDES. 09
mentioned. Honein ben Ishak (died A. d. 873) had got "as far as the 32nd proposition of the first
published in edition which was afterwards cor book" before he was detected, the exaggerators
rected by Thibet ben Corrah, a well-known astro (for much exaggerated this very circumstance shews
nomer. After him, according to D'Herbelot, the truth must have been) not having the slightest
Othman of Damascus (of nncertain date, but before idea that a new invented system could proceed in
the thirteenth century) saw at Rome a Greek ma any other order than tlitt of Euclid.
nuscript containing many more propositions than The vernacular translations of the Elements date
he had been accustomed to find : he had been used from the middle of the sixteenth century, from which
to 1 90 diagrams, and the manuscript contained 40 time the history of mathematical science divides
core. If these numbers be correct, Honein could itself into that of the several countries where it
only bare had the first six books ; and the new flourished. By slow steps, the continent of Europe
translation which Othman immediately made must has almost entirely abandoned the ancient Ele
have been afterwards augmented. A little after ments, and substituted systems of geometry more
a. D. 3260, the astronomer Nasircddin gave an in accordance with the tastes which algebra has
other edition, which is now accessible, having been introduced : but in England, down to the present
printed in Arabic at Rome in 1594. It is tolera time, Euclid has held his ground. There is not in
bly complete, bnt yet it is not the edition from our country any system of geometry twenty years
which the earliest European translation was made, old, which has pretensions to anything like cur
as Peyrard found by comparing the same proposi rency, but it is either Euclid, or something so
tion in the two. . fashioned upon Euclid that the resemblance is as
The first European who found Euclid in Arabic, close as that of some of his professed editors. We
and translated the Elements into Latin, was Athe- cannot here go into the reasons of our opinion; but
lard or Adelard, of Bath, who was certainly alive we have no doubt that the love of accuracy in ma
ia 1130. (See "Adelard," in the Biogr. Diet, of thematical reasoning has declined wherever Euclid
th« Sot D. V. K.) This writer probably obtained has been abandoned. We are not so much of the
his original in Spain : and his translation is the old opinion as to say that this must necessarily have
one which became current in Europe, and is the happened ; but, fecung quite sure that all the al
first which was printed, though under the name of terations have had their origin in the desire for
Camparin* Till very lately, Campanus was supposed more facility than could be obtained by rigorous
to have been the translator. Tiraboschi takes it to deduction from postulates both true and evident,
cave been Adelard, as a matter of course ; Libri we see what has happened, and why, without be
pronoences the nae opinion after inquiry ; and ing at all inclined to dispute that a disposition to
Seheibel states that in his copy of Campanus the depart from the letter, carrying off the spirit, would
authorship of Adelard was asserted in a hand have been attended with very different results. Of
writing as old as the work itself, (a. d. 1482.) the two best foreign books of geometry which we
Some of the manuscripts which bear the name of know, and which are not Euclidean, one demands
Adelard have that of Campanus attached to the a right to "imagine" a thing which the writer
commentary. There are several of these manu himself knew perfectly well was not true ; and the
scripts in existence ; and a comparison of any one other is content to shew that the theorems are so
of them with the printed book which was attributed nearly true that their error, if any, is imperceptible
to Campanus would settle the question. to the senses. It must be admitted that both these
The seed thus brought by Adelard into Europe absurdities are committed to avoid the fifth book,
was sown with good effect. In the next century and that English teachers have, of late years, been
Roger Bacon quotes Euclid, and when he cites Boe- much inclined to do something of the same sort,
thras, it is not for his geometry. Up to the time of less openly. But here, at least, writers have left
printing, there was at least as much dispersion of the it to teachers to shirk" truth, if they like, without
Dements as of any other book : after this period, being wilful accomplices before the fact. In an
Euclid was, as we shall see, an early and frequent English translation of one of the preceding works,
product of the press. Where science flourished, the means of correcting the error were given : and
£adid was found; and wherever he was found, the original work of most note, not Euclidean,
soraee flourished more or less according as more which has appeared of late years, does not attempt
«r less attention was paid to his Elements. As to to get over the difficulty by any false assumption.
writing another work on geometry, the middle ages At the time of the invention of printing, two
wosdd as soon have thought of composing another errors were current with respect to Euclid person
New Testament : not only did Euclid preserve his ally. The first was that he was Euclid of Megara,
n^ht to the title of Kvptos crroixcturys down to the a totally different person. This confusion has been
end of the seventeenth century, and that in so ab said to take its rise from a passage in Plutarch,
solute a maimer, that then, as sometimes now, the but we cannot find the reference. Boethiua per
young beginner imagined the name of the man to petuated it. The second was that Theon was the
he a synonyme for the science; but his order of demonstrator of all the propositions, and that Euclid
demonstration was thought to be necessary, and only left the definitions, postulates, &c, with the
founded ia the nature of our minds. Tartaglia,
whose bias we might suppose would have been * We must not be understood as objecting to
shaken by his knowledge of Indian arithmetic and the teacher's right to make his pupil assume any
algebra, calls Euclid aolo tatrodulture delle tcitntie thing he likes, provided only that the latter
mmirmntict: and algebra was not at that time con- knows what he is about. Our contemptuous
■dered as entitled to the name of a science by expression (for such we mean it to be) is directed
those who had been formed on the Greek model ; against those who substitute assumption for de
""arte maggiore" was its designation. The story monstration, or the particular for the general, and
about Pascal's discovery of geometry in his boy- leave the student in ignorance of what has been
1 (a. a. 1635) contains the statement that he done.
70 EUCLEIDES. EUCLEIDES.
enunciations in their present order. So completely The preceding works are in existence ; the fol
was this notion received, that editions of Euclid, lowing are either lost, or do not remain in the
so called, contained only enunciations; all that original Greek.
contained demonstrations were said to be Euclid 8. Tlepl Aiaiptcrewv &i6\iov, On Divisions. Pro
with the commentary of Theon, Campanus, Zam- clus (/. c) There is a translation from the Arabic,
bertus, or some other. Also, when the enunciations with the name of Mohammed of Bagdad attached,
were given in Greek and Latin, and the demon which has been suspected of being a translation of
strations in Latin only, this was said to constitute the book of Euclid : of this we shall see more.
an edition of Euclid in the original Greek, which 9. KaviKav fiiSXla V, Four hooks on Conic Sec
has occasioned a host of bibliographical errors. We tions. Pappus (lib. vii. pruef.) affirms that Euclid
have already seen that Theon did edit Euclid, and wrote four books on conies, which Apollonius en
that manuscripts have described this editorship larged, adding four others. Archimedes refers to
in a manner calculated to lead to the mistake: the elements of conic sections in a manner which
but Proclus, who not only describes Euclid as rd shews that he could not be mentioning the new
uaXaxtlmpov OUKVVfitva rots (fjLwpoadev us avt- work of his contemporary Apollonius (which it is
KeyKrous diroSd^is dvayaywv, and comments on most likely he never saw). Euclid may possibly
the very demonstrations which wo now have, as have written on conic sections ; but it is impossible
on those of Euclid, is an unanswerable witness ; that the first four books of Apollonius (see his
the order of the propositions themselves, connected life) can have been those of Euclid.
as it is with the mode of demonstration, is another ; 10. Uopuriiiruv 0iSKtay ', Time booksofPorisms.
and finally, Theon himself, in stating, as before These are mentioned by Proclus and by Pappus
noted, that a particular part of a certain demonstra (I. c), the latter of whom gives a description which
tion is his own, states as distinctly that the rest isis so corrupt as to be unintelligible.
not Sir Henry Savile (the founder of the Savilian 11. ToirwK 'EirrWoW 0ig\(a 0, Two boohs on
chairs at Oxford), in the lectures* on Euclid with Plane Loci. Pappus mentions these, but not Eu-
which he opened his own chair of geometry before tocius, as Fabricius affirms. (Comment in Apoll.
he resigned it to Briggs (who is said to have taken lib. i. lemm.)
up the course where his founder left off, at book i. 12. T&vuv irpos 'Ewupdveiav fii§\ia 0, men
prop. 9), notes that much discussion had taken tioned by Pappus. What these rY6*oi rpos 'Ewi-
place on the subject, and gives three opinions. tpdvuav, or Loci ad Super/idem, were, neither
Pappus nor Eutocius inform us; the latter says
The first, that of quidam stitfti ct perridiculi, above
discussed : the second, that of Peter Ramus, who they derive their name from their own Io'iottjj,
held the whole to be absolutely due to Theon, which there is no reason to doubt We suspect
propositions as well as demonstrations, fake, quis that the books and the meaning of the title were
neqat? the third, that of Buteo of Dauphiny, a as much lost in the time of Eutocius as now.
geometer of merit, who attributes the whole to 18. Ilepl YeuSapW, On Fallacies. On this
Euclid, quae opinio aui vera est, aut veritali eerie work Proclus says, "He gave methods of clear
proximo. It is not useless to remind the classical judgment (SiopaTorijs (ppotniofas) the possession of
student of these things : the middle ages may be which enables us to exercise those who are begin
ning geometry in the detection of false reasonings,
called the "ages of faith " in their viewB of criticism.
Whatever was written was received without exa and to keep them free from delusion. And the
mination ; and the endorsement of an obscure scho book which gives us this preparation is called
liast, which was perhaps the mere whim of a tran VtvSapiw, in which he enumerates the species of
scriber, was allowed to rank with the clearest as fallacies, and exercises the mental faculty on each
sertions of the commentators and scholars who had species by all manner of theorems. He places
before them more works, now lost, written by the truth side by side with falsehood, and connects
contemporaries of the author in question, than the confutation of falsehood with experience." It
there were letters in the stupid sentence which thus appears that Euclid did not intend his Ele
was allowed to overbalance their testimony. From ments to be studied without any preparation, but
such practices we are now, it may well be hoped, that he had himself prepared a treatise on fallacious
finally delivered : but the time is not yet come reasoning, to precede, or at least to accompany, the
when refutation of "the scholiast" may be safely Elements. The loss of this book is much to be
abandoned. regretted, particularly on account of the explana
All the works that have been attributed to tions of the course adopted in the Elements which
Euclid arc as follows : it cannot but have contained.
1. 2toix«o, the Elements, in 13 books, with a We now proceed to some bibliographical account
14th and 15th added by Hyfsicles. of the writings of Euclid. In every case in which
2. AtSo^xo, the Data, which has a preface by we do not mention the source of information, it is
Marinus of Naples. to be presumed that we take it from the edition
3. Eirrayuyil 'AppoviKJ, a Treatise on Music ; itself.
and i. KaTOTO/ii) KwcVoj, the Division of tie Scale : The first, or editio princeps, of the Elements is
one of these works, most likely the former, must that printed by Erhard Ratdolt at Venice in 1482,
be rejected. Proclus says that Euclid wrote (card black letter, folio. It is the Latin of the fifteen
povettcftv oToix«i»0"«f. books of the Elements, from Adelord, with the
5. *aiv6ii(va, the Appearances (of the heavens). commentary of Campanus following the demon
Pappus mentions them. strations. It has no title, but, after a short intro
6. 'OirriKa, on Optics; and 7. KaroirrpiKa, on duction by the printer, opens thus : " Preclarissimus
Catoptrics. Proclus mentions both. liber elementorum Euclidis perspicacissimi : in
artem geometrie incipit qua foeb'cissime : Punctus
* l'radecliones tresdecim in princtpium elementorum est cujus ps nn est," &c. Ratdolt states in the
Euclidis; Omnii habitat M.DC.xx. Oxoniae, 1621. introduction that the difficulty of printing diagrams
EUCLEIDES. EUCLEIDES. n
had prevented books of geometry from going through prixcipis opera, &c. At the end, Veneiiis impression
the press, bat that he had ao completely overcome per...Paganinum de Paganinis . . . arnio... v. d v 1 1 1 1 ...
it, by great pains, that * qua facilitate litterarum Paciolus adopts the Latin of Adelard, and occa
eJementa imprimnntar, ea etiam geometrice figure sionally quotes the comment of Campanus, intro
cococeremar." These diagrams are printed on the ducing his own additional comments with the head
margin, and though at first sight they seem to be " Castigator." He opens the fifth book with the
woodcuts, yet a closer inspection makes it probable account of a lecture which he gave on that book in
that they are produced from metal lines. The a church at Venice, August 1 1, 1508, giving the
comber of propositions in Euclid (15 books) is 485, names of those present, and some subsequent lau
of which 1 8 are wanting here, and 30 appear which datory correspondence. This edition is less loaded
are not in Euclid; so that there are 497 proposi with comment than either of those which precede.
tions. The preface to the 14th book, by which it It is extremely scarce, and is beautifully printed :
is made almost certain that Euclid did not write it the letter is a curious intermediate step between
(for Euclid's books have no prefaces) is omitted. the old thick black letter and that of the Roman
Its Arabic origin is visible in the words Itelmuaym type, and makes the derivation of the latter from
and hdwuaripbe, which are used for a rhombus and the former very clear.
a trapezium. This edition is not very scarce in The fifth edition (Elements, Latin, Roman letter,
EnjcUnd ; we hare seen at least four copies for folio), edited by Jacobus Faber, and printed by
sale in the last ten years. Henry Stephens at Paris in 1516, has the title
The second edition bears "Vincentiae 1491," Contenta followed by heads of the contents.
Rinnan letter, folio, and was printed " per magis There are the fifteen books of Euclid, by which
tral Leocardum de Basilea et Gulielmum de are meant the Enunciations (see the preceding re
Papsa ■coos." It is entirely a reprint, with the marks on this subject); the Comment of Campanus,
introduction emitted (uruVss indeed it be torn out meaning the demonstrations in Adelard's Latin ;
in the only copy we ever saw), and is but a poor the Comment of Theon as given by Zambertus,
specimen, both as to letter-press and diagrams, meaning the demonstration in the Latin of Zam
when compared with the first edition, than which bertus; and the Comment of Hypsicles as given by
it is rery much scarcer. Both these editions call Zambertus upon the last two books, meaning the
Euclid Mtgar&ua. demonstrations of those two books. This edition
The third edition (also Latin, Roman letter, is fairly printed, and is moderately scarce. From
folio,) containing the Elements, the Phaenomena, it we date the time when a list of enunciations
the two Optics (under the names of Speatlaria and merely was universally called the complete work of
Perspectwa), and the Data with the preface of Euclid.
Marinas, being the editio princeps of all but the With these editions the ancient series, as we
Elements, has the title Euclidis Mtyaremis philo- may call it, terminates, meaning the complete La
*ofJud PfatomiH, matnematicarum duciplinaru tin editions which preceded the publication of the
JanHorir : habent in hoc volumine qvicuque ad ma- Greek text. Thus we see five folio editions of the
tmtmatied mittatHi atpirdi : elemetorum Libras, Elements produced in thirty-four years.
<fe- £c Zamberto Veueio Interprete. At the end The first Greek text was published by Simon
is Impreatun Yenecu, fyc in edibus Joanna Tu- Gryne, or Grynoeus, Basic, 1 533, folio : * contain
anmi, (Jr., M. It. Y. VIII. Klcndat Novibru — ing, 4k tuv Qiwvos irwovtriiv (the title-page has
that is, 1505, often read 1508 by an obvious this statement), the fifteen books of the Elements,
mistake. Zambertus has given a long preface and the commentary of Proclus added at the end,
and a Hfe of Euclid : he professes to have trans so far as it remains; all Greek, without Latin.
lated from a Greek text, and this a very little On Grynoeus and his reverendt care of manuscripts,
inspection wQl shew be must have done ; but he see Anthony Wood. {Allien. Oxon. in verb.) The
does not give any information upon his manu Oxford editor is studiously silent about this Basle
scripts. He states that the propositions have the edition, which, though not obtained from many
apamtkm of Theon or Hypsicles, by which he pro manuscripts, is even now of some value, and was
bably means that Theon or Hypsicles gave the for a century and three-quarters the only printed
demonstntions. The preceding editors, whatever Greek text of all the books.
their opinions may have been, do not expressly state With regard to Greek texts, the student must
Theon or any other to have been the author of the be on his guard against bibliographers. For in
demonstrations: but by 1505 the Greek manuscripts stance, Harless£ gives, from good catalogues, Eii-
which bear the name of Theon had probably come
to light For Zambertus Fabricius cites Goetz. mem. * Fabricius sets down an edition of 1530, by
fciM. Dread, ii. p. 213 : his edition is beautifully the same editor : this is a misprint
printed, and is rare. He exposes the translations ■f- u Sure I am, that while he continued there
from the Arabic with unceasing severity. Fabri (i. e. at Oxford), he visited and studied in most of
cius mentions (from Scbeibe!) two small works, the the libraries, searched after rare books of the Greek
four books of the Elements by Ambr. Jocher, 1506, tongue, particularly after some of the books of
sad something called "Geonietria Euclidis," which commentaries of Proclus Diadoch. Lycius, and
accompanies an edition of Sacrobosco, Paris, H. having found several, and the owners to be care
Stephens, 1507. Of these we know nothing. less of them, he took some away, and conveyed
The fourth edition (Latin, black letter, folio, them with him beyond the seas, as in an epistle
1509), containing the Elements only, is the work by him written to John the son of Thos. More, he
of the celebrated Lucas Paciolus (de Burgo confesseth." Wood.
Stnrri SepoJchri), better known as Lucas di J Schweiger, in his Handbuch (Leipsig, 1830),
Bags, (he first who printed a work on algebra. gives this same edition as a Greek one, and makes
The title is EucUdie Megarensit phiiosophi acutU' the same mistake with regard to those of Dasypo-
km maiitmatieonuupte omnium tine controtxrtia dius, Scheubcl, &c We have no doubt that the
72 EUCLEIDES. EUCLEIDES.
kX«(5ou iroixttuy PiSkla «', Rome, 1545, 8vo„ plete translation of Archimedes. It was his in
printed by Antonius Hindus Asulanus, containing tention to publish the texts of Euclid, Apollonius,
enunciations only, without demonstrations or dia and Archimedes; and beginning to examine the
grams, edited by Angelus Cujanus, and dedicated manuscripts of Euclid in the Royal Library at
to Antonius Altoritus. We happen to possess a Paris, 23 in number, he found one, marked No. 190,
little volume agreeing in every particular with this which had the appearance of being written in the
description, except only that it is in Italian, being ninth century, and which seemed more complete
" I quindici libri degli elementi di Euclide, di Grtco and trustworthy than any single known manu
tradotti in lingua Thoscana." Here is another in script. This document was part of the plunder
stance in which the editor believed he had given sent from Rome to Paris by Napoleon, and had
the whole of Euclid in giving the enunciations. belonged to the Vatican Library. When restitu
From this edition another Greek text, Florence, tion was enforced by the allied armies in 1815, a
1545, was invented by another mistake. All the special permission was given to Peyrard to retain
Greek and Latin editions which Fabricius, Mur- this manuscript till he had finished the edition on
hard, &c, attribute to Dasypodius (Conrad Rauch- which he was then engaged, and of which one vo
fuss), only give the enunciations in Greek. The lume had already appeared. Peyrard was a wor
same may be said of Scheubel's edition of the first shipper of this manuscript, No. 190, and had a con
six books (Basle, folio, 1550), which nevertheless tempt for all previous editions of Euclid. He gives
professes in the title-page to give Euclid, Gr. Lat. at the end of each volume a comparison of the
There is an anonymous complete Greek and Latin Paris edition with the Oxford, specifying what has
text, London, printed by William Jones, 1620, been derived from the Vatican manuscript, and
which has thirteen books in the title-page, but making a selection from the various readings of the
contains only six in all copies that we have seen : other 22 manuscripts which were before him. This
it is attributed to the celebrated mathematician edition is therefore very valuable ; but it is very
Briggs. incorrectly printed: and the editor's strictures
The Oxford edition, folio, 1703, published by upon his predecessors seem to us to require the
David Gregory, with the title EuVAefeou rd att>$6- support of better scholarship than he could bring
/icpo, took its rise in the collection of manuscripts to bear upon the Bubject. (See the Dublin Jlevieiv,
bequeathed by Sir Henry Savile to the University, No. 22, Nov. 1841, p. 341, &c.)
and was a part of Dr. Edward Bernard's plan The Berlin edition, Greek only, one volume in
(6ee his life in the Penny Cyclopaedia) for a large two parts, octavo, Berlin, 1 826, is the work of E.
republication of the Greek geometers. His inten F. August, and contains the thirteen books of the
tion was, that the first four volumes should contain Elements, with various readings from Peyrard, and
Euclid, Apollonius, Archimedes, Pappus, and Heron j from three additional manuscripts at Munich (mak
and, by an undesigned coincidence, the University ing altogether about 35 manuscripts consulted by
has actually published the first three volumes in the the four editors). To the scholar who wants one
order intended : we hope Pappus and Heron will edition of the Elements, we should decidedly re
be edited in time. In this Oxford text a large addi commend this, as bringing together all that has
tional supply of manuscripts was consulted, but been done for the text of Euclid's greatest work.
various readings are not given. It contains all the We mention here, out of its place, The Elements
reputed works of Euclid, the Latin work of Mo of Euclid with dissertations, by James Williamson,
hammed of Bagdad, above mentioned as attributed B.D. 2vols.4to., Oxford, 1781, and London,1788.
by some to Euclid, and a Latin fragment Dc Levi This is an English translation of thirteen books,
et Ponderoso, which is wholly unworthy of notice, made in the closest manner from the Oxford edi
but which some had given to Euclid. The Latin tion, being Euclid word for word, with the addi
of this edition is mostly from Commandine, with tional words required by the English idiom given
the help of Henry Savile's papers, which seem to in Italics. This edition is valuable, and not very
have nearly amounted to a complete version. As scarce : the dissertations may be read with profit
an edition of the whole of Euclid's works, this by a modem algebraist, if it be true that equal and
stands alone, there being no other in Greek. opposite errors destroy one another.
Peyrard, who examined it with every desire to Camerer and Hauber published the first six
find errors of the press, produced only at the rate books in Greek and Latin, with good notes, Ber
of ten for each book of the Elements. lin, 8vo. 1824.
The Paris edition was produced under singular We believe we have mentioned all the Greek
circumstances. It is Greek, Latin, and French, in texts of the Elements; the liberal supply with
3 vols. 4to. Paris, 1814-16-18, and it contains which the bibliographers have furnished the world,
fifteen books of the Elements and the Data ; for, and which Fabricius and others have perpetuated,
though professing to give a complete edition of is, as we have no doubt, a series of mistakes arising
Euclid, Peyrard would not admit anything else to for the most part out of the belief about Euclid the
be genuine. F. Peyrard had published a transla enunciator and Theon the demonstrator, which we
tion of some books of Euclid in 1 804, and a corn- have described. Of Latin editions, which must have
a slight notice, we have the six books by Orontius
classical bibliographers are trustworthy as to Finoeus, Paris, 1536, folio (Fabr., Murhard) ;
writers with whom a scholar is more conversant the same by Joachim Camerarius, Leipsic, 1543,
than with Euclid. It is much that a Fabricius 8vo (Fabr., Murhard); the fifteen books by Steph.
should enter upon Euclid or Archimedes at all, Gracilis, Paris, 1557, 4to. (Fabr., who calls it Gr.
and he may well be excused for simply copying Lat., Murhard); the fifteen books of Franc, de Foix
from bibliographical lists. But the mathemati de Candale ( Flussas Can dalla ), who adds a sixteenth ,
cal bibliographers, Heilbronner, Murhard, &c, are Paris, 1566, folio, and promises a seventeenth and
inexcusable for copying from, and perpetuating, the eighteenth, which he gave in a subsequent edition,
almost unavoidable mistakes of Fabricius. Paris, 1578, folio (Fabr., Murhard) ; Frederic
EUCLEIDES. EUCLEIDES. 73
Cornmcndine's first edition of the fifteen books, with whose editions have not much to do with the pro
commentaries, Pisauri, 1572, foL (Fabr., Murhard); gress of opinion about the Elements.
the fifteen books of Christopher Clavius, with com- Dr. Robert Sinison published the first six, and
meatary, and Candalla's sixteenth book annexed, eleventh and twelfth books, in two separate quarto
Kane, 1 574. fcj. (Fabr., Murhard); thirteen books, editions. (Latin, Glasgow, 1 756. English, London,
by Ambrosias Rhodhu, Witteberg, 1609, 8vo. 1756.) The translation of the Data was added to
(Fabr-, Murh.) ; thirteen books by the Jesuit Claude the first octavo edition (called 2nd edition), Glas
Richard, Antwerp, 1 645, folio ( Murh. ); twelve books gow, 1762 : other matters unconnected with Euclid
by Hartley, Oxford, 1802. We hare not thought have been added to the numerous succeeding edi
it necessary to swell this article with the various tions. With the exception of the editorial fancy
reprints of these and the old Latin editions, nor about the perfect restoration of Euclid, there is lit
with editions which, though called Elements of tle to object to in this celebrated edition. It
Euclid, haTe the demonstrations given in the edi might indeed have been expected that some notice
tor's own maimer, as those of Maurolycus, Barrow, would have been taken of various points on which
Cotes, At, &c, nor with the editions contained in Euclid has evidently fallen short of that formality
ancient courses of mathematics, such as those of of rigour which is tacitly claimed for him. We
Herigooins, Dechales, Schott, &(u, &c, which ge prefer this edition very much to many which have
nerally gave a tolerably complete edition of the been fashioned upon it, particularly to those which
Elements. Commandine and Clavius are the pro have introduced algebraical symbols into the de
genitor* of a large school of editors, among whom monstrations in such a manner as to confuse geo
Robert Sanson stands conspicuous. metrical demonstration with algebraical operation.
We now proceed to English translations. We Simson was first translated into German by J. A.
find in Tanner (BAL Brit. Mb. p. 149) the fol Matthias, Magdeburgh, 1799, 8vo.
lowing short statement : " Candish, Richardus, Professor John Playfair's Element* of Geometry
patha Sirifalcienjis, in linguam patriam transtulit contains the first six books of Euclid ; but the so
Eoclidis gHsnetriam, lib. z v. Claruit* a. D. mdlvl lid geometry is supplied from other sources. The
BaL par. post. p. 111." Richard Candish is men first edition is of Edinburgh, 1 795, octavo. This
tioned elsewhere as a translator, but we are confi is a valuable edition, and the treatment of the fifth
dent that his translation was never published. book, in particular, is much simplified by the aban
Before 1570, all that had been published in Eng donment of Euclid's notation, though his definition
lish was Robert Recorde's Pathway to Knowledge, and method are retained.
1551, containing enunciations only of the first four Euclid's Elements of Plane Geometry, by John
books, not in Euclid'* order. Recorde considers Walker, London, 1827, is a collection containing
demonstration to be the work of Theon. In 1570 very excellent materials and valuable thoughts, but
appeared Henry Biilingsley's translation of the fif it is hardly an edition of Euclid.
teen books, with Caudalla's sixteenth, London, We ought perhaps to mention W.Halifax, whose
folio. This book has a long preface by John Dee, English Euclid Schweiger puts down as printed
the magician, whose picture is at the beginning : eight times in London, between 1685 and 1752.
so that it has often been taken for Dee's transla But we never met with it, and cannot find it in
tion ; bat he himself, in a list of his own works, any sale* catalogue, nor in any English enumera
ascribes it to Billingsley. The latter was a rich tion of editors. The Diagrams ofEuclid's Elements
citizen, and was mayor (with knighthood) in 1591. by the Rev. W. Taylor, York, 1828, 8vo. size
We always bad doubts whether he was the real (part i. containing the first book ; we do not know
translator, imagining that Dee had done the drud of any more), is a collection of lettered diagrams
gery at least. On looking into Anthony Wood's stamped in relief, for the use of the blind.
account of Billingsley (Atb. droit, n verb.) we find The earliest German print of Euclid is an edition
it staled (and also how the information was ob by Scheubel or Scheybl, who published the seventh,
tained) that he studied three years at Oxford be eighth, and ninth books, Augsburgb, 1555, 4 to.
fore be was apprenticed to a haberdasher, and there (Fabr. from his own copy) ; the first six books by
asade acquaintance with an "eminent mathema- W. Iloltzmann, better known as Xylander, were
cHan" called Whytehead, an Augustine friar. published at Basle, 1562, folio (Fabr., Murhard,
When the friar was "put to his shifts" by the Kastner). In French we have Errard, nine books,
dissolution of the monasteries, Billingsley received Paris, 1598, 8vo. (Fabr.) ; fifteen books by Hen-
and maintained him, and learnt mathematics from rion, Paris, 1615 ((Fabr.), 1623 (Murh.), about
hiss. M When Whytehead died, he gave his scho 1627 (necessary inference from the preface of the
lar all his mathematical observations that he had fifth edition, of 1649, in our possession). It is
made and collected, together with his notes on a close translation, with a comment. In Dutch,
Euclid's Elements." This was the foundation of six books by J. Petersz Dou, Leyden, 1606 (Fabr.),
the translation, on which we have only to say that 1 608 (Murh.). Dou was translated into German,
it was certainly made from the Greek, and not Amsterdam, 1634, 8vo. Also an anonymous trans
from any of the Arabico- Latin versions, and is. for lation of Clavius, 1663 (Murh.). In Italian, Tar-
the time, a very good one. It was reprinted, Lon taglia's edition, Venice, 1543 and 1565. (Murh.,
don, folio, 166L Billingsley died in 1606, at a Fabr.) In Spanish, by Joseph Saragoza, Valentia
great age. 1673, 4 to. (Murh.) In Swedish, the first six
Edmind Scarbnrgh (Oxford, folio, 1705) trans books, by Martin Strbmer, Upsal, 1753. (Murh.)
lated six books, with copious annotations. We The remaining writings of Euclid are of small in
emit detailed mention of Whiston's translation of terest compared with the Elements, and a shorter
Taojoet, of KeilS, Conn, Stone, and other editors, account of them will be sufficient.

* Hence Schweiger baa it that R Candish pub- * These are the catalogues in which the appear
hshed a translation of Euclid in 1556. ance of a book is proof of its existence.
74 EUCLEIDES. EUCLEIDES.
The first Greek edition of the Data is EiVXc iSou (Proclus ; Pappus ; August cd cii.; Fabric. BtV.
SetofUva, &c-, by Claudius Hardy, Paris, 1G2S, Graec. vol. iv. p. 44, &c ; Gregory, Praef. edit,
4to„ Gr. Lat, with the preface of Marinus prefixed. cit. ; Murhard, ISM. Math.; Zamberti, ed. cit.;
Murhard speaks of a second edition, Paris, 1695, Savile, Praelect. in EucL ; Heilbronner, JJitL
4to. Dasypodius had previously published them Mathes. Univ, ; Schweiger, Handb. der CUtssisch.
in Latin, Strasburg, 1570. (Fabr.) We have al Bibl. ; Peyrard, ed. cit., &c. &c : all editions to
ready spoken of Zambcrti's Latin, and of the Greek which a reference is not added having been ac
of Gregory and Peyrard. There is also Euclidis tually consulted.) [A De M.]
Datorum Liber by Horsley, Oxford, 1803, 8vo. EUCLEIDES (EvKAsttnt), historical. 1. One
The Phaenomena is an astronomical work, con of the leaders of the body of colonists from Zancle
taining 25 geometrical propositions on the doctrine who founded Himera. (Thucyd. vi. 5.)
of the sphere. Pappus (lib. vi.jtrarf.) refers to 2. One of the sons of Hippocrates, tyrant of
the second proposition of this work of Euclid, Gela. It was in suppressing a revolt of the Geloant
and the second proposition of the book which has against Euclcides and his brother, which broke out
come down to us contains the matter of the refer on the death of Hippocrates, that Gelon managed
ence. We have referred to the Latin of Zamberti to get the sovereignty into his own hands, B.C. 491.
and the Greek of Gregory. Dasypodius gave an (Herod, vii. 155.)
edition (Gr. Lat., so said ; but we suppose with only 3. One of the Thirty Tyrants at Athens. (Xen.
the enunciations Greek), Strasburg, 1571, 4to. (?) Hell. ii. 3. § 2.)
( Weidler), and another appeared (Lat.) by Joseph 4. The archon eponymus for the year B. c. 403.
Auria, with the comment of Maurolycus, Rome, His archonship is memorable for the restoration,
1591, 4to. (Lalande and Weidler.) The book with some modifications, of the old laws of Solon
is also in Mersenne's Synopsis, Paris, 1644, 4to. and Draco. These were inscribed on the stoa poe-
( Weidler.) Lalande names it (BiW. Aaron, p. 1 88) die in the so-called Ionian alphabet, which was
as part of a very ill-described astronomical collec then first brought into use at Athens for public
tion, in 3 vols. Paris, 1626, 16mo. documents. (Andoc. de Alyst. p. 1 1 ; Plut. Arist. 1.)
Of the two works on music, the Harmonics and Athenaeus (i. p. 3, a.) mentions an Athenian of
the Dix-ision of tlie Canon (or scale), it is unlikely this name who was famous as a collector of books.
that Euclid should have been the author of both. Whether he was the same person as the archon, or
The former is a very dry description of the inter not, does not appear.
minable musical nomenclature of the Greeks, and 5. The brother of Cleomenes III. king of Sparta.
of their modes. It is called Aristoxenean [Aris- He commanded a division of the forces of the lat
toxenus] : it does not contain any discussion of ter at the battle of Sellaaia, it. c. 223, and by his
the proper ultimate authority in musical matters, unskilful tactics in a great degree brought about
though it does, in its wearisome enumeration, the defeat of the Lacedaemonians. He fell with
adopt some of those intervals which AriBtoxenus the whole of the wing which he commanded.
retained, and the Pythagoreans rejected. The (Polyb. ii. 65, 67, 68 ; Plut Philop. p. 358, AraU
style and matter of this treatise, we strongly sus p. 1046, Cleom. pp. 809, 818.) [C.P.M.]
pect, belong to a later period than that of Euclid. EUCLEIDES(EdicX«f8»ij), a native of Mega r a,
The second treatise is an arithmetical description or, according to some less probable accounts, of
and demonstration of the mode of dividing the Gela. He was one of the chief of the disciples of
scale. Gregory is inclined to think this treatise Socrates, but before becoming such, he had studied
cannot be Euclid's, and one of his reasons is that the doctrines, and especially the dialectics, of the
Ptolemy does not mention it; another, that the Eleatics. Socrates on one occasion reproved him
theory followed in it is such as is rarely, if ever, for his fondness for subtle and captious disputes.
mentioned before the time of Ptolemy. If Euclid SDiog. Lae'rt ii. 30.) On the death of Socrates
did write either of these treatises, we are satisfied B.c. 399), Eucleides, with most of the other pupils
it must have been the second. Both are contained of that philosopher, took refuge in Megara, and
in Gregory (Gr. Lat.) as already noted ; in the there established a school which distinguished it
collection of Greek musical authors by Meibomius self chiefly by the cultivation of dialectics. The
(Gr. Lat.), Amsterdam, 1652, 4 to.; and in a sepa doctrines of the Eleatics formed the basis of his
rate edition (also Gr. Lat) by J. Pena, Paris, philosophical system. With these he blended the
1537, 4to. (Fabr.), 1557 (Schweiger). Possevinus ethical and dialectical principles of Socrates. The
has also a corrected Latin edition of the first in his Eleatic dogma, that there is one universal, un
JliU. SeL Colon. 1657. Forcadel translated one changeable existence, he viewed in a moral aspect,
treatise into French, Paris, 1566, 8vo. (Schweiger.) calling this one existence the Good, but giving it
The book on Optica treats, in 61 propositions, on also other names (as Reason, Intelligence, etc),
the simplest geometrical characteristics of vision perhaps for the purpose of explaining how the real,
and perspective: the Catoptrics have 31 proposi though one, appeared to be many. He rejected
tions on the law of reflexion as exemplified in demonstration, attacking not so much the premises
plane and spherical mirrors. We have referred to assumed as the conclusions drawn, and also reason
the Gr. Lat. of Gregory and the Latin of Zam ing from analogy. He is said to have been a man
berti ; there is also the edition of J. Pena (Gr. of a somewhat indolent and procrastinating dispo
Lat), Paris, 1557, 4to. (Fabr.) ; that of Dasypo sition. He was the author of six dialogues, none
dius (Latin only, we suppose, with Greek enuncia of which, however, have come down to ns. He
tions), Strasburg, 1557, 4to. (Fabr.) ; a reprint of has frequently been erroneously confounded with
the Latin of Pena, Leyden, 1599, 4to. (Fabr.) ; the mathematician of the same name. The school
and some other reprint, Leipsic, 1607. (Fabr.) which he founded was called sometimes the Mega-
There is a French translation by Rol. Freart Mans, ric, sometimes the Dialectic or Eristic (Diog.
1663, 4to. ; and on Italian one by Egnatio Danti, Laert. ii. 106—108 ; Cic. Acad. ii. 42 ; Plut da
Florence, 1573, 4to. (Schweiger.) Fratr. Am. 18.) [C. P. M.]
EUCRATES. EUCRATIDES. -r,
EUCLEIDES (EJnAfai)!). I. A Greek phy by refusing to become one of the Thirty Tyrants,
sician, Co whom is addressed one of tho Letters and was put to death by them. According to
attribated to Theano (Socrat. et I'ythag. Epist. Andocides, Eucrates was one of the victims of the
p. 61, ed. Orel!.), and who therefore may be sup popular ferment about the mutilation of the Hermes
posed to hare lived in the fifth century B. c busts, having been put to death on the information
2. The author of an antidote against venomous of Diocleides. We have a speech of Lysias, com
animal*. Ac, the composition of which is preserved posed in defence of the son of Eucrates on the
by Galen, de Autid. ii. 10, vol. xiv. p. 162. Eu- occasion of a trial as to whether his hereditary
cjeides most have liTed in or before the second property should be confiscated or not. (Lys. do
eentarr after Christ [W. A. G.] Bonis Niciae frat. c. 2 ; Andoc. de Aft/st. c. 11.)
Et'CLEIDES. 1. Of Athena, a sculptor, made 2. A writer mentioned by Hesychius (s. v.
the statues of Pentelic marble, in the temples of ikarpov) as the author of a work entitled 'Pooiaxd.
Ivsneter. Aphrodite, and Dionvsus, and Eileithuia Athenacus (iii. p. lll,c.) also mentions a writer
at Bon in Aehaia. (Pans. v'ii. 25. § 5.) This of this name. [C. P. M.]
town, as seen by Pansanias, had been rebuilt after EUCRA'TIDES (EiVpaTffins), king of Bactria,
it* destrttctun by an earthquake, in B. c 37$. was contemporary with Mithridates I. (Arsaces
(Pans. L e„ eomp. § 2.) The artist probably flou VL), king of Parthia, and appears to have been
rished, therefore, soon after this date. one of the most powerful of the Bactrian kings,
2. A medallist, whose name is seen on the coins and to have greatly extended his dominions ; but
of Srracase. (It Rochette, Lettre a M. le Due de all the events of his reign are involved in the
lijlm, 1831.) [P. >. I greatest obscurity and confusion. It seemB pro
El'CLES (EAxAiji). 1. Of Rhodes, a son of Cal- bable that he established his power in Bactria
d CaUipateira, the daughter of Diagoras, proper, while Demetrius, the son of Euthydemus,
bo the family of the Eratidae or Diagoridae. still reigned in the Indian provinces south of the
He gsuned a victory in boxing at Ohmpia, though Paropamisus [Demetrius] ; and, in the course of
it is uinjertapi in what year ; and there was a sta the wars that he carried on against that prince, he
tue of hits at Olympia, the work of Naucydes. was at one time besieged by him with very superior
(Pans. vL 6. ? 1, 7. 6 1.) The Scholiast on Pin- forces for a space of near Ave months, and with
dar (OL Tii. 16) calls him Euclon, and describes difficulty escaped. (Justin, xli. 6.) At a subse
him a* a nephew of Caliipateira. (TiocVh% Ejpliatl. quent period, and probably after the death of
al Pmd. CM. vii. p. 166, &c; Diagoras, Era- Demetrius, he made great conquests in northern
TD1I.) India, so that he was said to have been lord of a
2. A son of Hippon of Syracuse, was one of the thousand cities. (Strab.xr. p. 686.) Yet in the later
three new commanders who were appointed in years of his reign he appears to have suffered heavy
B. c 414. Subsequently he was one of the com losses in his wars against Mithridates, king of
manders of the fleet which the Syracusans sent to Parthia, who wrested from him several of his pro
Miletus to assist Tissaphemes against the Athe vinces (Strab. xi. pp. 515, 517), though it seems
nians. (Thoc vL 103 ; Xen. Hell. i. 2. $ 8.) A impossible to admit the statement of Justin
third person of this name is Eucles, who was archon (xli. 6), that the Parthian king conquered
at Athens in B. c. 427. (Thuc. iv. 104.) [L. S.] all the dominions of Eucratides, even as far as
EUCLOCS (E£«Aoi>t), an ancient Cyprian India. It appears certain at least, from the same
soothsayer, who, according to Pausanias (x. 12. author, that Eucratides retained possession of
• • . 1 4*. s :i. i 4. s :'»), lived before the time of Ho In- Indian dominions up to the time of his death,
sier, who, as he predicted, was to spring from and tliat it was on his return from thence to
Cvprus. Pansanias quotes some lines professing Bactria that he was assassinated by his son, whom
tt be the bard's prophecy of this event. The he had associated with himself in the sovereignt}'.
psna called the Cyprian Poem has been errone (Justin, xli. 6.) The statements of ancient authors
ously supposed to have been of his composition. concerning the power and greatnesB of Eucratides
( Fabric. Oil. Grate. voL i. p. 3o.) [C. P. M.] are confirmed by the number of his coins that have
EU'CRATES (Efaoinu), the demagogue, ac been found on both sides of the Paropamisus : on
cording to the Scholiast, alluded to by Aristophanes these he bears the title of " the Great." (Wilson's
(float. 130), where he speaks of a flax-seller Ariuna, p. 235—237.) The date suggested for
whs ruled next but one before Cleon. (Camp. the commencement of his reign by Bayer, and
EqnL 254.) He might possibly be the same as adopted by Wilson, is 181 b. c. ; but authorities
' of Diodotus (Thuc. iii. 4 1 ), who spoke differ widely as to its termination, which is placed
t Cleon in the Mytilcnaean debate, B. c. 427, by Lassen in 160 11. c, while it is extended by
hat it is not very probable. The Eucrates men Bayer and Wilson to 147 B. c. (See Wilson's
tioned in the Lytutrata ( 1 03) of Aristophanes as a Ariatta, p. 234—238, where all the points relating
Eral in Thrace is a different person, and pro- to Eucratides are discussed and the authorities
y the same as the brother of Nicias spoken of referred to.)
below. (A. H. C]
EVCBATES (EtVoaSrnj). 1 . An Athenian, a
of the noted general Nicias. The few
we hare of him are to be found in the
of Andocides and Lysias, and these do
aot taJy with each other. According to Lysias,
he was made general by the Athenians, apparently
after the last naval defeat of Nicias in the harbour
af ttynrrae (unless indeed by the lait tea fiijhl
Lywas means the battle of Aegos Potanii), and
hit) attachment to the principles of liberty COIN OF KrclIATIDE.".
76 EUDEMUS. EUDEMUS.
Bayer (Hist. Regit. Grace. Badriani, p. 95, &c.) mand of the troops left in India. (Arrian, Anak
has inferred the existence of a second Eucratides, vi. 27. § 5.) After Alexander's death he made him
the son of the preceding, to whom he ascribes the self master of the territories of the Indian king
murder of his father, and this view has been Porus, and treacherously put that monarch to
adopted by M. Raonl Rochette (Journal des Sav. death. He by this means became very powerful,
1835); but it does not seem to be established on and in 317 B.C brought to the support of Eajsenes
any sufficient grounds. Wilson and Mionnet con in the war against Antigonus a force of 3500 men
ceive Heliocles to have been the successor of Eucra and 125 elephants. (Diod. xix. 14.) With these
tides. (Wilson's Ariana, p. 237 ; Mionnet, Suppl. he rendered him active service in the first battle in
t 8, p. 470.) [Helioclbs.] [E. H. B.] Gabiene, but seems nevertheless to have been jea
EUCTE'MON (Eihmj/uw), the astronomer. lous of him, and joined in the conspiracy of Anti-
[Mkton.] genes and Teutamos against him, though he was
EUCTE'MON (EuKrrfMtv), a Greek rhetorician afterwards induced to divulge their plans. After
who lived in the early part of the Roman empire. the surrender of Eumencs, Eudemus was put to
He is mentioned only by Seneca, who has pre death by order of Antigonus, to whom he had
served a few fragments of his works. (Controv. iii. always shewn a marked hostility. (Diod. xix. 15,
19, 20, iv. 25, v. 30, 34.) [L. S.] 27,44; Plut Eum. c 16.)
EUDAEMON (EiSal/iav). 1 . The name of two 2. Son of Cratevas and brother of Pithon, was
victors in the Olympian games. One of them was appointed by his brother satrap of Parthia in the
an Egyptian, and won the prize in boxing, but the stead of Philip, whom he displaced. (Diod. xix.
year is not known. (Philostr. Her. ii. 6.) The 14.) [E. H.B.]
other was a native of Alexandria, and gained a EtJDE'MUS (ESomos). I. An historical
victory in the foot-race in 01. 237, or A. D. 1 69. writer, a native of either Naxos or Paros, who
(African, ap. Euseb. Chron. p. 44, 2d. edit. Scalig.) lived before the time of the Peloponnesian war.
2. A Greek grammarian, and contemporary of (Dionys. Jud. de Thue. c. 5 ; Clem. Alex. Strom.
Libanius. He was a native of Pelusium in Egypt, vi. 2, 26, p. 267 ; Vossius, de Hist. Gr. p. 440,
and wrote a work on orthography, which is lost, ed. Westermann.)
but is often referred to by Suidas, in the Etymo- 2. A writer, apparently on natural histcry, who
logicum, and by Stephanus of Byzantium. (s. re. is frequently quoted bv Aelian, in his History of
AfAia, AcutkvKiov, Aokihciov, KaTfTwAiop, and Animals (iii. 21, iv. 8,'43, 45, 56, v. 7).
'Optavla; Eudoc. p. 168.) [L.S-] 3. A writer on the history of astronomy and
EUDA'MIDAS (Eioafilias). 1. A Spartan of geometry, mentioned by Clemens Alcxandrinus
some note, who, when the Chalcidians sent to (Strom, i. p. 1 30), Diogenes Laertius (i. 23), and
implore aid against Olynthus in B. c. 383, was Proclus (in Euclid, i. 4).
sent at the head of 2000 men. Before his de 4. A rhetorician, who lived probably in the
parture he prevailed on the ephors to commit the fourth century after Christ He was the author
next division which should be sent to the command of a lexicon, xspl Ae^cw 'Pvropuctoy, manuscripts
of his brother Phoebidas. The latter, on his of which are still extant at Paris, Vienna, and
march, seized the Cadmea of Thebes ; and in con other places. His work appears to have been dili
sequence of the delay of the main body of the gently used by Suidas, and is mentioned with
troops thus occasioned, Eudamidas could effect but praise by Eudocia. (Suidas, s. r. E^Sn^or ; Eudocia,
little. He, however, garrisoned several of the p. 165; Fabric. JJibl. Grace, vol. vi. pp. 245,
Chalcidian towns ; and, making Potidaea his head 632.) [C. P. M.]
quarters, carried on the war without any decisive EtJDE'MUS (EtfStyioj). 1. Of Cyprus, to
result. According to Diodorus, he was worsted in whom Aristotle dedicated the dialogue Evfiiyws t}
several engagements; and it would appear from rial >f/vxvs, which is lost, and known to us only
Demosthenes (de Falsa IjegaU p. 425), who speaks by some fragments preserved in Plutarch (Con-
of three commanders having in this war fallen on solnt. ad Apollon. p. 115, b.), and a few other
the side of the Chalcidians and Lacedaemonians, writers. (Fabric. Bibl. Grace, vol. iii. pp. 393,
that in one of these encounters Eudamidas was 599 ; lousing, Ik Script. Historiae Philosoplt. i.
killed. (Xen. Hell. v. 2. § 24 ; Diod. xv. 20, 21.) 15. 3 ; Wyttenbach, ad Plut. I. c p. 765 ; and the
2. Two kings of Sparta bore this name. Eu commentators on Cic. de Dirm. L 25.)
damidas I. was the younger son of Archidamus III. 2. Of Rhodes, a contemporary and disciple of
and succeeded his brother Agis III. in B. c. 330. Aristotle. We have no particulars of his life ; but
The exact length of his reign is uncertain, but it that he was one of the most important of Aristotle's
was probably about 30 years. Plutarch (Apophth. numerous disciples may be inferred from the anec
p. 220, 221) records some sayings of Eudamidas, dote of Gellius (xiii. 5, where Eudemo must be
which bespeak his peaceful character and policy, read instead of Menedemo), according to which
which is also attested by Pausanias (iii. 10. $ 5). Eudemus and Thcophrastus were the only disciples
Eudamidas II. was the son of Archidamus IV. whom the Peripatetic school esteemed worthy to
Swhom he succeeded) and grandson of Eudamidas I. fill the place of Aristotle after his death. Simpli-
Pint. Agis, 3.) He was the father of Agis IV. cius makes mention of a biography of Eudemus,
and Archidamus V. [C. P. M.] supposed to be the work of one Damas or Damas
EUDA'MUS (EtfSajuoi), is mentioned by Aris cus. (Simplic ad Aristot. Pht/s. vi. 216.) Eudemus
tophanes (/'In!. 884) as a contemporary, and lived was one of those immediate disciples of Aristotle
therefore in the fifth century B. c The Scholiast who closely followed their master, and the prin
informs us that he was by trade either a druggist cipal object of whose works was to correct, amplify,
or a goldsmith, and that he sold rings as antidotes and complete his writings and philosophy. It was
against poisons. [W. A. G.] owing to this circumstance, as we learn from the
EUDE'MUS(E«Jn^)s). 1. One of Alexander's ancient critics, that Aristotle's writings were so
generals, who was appointed by him to the coni- often confounded with those of other authors.
EUDEMUS. EUDICIUS. 77
Thus, forhstance, Eudemus and his contemporaries and was in all probability a recension of Aristotle's
and fcUow-diaciples, Theophrastus and Phanias, lectures edited by Eudemus. What share, how
wrote works with the same titles and on the same ever, Eudemus had in the composition of the chief
■objects as those of Aristotle. The works of Eu- work (the 'H6xa Nixoimx'"1) remains uncertain
demos of this kind were— 1. On the Categories. after the latest investigation of the subject. (Pansch,
2. Hesi 'EV^vfrelas. 3. 'AvoAutiko. 4. 4*ucriKa, de Moralibus viagnis subditicio Aristoteiis libro,
a work of which Simplicins in his commen 1841.) [A. S.]
tary has preserved some fragments in which EUDE'MUS (E<fSn/u>s), the name of several
Eaderoos often contradicts his master. In this Greek physicians, whom it is difficult to distinguish
treatise, or in some other, he seems to bare also with certainty. [Eudajius.]
mated on the nature of the human body. (Appul. 1. A druggist, who apparently lived in the
Apolog. p. 463.) But all these works are lost, and fourth or third century a c. He is said by Theo
Eiewise another of still more importance, in which phrastus (Hist. Plant, ix. 17. 2), to have been emi
he treated of the history of geometry and astro- nent in his trade, and to have professed to be able
■any (d w«pl T«*r 'AarpoXoyovniwv "Itrropta, to take hellebore without being purged.
Dise. Laert. i. 23 ; or 'AorpoAoyoo) 'Ioropfo, 2. A celebrated anatomist, who lived probably
Fibrie. BtU. Grate. toL iii. p. 432.) about the third century b. c, as Galen calls him a
Eadernua, however, is of most importance to as contemporary of Herophilus and Erasistratus. (Com
as sa editor of and commentator upon the Aristo ment, in Hippocr. "Aphor.,% vl 1 , voL xviii. pt 1 . p. 7.)
telian writings. How closely he followed Aris He appears to have given particular attention to
totle in his work on Physics, is shewn by tbe the anatomy and physiology of the nervous system.
circumstance of later commentators referring to (Galen, de Loot. Affect, iii. 14, vol. viii. p. 212.)
Eudemus in matters of Terbal criticism. (Stahr, He considered the metacarpus and metatarsus each
ArutnUtia. ii. p. 82.) Indeed Eudemus followed to consist of five bones (Galen, de L'su Part. iii. 8,
the Anstotelian system so closely, that modern vol. iii. p. 203), on which point Galen differed from
scholars, as Brandts for instance, do not hesitate to him, but modem anatomists agree with him. He,
ascribe to Eudemns some writings which are however, fell into the error of supposing the acro
generally attributed to Aristotle. (Brandis, in mion to be a distinct and separate bone. (Uufus
Max. Muscxm, i. 4. pp. 283, 284.) Aristotle Ephes. de AppeU. Part. Corp. Hum. p. 29.)
died in his 63rd year, without having pub 3. A physician at Rome, who was the paramour
lished even barf of his writings ; and tbe business of Livia (or Livilla), the wife of Drusus Caesar,
of arranging and publishing his literary relics de the son of the emperor Tiberius, and who joined
volved upon his nearest friends and disciples. her and Sejanus in their plot for poisoning her
Simpiieitxs has preserved a passage of the work of husband, a. d. 23. (Plin. H. N. xxix. 8; Tac
Andronicus of Rhodes on Aristotle and his writings, Ann. iv. 3.) He was afterwards put to the tor
which contains a fragment of a letter of Eudemus, ture. (Tac. ibid, c 11.) He is supposed to be the
which he wrote to Theophrastus, asking for an same person who is said by Caelius Aurelianus
accurate copy of a manuscript of tbe fifth book of (de Mora. Acut. ii. 38, p. 171) to have been one
the Aristotelian Physics. (Simplic ad Arist. of the followers of Themison, and whose medical
Pkys. foL 216, su, lin. 7.) In the same manner observations on hydrophobia and some other dis
the Aristotelian Metaphysics in their present form eases are quoted by him. He appears to be the
seem to nave been composed by Eudemus or his same physician who is mentioned by Galen (de
Kxxtssor* ; for we learn from Asclepius of Tralles MetA. Med. i. 7. voL x. p. 53) among several others
[A*clzpic&], who has preserved many valuable as belonging to the sect of the Methodici.
notices from the works of the more ancient com- 4. A contemporary and personal acquaintance
mentatora, that Aristotle committed his manuscript of Galen, in the latter part of the second century
of the Metaphysics to Eudemns, by which the after Christ. (Galen, de Metk. Med. vi. 6. vol. x.
publication of the work was delayed ; that on the p. 454.)
cfeath of Aristotle some parts of the manuscript 5. The name is also found in Galen, de Compos.
vm missing, and that these had to be completed Medic, sec Locos, ix. 5, vol. xiii. p. 291, de Aidid.
front the other writings of Aristotle by the sur ii. 14, vol. xiv. p. 185 ; Athen. ix. pp. 369, 371 ;
vivors of Aristotle (ov fteraytvitrrfpoi). (Ascle- Cramer's Anted. Graeca Paris, vol. iii., and in
rxs. Prooan. m Aristot. Metaph. libr.A. p. 519, in other places. [W. A. G.]
Bandn, Sckoi. p. 589.) That we are indebted to EU'DICUS (EBSutos), a Thessalian of Larissa,
Eudemus and his followers for the preservation of probably one of the family of the Aleuadae. Like
mis inestimable work may also be inferred from most of his house, he was a devoted adherent of
tie fact, that Joannes Philoponus states that Philip of Macedon, and in it. c. 344 aided him in
Pasioates (or Pasieles) of R hod us. brother of Eu effecting the division of Thcssaly into four tetrar-
demus and likewise a disciple of Aristotle, was, chies, at the head of one of which he was himself
accordiag to the opinion of some ancient critics, the placed. Demosthenes stigmatizes him as a traitor
anther of the second book of the Metaphysics (the to his country. The division above named had
book iy (Fabric. BiU.Graee. vol. iii. p. 256 ; the effect of reducing Thessaly entirely under the
Syrian, ad Aristot. Metaph. B. p. 17 ; Alexand. controul of Philip. (Dem. de Coron. p. 241 ; Har-
Aparodia, pp. 55, 82, ad SopkiM. Elench. ii p. 69, pocraL s. v. rZuiucos ; Buttmann, Mythologus, vol.
e<L Venet. 1529.) ii. p. 288, &c j Bbckh, Eiplic. ad Paid. Pyth. x.
For the Ethics of Aristotle we are also probably p. 333.) [C p. M.]
indebted more or less to Eudemus. We have, EUDI'CIUS, magister scriniomm, one of the
ender the name of Ethics, three works ascribed to first commission of Nine, appointed by Theodosiug
Aristotle of very unequal value and quality. in A. D. 429 to compile a code upon a plan which
[Aatann-axB. pp. 330, 331.] One of these was afterwards abandoned for another. [ Diodo-
bean even the name of Eudemus ('HSuci E&ijpruz), Rua, vol. i. p. 1018.J [J. T. G.]
73 EUDOCIA. EUDOCIA.
EUDO'CIA (EiBonrfa), the name of several By but at Constantinople (comp. Socrates, Hist Eeda.
zantine princesses, vii. 44; Niceph.CalL Hist. xiv.23;Marcellin.C%nM.
1. Augusta, wife of the emperor Theodosius Actio II et Sigistmido Can), in the year 436 or 437,
II. She was the daughter of the sophist Leon- most likely the latter. In 438, Endocia set out
ti a?, or Leon, or, as he is called in the Paschal for Jerusalem, in discharge of a vow which she
Chronicle, Heracleitus of Athens, where she was had made to visit ** the holy places" on occasion of
born. The year of her birth is doubtful. Nice- her daughter's marriage; and returned the year
phorus Callisti, who has given the fullest account following to Constantinople, bringing with her the
of her, states (xiv. 50) that she died in the reputed relics of Stephen the proto-martyT. It was
fourth year of the emperor Leo, which corresponds probably in this journey that she visited Antioch,
to A. D. 460-61, aged sixty-seven; and that addressed the people of that city, and was honoured
she was in her twentieth year when she mar by them with a statue of brass, as related by Eva-
ried Theodosius. According to this statement, grius. At her persuasion Theodosius enlarged the
she must have been bom a. d. 393-4, and married boundaries and the walls of Antioch, and conferred
a. d. 413-14. But the age of Theodosius (born other marks of favour on that city. She had re
a. d. 401 ) leads us to prefer, for the marriage, the ceived the title of Augusta A. i>. 423.
date given by the Paschal or Alexandrian Chroni Hitherto it is probable that Eudocia had inter
cle and by Marcellinus (Chron.), viz. the consulship fered but little with the influence exercised by
of Eustathius and Agricola, a. o. 421. We must Pulcheria in public affairs. Nicephorus says, she
then give np the calculation of Nicephorus as to lived twenty-nine years in the palace, "submitting
the time of her death, or as to her age at that time to (uVii) Pulcheria as mother and Augusta." As
or at her marriage. Possibly she came to Con Nicephorus places Eudocia'* marriage in 413-14,
stantinople in her twentieth year, in 413-14, but he makes 442-43 the period of the termination
was not married till 421. She was called originally of Pulcheria's administration. He states, that
Athenais, and having excellent natural abilities, Eudocia's administration lasted for seven years,
was educated by her father and by the gramma which brings us to 449-50 as the date of her last
rians Hypcrechius and Orion in every branch of journey to Jerusalem, a date which, from other
science and learning then cultivated. She was circumstances, appears to be correct.
familiar with Greek and Latin literature, rhetoric, During the seven years of her administration, in
astronomy, geometry, and* the science of arithmetic. A. D. 444, according to the Paschal Chronicle, but
She was also eminent for her beanty ; and in con later according to Theophanes, occurred the incident
sideration of these advantages, natural and acquired, which was the first step to her downfall. An apple
her father at bis death left her no share in his of remarkable size and beauty had been brought to
property, all of which he bequeathed to her two Constantinople, which the emperor purchased and
brothers Valerius and Aetiua, called Genesios by presented to his wife. She sent it to Paulinus,
Zonaras, or Gesius in the Paschal Chronicle, say the magister ofticiorum. who was then confined by
ing that her good fortune and the fruits of her a fit of the gout ; and Paulinus, deeming it a suit
education would be a sufficient inheritance. able offering, sent it to the emperor. Theodosius
From dissatisfaction either at this arrangement, recognized it as the one which he had given to
or at some wrong she had suffered, Athenais went Endocia; and, without mentioning the reason to
to Constantinople to appeal against her brothers ; her, enquired what she had done with it. She,
and Pulcheria, sister of Theodosins, who managed apprehensive of his displeasure at having parted
alike him and his empire, fixed on her as a suitable with his gift, replied that she had eaten it, and
wife for him. Athenais was a heathen ; but her confirmed her assertion by an oath. This falsehood
heathenism yielded to the arguments or persuasions increased the emperor's suspicions that Eudocia
of Pulcheria and of Atticus, patriarch of Constanti regarded Paulinus with undue affection ; and he
nople, by whom she was baptized, receiving at her banished him to Cappadocia, where he was either
baptism the name of Endocia, and being adopted then or afterwards put to death. Marcellinus
in that ordinance by Pulcheria as a daughter—an places his death in the fifth consulshipof Valentinian
expression apparently indicating that she had that A. D. 440; but we prefer the statement of Nice
princess for a sponsor. The date of her marriage phorus, that his banishment was after 442-3, and
(a. d. 421), given by Marcellinus and the Paschal are disposed to place his death in A. o. 449-50.
Chronicle, is probably correct, though Theophanes Eudocia, however, soothed for a time the jealousy
places it one if not two years earlier. of her husband, but it was not eradicated, as sub
Most historians mention only one child of this sequent events shewed. Gibbon rejects the whole
union, Eudoxia, who, according to Marcellinus, was story of the apple " as fit only for the Arabian
born in the thirteenth consulship of Honorins, Nights ;" but his scepticism appears unreasonable.
and the tenth of Theodosius, i. e. A. d. 422, The quarrels of the ecclesiastics were the imme
and betrothed, in the consulship of Victor and diate occasion of her downfall. Chrysaphius, the
Castinus, A. D. 424, to her cousin Valentinian, eunuch and head chamberlain, a supporter of the
afterwards emperor of the West as Valentinian monk Eutyches, wished to procure the deposition
III. Tillemont thinks there are notices which of Flavian, patriarch of Constantinople, who had
seem to shew that there was a son, Arcadius, but just been elected, A. n. 447. Chrysaphius, finding
he must have died young. Marcellinus mentions that Flavian was supported by Pulcheria, who,
another daughter of the emperor Theodosins, and though no longer directing the government, retained
therefore (if legitimate) of Eudocia also, Flacilla; considerable influence, applied to Eudocia, whom
but Tillemont suspects that Marcellinus speaks of a he reminded of the grievances she had sustained
sister of Theodosius so named. Flacilla died in the " on Pulcheria's account," Eudocia, after a long
consulship of Antiochus and Bassns, a. d. 431. continued effort, at last succeeded in alienating her
The marriage of Valentinian with Eudoxia was husband from his sister. Pulcheria was forbidden
celebrated, not, as at first appointed, at Thessalonica, the court, and retired from Constantinople ; and is
EUDOCIA. EUDOCIA. 79
the second w pseudo-council of Ephesus(A.D.449), of Eudocia were, is not clear. We read only of
known at "the council of robbers" (i) Ai*rrpunf ), two, Eudoxia, now in captivity, and Flacilla, long
Flavian in deposed, and » roughly treated by since dead. If the letters were from the captive
tic assembled prelates, that he died of their vio princesses we must understand daughters in the
lence a few days after. Bat Thcodosius was soon more extended sense of female descendants. These
Jed to take up the cause of the murdered patriarch. letters and the conversations which Eudocia held
He banished Chrysaphius, and stripped him of all with Symeon the Stylite, and Euthymius an emi
his possessions ; and shewed his anger with Eudocia nent monk of Jerusalem, determined her to re
by reviving the quarrel about the apple ; so that nounce Eutychianism ; and her conversion led
she begged and obtained permission to retire to many others to follow her example ; but it is ho
Jerusalem. Pulcheria was recalled, and resumed nourable to her that she continued her gratuities
the now vacant management of affairs which she to those who retained as well as to those who re
retained during the short remainder of the reign of nounced these opinions She died at Jerusalem in
Toeodosras and that of her husband Marcian, who the fourth year of the reign of Leo I. a. d. 460-61,
■iiu'i riled him. and was buried in the church of St Stephen, which
Eudocia might possibly have been reconciled to she herself had built. Theophanes places her death
her husband, but for an event recorded by Mar in a. m. 5947 Alex, era (a. d. 455), but this is too
cellinus which rendered the breach irreparable. early. Her age has been already noticed. She
Saturmnus, who held the office of comes domesti- solemnly declared at her death that she was free
corem, being sent for the purpose by Theodosius from any guilty connexion with Paulinos
on what account is not stated, but probably through Eudocia was an author. She wrote— 1. Apoem
jealousy, slew two ecclesiastics, Severus, a priest, on tie victory obtained by tie troops of her husband
and Johannes or John, a deacon, who were in the Tlieodosim over the Persians, A. D. 421 or 422.
service of Eudocia at Jerusalem. She, enraged, This was in heroic verse, and is mentioned by
put Satuniimia to death, and was in return stripped Socrates. (Hist. Ecdes. vii. 21.) 2. A paraphrase
of the state and retinae of empress, which she had of the Oetateuch, also in heroic verse. Photius de
been hitherto allowed to retain. Marcellinus scribes it as consisting of eight books according to
places these sad events in the eighteenth consulship the division of that part of Scripture which it em
•f Theodosius, a. d. 444 ; but this date is alto braced ; and says it was well and perspicuously
gether inconsistent with the facts mentioned by written, and conformable to the laws of the poetic
Nicephoras Tbeophanes placed them in A. M. art ; but that the writer had not allowed herself
5942, Alex, era (a. d. 450), which is probably the poetic licences of digression and of mingling
correct ; if so, h must have been before the death fiction with truth, having kept very close to the
of Theodosius, which took place in that year. sense of the sacred books. 3. A paraphrase of the
Eudocia spent the rest of her life in the Holy Prophecies of Daniel and Zechartah, in the same
Land, devoting herself to works of piety and measure. 4. A poem, in the same measure and in
charity. She repaired the walls of Jerusalem, three books on the history and martyrdom of Cy
conversed much with ecclesiastics, built monastc- prian and Justina, who suffered in the persecution
teties and hospitals and a church in honour of the under Diocletian. Photius gives a pretty full ac
proto-ranrtyT Stephen on the spot where he was count of this poem. 5. Zonaras and Joannes
said to have been stoned ; enriched existing churches Tzctzes ascribe to Eudocia Homero-Centona ; and
with valuable offerings and bestowed great sums a poem under that title, composed of verses and
rn charity on the priests and the poor. But she parts of verses from Homer, and having for its
was for some years, obnoxious to the imputation subject the history of the fall and of the redemp
•f heresy. The opinion of Eutyches on the union tion of man by Jesus Christ, has been repeatedly
of the two natures in Christ, which she held, and published, both in the original and in a Latin ver
which had triumphed in the M council of robbers" sion. In one edition, it is said to be by Eudocia
at Ephrsos (a. d. 449), was condemned in another Augusta, or Patricks Pelagius The genuineness
council held at Chalcedon (a. d. 451), soon after of this work is however, very disputable, and even
the death of Theodosius. The decrees of this the fact of Eudocia having ever written anything
httter council Eudocia for some years rejected. of the kind, is not quite clear.
When, however, she beard of the captivity of her (Socrates Hist. Eccles. vii. 21 ; Evagrius Hist.
daughter Eudoxia [Eudoxia], whom, with her Ecdes. i. 20, 21,22; Nicephoras Callisti, Hist.
two daughters Genseric, king of the Vandals, had Ecdes. xiv. 23, 47, 49, 50 ; Zonaras, Annates, vol.
carried into Africa (a. d. 455), she sought to be iii. p. 34—37, ed. Basil. 1557; Marcellinus Chro-
reconciled to Pulcheria, that she might interest her nicon ; Chronicon Alejandrinum rite Paschalc ; Jo
and her husband, the emperor Marcian, in behalf annes Malalas, Chronographia, lib. xiv. ; Theo
«f the captives By the intervention of Olybrius, phanes Chronographia, ab A. M. 5911 ad 5947,
to » Bom one of the captive princesses was betroth Alex, era ; Joannes Tseties, Historiar. Variar
ed, and of Valerius the reconciliation was effected ; CMias.XlIist. 306; Cedrenus Compendium, p. 590
aid Palcberia anxiously sought to restore Eudocia -91, ed. Bonn ; Michael Glvcas, Annates, pars iv.
to the communion of the church. She engaged her pp. 484-5, ed. Bonn ; Photius Biblioth. codd. 183,
b'sthgis and daughters (according to Nicephoras) 1 H4 ; Tillemont, Hist, des Emp. vol. vi. ; Gibbon,
to write to her for this purpose: from which it Ded. and FalU ch. xxxii. ; Cave, Hist. Lit. voL i.
may be gathered that the brothers of Eudocia had p. 403, ed. Oxford, 1740-43 ; Oudin, De Scriplor.
oxcoine Christians and were still living. According Ecdes. vol. i. p. 1258; Fabric. Bibl. Grace, vol.
to the Paschal Chronicle, they had been advanced i. p. 552, &c., vol. x. p. 730, &c)
*> *>?» offices Aetins or Gesius in the provinces 2. Daughter of Valentinian III. and of Eudoxia,
and Valerias at court. Possibly the Valerius who daughter of Theodosius II., and consequently
Asd been one of the mediators between the prin- grand-daughter of the subject of the preceding
rrssra, was one of them. Who " the daughters," article. She was carried captive to Carthage by
80 EUDOCIA. EUDOCIA.
Genseric, king of the Vandals, when he sacked the beginning of the tenth century ; at any rata
Rome (a. d. 455), together with her mother and before a. d. 904. (Zonaras, Annates, vol. iii. p. 143,
her younger sister Placidia. Genseric married ed. Basil, 1567; Cedrenus, Compendium, p. 492,
Eudocia (a. n. 456), not to one of his younger ed. Basil, 1566.)
sons, Oento, as Idatius says, but to his eldest son 7. Eldest daughter of the Byzantine emperor
Hunneric (who succeeded his rather, a. n. 477, as Constantine IX., became a nun in consequence of
king of the Vandals)'; and sent Eudoxia and Pla some disease by which she was disfigured. She
cidia to Constantinople. After living sixteen years appears to have survived her father, who died a. d.
with Hunneric, and bearing him a son, Hulderic, 1028. (Zonaras, Annulet, vol. iii. p. 182, ed.
who also afterwards became king of the Vandals, Basil, A. D. 1557.)
Eudocia, on the ground of dislike to the Arianism 8. Eudocia Augusta of Macrkmbolis, wife
of her husband, secretly left him, and went to Je of the emperors Constantine XI. (Ducas) and
rusalem, where she soon after died (a. d. 472), Romanus IV. (Diogenes). She was married to
having bequeathed all she had to the Church of Constantine while he was yet in a private station,
the Resurrection, and was buried in the sepulchre and bore him two sons, Michael and Andronicus,
of her grandmother, the empress Eudocia. (Eva- before his accession in a. d. 1059, and one son,
grius, Hist. Eccta. ii. 7 ; Marcellinus, Chroniam ; Constantine, born afterwards ; they had also two
Idatius, Chroniam ; Nicephorus Callisti, Hist. Ec- daughters, Theodora and Zoo. On the accession
cles, xv. 1 1 ; Procopius, de Hello Vandalim, i. 5 ; of Constantine she received the title of Augusta ;
Theophanes, Chronographia, A. M. 5947 and 5964, and on his death, a. d. 1067, he bequeathed
Alex, era; Zonaras, Annala, vol. hi. p. 40, ed. the empire to her and to their three sons, Michael
Basil, 1557 ; Tillemont, Hist, da Bmp. voL vi.) VH.(Parapinaces), Andronicus I., and Constantine
3. Eudocia Fabia, wife of the emperor Heraclius. X 1 1. ( Porphyrogenitus). He bound Eudocia by an
She was the daughter of a certain African noble, and oath not to marry again. Eudocia had in fact the
was at Constantinople (a. o. 610) when Heraclius, management of the government, the children being
to whom she was betrothed, having assumed the all young. Perceiving that the protection of the
purple in Africa, sailed to Constantinople to de eastern frontier, which was threatened with inva
throne the tyrant Phocas. Phocas shut her up in sion, required a stronger hand, Bhe married Roma
a monastery with the mother of Heraclius ; but his nus IV. (Diogenes). Romanus, who was eminent
fall led to their release. She was married on the for his fine figure, strength, and warlike qualities,
day ol Heraclius's coronation, and crowned with had, on the death of Constantine XI., prepared to
him, and, according to Zonaras, received from him seize the throne, but was prevented by Eudocia,
the name of Fabia ; but CedrenuB makes Fabia her who threw him into prison, and exiled him ; but,
original name, which is more likely. She had by either for reasons of state, or from affection, soon
Heraclius, according to Zonaras, three children, a recalled him, and raised him to the command of
daughter Epiphania, and two sons, the elder named the army. Her oath not to marry had been given
HeracliuB and the younger Constantine. She died in writing, and committed to the custody of the
soon after the birth of the youngest child. Cedre- patriarch of Constantinople; but by a trick she
nus assigns to them only a daughter and one son, recovered it, and, within eight months after her
who was, according to him, called both Heraclius husband's death (a. d. 1068), married Romanus,
and Constantine. He places the death of Eudocia and raised him to be colleague in the empire
in the second year of Heraclius, A. o. 612. (Zona with herself and her sons. She had hoped to
ras. Annala, vol. iii. pp. 66, 67, ed. Basil, 1557 ; govern him, but was disappointed, and his asser
Cedrenus, Compendium, pp. 713— 14, ed. Bonn, tion of his own will led to quarrels between them.
1838-9.) During the captivity of Romanus, Joannes or John
4. Eudocia, daughter of Incer or Inger, and Ducas, brother of the late Constantine, who had
concubine of the emperor Michael III., by whom been invested with the dignity of Caesar, declared
she was given in marriage (about a. D. 866) Michael Parapinaces sole emperor, and banished
to Basil the Macedonian, afterwards emperor. Eudocia to a convent which she had herself built
She bore Basil a son, afterwards the emperor on the shore of the Propontis. On the death of
Leo the Philosopher, so soon after their marriage, Diogenes, who on his release had fallen into the
that it was said that Michael was the child's hands of Andronicus, the eldest son of Joannes
father, and that she was pregnant at the time of Ducas, and died from the cruel usage he received,
lier marriage. Cedrenus speaks of the marriage a. d. 1071 [Romanus IV. (Diogenes)], Eudocia
of Basil with Eudocia, whose noble birth and buried her unhappy husband with great splendour.
beauty he celebrates ; but, far from making her the She appears to have long survived this event.
concubine of Michael, speaks of her as excelling (Zonaras, Annala, vol. iii. pp. 218—226, ed.
in modesty. (Zonaras, Annala, vol. iii. p. 132, Basil, 1557 ; Michael Glycas, Annala, pars iv.
ed. Basil, 1577 ; Cedrenus, Compendium, vol. ii. p. 606, &c, ed. Bonn.)
p. 198, ed. Bonn, 1838-9.) Eudocia compiled a dictionary of history and
5. Eudocia, third wife of the emperor Constan mythology, which she called 'lavii, i. e. Collection
tine V. (Copronymus). She was crowned and re or bed of Violets. It was printed for the first time
ceived the title of Augusta from her husband in by Villoison, in his Anccdota Graeca, 2 vols. 4to.
the twenty-eighth year of his reign, A. D. 768. Venice, 1781. It is prefaced by an address to her
(Cedreni Compendium, vol. ii. p. 16, ed. Bonn.) husband Romanus Diogenes, in which she describes
6. Eudocia, third wife of Leo the Philosopher, the work as " a collection of genealogies of gods,
sou of Basil the Macedonian and of Eudocia. (No. heroes, and heroines, of their metamorphoses, and
3.) She died in childbirth soon after, and the of the fables and stories respecting them found in
child died also. She was the daughter, or of the the ancients ; containing also notices of various
race of Opsicius. Of the date of her marriage and philosophers." The sources from which the work
death we have no account. It was probably near was compiled are in a great degree the same as
EUDOXIA. EUD0XIUS. 81
those used in the Lexicon of Suidas. The sources Eccles. vi 18; Cassiodor. Hist. Tripart. x. 20 j
are examined and described by Meineke in his Theophanes, Chronographia ad A. M. 5892, 97,
Obscrvatkaa r» Eadoaat VioUtum, in the fifth 98, Alex, era ; Cedrenus, Compend. vol. i. p. 585,
and sixth Tolumes of the Bibliothek der alien Lit- ed. Bonn.)
trratur mmd Kmnst, Gbttingen, 1 789. 2. Daughter of Theodosius II. and of Eudocia,
9. Daughter of Andronicus Comnenus, second born a. d. 422, and betrothed soon after to Valen-
■on of the Byzantine emperor Calo-Joannes. She tinian, son of the emperor Honorius, who after
ra married, bat to whom is unknown ; and after wards was emperor of the West as Valentinian III.
her husband's death lived in concubinage with and to whom she was married at Constantinople in
ADdronicus, her cousin, afterwards emperor as a. d. 436 or 437. On the assassination of her
Andronicus I. Her second husband was Michael husband by Maximus (a. d. 455), who usurped
Gabraa, to whom she was married. We can give the throne, she was compelled to marry the usurper;
ao exact dates of the few incidents known of her but, resenting both the death of her husband and
hie. She lived in the middle of the twelfth cen the violence offered to herself, she instigated Gen-
ter. (Michael Glycaa, Manuel Comnenus, Lib. seric, king of the Vandals, who had conquered
iii. pp. 135, 136, Lib. it. p. 173, ed. Bonn.) Africa, to attack Rome. Genseric took the city.
[J. C. M.] Maximus was slain in the flight, and Eudoxia and
EUDCRA (EJSoipij), a daughter of Nereus and her daughters, Eudocia and Flacidia, were carried
Doris. (He*. Thna.lU ; ApoUod. i. 2. § 7.) There by the Vandal king to Carthage. After being
are two more mythical personages of this name. detained in captivity some years, eIio was Bent
(He*. 7*w. 360; Hvgin. Fab. 192.) [L. S.] with her daughter Placidia and an honourable
EUDCRUS (EiUipos), a son of Hermes and attendance to Constantinople. [See Eudocia, No.
Polvraele, was brought up by his grandfather Phy 1, and the authorities subjoined there.]
la*. He was one of the five leaders of the Myrmi- The coins of the empresses Eudocia and Eudoxia
dooes under Achillea, who sent him out to accom are, from the two names being put one for the
pany Patrodus, and to prevent the latter from other, difficult to be assigned to their respective
venturing too far; but Eudorus was slain by persons. (See Eckhel, Doclrina Num. Velerum,
Pyaechimta. (Horn. 77. xvi. 179, &c; Eustath. vol. viii. p. 170.) [J. C. M.]
ad Horn. p. 1697.) [LS.] EUDOXIUS, commonly cited with the addi
EUDO'RUS (EfSvoof) is mentioned by Alex tion Heros, was a Graeco-Roman jurist, who
ander Aphrodinensis (ad ArisL Metaph. p. 26, flourished shortly before Justinian. Panciroli (dc
ed. Paris. 1536, fol) as a commentator on Aris Claris Interpp. Juris, p. 63) places him too early
totle's Metaphysics, in which he is said to have in supposing that he was the Pr. Pr. to whom were
altered several passages. Simplicius likewise speaks addressed the constitution of Theodosius and Va
of a Peripatetic philosopher of this name, and lentinian of a. D. 427 (Cod. 1. tit. II. s. 1), and the
relate* that he had written on the Aristotelian constitution of Arcadius and Honorius. (Cod. 2.
Categories. We do not know, however, if this be tit. 77. s. 2.) He is mentioned in Const. Tanta,
the same person. Eudorus, whom Alexander § 9, as the grandfather of Anatolius, professor of
Aphrcdisienris mentions, was a native of Alexan law at Berytus, who was one of the compilers of
dria, and had, like Ariston of Alexandria, written the Digest. The appellation Heros is not a proper
s «ork on the Nile. (Strab. xvii. p. 790 ; comp. name, but a title of excellency, and is placed some
Fabric BtbLGraec voL i. p. 845, vol. in, pp. 172, times before, and sometimes after, the name. Thus,
4»2V [A. S.] in Basil, vi. p. 227, we have 6 "Hpas Ei)5oJ/os,
EUDO'RUS, a scene-painter and statuary in and, in Basil, iii. p. 60, Ei)5o'£ios 6 "Hpws. We
brsnxe, of second-rate merit. (Plin. xxxv. 11. find the same title applied to Patricius, Amblichus
a 40. S 34.) [P. S.] Squ. Iamblichus, Basil, iii. p. 256), and Cyrillus
EUDOXIA (EoSofui), the name of several Basil, iv. p. 702). Heimbach (Anecdote, i. p.
sri.ni' sis chiefly of the Eastern or Byzantine cm- 202) is inclined to think that, like the expression
i fuueaplrns, it was used by the Graeco-Roman
1. The daughter of the Frank Bauto, married jurists of and after the age of Justinian as a desig
v> the emperor Arcadius, A. D. 395, by whom she nation of honour in speaking of their predecessors
had bar daughters, Fhvriila or Flaccilla or Fal- who had died within their memory.
oOa, Pmlcheria, Arcadia, and Marina, and one Eudoxius was probably acquainted with the
■*. Theodosius II. or the younger. She was a original writings of the classical jurists, for from
TOa&ao of high spirit, and exercised great influence Basil, ii. p. 454 (ed. Heimbach) it appears that
over her hatband : to her persuasion his giving up he quoted Ulpian's treatise De Officio Proconsulis.
•f the eunuch Eutropius into the power of his From the citations of Eudoxius in the Basilica, he
e&eauea may be ascribed. She was involved in a appears to have written upon the constitutions of
iVrce contest with Chrysostom, who fearlessly in- emperors earlier than Justinian, and thence Reisc
•eigfced against the avarice and luxury of the (ad Theophilum, pp. 1234— 1246) infers that he
sasnrt, and scrupled not to attack the empress commented upon the Gregorian, Hermogenian, and
herself. The particulars of the struggle are given Theodosian codes, from which those constitutions
e^ewhere. [Chrysostomck, Joannes.] She were transferred into the Code of Justinian. It is
died of a miscarriage in the sixth consulship of probably to the commentaries of Eudoxius, Leon-
Hoo-x-.ua, a. D. 404, or, according to Theophanes, tius, and Patricius on the three earlier codes that
a. ». 406. The date of her death is carefully dis Justinian (Const. Tanta, § 9) alludes, when he
cussed by TiHenonL (Histoire des Empereurs, says of them " optimum sui memoriam in Legibus
*sL v. p. 78-5.) Codrenus narrates some curious reliquerunt,*' for the impcratorial constitutions were
particulars of ber death, but their credibility is very often called Leges, as distinguished from the Jus
•^"cbtfuL ( Philostorgius, Hist Ecda. apud Fko- of the jurists.
tmm; Marcellinus, Chronica*; Socrates, Hist. In Basil, ii. p. 644, Thalclaeus, who survived
TDA.H, a
32 EUDOXUS. EUDOXUS.
Justinian, classes I aidoxius among the older mean time taught philosophy in Cyzicum and the
teachers, and cites his exposition of a constitution Propontis : he chose Athens, Laertius says, for the
of Severus and Antoninus of A. D. 199, which purpose of vexing Plato, at one of whose symposia
appears in Cod. 2. tit. 1 2. s. 4. Again, in Basil. he introduced the fashion of the guests reclining in
i. pp. 810, 811, is cited his exposition of a consti a semicircle ; and Nicomachus (he adds), the1 son
tution of Diocletian and Maximinian, of a. d. 193, of Aristotle, reports him to have said that pleasure
which appears in Cod. 2. tit. 4. s. 18, with the was a good. So much for Laertius, who also refers
interpolated words excepto adulterio. In both these to some decree which was made in honour of Eu
passages, the opinion of Heros Patricius is pre doxus, names his son and daughters, states him to
ferred to that of Eudoxius. In like manner, it have written good works on astronomy and geo
appears from the scholiast in the fifth volume of metry, and mentions the curious way in which the
Meerraan's Thesaurus (JClorum Graecorum Com- bull Apis told his fortune when he was in Egypt.
mentarii, p. 56 ; Basil., ed. Heimbach, i. p. 403) Eudoxus died at the age of fifty-three. Phanocritus
that Domninus, Demosthenes, and Eudoxius, dif wrote a work upon Eudoxus ( Athen. vii. p. 276, f.),
fered from Patricius in their construction of a con which is lost.
stitution of the emperor Alexander, of A. d. 224, The fragmentary notices of Eudoxus are numerous.
and that that constitution was altered by the com Strabo mentions him frequently, and states (ii. p.
pilers of Justinian's code in conformity with the 119, xvii. p. 806) that the observatory of Eudoxus
opinion of Patricius. Eudoxius is cited by Patri at Cnidus was existing in his time, from which he
cius (l)asit. iii. p. 61) on a constitution of A. r>. was accustomed to observe the star Canopus.
293 (Cod. 4. tit. 19. s. 9), and is cited by Theo Strabo also says that he remained thirteen years
doras (Basil, vi p. 227) on a constitution of a. d. in Egypt, and attributes to him the introduction of
290. (Cod. 8. tit. 55. s. 3.) In the latter passage the odd quarter of a day into the value of the year.
Theodoras, who was a contemporary of Justinian, Pliny (//. N. it 47) seems to refer to the same
calls Eudoxius his teacher. Whether this expres thing. Seneca (Qu. Nat. vii. 3) states him to have
sion is to be taken literally may be doubted, as first brought the motions of the planets (a theory
Theodoras also calls Domninus, Patricius, and on this subject) from Egypt into Greece. Aristotle
Stcphanus (Basil, ii. p. 580) his teachers. (Zacha- (Metuph. xii. 8) states him to have made separate
riae, Anecdota, p. xlviii. ; Zimmem, R. H. G. i. spheres for the stars, sun, moon, and planets.
§§ 106, 109.) Archimedes (in Artnar.) lays he made the dia
The untrustworthy Nic. Comnenns Papadopoli meter of the sun nine times as great as that of the
(f'raenot. Mystag. pp. 345, 402) mentions a Eu moon. Vitruvius (ix. 9) attributes to him the in
doxius, Nomicus, Judex veli, and cites his Synop vention of a solar dial, called dpax*7! ' and so on.
sis Legum, and his scholia on the Novells of Dut all we positively know of EudoxuB is from
Alexius Comnenus. [J. T. G.] the poem of Aiutis and the commentary of Hip
EUDO'XIUS, a physician, called by Prosper parchus upon it. From this commentary we learn
Aquitnnus a man " pravi Bed exercitati ingenii," that Aratus was not himself an observer, but was
who in the time of the emperor Theodosius the the versifier of the Qaivdntva of Eudoxus, of which
Younger, a. d. 432, deserted to the Huns. (Chro- Hipparchus has preserved fragments for comparison
nkon. Pilhaean. in Labbe, Nova Biblioth. MSS. with the version by Aratus. The result is, that
Libror. vol. i. p. 59.) (W. A. G.] though there were by no means so many nor so
EUDOXUS (EtfSoJoi) of Cnidus, the son of great errors in Eudoxus as in Aratus, yet the opi
Aeschines, lived about B. c. 366. He was, accord nion which must be formed of the work of the
ing to Diogenes Laertius, astronomer, geometer, former is, that it was written in the rudest state of
physician, and legislator. It is only in the first the science by an observer who was not very com
capacity that his fame has descended to our day, petent even to the task of looking at the risings
and he has more of it than can be justified by any and settings of the stars. Delambre (Hist. Astr.
account of his astronomical science now in exist Anc. vol. i. p. 107) has given a full account of the
ence. As the probable introducer of the sphere comparison made by Hipparchus of Aratus with
into Greece, and perhaps the corrector, upon Egyp Eudoxus, and of both with his own observations.
tian information, of the length of the year, he He cannot bring himself to think that Eudoxus
enjoyed a wide and popular reputation, so that knew anything of geometry, though it is on record
Laertius, who does not even mention Hipparchus, that he wrote geometrical works, in spite of the
has given the life of Eudoxus in his usual manner, praises of Proclus, Cicero, Ptolemy, Sextns Empi-
that is, with the omission of all an astronomer ricus (who places him with Hipparchus), &c, &c.
would wish to know. According to this writer, Eudoxus, as cited by Hipparchus, neither talks
Eudoxus went to Athens at the age of twenty-three like a geometer, nor like a person who had seen
(he had been the pupil of Archytas in geometry), the heavens he describes : a bad globe, constructed
and heard Plato for some months, struggling at the some centuries before his time in Egypt, might, for
some time with poverty. Being dismissed by anything that appears, have been his sole authority.
Plato, but for what reason is not stated, his friends But supposing, which is likely enough, that he
raised some money, and he sailed for Egypt, with was the first who brought any globe at all into
letters of recommendation to Nectanabis, who in Greece, it is not much to be wondered at that his
his turn recommended him to the priests. With reputation should have been magnified. As to
them he remained sixteen months, with his chin what Proclus says of his geometry, see Em i.kidks.
and eyebrows shaved, and there, according to Rejecting the 'OirrasnjpVj mentioned by Laertius,
Laertius, he wrote the Octaeteris. Several ancient which was not a writing, but a period of time, and
writers attribute to him the invention or introduc also the fifth book of Euclid, which one manuscript
tion of an improvement upon the Octaeterides of Euclid attributes to Eudoxus (Fabric. BM.
of his predecessors. After a time, he came back Grace, vol. iv. p. 12), we have the following works,
to Athens with a band of pupils, having in the all lost, which he is said to have written :
ETELTHON. EVEMERUS. U3
VKftrrpaificrx, mentioned by Proclus and Lae'r- EVE'MERUS or EUHE'MERUS (E^epoi),
tius, which is not, however, to be taken as the title a Sicilian author of the time of Alexander the
of a volt : 'Ofrfmwcfiy mentioned by Plutarch : Great and his immediate successors. Most writers
'Arrs«>apf<i li rriv, by Suidas : two books, call him a native of Messene in Sicily (Plut. de
Erorrpor or KaVowrpor, and ♦airdjwi'a, mentioned Is. el Os. 23 ; Lactont. de Fah. Helig. i. 1 1 ; Etym.
by Hipoarcbus, and the first by an anonymous M. s.v. 0por6s), while Amobius (iv. 15) colls him
biccrapher of Armto* : Tltpl Qt&y Kal k6(tuqv kcu an Agrigentine, and others mention cither Tegea
rim Mertvpa\a>ywfjjfrw, mentioned by Eudocia : in Arcadia or the island of Cos as his native place.
r?» fUpuo'os, a work often mentioned by Strabo, (Athen. xv. p. 658.) His mind was trained in
asd by many others, as to which Harless thinks the philosophical school of the Cyrenaics, who had
Sender's opinion probable, that it was written by before his time become notorious for their scepti
Esdoras of Rhodes. (Fabric, BiU. Grate, vol ir. cism in matters connected with the popular reli
p. 10, 4c. ; Weidler, Hat. Adroit. ; Diog. Laert. gion, and one of whom, TheodoniB, is frequently
m. 86-91; Debsnbre, Hvt.dxfAttroR.Ane. vol. i.; called an atheist by the ancients. The influence
Hipparchua, Gmme*L m A ralum ; Bohmer, IX*- of this school upon Evemerus seems to have been
•rrta/i) de Emdam Coiiio, Hclmstad. 1715 ; Ide- very great, for he subsequently became the founder
ler, in the AuhmdL der Berliner A tad. d. Wissert- of a peculiar method of interpreting the legends
iriaft far the year 1828, p. 189, &c and for the and mythi of the popular religion, which has often
toi 1830, p. 49, etc ; Letronne, Journal, d. Sav. and not unjustly been compared with the ration
1840. p. 741. Ac) (A.DbM.) alism of some modern theologians in Germany.
EUDOXUS ( Woofer), a Greek physician, born About B. c. 316 we find Evemerus at the court of
at Coidn in Caria, who lived probably in the fifth Cassander in Macedonia, with whom he was con
or fourth century B. c, as he was mentioned by nected by friendship, and who, according to Euse-
the celebrated astronomer of the same name. (Diog. b'uia(Praep. Evang. ii. 2, p.59), sent him out on an
laert. viii. 90.) He is said to have been a great exploring expedition. Evemerus is said to have
advocate foe the use of gymnastics. [W. A. O.] sailed down the Red Sea and round the southern
EL'DOXUS (EtfBoJos). 1. An Athenian comic coasts of Asia to a very great distance, until he
soet of the new comedy, was by birth a Sicilian came to an island called Panchaea. After his re
and the son of Agathocies. He gained eight vic turn from this voyage he wrote a work entitled
tories, three at the city Dionysia, and five at the 'Upa 'Ayaypcufrfi, which consisted of at least nine
Lenses. His Ho£*\npos and TwoSoKipiaios are books. The title of this " Sacred History," as we
quoted. (Apoliod. oj>. Diog. Laert. viii. 90 ; Poll, may term it, was taken from the dvaypajpat, or the
vii. '201 ; Zenob. Adag. i. 1 ; Meineke, Frag. Com. inscriptions on columns and walls, which existed
Grate voL i. p. 492, vol iv. p. 508.) in great numbers in the temples of Greece, and
2. Of Rhodes, an historical writer, whose time Evemerus chose it because he pretended to have
is not known. (Diog. Laert. L c ; Apollon. Hist. derived his information from public documents of
Cm. 24 ; Bym. Mag. «. e. 'A5>i'as : Vossius, de that kind, which he had discovered in his travels,
Hid. Grate, p. 59. ed. Wcstermann.) especially in the island of Panchaea. The work
3. Of Cyrieiis, a geographer, who went from his contained accounts of the several gods, whom
mire place to Egypt, and was employed by Pto- Evemerus represented as having originally been
le»y Everjjete* and his wife Cleopatra in voyages men who hod distinguished themselves either as
•» India ; but afterwards, being robbed of all his warriors, kings, inventors, or benefactors of man,
property by Ptolemy Latbyrus, be sailed away and who after their death were worshipped as gods
d »«ti tie Red Sea, and at last arrived at Gades. by the grateful people. Zeus, for example, was,
He afterwards made attempts to circumnavigate according to him, a king of Crete, who had been a
Africa in the opposite direction, but without suc great conqueror ; and he asserted that he hod seen
cess. (Stimb. n. pp. 98—100 ; Plin. ii. 67.) He in the temple of Zeus Triphylius a column with an
Brest have lived about B. c. 1 30. [P. S.] inscription detailing all the exploits of the kings
EVE'LPIDES (EusAwionj), a celebrated oculist Uranus, Cronus, and Zeus. ( Euseb. /. c. ; Sext.
ia the time of Celsos, about the beginning of the Empir. ix. 17.) This book, which seems to have
Christian era, several of whose medical formulae been written in a popular style, must have been
ksve been preserved. (Cels. de Med. pp. 120, 122, very attractive; for all the fables of mythology
13. 124.) [W. A. G.] were dressed up in it as so many true and histo
EVELPISTTJS (Ee/AwMrror), an eminent Bur rical narratives ; and many of the subsequent his
ma at Home, who lived shortly before the time torians, such as the uncritical Diodorus (see Fragm.
of Crtssu, and therefore probably about the end of lib. vi.) adopted his mode of dealing with myths,
tie first century B. c. (Cels. de Med. vii. praef. or at least followed in his track, as we find to be
p. 137.) He is perhaps the same person one of the case with Polybius and Dionysius. Traces of
vsose plasters is preserved by Scribonius Largus, such a method of treating mythology occur, it is
ii Omrpm. Mrdieam, c. 215, p. 230. [W.A.G.] true, even in Herodotus and Thucydidcs ; bu.
EVELTHON (EtWAftw), king of Salamis in Evemerus was the first who carried it out syste
Cyprus. When Arccsilaus III. was driven from matically, and after his time it found numerous
Cvrene in an attempt to recover the royal privi- admirers. In the work of Diodorus and other
irm. probably about B. c. 529 or 528 (see vol. i. historians and mythographers, we meet with innu
f. 477]. 4oa mother Pheretima fled to the court of merable stories which have all the appearance of
iffithon, and pressed him with the most perse- being nothing but Evemeristic interpretations of
*mk% entreaties for an army to enforce her son's ancient myths, though they arc frequently taken
rworation. The king at last sent her a golden by modern critics for genuine legends. Evemerus
asadle and distaff, saying that such were the more was much attacked and treated with contempt,
aferopriate presents for women. (Her. iv. 162, and Eratosthenes called him a Bergaean, that is,
»■ 104; Pojyaen. viii. 47.) F.F- E-] as great a liar as Antiphanes of Bcrga (Polyb.
84 EVENOR. EVEN US.
xxxiii. 12, xxxiv. S; Strab. i. p. 47, ii. pp. 102, 40. vol. xviii. pt i. p. 736.) He is very possibly
104, Tii. p. 299) ; but the ridicule with which he the same person who is mentioned by Pliny (//.
is treated refers almost entirely to his pretending A^. xx. 73, xxi. 105), and whose work entitled
to have visited the island of Panchaea, a sort of "Curationes" is quoted by Caelius Aurelianus.
Thule of the southern ocean ; whereas his method (de Morb. Acut. ii. 16. p. 115; de Atorb. Chnm.
of treating mythology is passed over unnoticed, iii. 8. p. 478.) [W. A. G.J
and is even adopted. His method, in fact, became EVE'NUS (Eidn'or), the name of three mythi
so firmly rooted, that even down to the end of the cal personages. (Hes. Theog. 345; Horn. //. ii.
last century there were writers who acquiesced in 692, ix. 557 ; Plut. Farall. Attn. 40 ; Apollod. i.
it. The pious believers among the ancients, on 7. § 8.) [L. S.J
the other hand, called Evemerus an atheist. (Plut EVE'NUS (E6Voj or E<Vo>, but the former is
de Ptae. Phitos. i. 7 ; Aelian, V. H. ii. 31 ; Theo- more correct). In the Greek Anthology there arc
phil. ad Autotyc. iii. 6.) The great popularity of sixteen epigrams under this name, which are, how
the work is attested by the circumstance that En- ever, the productions of different poets. (Brunck,
nius made a Latin translation of it (Cic. de Nat. Anal. vol. i. pp. 164— 167 ; Jacobs, Anth. Graec.
Deor. i. 42 ; Lnctant de Fals. Relig. i. 1 1 ; Varro, vol. i. pp. 96—99.) In the Vatican MS. some
de. Re Rust. i. 48.) The Christian writers often of the epigrams are headed Eufoou, the Tth is
refer to Evemerus as their most useful ally to prove headed Emboli 'AOKaAuvlrov, the 12th Eiifvou
that the pagan mythology was nothing but a heap 'Adijvafou, the 14th Evyvou ZikcKuctov, and the
of fables invented by mortal men. (Hieron. Cc- last Ev^vou •ypofifjuntKov.
lumna, Prolegom. in Evemerum, in his Q. Ennii The best known poets of this name are two
quae supermnt Fragm. p. 482, &c, ed. Naples, elegiac poets of Paros, mentioned by Eratosthenes
1.590 ; Sevin, in the Mint, de I Acad, des Inscript. («;>. Harpocrat. s. r. E{T)ro$), who says that only
viii. p. 107, &c; Fourmont, ibid. xv. p. 265, &c. ; the younger was celebrated, and that one of them
Foucher, ihid. xxxiv. p. 435, &c, xxxv. p. 1, (he does not say which) was mentioned by Plato.
&c. ; Lobeck, Aplaoph. i. p. 138, &c.) [L. S.] There are, in fact, several passages in which Plato
EVE'NIUS (Ei/iii-ios), a seer of Apollonia, and refers to Evenus, somewhat ironically, as at once a
father of Deiphonus. He was one of the most dis sophist or philosopher and a poet (Apolog. Socr.
tinguished citizens of Apollonia ; and one night, p. 20, b., Phaed. p. 60, d., Pliaedr. p. 267, a.)
when he was tending the sheep of Helios, which According to Maximus Tyrius (Dba. xxxviii. 4.
the noble Apolloniatae had to do in turns, the p. 225), Evenus was the instructor of Socrates in
flock was attacked by wolves, and sixty sheep poetry, a statement which derives some counten
were killed. Evenius said nothing of the occur ance from a passage in Plato (Phaed. I.e.), from
rence, but intended to purchase new sheep, and which it may also be inferred that Evenus
thus to make up for the loss. But the thing be was alive at the time of Socrates's death, but at
came known, and Evenius was brought to trial. such an advanced age that he was likely soon to
He was deprived of his office, and his eyes were follow him. Eusebius (Chron. Arm.) places him
put out as a punishment for his carelessness and at the 80th Olympiad (n. c. 460) and onwards.
negligence. Hereupon the earth ceased to produce His poetry was gnomic, that is, it formed the
fruit, and the sheep of Helios ceased to produce vehicle for expressing philosophic maxims and opi
young. Two oracles were consulted, and the an nions. The first six of the epigrams in the Antho
swer was, that Evenius had been punished un logy are of this character, and may therefore be
justly, for that the gods themselves had sent the ascribed to him with tolerable certainty. Perhaps,
wolves among the sheep, and that the calamity too, the fifteenth should be assigned to him.
under which Apollonia was suffering should not The other Evenus of Paros wrote 'E/wtiko, as
cease until Evenius should have received alt the we learn from the express testimony of Artemi-
reparation he might desire. A number of citizens dorus (Oneirocr. i. 5), and from a passage of Arrian
accordingly waited upon Evenius, and without (Epictct. iv. 9), in which Evenus is mentioned in
mentioning the oracles, they asked him in the conjunction with Aristeides. [See vol. i. p. 296.]
course of their conversation, what reparation he A few other fragments of his poetry are extant.
would demand, if the Apolloniatae should be wil Among them is a line which Aristotle (Atrta-
ling to make any. Evenius, in his ignorance phys. iv. 5, Eth. Emlem. ii. 7) and Plutarch
of the oracles, merely asked for two acres of the (Aforal. ii. p. 1 102, c.) quote by the name of Eve
best land in Apollonia and the finest house in the nus, but which is found in one of the elegies of
city. The deputies then said that the Apolloniatae Theognis (vv. 467—474), whence it is supposed
would grant him what he asked for, in accordance that that elegy should be ascribed to Evenus.
with the oracle. Evenius was indignant when he There are also two hexameters of Evenus. (Aris-
heard how he had been deceived ; but the gods tot Eth. Nicom. vii. 1 1.)
gave him a compensation by bestowing upon him None of the epigrams in the Anthology are ex
the gift of prophecy. (Herod, ix. 92—95; Conon. pressly assigned to this Evenus ; but it is not un
Narrat. 30, who calls him Peithenius instead of likely that the 1 2th is his. If the 8th and 9th,
Evenius.) [L. S.J on the Cnidian Aphrodite of Praxiteles, and the
EVE'NOR, a distinguished painter, was the 10th and 11th, on Myron's cow, are his, which
father and teacher of Parrhasius. (Plin. xxxv. seems not improbable, then his date would be
9. s. 36. § 1 ; Suid, Harpocr., Phot, s. v.) He fixed. Otherwise it is very difficult to determine
flourished about B. c. 420. [P. S.] whether he lived before or after the other Kvenus.
EVE'NOR (EihJKop), a Greek surgeon, who As he was certainly less famous than the contem
apparently wrote on fractures and luxations, and porary of Socrates, the statement of Eratosthenes
who must have lived in or before the third century that only the younger was celebrated, would imply
ii. c, as he is mentioned by Hcracleides of Tarentura that he lived before him : and this view is main
(up. Galen. Comment, in llippocr. " De Artie." iv. tained, in opposition to the general opinion of
EUGA.MON. EUGENICUS. ;;:.
EcKolarv is the Zatschrifi fur die Alter&ums- Whether the Telegonia ascribed to the Lacedae
triffloorfa/i, 1840, p. 118. monian Cinaethon was an earlier work than that of
Of the other poets of this name next to nothing Eugamon, or whether it was identical with it, is
i« known beyond the title*, quoted above, in the uncertain. The name Telegonia was formed from
Palatine Anthology. Jacobs conjectures that the Telegonus, a sou of Odysseus and Circe, who killed
Sicilian and the Ascalonite are the same, the name his father. (Conip. Bode, Cesch. der Episch. Dkliik.
XccAuJrou being a corruption of 'AoxaAuriTov, p. 339, &c.) [L. S.J
Dot he gives no reason for this conjecture. The EU'GENES (EoVnjs), the author of an epi
epigrams of one of these poets, we know not which, gram, in the Greek Anthology, upon the statue of
vtre in the collection of Philip, which contained Anacreon intoxicated. (Brunck, Anal. vol. ii. p.
chirfy the verses of poets nearly contemporary 453; Jacobs, Antit. Graec. vol. iii. p. 158; Pans.
with PhUip himself. i. 93. § 1.) The epigram seems to be an imitation
(Wagner, de Enema Poeta eleoiads, Vratisl. of one by Leonidas Tarentinus on the same sub
1828 ; Sehreiber, LtapuL de Evexit Pariia, Gbtting. ject (Brunck, Anal. vol. i. p. 230 ; Jacobs, Anth.
1S39 ; Soochay, Sur les Pottes iltgiaques, in the Graec. vol. i. p. 163, No. xxxviii.) [P. S.]
Mix. de rjcad. del ImeripL vol. z. p. 598 ; EUGENIA'NUS (E^ecioi-oi), a physician in
Schneidewin, Delect. Poet. Graec. eleg. vol. i. p. the latter half of the second century after Christ, a
133; GaUford, Poet. Mix. Graec vol. iii. p. 277 ; friend and contemporary, and probably also a pu
BoKsonade, Graec. Poet. p. 163; Jacobs, A nth. pil of Galen, with whom he was acquainted while
O'row. vol. xiii. pp. 893, 894 ; Fabric. Bibl. Graec they were both at Rome. (Galen, de Metli. Med.
vol L p. 727.) [P. S.] viii. 2. vol. x. p. 535, 536.) It was at his request
EVERES (£&$£"•*)< a son of Pterelaiis, was that Galen was induced to resume his work " De
the only one among his brothers that escaped in Methodo Medendi," which he had begun to write
their light with the sons of Electryon. (Apollod. for the use of Hieron, and which he had laid aside
ii. 4. % 5, 4c; com p. Alcmknb and Amphitryon.) after his death. (Ibid. vii. 1. p. 456.) It was also
There are two other mythical personages of this at his request that Galen wrote his work " De Ordinc
name. (Apollod. ii. 7. § 8, iii. 6. § 7.) [L. S.] Librorum Suorum." (vol. xiv. p. 49.) [W. A. G.]
EVFRGETESfEiV/*™!')* the " Benefactor," M. EUGE'NICUS, a brother of Joannes Euge-
was a title of honour, frequently conferred by the nicus, who was a celebrated ecclesiastical writer,
Greek states upon those from whom they had re none of whose works, however, has yet ap
ceived benefits, and was afterwards assumed by peared in print. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. xi. p.
many of the Greek kings in Egypt and other 653.) M. Eugenicus was by birth a Greek, and
Countries. [PTOLBMiKlS.] in early life he was engaged as a schoolmaster and
EVERSA, a Thelan, who joined Callicritus in teacher of rhetoric. But his great learning and his
opposing in the Boeotian assembly the views of eloquence raised him to the highest dignities in the
Perseus, and was in consequence murdered with church, and about a. d. 1 436 he succeeded Josephus
CaUicrirm by order of the king. (Liv. xlii. 13, 40.) as archbishop of Ephesus. Two years later, he
[Cillickitc*.] accompanied the emperor Joannes Palaeologus to
E'VETES (EiltVni) and EUXE'NIDES(Eu{f- the council of Florence, in which he took a very
r3?s). were Athenian comic poets, contemporary prominent part ; for he represented not only his
with Epicharmus, about B. c. 485. Nothing is own diocese, but acted as proxy for the patriarchs
heard of comic poetry during an interval of eighty of Antioch and Jerusalem. He opposed the Latin
years from the time of Susarion, till it was re church with as much bitterness as he defended the
vived by Epicharnius in Sicily, and by Evetes, rights of the Greek church with zeal. In the be
Eii-tidev, and Myllus at Athens. The only ginning of the discussions at the council, this dis
writer who mentions these two poets is Suidas position drew upon him the displeasure of the em
(i r. Xwixopju)*). Myllus is not unfrequently peror, who was anxious to reunite the two churches,
aewiowd. [Myllus] (Meineke, Hist. Crit. and also of the pope Eugenius. This gave rise to
Gm. Graec. p. 26.) most vehement disputes, in which the Greeks chose
Thaw is also a Pythagorean philosopher, Evetes, Eugenicus as their spokesman and champion. As
of wbom nothing is known but his name. (Iam- he was little acquainted with the dialectic subtle
hfiek. Vk. Pyik. 36.) [P. S.] ties and the scholastic philosophy, in which the
EUGAMON (Ei>yo>«K), one of the Cyclic prelates of the West far surpassed him, he was at
poeu. He was a native of Cyrene, and lived first defeated by the cardinal Julian ; but after
about a. c. 568, so that he was a contemporary of wards, when Bessarion became his ally, the elo
PritUtratus, Stesichorus, and Aristeas. His poem, quence of Eugenicus threw all the council into
which was intended to be a continuation of the amazement. The vehemence and bitterness of his
iXlyssey, and bore the title of TriMyorla, consisted invectives against the Latins, however, was so
d two books or rhapsodies, and formed the conclu- great, that a report was soon spread and believed,
uco of the epic cycle. It contained an account of that he was out of his mind ; and even Bessarion
all that happened after the fight of Odysseus with called him an evil spirit (cacodaemon). At the
ti? Hilton of Penelope till the death of Odysseus. close of the council, when the other bishops were
Tist substance of the poem, which itself is entirely ready to acknowledge the claims of the pope, and
lost, is preserved in Proclus's Chrcstomathia. were ordered by the emperor to sign the decrees
Itomp. Eustath. ad Horn. p. 1 796.) As Eitgamon of the council, Eugenicus alone steadfastly refused
Irred at so late a period, it is highly probable that to yield, and neither threats nor promises could
i* node use of the productions of earlier poets ; induce him to alter his determination. The union
sad Clemens of Alexandria (Strom, vi. p. 751 ; of the two churches, however, was decreed. On
crap. En**. Praep. Evany, x. 12) expressly Btates his return to Constantinople, ho was received by
lias Eugamon incorporated in hisTelegonia a wholo the people with the greatest enthusiasm, and the
qac poem of Musaeus, entitled u Thesprotis." most extravagant veneration was p:iid him. Due
CO EUGENIUS. EUIIODUS.
iiig the remainder of his life he continued to oppose 1677, vol. ix., p. 4 ; and Procopius, De Bella Van
the Latin church wherever he could ; mid it was dalica, i. 7, &c. [W. R.]
mainly owing to his influence that, after his death, EUGE'NIUS, who was bishop of Toledo from
the union was broken off. For, on his death-bed A. D. 646 to 657, is mentioned under Dracun-
in 1447, he solemnly requested Georgius Scholarius, th'S as the editor and enlarger of the work by
to continue the struggle against the Latins, which Dracontius upon the Creation. He is known also
he himself had carried on, and Georgius promised, as the author of thirty-two short original poems
and faithfully kept his word. The funeral oration composed on a great variety of subjects, chiefly
on Eugenicus was delivered by the same friend, however moral and religious, in heroic, elegiac,
Georgius. trochaic, and sapphic measures. These were pub
M. Eugenicus was the author of many works, lished by Sirmond at Paris, 8vo. 1619, will be
most of which were directed against the Latin found also in the collected works of Sirmond
church, whence they were attacked by those Greeks (Paris 1696 and Venice 1728), in the Bill. Patr.
who were in favour of that church, such as Joseph Mar. Lugdun. 1677, vol. xii. p. 345, and in the
of Methone, Bessarion, and others. The following edition of Dracontius by Rivinus, Lips. 1651.
are printed either entire or in part 1. A Letter Two Epigrams by Eugenius—one on the invention
to the emperor Palaeologus, in which he cautions of letters, the other on the names of hybrid
the Greeks against the council of Florence, and animals, are contained in the Anthologia Latina of
exposes the intrigues of the Latins. It is printed, Burmann, ii. 264, v. 164, or n. 386, 387, ed.
with a Latin version and an answer by Joseph Meyer. [W. R.]
of Methone, in Labbcus, Condi, vol. xiii. p. 677. EUGE'NIUS, praefectus praetorio Orientis in
2. A Circular, addressed to all Christendom, on A. n. 547 or 540. lie was the author of an Edict
the same subject, is printed in Labbeus, I. c p. 740, concerning the accounts of publicans, which is in
with an answer by Gregorius Protosyncellus. serted in the collection of the Edicta praefectorum
3. A Treatise on Liturgical Subjects, in which he praetorio. ( Biener, Geschichte der Novellen Justini-
maintains the spiritual power of the priesthood. ans. p.532; Zachariae, A»ecdota,v.-26\.) [J.T.G.]
It is printed in the Lituryiae, p. 138, ed. Paris, EUGENIUS, a Greek physician, of whom it
1560. 4. A Profession of Faith, of which a frag is only known that he must have lived some
ment, with a Latin translation, is printed in Alla- time in or before the first century after Christ,
tius, de Consensu, iii. 3. § 4. 5. A I.ctter to the as one of his medical formulae is quoted by An-
emperor Palaeologus, of which a fragment is given dromachus. (ap. Galen, de Compos. Medicam. see.
in Allatius, de Synodo Octant. 14, p. 544. His Locos, vii. 6. vol. xiii. p. 114.) He is also quoted
other works are still extant in MS., but have never by Gariopontus [de Febr. c. 7), from which it
been published. A list of them is given by Fabri- would appear either that some of his works were
cius. (Bibl. Graec vol. xi. p.670,&c; comp.Cave, extant in the eleventh century, or that some sources
llist. Lit. vol. i. Appendix, p. Ill, &c) [L. S.] of information concerning him were then to be had
EUGE'NIUS, an African confessor, not less which do not now exist. [W. A. G.]
celebrated for his learning and sanctity than for EU'GEON (Eiyeait or V&yaluv), of Samoa, one
the courage with which he advocated the doctrines of the earliest Greek historians mentioned by Dio-
of the orthodox faith during the persecution of nvsiua of Halicarnassus. {Jml. de Thucyd. 5 ; comp.
the Arian Vandals towards the close of the fifth Suid. s.v.) [L.S.]
century. At first tolerated by Hnnneric, who ac EUGESIPPUS (Eiiyrio-imros), the author of a
quiesced in his elevation to the see of Carthage in work on the distances of places in the Holy Land,
a. D. 4 HO, he was subsequently transported by of which a Latin translation is printed in Leo Al
that prince, after the stormy council held in latius' SvfiutKTa. He lived about a. d. 1040, but
February A. D. 484, to the deserts of Tripoli, no particulars are known about him. [L. S.]
from whence he was recalled by the tardy cle EUGRAMMUS. [Euchkir, No. 2.]
mency of Gundamund, but eight years afterwards EUGRA'PHIUS, a Latin grammarian, who is
was arrested, tried and condemned to death by believed to have flourished as late as the end of the
Thrasimund, who, however, commuted the sen tenth century, is the author of a few unimportant
tence to banishment. The place fixed upon was notes upon Terence, referring chiefly to the pro
Viennc in Langncdoc, where Alaric at that period logues. They were first published by Faernua
held sway. Here Eugenius founded a monastery (Florent. 8vo. 1565), were subsequently improved
near the tomb of St. Amaranthus, where he and enlarged by Lindenbrogius (4 to. Paris, 1502,
passed his time in devout tranquillity until his Francf. 1623) and Westerhovius (Hag. Com. 4to.
death on the 1 3th of July A. D. 505. 1726), and are given in all the more complete edi
Under the name of Eugenius we possess a con tions of the dramatist. We hear also of a MS. in
fession of faith drawn up in accordance with the the Bibliotheque du Roi at Paris, intitled Commen-
doctrines recognised by the council of Nicaea, and tum in Terentium, bearing the name of Eugraphiua,
presented on the part of the orthodox African pre which Lindenbrogius did not think worth publish
lates to Hunneric, under the title, Professio fidei ing. [W. R.]
Cat/iolicorum cpiscoporum Hunerico regi oblata. It EU'HODUS, a freedman of the emperor Septi-
will be found in the Bibl. Max. Patr. Lugdun. mius Severus and tutor to Caracalla, who was
1677, vol. viii. p. 683, and an account of its con nursed by his wife Euhodia. At the instigation of
tents in Schrbck, Kirchengeschichte, vol. xviii. p. 97. the young prince he contrived the ruin of the too
Gennadius mentions several other works by this powerful Plautianus [Plautianls] ; but although
author, but they no longer exist. For the original loaded with honours on account of this good ser
documents connected with the Vandal persecution vice, he was put to death in a. d. 21 1, almost im
see u Victor Vitensis de persecutione Vandalica " mediately after the accession of his foster-son, from
with the notes of Ruinart, Paris, 1694 ; the "Vita a suspicion, probably, that he entertained friendly
S. Fulgentii " in the Bibl. Mat. Patr. Lugdun. feelings towards the hated Gcta. When Tertullinn
EUMARIDAS. EUMELUS. «7
(ad Stop, c 4) oti that young Antoninus was to read Thymaridas, who is known as a celebrated
reared upon Christian milk, he refers to Proculus, Pythagorean. (Iambi. /. c. 23, with Kiessling'a
the steward of Euhodus. for there is no reason to note.) [L. S.]
believe that either Euhodus or his wife professed EU'MARUS, a very ancient Greek painter of
the true faith, as some have imagined. (Dion Cass, monochromes, was the first, according to Pliny,
hntri 3, 6, lxxrii. 1.) [W. R.] who distinguished, in painting, the male from the
EVIPPE (Ziiwrt)), the name of five mytholo- female, and who "dared to imitate all figures."
rieal personages, concerning whom nothing of in His invention was improved upon by Simon of
terest is related. (Apollod. ii. 1. § 5 ; Paus. ix. Cleonae. (xxxv. 8. 8. 34.) MUller (Arch. d.Kunst,
U. i 3 ; Parthen. EroL 3 ; Eratosth. Cataet. 18 ; § 74 ) supposes that the distinction was made by a
Or. Met. t. 303.) [L. S.] difference of colouring; but Pliny's words seem
EVIPPUS (Einrroi). 1. A son of Thestius and rather to refer to the drawing of the figure. [P. S.]
KarrthtaaU, who, together with his brothers, was EUMA'THI US. [ Eustathius, No. 5.]
killed by Meleager. (Apollod. L 7. § 10, 8. § 3.) EUME'LUS (EButjAot), a son of Admetus and
2. A son of Megareus, who was killed by the Alcestis, who went with eleven ships and warriors
Cithaerooean lion. (Pans. i. 41. § 4.) There are from Pherae, Boebe, Glaphyrae, and Iaolcus to
two other mythical personages of this name. (Horn. Troy. He was distinguished for his excellent
A xri. 417; Steph. Byx. ». r. 'AXiSarSa.) [L.S.] horses, which had once been under the care of
EULAEUS (EiAoIos), an eunuch, became one Apollo, and with which Eumelus would have
of the regents of Egypt and guardians of Ptolemy gained the prize at the funeral games of Patroclus,
Philnm*tor on the death of Cleopatra, the mother if his chariot had not been broken. He was mar
of the latter, in B. c. 1 73. The young king was ried to Iphthima, the daughter of Icarius. (Horn.
then 13 years old, and he is said to have been It. ii. 711, &c 764, xxiii. 375, 536, Od. iv. 798;
brooght up in the greatest luxury and effeminacy Strab. ix. p. 436.) There are three other mytho
by Elbrus, who hoped to render his own influence logical personages of this name. (Anton. Lib. 1 5,
permanent by the corruption and consequent weak- 18 ; Paus. vii. 18. § 2.) [L. S.]
cess of Ptolemy. It was Eulaeus who, by refusing EUME'LUS (E(v«)Aoj), one of the three sons
the claims of Antiochus IV. (Epiphanes) to the of Parysades, King of Bosporus. After his father's
provinces of Coele-Syria and Palestine, involved death he engaged in a war for the crown with his
Eerypt in the disastrous war with Syria in n. c. 171. brothers Satyrus and Prytanis, who were succes
(PolyK xxviii. 16; Diod. Fragm. lib. xxx. Ere de sively killed in battle. Eumelus reigned most
Lm' xriii. p. 624, it VirL et Vii. p. 579 ; Liv. prosperously for five years and five months, ac.
xro. 29, xlr. 11, 12 ; App. Syr. 66 ; Just, xxxiv. 309—304. (Diod. xx. 22—26 ; Clinton, F. //. vol.
2.) [E. E.] ii. pp. 282. 285.) [P. S.]
ECLtyGICS. [Eclooics.] EUME'LUS (Ei/jLtiKos). 1. Of Corinth, the
EULO GIL'S, FAVO'NIUS, a rhetorician of son of Amphilytus, a very ancient Epic poet, be
Carthage, and a contemporary and disciple of St. longed, according to some, to the Epic cycle. His
Augustin. (August, de Cur. pro Mori. 11.) Under name, like Eucheir, Eugrammus, &c., is significant,
ks name we possess a disputation on Cicero's referring to his skill in poetry. He was of the
!Lu'm Sdpimm, which contains various discus noble house of the Bacchiadae, and flourished about
sions on points of the Pythagorean doctrine the 5th Olympiad, according to Eusebius (Chron.*),
of numbers. The treatise was first printed by who makes him contemporary with Arctinus.
A Seaott at the end of his Quaestiones Tullianae (Comp. Cyril, c. Julian, i. p. 1 3 ; Clem. Alex.
(Antwerp, 1613, 8vo.), and afterwards in the Strom, i. p. 144.)
edition of Cicero's de Officii*, by Graevius (1688), Those of the poems ascribed to him, which ap
frxa which it is reprinted with some improvements pear pretty certainly genuine, were genealogical and
in OreUis edition of Cicero, vol. v. part. 1 , pp. 397 historical legends. To this class belonged his Co
—413, [L. S.] rinthian History (Paus. ii. 1- $ 1,2. c "-_», :;. o :: ;
EU'MACHUS {tifiaxot). 1. A Corinthian, SchoL ad Apoll. Bltod. i. 148; Tzetz. Schol. ad
asm of Chrysis, was one of the generals sent by Lycophr. 1024, comp. 174, 480), his lrpoaiSiov is
the Corinthians in the winter of B. c. 431 in AtjAop, from which some lines are quoted by Pau-
mszaand of an armament to restore Evarchus, sanias, who considered it the only genuine work oi
tyrant of Attacus, who had been recently expelled Eumelus (iv. 4. $ 1, 33. §§ 2, 3, v. 19. § 2), and
by the Athenians. (Thnc ii. 33.) the Europia (Euseb. I.e.; Clem. Alex. Strom. i. p.
i A native of Xeapolis, who, according to 151 ; SchoL ad Horn. It. ii. p. 121.) He also wrote
Athenaeus (xiii. p. 577), wrote a work entitled Bougonia, a poem on bees, which the Greeks called
Itfraptoi rif «pi 'ArviGav. It is perhaps the jSoiryoW and fiovytveif. (Euseb. /. c. ; Varro. Ii. Ii.
■me* Eumachtu of whose work entitled Ilepnrywr ii. 5. § 5, ed. Schneid.) Some writers ascribed to
a fracment is still extant in Phlegon. (Mirab. him a TiTayo/iaxlo, which also was attributed to
c I«J [C. P. M.1 Arctinus. (Athen. vii. p. 277, d., comp. i. p. 22,
ECMAEUS (Ei^owf), the famous and faithful c ; Schol. ad Apoll. Mod. i. 1165.)
irarberd of Odysseus, was a son of Ctosius, king The cyclic poem on the return of the Greeks from
•f the island of Syrie ; he had been carried away Troy (riaros) is ascribed to Eumelus by a Scho
from hi* father's house by a Phoenician slave, and liast on Pindar (Ol. xiii. 31), who writes the name
PWnician sailors sold him to Laertes, the father wrongly, Eumolpus. The lines quoted by this Scho
•f Odvssews, (Horn. Od. xv. 403, Sic. ; comp. liast are also given by Pausanias, under the name
Oirranx-*.) [L. S.] of Eumelus. (Vossius, de Hut. Graec pp. 5, 6, ed.
EUMA'RIDAS (tJpapihat), of Pares, a Py Wcstermann ; Welcker, die Epixhe Cyclug, p. 274.)
thagorean philosopher, who is mentioned by Iam-
hLJchus ( \'U. Pytk. 36); but it is uncertain whether " A little lower, Eusebius places him again at
the reading ia correct, and whether we ought not 01. 9, but the former date Beems the more correct.
on EUMENES. EUMENES.
2. A Peripatetic philosopher, who wrote »«pfTtit cavalry. (Arrian, Anab. v. 24 ; Plut. Eum. 1 ;
dpxalas KaiUfSias. (Schol. MS. ad Acsclun. c. Ti- Corn. Nep. Eum. 13.)
marcJu § 39. 4.) Perhaps he is the same from In the discussions and tumults which ensued on
whom Diogenes Laertius (v. 5) quotes an account the death of Alexander, Eumenes at first, aware of
of the death of Aristotle. (Meineke, Hist. Crit. Com. the jealousy with which as a Greek he was re
Urux. p. 8.) [P. S.] garded by the Macedonian leaders, refrained from
EUME'LUS (ESfiriko*), a painter, whose pro taking any part ; but when matters came to an
ductions were distinguished for their beauty. There open rupture, he was mainly instrumental in bring
was a Helen by him in the forum at Home. He ing about a reconciliation between the two parties.
probably lived about A. D. 190. (Philostr. Imwi. In the division of the satrapies which followed,
Prooem. p. 4 ; ViL Soph. ii. 5. ) He is supposed to Eumenes obtained the government of Cappadocia,
have been the teacher of Aristodemus, whose school Faphlagonia, and Pontus : but as these provinces
was frequented by the elder Philostratus. [P. S.] had never yet been conquered, and were still in
EUME'LUS (Efyn|*oj), a veterinary surgeon, the hands of Ariarathes, Antigonus and Leonnntus
of' whom nothing is known except that he was a were appointed to reduce them for him. Antigonus,
native of Thebes. (Hippiatr. p. 12.) He may per however, disdained compliance, and Leonnatus was
haps have lived in the fourth or fifth century after quickly called off to Greece by his ambitious pro
Christ. Some fragments, which are all that remain jects. [Leonnatus.] In these he endeavoured to
of his writings, are to be found in the Collection of persuade Eumenes, who had accompanied him into
Writers on Veterinary Surgery, first published in Phrygia, to join ; but the latter, instead of doing
Latin by J. RuelliuB, Paris. 1530, fol, and in Greek so, abruptly quitted him, and hastening to Perdic-
by S. Grvnaeus, Basil. 1537, 4to. [VV. A. G.] cas, revealed to him the designs of Leonnatus.
EU'MENES (Ei!,m«js). 1. Ruler or dynast By this proof of his fidelity, he secured the favour
of the city of AmastrU on the Euxine, contempo of the regent, who henceforward reposed his chief
rary with Antiochus Soter. The citizens of Hera- confidence in him. As an immediate reward, Pcr-
cleia wished to purchase from him his sovereignty, diccas proceeded in person to subdue for him the
as Amastris had formerly belonged to them ; but promised satrapies, defeated and put to death
to this he refused to accede. He, however, soon Ariarathes, and established Eumenes in the full
after gave up the city to Ariobarzanes, king of possession of his government, n. c. 322. (Plut.
Pontus. (Memnon, 16, ed. Orelli.) Droysen (flel- Eum. 3 ; Diod. xviii. 3, 16 ; Arrian, ap. Phut. p.
letmmus, vol. ii. p. 230) supposes this Eumenes to be 69, a. ; Corn. Nep. Eum. 2.) Here, however, he
the nephew of Philetacrus, who afterwards became did not long remain, but accompanied the regent
king of Pergamus [Eumenes I.] j but there do not and the royal family into Cilicia. In the following
seem any sufficient grounds for this identification. spring, when Perdiccas determined to proceed in
2. Brother of Philetaerus, founder of the king person against Ptolemy, he committed to Eumenes
dom of Pergamus. [Philetaerus.] [E. H. B.] the chief command in Asia Minor, and ordered
EU'MENES (Eih«>"!s) of Cardia, secretary to him to repair at once to the Hellespont, to make
Alexander the Great, and after his death one of head against Antipater and Craterus. Eumenes
the most distinguised generals among his succes took advantage of the interval before their arrival
sors. The accounts of his origin vary considerably, to raise a numerous and excellent body of cavalry
some representing his father as a poor man, who out of Paphlagonia, to which he was indebted for
was obliged to Bubsist by his own labour, others many of his subsequent victories. Meanwhile, a
as one of the most distinguished citizens of his new enemy arose against him in Neoptolemus,
native place. (Plut. Eum. 1; Cora. Nep. Earn. 1; governor of Armenia, who had been placed under
Aelian, V. H. xii. 43.) The latter statements are his command by Perdiccas, but then revolted from
upon all accounts the most probable : it is certain, him, and entered into correspondence with Anti
at least, that he received a good education, and pater and Craterus. Eumenes, however, defeated
having attracted the attention of Philip of Macedon him before the arrival of his confederates, and then
on occasion of his visiting Cardia, was taken by turned to meet Craterus, who was advancing
that king to his court, and employed as his private against him, and to whom Neoptolemus had made
secretary. In this capacity he soon rose to a high his escape after his own defeat. The battle that
place in his confidence, and after his death conti ensued was decisive ; for although the Macedonian
nued to discharge the same office under Alexander, phalanx suffered but little, Craterus himself fell,
whom he accompanied throughout his expedition and Neoptolemus was slain by Eumenes with his
in Asia, and who seems to have treated him at all own hand, after a deadly struggle in the presence
times with the most marked confidence and dis of the two armies. (Plut. Eum. 4—7; Diod. xviii.
tinction, of which he gave a striking proof about 29—32; Arrian, ap. Phot. p. 70, b., 71, a. ; Com.
two years before his death, by giving him in mar Nep. Eum. 3, 4 ; Justin, xiii. 6, 8.) This took
riage Artonis, a Persian princess, the daughter of place in the summer of 321 B. c.
Artahazus, at the same time that he himself married But while Eumenes was thus triumphant in
Stateira, thedaughter of Dareius. (Arrian, Anab. vii. Asia, Perdiccas had met with repeated disasters in
4.) A still stronger evidence of the favour which Egypt, and had finally fallen a victim to the dis
Eumenes enjoyed with Alexander is, that he was content of his troops, just before the news arrived
able to maintain his ground against the influence of the victory of Eumenes and the death of Cra
of Hephaestion, with whom he was continually at terus. It came too late : the tide was now turned,
enmity. (Arrian, Anab. vii. 13, 14; Plut. Eum. 2.) and the intelligence excited the greatest indigna
Nor were his services confined to those of his tion among the Macedonian soldiers, who had
office as secretary : he was more than once em been particularly attached to Craterus, and who
ployed by Alexander in military commands, and hated Eumenes as a foreigner, for such they con
was ultimately appointed by him to the post of sidered him. A general assembly of the army
hipparch or leader of one of the chief divisions of was held, in which Eumenes, Attains, and Alcetas,
EUMENES. EUMENES. RO
the remaining leaders of the party of Perdiccas, vanced into Susiana, where he was joined by Peu-
were condemned to death. The conduct of the cestes at the head of all the forces of Media, Per
war against them was assigned to Antigonna ; but sia, and the other provinces of Upper Asia. Still
he did not take the field until the following sum he did not choose to await here the advance of
mer (s. c. 320). Eumenes had wintered at Celae- Antigonus ; and leaving a strong garrison to guard
nae in Phrygia, and strengthened himself by all the royal treasures at Susa, he took post with his
avails in his power, but he was unable to make army behind the Pasitigris. Antigonus, who had
head against Antigonna, who defeated him in the followed him out of Babylonia, and effected his
paid of Orcynium in Cappndocia; and finding junction with Seleucus and Pithon, now marched
himself unable to effect his retreat into Armenia, against him ; but having met with a check at the
as he had designed to do, he adopted the resolu river Copratas, withdrew by a cross march through
tion of disbanding the rest of his army, and throw a difficult country into Media, while Eumenes took
ing himself, with only 700 troops, into the small up his quarters at Persepolis. He had many diffi
lot impregnable fortress of Nora, on the confines culties to contend with, not only from the enemy,
of Lvcsoma and Cappndocia. (Pint. Eum. 8— 10 ; but from the discontent of his own troops, the re
Kod. xviii. 37, 40, 41 ; Corn. Nep. Eum. 5.) laxation of their discipline when they were allowed
Here he was closely blockaded by the forces of to remain in the luxurious provinces of Persia, and
Antigonus ; but, confident in the strength of his above all from the continual jealousies and intrigues
pott, refused all offers of capitulation, and awaited of the generals and satraps under his command.
the result of external changes. It was not long But whenever they were in circumstances of diffi
before these took place : the death of Antipater culty or in presence of the enemy, all were at once
caused a complete alteration in the relations of the ready to acknowledge his superiority, and leave
different leaders ; and Antigonus, who was anxious him the uncontrolled direction of everything. The
to obtain the assistance of Eumenes, made him the two armies first met on the confines of Gabiene,
most plausible offers, of which the latter only when a pitched battle ensued, with no decided
availed himself so far as enabled him to quit his advantage to either side ; after which Antigomis
mountain fortress, in which he had now held out withdrew to Gadamarga in Media, while Eumenes
nearly a year, and withdraw to Cappadocia. Here established his winter-quarters in Gabiene. Here
he was busy in leTjing troops and gathering his Antigonus attempted to surprise him by a sudden
friends together, when he received letters from march in the depth of the winter ; but he was too
Polysperchan and Olympias, entreating his sup wary to be taken unprepared : he contrived by a
port, and granting him, in the name of the king, stratagem to delay the march of his adversary un
the supreme command throughout Asia. Eumenes til he had time to collect his scattered forces, and
was, whether from interest or from real attach again bring matters to the issue of a pitched battle.
ment, always disposed to espouse the cause of the Neither party obtained a complete victory, and
royal family of Macedonia, and gladly embraced Eumenes would have renewed the combat the next
the offer : he eluded the pursuit of Menander, who day; but the baggage of the Macedonian troops
marched against him by order of Antigonus, and had fallen into the hands of the enemy, and the
arrived in Cilicia, where he found the select body Argyraspids, furious at their loss, agreed to pur
of Macedonian veterans called the Argyraspids, chase its restoration from Antigonus by delivering
snder Ancigenes and Teutamus. These, as well up their general into his hands. The latter is said
as the royal treasures deposited at Quinda, had to have been at first disposed to spare the life of
been placed at his disposal by Polysperchon and his captive, which he was strongly urged to do by
Oiympias : but though welcomed at first with ap Nearchus and the young Demetrius ; but all his
parent enthusiasm, Eumenes was well aware of other officers were of the contrary opinion, and
the jealousy with which he was regarded, and Eumenes was put to death a few days after he
even sought to avoid the appearance of command- had fallen into the hands of the enemy. (Plut.
is? the other generals by the singular expedient of Eum. 13— 19; Diod. xix. 12—15, 17—34, 37
erec'.rng a tent in which the throne, the crown and —44 ; Corn. Nep. Eum. 7— 12 ; Justin, xiv. 3,
■eeptre of Alexander were preserved, and where 4 ; Polyaen. iv. 8. § 3, 4.) These events took
all councils of war were held, as if in the presence place in the winter of 317 to 316 B. c*
of the deceased monarch. (Plut, Eum. 11 — 13; Eumenes was only forty-five years old at the
livA. xviii. 40, 53, 58—61 ; Polyaen. iv. 8. § 2 ; time of his death. (Corn. Nop. Eum. 13.) Of his
Justin, xiv. 2.) By these and other means Eu- consummate ability, both as a general and a states
raeoes succeeded in conciliating the troops under man, no doubt can be entertained ; and it is proba
fail command, so that they rejected all the attempts ble that he would have attained a far more import
xaade by Ptolemy and Antigonus to corrupt their ant position among the successors of Alexander,
fidelity. At the same time he made extensive had it not been for the accidental disadvantage of
>-vie» of mercenaries, and having assembled in all his birth. But as a Greek of Cardia, and not a
s comeroos army, he advanced into Phoenicia, native Macedonian, he was constantly looked upon
witi tbe view of reducing the maritime towns, and with dislike, and even with contempt, both by his
•ending a fleet from thence to the assistance of opponents and companions in arms, at the very
Poirspercbon. This plan was, however, frustrated time that they were compelled to bow beneath his
by the arrival of the fleet of Antigonus, and the
advance of that general himself with a greatly * In the relation of these events, the chronology
superior force. Eumenes in consequence retired of Droysen has been followed. Mr. Clinton (who
into the interior of Asia, and took up his winter- places the death of Eumenes early in 315 B.C.)
quarters in Babylonia. (Diod. xviii. 61 — 63, 73.) appears to have been misled by attaching too much
In the spring of 31 7 he descended the left bank importance to the archonsliips, as mentioned by
of the Tigris, and having foiled all the endeavours Diodorus. See Droysen, Gescli. d. Nachf. p. 269,
«f Seleocns to prevent his passing that river, ad- not.
90 EUMENES. EUMENES.
genius. This prejudice was throughout the greatest him the possession of Mysia, Lydia, both Phrygias,
obstacle with which he had to contend, and it may and Lycaonia, as well as of Lysimachia, and the
be regarded as the highest proof of his ability that Thracian Chersonese. By this means Eumenes
he overcame it even to the extent to which he was found himself raised at once from a state of com
able. It must be borne in mind also, if we praise parative insignificance to be the sovereign of a
him for his fidelity to the royal house of Macedonia, powerful monarchy. (Liv. xxxvii. 45, 52—55,
that this same disadvantage, by rendering it im xxxviii. 39 ; Polyb. xxii. 1 —4, 7, 27 ; Appian,
possible for him to aspire to any independent au Syr. 44.) About the same time, he married the
thority, made it as much his interest as his duty daughter of Ariarathes, king of Cappadocia, and
to uphold the legitimate occupants of the throne of procured from the Romans favourable terms for
Alexander. He is described by Plutarch (Eum. that monarch. (Liv. xxxviii. 39.) This alliance
1 1 ) as a man of polished manners and appearance, was the occasion of involving him in a war with
with the air of a courtier rather than a warrior; Pharnaces, king of Pontus, who had invaded Cap-
and his oratory was more subtle and plausible than padocia, but which was ultimately terminated by
energetic. Craft and caution seem indeed to have the intervention of Rome. (Polyb. xxv. 2, 4, 5, 6,
been the prevailing points in his character ; though xxvi. 4.) He was also engaged in hostilities with
he was able also to exhibit, when called for, the Prusias, king of Bithynia, which gave the Romans
utmost energy and activity. [E. H. B.] a pretext for interfering, not only to protect Eu
EU'MENES (EihWnjs) I., king, or rather ruler, menes, but to compel Prusias to give up Hannibal,
of Pergamus. He was the son of Eumenes, bro who had taken refuge at his court (Liv. xxxix.
ther of Philetaerus, and succeeded his uncle in the 46, 51 ; Justin, xxxii. 4; Corn. Nep. Harm. 10.)
government of Pergamus (a. c 263), over which During all this period, Eumenes enjoyed the
he reigned for two-and- twenty years. Soon after highest favour at Rome, and certainly was not
his accession he obtained a victory near Sardis backward in availing himself of it. He was con
over Antiochus Soter, and was thus enabled to tinually sending embassies thither, partly to culti
establish his dominion over the provinces in the vate the good understanding with the senate in
neighbourhood of his capital; but no further parti which he now found himself, but frequently also to
culars of his reign are recorded. (Strab. xiii. p. 624; complain of the conduct of his neighbours, especi
Clinton, F. H. iii. p. 401.) According to Athe- ally of the Macedonian kings, Philip and his suc
naeus (x. p. 445, d.), his death was occasioned by cessor, Perseus. In 172, to give more weight to
a fit of drunkenness. He was succeeded by his his remonstrances, he a second time visited Rome
cousin Attalus, also a nephew of Philetaerus. It in person, where he was received with the utmost
appears to be to this Eumenes (though styled by distinction. On his return from thence, he visited
mistake king of Bithynia) that Justin (xxvii. 3) Delphi, where he narrowly escaped a design against
ascribes, without doubt erroneously, the great vic his life formed by the emissaries of Perseus. ( Liv.
tory over the Gauls, which was in fact gained by xlii. 11— 16 ; Diod. Exc. Imj. p. 623, Exc. Vales.
his successor Attalus. [Attai.us I., vol. i. p. p. 577 ; AppiRn, Mac. Exc. 9, pp. 519—526, ed.
410, a.] [E.H.B.] Schweigh.) But though he was thus apparently on
EU'MENES (Ku/iiwt) II., king of Pergamus terms of the bitterest hostility with the Macedo
son of Attalus I., whom he succeeded on the nian monarch, his conduct during the war that
throne b. c. 197. (Clinton, F. H. iii. p. 403.) He followed was not such as to give satisfaction to
inherited from his predecessor the friendship and the Romans ; and he was suspected of correspond
alliance of the Romans, which he took the utmost ing secretly with Perseus, a charge which, accord
pains to cultivate, and was included by them in ing to Polybius, was not altogether unfounded ;
the treaty of peace concluded with Philip, king of but his designs extended only to the obtaining
Macedonia, in 196, by which he obtained posses from that prince a sum of money for procuring him
sion of the towns of Oreus and Eretria in Euboca. a peace on favourable terms. ( Polyb. Fragm. Va
(Liv. xxxiii. 30, 34.) In the following year he tican, pp. 427-429 ; Liv. xliv. 1 3, 24, 25 ; Appian,
sent a fleet to the assistance of Flamininus in the Mac. Exc. 16, pp. 531-2.) His overtures were,
war against Nabis. (Liv. xxxiv. 26.) His alliance however, rejected by Perseus, and after the victory
was in vain courted by his powerful neighbour, of the Romans (b. c. 167), he hastened to send his
Antiochus III., who offered him one of his daugh brother Attalus to the senate with his congratula
ters iu marriage. (Appian, Syr. 5.) Eumenes tions. They did not choose to take any public
plainly saw that it was his interest to adhere to notice of what had passed, and dismissed Attalus
the Romans in the approaching contest; and far with fair words ; but when Eumenes, probably
from seeking to avert this, he used all his endea alarmed at finding his schemes discovered, deter
vours to urge on the Romans to engage in it. mined to proceed to Rome in person, the senate
When hostilities had actually commenced, he was passed a decree to forbid it, and finding that he
active in the service of his allies, both by sending was already arrived at Brundusium, ordered him
his fleet to support that of the Romans under to quit Italy without delay. (Polyb. xxx. 17,
Livius and Aemilius, and facilitating the important Fragm. Vatic, p. 428 j Liv. Epit. xlvi.) Hence
passage of the Hellespont. In the decisive battle forward he was constantly regarded with suspicion
of Magnesia (b. c. 190), he commanded in person by the Roman senate, and though his brother At
the troops which he furnished as auxiliaries to the talus, whom he sent to Rome again in a c. 1 60,
Roman army, and appears to have rendered valuable was received with marked favour, this seems to
services. (Liv. xxxv. 13, xxxvi. 43— 45, xxxvii, have been for the very purpose of exciting him against
14, 18, 33, 37, 41 ; Appian, Syr. 22, 25, 31,33, 38, Eumenes, who had sent him, and inducing him to
43; Justin, xxxi. 8.) Immediately on the conclusion set up for himself. (Polyb. xxxii. 5.) The last
of peace, he hastened to Rome, to put forward in years of the reign of Eumenes seem to have been
person his claims to reward : his pretensions were disturbed by frequent hostilities on the part of Pru
favourably received by the senate, who granted sias, king of Bithynia, and the Gauls of Galatia ;
EUMENIDES. EUMENIDES. 91
bet he had the good-fortune or dexterity to avoid which they punish are disobedience towards pa
coming to an open rupture either with Rome or rents, violation of the respect due to old age, per
hi» brother Attains. (Poljb. xxxi. 9, xxxii. 5 ; jury, murder, violation of the law of hospitality,
Dhui mi. Etc loio. p. 582.) His death, which and improper conduct towards suppliants. (Horn.
u D-?t mentioned by any ancient writer, must have II ix. 454, xv. 204, xix. 259, Od. ii. 136, xvii.
taken place in B. c. 159, after a reign of 39 years. 475.) The notion which is the foundation of the
(Sirab. xiii. p. 624 ; Clinton, F. H. iii. pp. 403, belief in the Eumenides seems to be, that a parent's
406.) curse takes from him upon whom it is pronounced
According to Polybius (xxxii. 23), Eumencs all peace of mind, destroys the happiness of his
was a man of a feeble bodily constitution, but of family, and prevents his being blessed with chil
great vigour and power of mind, which is indeed dren. (Herod, iv. 149; Aeschyl. Eum. 835.) As
sufficiently evinced by the history of his reign : the Eumenides not only punished crimes after
si* policy was indeed crafty and temporizing, but death, but during life on earth, they were conceived
indicative of much sagacity; and he raised his also as goddesses of fate, who, together with Zeus
kingdom from a petty state to one of the highest and the Moerae or Parcae, led such men as were
consideration. Ail the arts of peace were assidu- doomed to suffer into misery and misfortunes.
•uslv protected by him : Pergamus itself became (Horn. //. xix. 87, Od. xv. 234.) In the same
under bis rule a great and flourishing city, which capacity they also prevented man from obtaining
he adorned with splendid buildings, and in which too much knowledge of the future. ( //. xix. 418.)
he founded that celebrated library which rose to be Homer does not mention any particular names of
a rixal even to that of Alexandria. (Strab. xiii. p. the Erinnyes, nor does he seem to know of any
624.) It would be unjust to Kumenes not to add definite number. Hesiod, who is likewise silent
tbe circums'.aBce mentioned by Polybius in his upon these points, calls the Erinnyes the daughters
praise, that he continued throughout his life on the of Ge, who conceived them in the drops of blood
bni terras with all his three brothers, who cheer that fell upon her from the body of Uranus.
fully lent their services to support him in his (Theog. 185; comp. Apollod. i. 1. § 4.) Epimenides
power. One of these. Attains, was his immediate called them the daughters of Cronos and Euonyme,
successor, his son Attains being yet an infant. and sisters of the Moerae (Tzetx. ad Lymph. 406 ;
(PoItu. xxxii. 23 ; Strab. xiii. p. 624.) A de Schol. ad Soph. Oed. Col, 42); Aeschylus (Eum.
tailed account of the reign of Eumenes will be 321) calls them the daughters of Night; and
found in Van Cappelle, Cummentalio de Regibus et Sophocles (Oed. Col. 40, 106) of Scotos (Darkness)
AtHqiilatikui Pergamenis, Amstel.1842. [E.H.B.] and Ge. (Comp. some other genealogies in Hygin.
EUMENIDES (Ei!>kW8«s), also called Ebin- Fab. p. 1 ; Serv. ad Aen. vii. 327 ; Orph. Hymn.
kyks. and by the Romans Fcriae or Dirak, were 69. 2.) The Greek tragedians, with whom, as in
originally nothing but a personification of curses the Eumenides of Aeschylus, the number of these
pronounced upon a guilty criminal. The name goddesses is not limited to a few (Dyer, in the
Erinnys, which is the more ancient one, was de Class. Museum, vol. i. pp. 281-298 ; comp. Eurip.
rived by the Greeks from the verb iplvu or Iphig. Taur. 970; Virg. Am. iv. 469), no particular
J«*mitt. I hunt up or persecute, or from the Arca- name of any one Erinnys is yet mentioned, but
oian word iptrim, I am angry ; so that the Erinnyes they appear in the same capacity, and as the
were either the angry goddesses, or the goddesses avengers of the same crimes, as before. They are
who hunt up or search after the criminal. (Aes- sometimes identified with the Poenae, though their
chjL Eon. 499 ; Pind. CH. ii. 45; Cic. de. NaU sphere of action is wider than that of the Poenae.
Dear, ill. 18.) The name Eumenides, which sig- From their hunting up and persecuting the cursed
■ines * the well-meaning,** or " soothed goddesses," criminal, Aeschylus (Eum. 231, Choeph. 1055)
is a mere euphemism, because people dreaded to calls them (nicer or Kuvrrye'riBtj. No prayer, no
tali these fearful goddesses by their real name, and sacrifice, and no tears can move them, or protect
it was said to have been first given them after the the object of their persecution (Aesch. Agam. 69,
acquittal of Orestes by the court of the Areiopagus, Eum. 384) ; and when they fear lest the criminal
when the anger of the Erinnves had become sooth should escape them, they call in the assistance of
ed. (Soph. Oed. Col. 128 ; SchoL ad Oed. Col. 42; Dice, with whom they are closely connected, the
Said. st. r. EvpcrSff.) It was by a similar euphe maintenance of strict justice being their only ob
mism that at Athens the Erinnyes were called ject. (Aesch. Eum. 51 1, 786 ; Orph. Argon. 350;
W)m2 &«al, or the venerable goddesses. (Paus. i. Plut. de Exil. 11.) The Erinnyes were more an
H. i 6 ) Servius (ad Aen. iv. 609) makes a dis cient divinities than the Olympian gods, and were
tinction, according to which they bore the name therefore not under the rule of Zeus, though they
Lnrae, when they were conceived as being in hea honoured and esteemed him (Bum. 918, 1002);
ven by the throne of Zeus, Furiae, when conceived and they dwelt in the deep darkness of Tartarus,
as being on earth, and Eumenides, as beings of the dreaded by gods and men. Their appearance is
lower world; but this seems to be a purely arbi described by Aeschylus as Gorgo-like, their bodies
trary distinction. covered with black, serpents twined in their hair,
In the sense of mrsf or curses, the word Erinnys and blood dripping from their eyes ; Euripides and
er Erinnyes is often used in the Homeric poems other later poets describe them as winged beings.
(11. ix. 454, xxL 412, Od. xi. 280), and Aeschylus ( Orest. 317, Iphig. Taur. 290 ; Virg. Aen. xii. 848 ;
(Cb**jA. 406) calls the Eumenides 'Apol, that is, Orph- Hymn. 68. 5.) The appearance they have
caTjes. According to the Homeric notion, the in Aeschylus was more or less retained by the
Erinnyes, whom the poet conceives as distinct poets of later times ; but they gradually assumed
beings, are reckoned among those who inhabit the character of goddesses who punished crimes
Erebus, where they rest until some curse pro- after death, and seldom appeared on earth. On
■wumd upon a criminal calls them to life and ac the stage, however, and in works of art, their fear
tivity. (Ii ix. 571, Od. xv. 234.) The crimes ful appearance was greatly softened down, for they
92 EUMENIUS. EUMOLPUS.
were represented as maidens of a grave and so Gallia Lugdunensis, in order that he might pub
lemn mien, in the richly adorned attire of huntresses, licly acknowledge the liberality of the prince, might
with a band of serpents around their heads, and explain his own views as to the manner in which
serpents or torches in their hands. With later the objects in view could best be accomplished, and
writers, though not always, the number of Eume- might declare his intention of carrying these plans
nides is limited to three, and their names are Tisi- into effect without any tax upon the public, by
phone, Alecto, and Megaera. (Orph. Hymn. 68 ; devoting one-half of his allowance to the support of
Tzetz. ad Lymph. 406 j Virg. Am. xii. 845.) At the establishment. We find included (c. 14) an
Athens there were statues of only two. (Schol. ad interesting letter addressed by Constantius to Eu
Oal. Col. 42.) The sacrifices which were offered to menius.
them consisted of black sheep and nephalia, i. e. a 2. Panegyricus Constantio Caesari dictus. A
drink of honey mixed with water. ( Schol. /. a. ; congratulatory address upon the recovery of Britain,
Paus. ii. 11. § 4; AeschyL Bum. 107.) Among delivered towards the close of a. d. 296, or the be
the things sacred to them we hear of white turtle ginning of 297. [Allectus ; Carausius.]
doves, and the narcissus. (Aelian, //. A. x. 33; 3. Panegyric** Constantino Augusto dictus, pro
Eustath. ad Horn. p. 87.) They were worshipped nounced at Treves, a. d. 310, on the birth-day of
at Athens, where they had a sanctuary and a the city, in the presence of Constantine, containing
grotto near the Areiopagus : their statues, how an outline of the career of the emperor, in which
ever, had nothing formidable (Paus. i. 28. $ 6), all his deeds are magnified in most outrageous
and a festival Eumenidcia was there celebrated in hyperboles. Heyne is unwilling to believe that
their honour. Another sanctuary, with a grove Eumenius is the author of this declamation, which
which no one was allowed to enter, existed at he considers altogether out of character with the
Colonus. (Soph. Oed. Cut. 37.) Under the name moderation and good taste displayed in his other
of Man'aj, they were worshipped at Megalopolis. compositions. The chief evidence consists in
(Paus. viii. 34. § 1.) They were also worshipped certain expressions contained in chapters 22 and
on the Asopus and at Ccryneia. (Paus. ii. 11. 8 4, 23, where the speaker represents himself as a
vii. 25. § 4 ; comp. Biittiger, Furienmaske, Weimar, native of Autun, and, in the language of a man ad
1801; Hirt, Mythol. Bildcrb. p. 201, &c.) [L.S.] vanced in years, recommends to the patronage of
EUME'NIUS, whose works are included in the the sovereign his five sons, one of whom is spoken
collection which commonly bears the title " Duo- of as discharging the duties of an office in the
decim Panegyrici Veteres" [Drepanius], was a treasury.
native of Autun, but a Greek by extraction ; for his 4. Gratiarum actio Constantino Augusta Flatien-
grandfather was an Athenian, who acquired cele sium nomine. The city of Autun having expe
brity at Rome as a teacher of rhetoric, and having rienced the liberality of Constantine, who in
subsequently removed to Gaul, practised his profes consideration of their recent misfortunes had re
sion until past the age of eighty, in the city where lieved the inhabitants from a heavy load of taxa
his grandson, pupil, and successor, was born. Eu- tion, assumed in honour of its patron the appellation
menius flourished towards the close of the third and of Flavia, and deputed Eumenius to convey to the
at the beginning of the fourth centuries, and at prince expressions of gratitude. This address was
tained to such high reputation that he was ap spoken at Treves in the year a. d. 311.
pointed to the office of magister sacrae memoriae, a For information with regard to the general
sort of private secretary, in the court of Constantius merits and the editions of Eumenius and the other
Chlorus, by whom he was warmly esteemed and panegyrists, see Drepanius. [W. R.]
loaded with favours. The precise period of his EUMOLPUS (Eiuokms), that is, « the good
death, as of his birth, is unknown, but we gather singer,11 a Thracian who is described as having
from his writings that he had, at all events, passed come to Attica either as a bard, a warrior, or a
the prime of life. The city of Cleves at one period priest of Demeter and Dionysus. The common
claimed him as their townsman, and set up an an tradition, which, however, is of late origin, repre
cient statue, which they declared to be his effigy. sents him as a son of Poseidon aud Chione, the
The pieces generally ascribed to this author are daughter of Boreas and the Attic heroine Oreiihya.
the following. 1. Oratio pro instaurandis scholis. According to the tradition in Apollodorus (hi. 15.
Gaul had suffered fearfully from the oppression of § 4), Chione, after having given birth to Eumolpus
its rulers, from civil discord, and from the incursions in secret, threw the child into the sea. Poseidon,
of barbarian foes, for half a century before the ac however, took him up, and had him educated in
cession of Diocletian. During the reign of the Ethiopia by his daughter Benthesicyma. When
second Claudius, Autun in particular, after sustain he had grown up, he married a daughter of Ben
ing a siege of seven months, was compelled to thesicyma ; but as he made an attempt upon the
surrender to the half-savage Bagaydae, by whom it chastity of his wife's sister, Eumolpus and his son
was almost reduced to ruins. Constantius Chlorus Ismarus were expelled, and they went to the
having resolved to restore not only the buildings of Thracian king Tegyrius, who gave his daughter in
the city, but also to revive its famous school of rhe marriage to Ismarus ; but as Eumolpus drew upon
toric, called upon Eumenius, who, it would seem, himself the suspicion of Tegyrius, he was again
had by this time retired from public life and was obliged to take to flight, and came to Eleusis in
enjoying his dignities, to undertake the superin- Attica, where he formed a friendship with tho
tendance of the new seminary, allowing him, how Eleusinians. After the death of his son Ismarus,
ever, to retain his post at court, and at the same however, he returned to Thrace at the request of
time doubling his salary, which thus amounted to king Tegyrius. The Eleusinians, who were involved
the large sum of 600,000 sesterces, or about 5000i in a war with Athens, called Eumolpus to their
per annum. The principal, before entering on his assistance. Eumolpus came with a numerous band
duties, delivered (a. d. 296 or 297) the oration of Thracians, but he was slain by Erechtheus. The
now before us, in the presence of the pracses of traditions about this Eleusinian war, however,
EUNAPIUS. EUNEICE. 93
differ Terr much. According to some, the Eleusi tains 23 biographies of sophists, most of whom were
nians under Eumolpus attacked tho Athenians contemporaries of Eunapius, or at least had lived
nnd<T Erecbtheus, but were defeated, and Enmol- shortly before him. Although these biographies are
pa* with his two eons, Phorbas and Immaradus, extremely brief, and are written in an intolerably
were slain. (Tbuc ii. 15 ; Plut. Menet. p. 239 ; inflated style, yet they are to us an important source
Jsocrat. Ptaatk. 78 ; Pint. Parall. Gr. et. Horn. 20; of information respecting a period in the history of
SchoL ad Exrip. I'hoen. 854.) Pausanias (i. 38. philosophy which, without this work, would be
§ 3) relates a tradition that in the battle between buried in utter obscurity. Eunapius shews him
the Eleusinians and Athenian*, Erechtheus and self an enthusiastic admirer of the philosophy of
Immaradns fell, and that thereupon peace was con the New Platonists, and a bitter enemy of Chris
cluded on condition that the Eleusinians should in tianity. His biographies were first edited with
other respects be subject to Athens, but that they a Latin translation and a life of Eunapius by
alone should hare the celebration of their mysteries, Hadrianus Junius, Antwerp, 1 568, 8vo. Among
and that Eumolpus and the daughters of Celens the subsequent editions we may mention those of
should perform the customary sacrifices. When H. Commelinus (Frankfurt, 1596, 8vo.) and Paul
Eamo'pu* died, his younger son Ceryx succeeded Stephens. (Geneva, 1616, 8vo.) The best, how
hira in the priestly office. According to Hyginus ever, which gives a much improved text, with a
(Fuu. 46; romp. Strab. vii. p. 321), Eumolpus commentary and notes by Wyttenbach, is that of
cam* to Attica with a colony of Thmcians, to claim J. F. Boissonade, Amsterdam, 1822, 2 vols. 8vo.
the psintry as the property of his father, Poseidon. 2. A continuation of the history of Dexippus (Merd
Mytholc^y regards Eumolpus as the founder of the Ai(,m-ruv yooi'iki) iVropla), in fourteen books.
Brazilian mysteries, and as the first prie6t of (Phot. Bibl. Cod. 77.) It began with the death
Demeier and Dionysus ; the goddess herself taught of Claudius Gothicus, in A. d. 270, and carried
him. Tripujleaias, Diocles, and Celeus, the sacred the history down to a. d. 404, in which year
rites, and he is therefore sometimes described as St. Chrysostom was sent into exile, and which
bavins; himself invented the cultivation of the vine was the tenth year of the reign of Arcadius. This
and of fruit-trees in general. (Horn. Hymn, in account of Photius (i c.) seems to be contradicted
r*r. 476 ; Plin. H. N. vii. 53 ; Ov. Met. x. 93.) by a passage of the excerpta (p. 96, ed. Bckker
Respecting the privileges which his descendants and Niebuhr), in which Eunapius speaks of the
enjoyed in Attica, see Diet, of Ant. ». r. Ed/uoAiriSai. avarice of the empress Pulchcria, who did not ob
As Eumolpus was regarded as an ancient priestly tain that dignity till A. D. 414 ; but the context of
bard, poem and writings on the mysteries were that passage shews that it was only a digression in
fabricated and circulated at a later time under his the work, and that the work itself did not extend
name. One hexameter line of a Dionysiac hymn, to a. d. 414. It was written at the request of
ascribed to him, is preserved in Diodorus. (i. 11 ; Oribasius, and Photius saw two editions of it. In
Said. t. r) The legends connected him also with the first, Eunapius had given vent to his rabid feel
Heracles, whom he is said to have instructed in ings against Christianity, especially against Con-
music, or initiated into the mysteries. (Hygin. stantine the Great; whereas he looked upon the
FJi. 273; Theocrit. xxiv. 108; Apollod. ii. 5. emperor Julian as some divine being that had been
i 12.) The difference in the traditions about Eu- sent from heaven upon earth. In the second edi
aniptts led tome of the ancients to suppose that tion, from which the excerpta still extant are taken,
two or three persons of that name ought to be dia- those passages were omitted ; but they had been
tin^ruished. (Hesvch. e. c. Ei5/xo\wl5oi ; Schol. ad expunged with such negligence and carelessness,
(*rf. Cut. 1051 ;' Phot. Lex. i. r. Eih*c-Air[oa«.) that many parts of the work were very obscure. But
The tomb of Eumolpus was shewn both at Eleusis we cannot, with Photius, regard this " editio pur-
and Athens. (Paus. i. 38. § 2.) [L. a] gata" as the work of Eunapius himself, and it was
EUMNESTUS(EI;^t?o-tos), son of Sosicratidcs, in all probability made by some bookseller or a
an Athenian sculptor, about n. c 24. (Bockh, Christian, who thus attempted to remedy the de
Corp. Itucr. i p. 430, No. 359, comp. Add. p. fects of the original. The style of the work, so far
sii.) [P. s.j as we can judge of it, was as bad as that of the
ETJNA'PIUS (FA^ioi), a Greek sophist and Lives of the Sophists, and is severely criticised by
historian, was bom at Sardis in A. D. 347, and Photius. All we now possess of this work consists
mms to have lived till the reign of the emperor of the Excerpta de Legationibus, which were made
Tbeodotius the Younger. He received his first from it by the command of Constantine Porphyroge-
education from his kinsman Chrysanthius, a sophist nitus,anda number of fragments preserved in Suidas.
at Saudis, who implanted in him that love of the These remains, as far as they were known at the
j*SM and that hatred of the Christian religion time, were published by D. Hoachel (Augsburg,! 603,
which so strongly marked his productions. In his 4to.), H. Fabrotti (Paris, 1648, fol.), and in Bois-
sixteenth year he went to Athens to cultivate his sonade's edition of the Lives of the Sophists, (vol.
mind under the auspices of Proaercsius, who con i. p. 455, &c.) A. Mai discovered considerable
ceived the greatest esteem for the youth, and loved additions, which are published in his Scriptorum
him Eke his own son. After a stay of five years, Vet. Nova Co/lectio, vol. ii. p. 247—316, from which
he prepared to travel to Egypt, but it would seem they are reprinted in voL i. of the Corpus Script.
that this plan was not carried into effect, and that Hist. Byzaut. edited by I. Bekker and Niebuhr.
he was called back to Phrygia. He was also Whether the rhetorician Eunapius, whom Suidas
skilled in the medical art. During the latter period (s. v. Ntiuawvioi) calls 6 Ik 4>pi/yfay, is the same as
of h* life, he seems to have been settled at Athens, our Eunapius, is uncertain. (Fabric. Bibl. Grace
and engaged in teaching rhetoric. He is the author vol. vii. p. 538.) [L. S.]
of two.work«. 1. Lives of Sophists (Bi'oi <pi\oo6- EUNEICE (EiWinj), a daughter of Nereus
fwr rai atxjuarxw), which work is still extant. He and Doris, caused the death of Hylas. (Hes.
composed it at the request of Chrysanthius. It con- Thay. 247 ; Theocrit. xiii. 45.)" [U S.)
9i EUNOMIUS. EUNOMIUS.
EUNEUS (Etfnjot or EoVtut), a ion of Jason Constantinople, and bury it in the same tomb with
by H ypsipyle, in the island of Lemnos, from whence that of his teacher Aetius. His works were or
he Bupplied the Creeks daring their war against dered by imperial edicts to be destroyed. His
Troy with wine. He purchased Lycaon, a Trojan contemporary, Philostorgius, who himself was a
prisoner, of Patroclus for a silver urn. (Horn. II. Eunomian, praises Eunomius so much, that his
vii. 468, xxiii. 741, &c. ; Strab. i. p. 41.) The Eu- whole ecclesiastical history has not unjustly been
neidae, a famous family of cithara-players in Lemnos, called an encomium upon him. Philostorgius wrote,
traced their origin to Euneus. ( Eustath. ad Horn. besides, a separate encomium upon Eunomius,
p. 1327 ; Hesych. s. v. EiSkmJoi.) [L. S.] which, however, is lost. Photius (BibL Cod. 138),
EUNI'CUS (EBvutoj), an Athenian comic poet who gives an abridgment of Philostorgius, and
of the old comedy, contemporary with Aristophanes Socrates (iv. 7) judge less favourably of him ; for
and Philyllius. Only one line of his is preserved, they state that Eunomius spoke and wrote in a
from his play 'Aireia, which was also attributed to verbose and inflated style, and that he constantly
Philyllius. The title is taken from the courtezan, repeated the same things over again. They further
Antral, who is mentioned by Demosthenes (cNeacr. charge him with sophistry in his mode of arguing,
p. 1351) and Ananandrides (ap. Athest. xv. p. 570, and with ignorance of the Scriptures. It should,
e.) and who was also made the subject of comedies however, be remembered that these charges are
by Alexis and Antiphanes. There was also a co made by his avowed enemies, such as Athanasius,
medy, entitled riiiAfit, which was variously ascribed Basilius the Great, Gregorius Nazianzenus, Grego-
to Aristophanes, Philyllius, and Eunicus. The rius of Nyssa, Chrysostom, and others, who attacked
name of this poet is sometimes given incorrectly him not only in their general works on the history
AlviKOS, (Suid. s. v. Ktvutos ; Eudoc.p. 69; Theo- of the church, but in separate polemical treatises.
gnostus, ap. Bekker. Anecdot. p. 1369 ; Athen. iii. Eunomius wrote several works against the or
p. 86, e., iv. p. 1 40, a., xiii. pp. 567, <:., 586, e. ; thodox faith ; and Ruiinus (//. E. i. 25) remarks
Pollux, x. 100 ; Meineke, Frag. Com. Graec. vol. that his arguments were held in such high esteem
i. pp. 249, 250, voL ii. p. 856 ; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. by his followers, that they were set above tho
toL ii.p.444.) [P. S.] authority of the Scriptures. After his death, edicts
EUN I'C US, a distinguished statuary and silver- were repeatedly issued that his works should be
chaser of Mytilene, seems, from the order in which destroyed (Philostorg. xi. 5 ; Cod. Theod. xvi. 34),
he is mentioned by Pliny, to have lived not long and hence most of his works themselves have not
before the time of Pompey the Great (Plin. xxxiii. come down to us, and all that is extant consists of
12. s. 55; xxxiv. 8. s. 19. § 25.) [P. S.] what is quoted by his opponents for the purpose of
EUNO'MIA. [Horae.] refuting him. The following works arc known to
EUNO'MIUS (EtfVo>«>»), was a native of Da- have been written by him : 1. A commentary on
cora, a village in Cappadocia, and a disciple of the the Epistle to the Romans, in seven books, which
Arian Aetius, whose heretical opinions he adopted. is censured by Socrates (iv. 7 ; comp. Suidas, t. v.
He was, however, a man of far greater talent and Eiii'djums) for its verbose style and shallowness.
acquirements than Aetius, and extended his views 2. Epistles, of which Photius (Bibl. Cod. 138)
bo far, that he himself became the founder of a read about forty, and in which he found the same
sect called the Eunomians or Anomoei, because faults as in the other works of Eunomius ; but
they not only denied the equality between the Philostorgius (x. 6 ; comp. Niceph. xii. 29) pre
Father and the Son, but even the similarity ferred them to his other writings. 3. An Exposi
((!mi;((ittjs). Eunomius was at first a deacon at tion of Faith, which was laid before the emperor
Antioch, and in a. d. 360 he succeeded Eleusius Theodosius at Constantinople in A. n. 383, when
as bishop of Cyzicus. But he did not remain long several bishops were summoned to that city to
in the enjoyment of that post, for he was deposed make declarations of their faith. (Socrat. v. 10;
in the same year by the command of the emperor Sozom. vii. 12.) This little work is still extant,
Constantius, and expelled by the inhabitants of and has been edited by Valesius in his notes on
Cyzicus. (Philostorg. ix. 5; Theodoret, ii. 27,29; Socrates (I. c), and after him by Baluz in the
Socrat. iv. 7 ; Sozoni. vi. 8.) In the reign of Ju jVora Colttct. Condi, vol. i. p. 89. The best edition
lian and Jovian, Eunomius lived at Constantinople, is that of Ch. H. G. Rettberg, in his Marcelliana,
and in the reign of Valens, he resided in the neigh Gotting. 1794, 8vo. 4. 'AiroAoTirriico't, or a de
bourhood of Chalccdon, until he was denounced to fence of his doctrines. This is the famous treatise
the emperor for harbouring in his house the tyrant of which Basilius wrote a refutation in five books,
Procopius, in consequence of which he was sent to which accordingly contain a great many extracts
Mauritania into exile. When, on his way thither, from the Apologeticus. The beginning and the epi
he hud reached Mursa in lllyricum, the emperor iogue are printed in Cave's Hist. Lit. vol. i. p. 171,
called liim back. Theodosius the Great afterwards &c. with a Latin translation ; but the whole is
exiled him to a place called Halmyris, in Moesia, still extant, and was published in an English trans
on the Danube. (Sozom. vii. 17; Niceph. xii. 29.) lation by W. Whiston, in his Eunomianismia
But being driven away from that place by the Redivivus, London, 1711, 8vo. The Greek original
barbarians, he was sent to Caesareia. Here, too, has never been published entire. After the refu
he met with no better reception ; for, having writ tation of Basilius had appeared, Eunomius wrote,
ten against their bishop, Basilius, he was hated by 5. 'AiroAoy/at 'AiroAoTla, which, however, vat
the citizens of Caesareia. At length, he was per not published till after his death. Like the Apolo
mitted to return to his native village of Dacora, geticus, it was attacked by several orthodox writers,
where he spent the remainder of his life, and died whose works, except that of Gregorius of NyBsa,
at an advanced age, about A. D. 394. Eutropius have perished together with that of Eunomius.
Patricius ordered his body to be carried to Tyana, (Gregor. Nyss. vol. ii. pp. 289, 298, lie. ed. 1638.)
and there to be entrusted to the care of the monks, See Fabric. Bibl. Grace. voL ix. p. 207, &c. ; Cave,
in order that his disciples might not carry it to Hist Lit. voL Lp. 169, &c. [L. S.]
EUNONES. EUNUS. !!.-»
BU'NOMUS (EiJVe^i), s aon of Architclea, EUNOSTUS (ECVooros). l.AheroofTanagra
to killed by Heracles. (Apollod. ii. 7. $ 6.) Eus- in Boeotia. He was a son of Elinus, and brought
tnthius {ad Hon. p. 1900) calls him Archias or up by the nymph Eunoste. Ochne, the daughter
Chaeriaa, [US.] of Colonus, fell in love with him j but he avoided
EL"XOM US (ESrefiof), fifth or sixth king of her, and when she thereupon accused him before
Spjra in the Proclid line, i« described by Pausa- her brothers of improper conduct towards her, they
uiaa. Pintarch, and others, as the rather of Lycurgus slew him. Afterwards Ochne confessed that she
aid Polydectes. Herodotus, on the contrary, places had falsely accused him, and threw herself down a
him in his list after Polydectes, and Dionysius of rock. Eunostus had a sanctuary at Tanagra in a
II aiicamassus gives the name to the nephew in whose sacred grove, which no woman was allowed to ap
ftead Lycurgus governed. Simonides, finally, makes proach. (Plut. Quacst. Or. 40.)
Lycurgus and Eunomus the children of Pry tan is. 2. A goddess of mills, whose image was set up
In all probability, the name was invented with re in mills, and who was believed to keep watch over
ference to the Lycurgean Europia, and Eunomus, the just weight of flour. (Hesych. s. r. ; Eustath.
if not wholly rejected, must be identified with Po ad Horn. pp. 214. 1383.) [L. S.]
lydectes. In the reign of Eunomus and Polydectes, EUNUS (Etirovs), the leader of the Sicilian
•ays Pausanias, Sparta was at peace. (Plut. Lyc2; slaves in the servile war which broke out in 1 30
Paui. iil 7. § '2; Herod, viii. 131 ; Sec Clinton, a c. He was a native of Apamea in Syria, and
F. II. L p. 1 43, note z, and p. 335, where the had become the slave of Antigenes, a wealthy
question is fully discussed ; compare Miiller, Do- citizen of Enna in Sicily. He first attracted atten
ris»«,boakL7. | 3, and §6, note 6.) [A. 11. C] tion by pretending to the gift of prophecy, and by
EITXOMUS (EaW/u>»), an Athenian, was interpreting dreams ; to the effect of which ho
sent «t in command of thirteen ships, in added by appearing to breathe flames from his
B. c 388, to act against the Lacedaemonian mouth, and other similar juggleries. (Diod. Etc.
Gorgopas. vice-admiral of Hierax, and the Ae- Pholii. xxxiv. p. 526.) He had by these means
gineun privateers. Gorgopas, on his return from obtained a great reputation among the ignorant
Epliesav whither he had escorted Antalcidas population, when he was consulted by the slaves
go his mission to the Persian court, fell in of one Damophilus (a citizen of Enna, of immense
with the squadron of Eunomus, which chased him wealth, but who had treated his unfortunate slaves
to Argina. Eanomus then sailed away after dark, with excessive cruelty) concerning a plot they had
and was pursued by Oorgopas, who captured four formed against their master. Eunus not only
of his triremes, in an engagement off Zoster, in promised them success, but himself joined in their
Attica, while the rest escaped to the Peiraeeua enterprise. Having assembled in all to the number
(Xen. IftiL v. L |§ 5—9). This was, perhaps, of about 400 men, they suddenly attacked Enna,
the same Eubocdds whom Lysias mentions (pro and being joined by their fellow-slaves within the
lam. AruC pp. 1 S3, 154) as one of those sent by town, quickly made themselves masters of it.
Conon to SicLV, to persuade Dionysius I. to form Great excesses were committed, and almost all the
an alliance with Athena against Sparta. The mis freemen put to death ; but Eunus interfered to save
sion was so far successful, that Dionysius withheld some who had previously shewn him kindness ;
the sMps which he was preparing to despatch to and the daughter of Damophilus, who had always
the aid of the Lacedaemonians. IK. E.] shewn much gentleness of disposition and opposed
EITNOMUS (EIVomoi), a cithara-player of the cruelties of her father and mother, was kindly
Looi, in Italy. One of the strings of his cithara treated by the slaves, and escorted in safety to
Wing broken (so runs the tale) in a musical con- Catana. (Diodor. /. c. Ere. Valet, xxxiv. p. 600.)
t?*t at the Pythian games, a cicada perched on the Eunus had, while yet a slave, prophesied that ho
inttrument, and by its notes supplied the defi should become a king ; and after the capture of
ciency. Strabo tells us there was a statue of Enna, being chosen by his fellow-slaves as their
Kusntmre at Locri, holding his cithara with the leader, he hastened to assume the royal diadem
cicada, his friend in need, upon it. (Strab. vi. and the title of king Antiochus. Sicily was at
f. -f.O : Caaaub. ad foe. ; Clem. Alex. Protrept. i. ; this time swarming with numbers of slaves, a
comp ArL Ifi*t. An. v. 9.) [E. E.] great proportion of them Syrians, who flocked to
EU'NOMUS (E»»^»i). 1. A Greek physician, the standard of their countryman and fellow-bonds
who const liave lived in or before the first century man. A separate insurrection broke out in the
after Christ, as one of his medical formulae is south of the island, headed by Cleon, a Cilician,
CTotrd by Asclepiadcs Pharmacion. (Ap. Galen. who assembled a band of 5000 armed slaves, with
«i* Oirnprm. .Vn/na arc. (Jen. v. 14. voL xiii. p. which he ravaged the whole territory of Agrigen-
850, 851.) In the passage in question, for E&Vo/uu tum ; but he soon joined Eunus, and, to the sur
i 'Ko-nXirruiint we should probably read Eivoixos 6 prise of all men, submitted to act under him as his
'AfwATrndttuis, that is, a follower of Asclepiadcs lieutenant. (Diodor. /. c. ; Liv. Epit. lib. lvi.)
of B-.thynia. who lived in the first century B. c. The revolt now became general, and the Romans
2. A physician in the fourth century after were forced to adopt vigorous measures against the
C arist, mentioned in ridicule by Ansonius, Epigr. insurgents ; but the praetors who first led armies
75. [W. A. O.] against them were totally defeated. Several others
EUXO'NES, king of the Adorsi or Aorsi, with successively met with the same fate ; and in the year
whom the Romans made an alliance in their war 134 B.C. it was thought necessary to send the
asainst Mithridates, king of the Bosporus, in B. c. consul C. Eulvius Fiaccus to subdue the insurrec
5(1, and at whose court Mithridates took refuge, tion. What he effected we know not, but it is
wim he was unable any longer to hold out against ^evident that he did not succeed in his object, as
the Ramans. Eunoties, taking compassion on him, the next year Calpumius Piso was employed on
wrote to the emperor Claudius on his behalf. (Tac the same service, who defeated the servile army
mm*, xii. 15, 18, 19.) in a great battle near Messana, This success was
96 EVODIUS. EUPEITHES.
followed up the next year by the consul P. Rupi- treatise, now lost, on the miracles performed by
lius, who successively reduced Tauromenium and the relics of St Stephen ; but the Libri duo dc mi-
Enna, the two great strongholds of the insurgents. raculis S. Stephani, placed at the end of the De
On the surrender of Enna, Eunus fled with a few dvitate Dei, in the 7th volume of the Benedictine
followers, and took refuge in rocky and inacces edition of St, Augustin, was not composed by
sible places, but waB soon discovered in a cave and Evodius, but seems rather to have been addressed
carried before Rupilius. His life was spared by to him, and drawn up at his request
the consul, probably with the intention of carrying A tract found in some MSS. among the writ
him to Rome ; but he died in prison at Morgantia, ings of Augustin, entitled De fide sen Dc unitate
of the disease called morbus pedicularis. (Florus, Trinitatis contra Manichaeos, has been ascribed to
iii. 20 ; Orosius, v. 6 ; Diod. Exc. Photii, lib. Evodius, is considered a genuine production of St.
xxxiv., Exc. Vales, ib. ; Plut. Suit. 36; Strab. Augustin by Erasmus, but rejected by the Bene
vi. p. 272.) If we may believe Diodorus, Eunus dictine editors.
was a man of no talents or energy, not possessing (Augustin, Sermon, ccexxxiii. in Opera, vol. v.
even personal courage, and owed his elevation ed. Bened. de Civil. Dei, xxii. 8; SigiberrusGcmbl.
solely to the arts by which he worked on the De Script eccks. ep. IS.) [W. R]
superstition of the multitude ; but when we con E'VODUS (EuoSos), the author of two short
sider how long he maintained his influence over epigrams in the Greek Anthology. (Brunck, Anal.
them, and the great successes they obtained under vol. ii. p. 288 ; Jacobs, Anth. Grace, vol ii. p.
his rule, this appears most improbable. Some 263.) Nothing more is known of him, unless he be
anecdotes are also related of him, which display a the same as the epic poet of Rhodes, in the time of
generosity and elevation of character wholly at Nero, who is mentioned by Suidas (s. v.). There
variance with such a supposition. (Diod. Exc. was an Evodus, the tutor of Caligula. (Joseph.
Photii, p. 528, Exc. Valicana, Ixxxiv. p. 113, cd. Ant. Jud. xviii. 8.) [P. S.]
Dindorf.) IE. H. B.] E'VODUS (EuoSoy), a distinguished engraver of
EVODIA'NUS (t&oSwit), a Greek sophist of gems under the emperor Titus, a. d. 80. A beryl
Smyrna, who lived during the latter half of the se by him, bearing the head of Titus's daughter Julia,
cond century after Christ. He was a pupil of Aris- is preserved at Florence. (Bracci, Tab. 73; Miiller,
tocles, and according to others of Polemon also. Denkm. d. alt. Kunst, T. Ixix. No. 381.) [P. S.]
He was invited to Rome, and raised there to the EUPA'LAMUS (EiraXaaos), one of the signi
chair of professor of eloquence. For a time he was ficant names met with in the history of ancient art
appointed to superintend or instruct the actors, [Cheirisofhus], occurs more than once among
(tous du(pl tov Atdvuaov rexWras), which office the Daedalids. [Daedalus, Simon.] [P. S.]
he is said to have managed with great wisdom. He EUPA'LINUS, of Megara, was the architect
distinguished himself as an orator and especially in of the great aqueduct or rather tunnel, in Samos,
panegyric oratory. He had a son who died before which was carried a length of seven stadia through
him at Rome, and with whom he desired to be buried a mountain. The work was probably executed
after his death. No specimens of his oratory have under the tyranny of Polvcrates. (Miiller, Arch,
come down to us. (Philostr. Fit Soph. ii. 1 6 ; Eudoc. d. Kunst, §81, note.) [P. S.]
p. 164; Osann, InscripU Si/Uog. p. 299.) (L. S.] EU'PATOR (Eiliraraip), a surname assumed by
EVO'DIUS, was born towards the middle of many of the kings in Asia after the time of Alex
the fourth century at Tagaste, the native place of ander the Great, occure likewise as the name of
St. Augustin, with whom he maintained through a king of Bosporus in the reign of the emperor
out life the closest friendship. After following in M. Aurelius. This king is mentioned by Lncian
youth the secular profession of an agens in rebus, (Alexand. 57), who speaks of his ambassadors
about the year A. D. 396 or 397, he became bishop bringing the tribute which had to be paid to the
of Uzalis, a town not far from Utica, where he Romans ; and his name should perhaps be restored
performed, we are told by St. Augustin, many mi in a corrupt passage of Capitolinus. (Capitol. Anion.
racles by aid of some relics of St. Stephen the Pius, 9, where for citratorem read Eupatorem.)
Protomartyr, left with him by Orosius, who The following coin of Eupator represents on the
brought them from Palestine in 416. Evodius reverse the heads of M. Aurelius and L. Verus.
took an active part in the controversies against (Eckhel, vol. ii. pp. 378, 379.)
the Donatists and the Pelagians, and in 427,
wrote a letter to the monks of Adrumetum, with
regard to some differences which had arisen in
their body on these questions. After this period
we find no trace of him in history, but the precise
date of his death is not known.
The works of this prelate now extant are : —
1. Four epistles to St. Augustin, which will be
found among the correspondence of the bishop of
Hippo, numbered 160, 161, 163, 177, in the Be COIN OF EUPATOR.
nedictine edition.
2. An epistle, written in common with four EUPATRA (EiJiroTpa), a daughter of Mithri-
other bishops, to Pope Innocentius I. This is dates, who fell into the hands of Pompey at the
contained in the appendix to the 6th volume of close of the Mithridatic war, and walked with the
the Benedictine edition of St. Augustin. other captives before his triumphal car at Rome.
3. Fragments of an epistle to the monks of (Appian, Mithr. 108, 117.)
Adrumetum subjoined to Ep. 216 of the Bene EUPEITHES (EiWGtis), of Ithaca, father of
dictine edition of St. Augustin. Antinolis. Once when he had attacked the Thes-
Evodius is said by Sigibert to have written a protians, the allies of the Ithacans, Odysseus pro
EUPHEMUS. EUPHORION. H7
tected hin from the indignation of the people of a chariot and two horses. (Paus. v. 17. § 4.)
Ithaca. When Odysseus after his long wander There are two other mythical personages of this
ings returned home, Eupeithes wanted to avenge name. (Anton. Lib. 8 ; Horn. //. ii. 846.) [L.S.]
the death of his son Antinous, who had been one EUPHE'MUS (E*>juo$), was sent by the
of Penelope's suitors and was slain by Odysseus. Athenian commanders at Syracuse in the winter
He accordingly led a band of Ithacans against of a c. 415—414 to negotiate alliance with Cama-
Odysseus, bat fell in the struggle. (Horn. Od. xvi. rina, and was there opposed on the Syracusan side
«o, xrir. 469. 523.) [L. S.] by Hermocrates. Thucydidcs gives us an oration
EUPHANTUS (EfcpoiTos), of Olynthus, a in the mouth of each. The negotiation was un
Pythagorean philosopher and tragic poet, who lived successful. (Thuc vi. 75—88.) [A. H.C.]
3 little later than the period of the tragic Pleiad. EUPHORBUS (EifyooSos), a son of Panthous
He was the disciple of Eubulides of Miletus, and and brother of Hyperenor, was one of the bravest
the instructor of Antigonus I. king of Macedonia. among the Trojans. He was the first who wounded
He wrote many tragedies, which were well received Patroclus, but was afterwards slain by Menelaus
K the games. He also wrote a very highly esteem (Horn.//, xvi. 806, xvii. 1 — 60), who subsequently
ed work, xtfi dao-iActa*, addressed to Antigonus, dedicated the shield of Euphorbus in the temple of
and a history of his own times : he lived to a great Hera, near Mycenae. (Paus. ii. 17. §3.) It is
age. (Diog.'Lafrt- ii- 110, 141.) TheEuphantus a well known story, that Pythagoras asserted that
wHose history is quoted by Athenaeus (vi. p. 251, he had once been the Trojan Euphorbus, that from
d.) mast have been a different person, since he a Trojan he had become an Ionian, and from a
mentioned Ptolemy III. of Egypt (Vossius, de warrior a philosopher. (Philostr. Vii. Apod. i. 1,
JliU. <inut, p. 69, ed. Westermann ; Welcker, Heroic. 17 ; Diog. Lnert. viii. 4 ; Ov. Mel. xy.
d«£r»A Traooed. p. 1268.) [P. S.] 161.) [L. S.]
EUPHE'ME (Eikpifrirj), the nurse of the Muses, EUPHORBUS (E6<pop&>s), physician to Juba
of whom there was a statue in the grove of the II., king of Mauritania, about the end of the first
Hoses near Hriicon. (Pans. ix. 29. § 3.) [L. S.] century n. a, and brother to Antonius Musa, the
El'PHE/MlrS(E6pi!W!), a son of Poseidon by physician to Augustus. [Musa.] Pliny says (ft.
Europe, the daughter of Tityus, or by Mecioniee or N. xxv. 38), that Juba gave the name of Euphorbia
'Ms, a daughter of Orion or Eurotas. (Schol. ad to a plant which he found growing on Mount Atlas
fad. Pstk, iT. 15 ; Tzetx. CM. ii. 43.) Accord in honour of his physician, and Galen men
ing to the one account he was an inhabitant of tions (de Compos. Medicam. sec. Locos, ix. 4. vol.
Panopeus on the Cephissus in Phocis, and accord xiii. p. 271) a short treatise written by the king
ing to the other of Hyria in Boeotia, and after on the virtues of the plant. Salmasius tries to
wards lived at Taenanu. By a Lemnian woman, prove (Prolegom. ad Homon. Hylts latr. p. 4),
Maiicha, Malache, or Lamache, he became the that this story of Pliny is without foundation, and
father of Leucophanes (SchoL ad I'ind. Pyth. iv. that the word was in use much earlier than the
453; Tietz. ad Lpeoph. 886) ; but he was married time of Juba, as it is mentioned by Melcager.
to Jjonome, the sister of Heracles. Euphemus (Carni. i. 37.) It does not, however, seem likely
was one of the Calydonian hunters, and the helms- that Pliny would have been ignorant of a plant
sac of the vessel of the Argonauts, and, by a that was known to a poet who lived two hundred
power which his father had granted to him, lie years before him ; and besides, in the passage in
cesld walk on the sea just as on firm ground. question, the commonly received reading in the pre
(Apollon. Rhod. i. 182.) He is mentioned also sent day is not edeJxiffSns, but ix ipopoTJs.r^W.A.G.]
at tee ancestor of Battus, the founder of Cyrenc, EUPHO'RION (Eo^wplcw). 1. The father of
aid the following story at once connects him with the poet Aeschylus. (Herod, ii. 156.) [Axs-
tin colony. When the Argonauts carried their chylus.]
sfiip through Libya to the coast of the Mediter 2. The son of Aeschylus, and himself a tragic
ranean, Triton, who would not let them pass with poet. [Akschylus, vol. i. p. 42, coL 1, sub Jin.]
out shewing them some act of friendship, offered 3. Of Chains in Euboea, an eminent gram
then a clod of Libyan earth. None of the Argo- marian and poet, was the son of Polymnetus, and
saiita would accept it ; but Euphemus did, and with was bom, according to Suidas (s. v.), in the 1 26th
tbe dod of earth he received for his descendants Olympiad, when Pyrrhus was defeated by the Ro
iSe right to rule over Libya. Euphemus was mans, b. c. 274. He became, but at what period
to throw the piece of earth into one of the chasms of his life is not known, a citizen of Athens.
ef Taecaroo in Peloponnesus, and his descendants, (Hellad. ap. Phot. Cod. 279, p. 532, Bekker.)
ia the fourth generation, were to go to Libya and He was instructed in philosophy by Lacydes, who
take h into cultivation. When, however, the Ar- flourished about B. c. 241, and Prytanis (comp.
gonaots passed the island of Calliste, or Thera, that Athen. xi. p. 447, e.), and in poetry by Archcbulus
clod of earth by accident fell into the sea, and was of Thera. Though he was sallow, fat, and bandy
carried by the waves to the coast of the island. legged, he was beloved by Nicia (or Nicaca), the
The colonization of Libya was now to proceed from wife of Alexander, king of Euboea. His amours
Thera, and although still by the descendants of are referred to in more than one passage in the
Eap&enius, yet not till the seventeenth generation Greek Anthology. (Brunck, Anal. vol. ii. pp. 3,
after the Argonauts, The seventeenth descendant 43.) Having amassed great wealth, he went into
*f Euphemus was Battus of Thera. (Pind. I'yth. Syria, to Antiochus the Great (u. c. 221), who
iv. 1, Ac ; Apollon. Khod. ii. 562 ; Hygin. Fall. made him his librarian. He died in Syria, and
14, 173; Herod, iv. 1.50.) According to Apollo- was buried at Apamcia, or, according to others, at
rra« Kbodius (iv. 17.55), the island of Thera itself Antioch. (Suid. ». v.) The epigram (Brunck,
lai arisen from the clod of earth, which Euphemus Anal. vol. ii. p. 43), which places his tomb at the
purposely threw into the sea. Euphemus was re Peiraeeus, must be understood as referring to a
presented on the chest of Cypselus as victor, with cenotaph.
vol. a
98 EUPHORION. EUPHORION.
Euphorion wrote numerous works, both in poetry to Dionysus. (Schol. <p. ad Odyss. iv. p. 136°, ed.
and prose, relating chiefly to mythological history. Buttmann ; Steph. Byz. ». r. 'Clpix'oy, 'A/trt), Aii-
The following were poems in heroic verse :— ito+oj ; Schol. ad Aral. Phaenom. 172 ; Tzetzes,
1. 'HaloSos, the subject of which can only be con Schol. ad tyeophr. 320 ; Etym. Mag. p. 687. 26.)
jectured from the title. Some suppose it to have 13. 'EiriKTfjfws (Is Tlporrayopav, an elegy on an
been an agricultural poem. Euphorion is men astrologer named Protagoras. (Diog. Lai'rt ix.
tioned among the agricultural writers by Varro (i. 56.) This poem was doubtless in the elegiac, and
1. $ 9) and Columella (i. 1. § 10). (See Hcyne, not in the heroic verse. 14. &pii. (Steph. Byz.
Excura. iii. ad Virgil, Bucol. ; Harless, ad Fabric. t. v. "AoSuros, 'OfKouu ; Parthen. Erot. xiii. p.
Bibl. Graec. i. 594.) 2. Motfioiria, so called from 35, xxvi. p. 61.) 15. 'linrop.iSan'. (Tzetzes, Schol.
an old name of Attica, the legends of which coun ad Lycophr.4b\.) 16. Binov. (Schol. ad Apollon.
try seem to have been the chief subject of the Rhod. ii. 354.) 17. TIo\vx&pV*- (Etym. Mag. p.
poem. From the variety of its contents, which 223. 16 j Choeroboscus, ap. Belcher. Anted. Grace.
Suidas calls trvfificyus itrroptas, it was also called iii. p. 1381.) 18. TikiKflos. (Schol. Theocr. x.
"Aram-a, a title which was frequently given to the 28 ; Eustath. ad Horn. p. 285.) 19. *iAoirniT7jj.
writings of that period. 3. XiXiiScr, a poem (Stobaeus, Serm. Iviii., Tit. lix. ; Tzetzes, Schol.
written against certain persons, who had defrauded ad Lycophr. 911.)
Euphorion of money which he had entrusted to Euphorion was an epigrammatist as well as an
their care. It probably derived its title from each epic poet He had a place in the Garland of
of its books consisting of a thousand verses. The Meleager (Prooem, 23), and the Greek Anthology
fifth book, or x1*'01! was entitled ir«pl xpiprfiM', contains two epigrams by him. (Brunck, Anal.
and contained an enumeration of oracles which voL i. p. 256 ; Jacobs, A nth. Grace, vol. i. p. 189.)
had been fulfilled ; and it is probably of this book They are both erotic ; and that such was the cha
in particular that the statement of Suidas concern racter of most of his epigrams, is clear from the
ing the object of the poem should be understood, manner in which he is mentioned by Meleager, as
namely, that the poet taught his defrauders that well as from the fact that he was among the poets
they would in the end suffer the penalty of their who were imitated by Propertius, Tibullus, and
faithlessness. The above seems the best explana Gallus. (Diomed. iii. p. 482. 3 j Probus, ad Virgil.
tion of the passage in Suidas, which is, however, Eel. x. 50.) It was probably this seductive ele
very corrupt, end has been very variously explain giac poetry of Euphorion, the popularity of which
ed. (See especially Heyne and Harless, /. c, and at Rome, to the neglect of Ennius, moved the in
Meineke, Euphor. pp. 20—24.) To these epic dignation of Cicero. ( 7W. Ditp. iii. 19.) It was
poems must be added the following, which are not therefore quite natural that Euphorion should be
mentioned by Suidas : — 4. 'A\t(cwSpos, which a great favourite with the emperor Tiberius, who
Meineke conjectures to have been addressed to wrote Greek poems in imitation of him (Sueton.
some friend of that name. (Steph. Byz. ». v. 2uAoi.) Tiber. 70; see Casaubon's note.)
5. "Avios, a mythological poem referringto Anius,the Some writers have supposed that Euphorion was
son and priest of the Delian Apollo. (Steph. Byz. also a dramatic poet. Ernesti (C7av. Ciceron.s. r.)
Fragment, p. 744, c., ed. Pined.) 6. 'Amiypaifxd and C. G. Miiller (ad Tzctz. SdioL p. 651) say,
irpAs @iaptSuv (Clem. Alex. Strom, v. p. 243, ed. that he composed tragedies ; but they give no rea
Sylb.), a work of which nothing further is known, sons for the assertion, and none are known.
unless we accept the not improbable conjecture of Fabricius (Bill. Graec. voL ii. p. 304) places him
Meursius and Schneider, who read 0eoSa>pi'8ai' for in his list of comic poets, mentioning as his plays
Qtupioav, and suppose that the poem was written the 'AvoWoStepos, which was an epic poem (rid.
in controversy with the grammarian Theodoridas, sup.), and the 'AiroSiSoiwa, respecting which there
who afterwards wrote the epitaph on Euphorion, can be no doubt that for Ewpoptm/ we should read
which is extant, with seventeen other epigrams by Zttppay in the passage of Athenaeus (xi. p. 503).
Theodoridas, in the Greek Anthology. (Brunck, Euphorion's writings in prose were chiefly his
A nal. vol. ii. pp. 41 —45.) [Theodoridas.] 7. torical and grammatical. They were : 1. 'IcrropiKel
'AiroMo'Swpos, which seems to have been a mytho iironrjuara. (Athen. iv. p. 154, c., xv. p. 700, d.)
logical poem addressed to a friend of that name. 2. Ilfpl tuv 'AKtvaSciv (Clem. Alex. Strom, i. p.
(Tzetzes, Schol. ad LycopKr. 513; Schol. ad Apollon. 389, Sylb.; Schol Thcocr. ad Idyll, xwi. 34 ; Quintil.
lihod. i. 1003 ; Suid. and Harpocrat s. v. 'O k<L- x. 2), which Suidas (s. v. "E<popos) attributes to
TwQev i .'ii-js ; Phot. s. v. 'O KCLToiOtv \6yos.) 8. the younger Ephorus. (See Meineke, Enphor. pp.
'Ajxtl ^ ir<rrnptoK\tirrns (Steph. Byz. s. v. 'AA^ffn ; 39, 40.) 3. flfpl tuv 'lo-fyiftw. (Athen. iv. p.
Schol. ad Theocrit. ii. 2), an attack on'Bome person 182, e. etalib.) 4. ITepl MeAoiroiIai'. (Athen. iv.
who had stolen a cup from Euphorion, which Cal- p. 1 84, a.) 5. A grammatical work of great cele
limachus imitated in his /its, and both were pro brity, which related chiefly to the language of
bably followed by Ovid in his Ibis, and by Cato Hippocrates, and appears to have been entitled
and Virgil in their Dirac. (Meineke, Euphor. pp. Ai^is 'ImroKparovs.
30, 31.) 9. 'Aprcfilo'upos, probably a poem like The character of Euphorion as a poet may be
the Apollodorus. (Steph. Byz. s. v. 'Aaoap6v.) pretty clearly understood from the statements of
10. Tipavoi, the subject of which, as well as its the ancient writers, and from his extant fragments,
genuineness, is very uncertain. (Athcn. iii. p. 82, as well as from the general literary character of his
a.) 1 1. An/iooOirn!, the title of which Meineke age. He lived at the time when the literature of
explains as he does the Alexander, Apollodorus, the Alexandrian school had become thoroughly
and A rtemidorus, and he conjectures that the person established, when originality of thought and vigour
to whom the poem was addressed was Demosthenes of expression were all but extinct, and, though the
of Bithynia. (Chocroboscus, ap. Bekkcr. Anted. ancient writers were most highly valued, their spirit
Giaec. iii. p. 1383.) 12. AioVwros, which doubt was lost, and the chief use made of them was to heap
less contained a full account of the myths relating together their materials in elaborate compilations
EUPHORION. EUPHRANOR. 99
and expand them by trivial and fanciful additions, in Strabo (viii. p. 382) refers to this Enphorion,
while the noble forms of Terse in which they and that Eucppovios in that passage is an error for
bad embodied their thought* were made the vehi Eurpopiuv. There is an example of the same con-
cle* of a mas* of cumbrous, learning. Hence the fusion in Athenaeus (xi. p. 495, c). That those
complaints which the best of succeeding writers made who make this Euphorion the same as the Chalci-
of the obscurity, verbosenesa, and tediousness of dian are quite wrong, is proved by the fact that
Euphorion, CaUimachus, Parthenins, Lycophron, the lines are neither hexameters nor elegiacs, but
and the other chief writers of the long period dur in the priapeian metre, which is a kind of anti-
ing: which the Alexandrian grammarians ruled the spastic. (Meineke, Analecta Alemndrina, Epim.
literary world. (Clem. Alex. Strom. t. p. 571 ; i.) [P. S.]
Cie. de Die- iL 64 ; Lncian. de Conxrih. Hut. 57, EUPHCRION (Edipopluv), a Greek physi
vol- ii. p. 65.) These faults seem to hare been cian or grammarian, who wrote a commentary on
carried to excess in Enphorion, who was particu Hippocrates in six books, and must have lived
larly distinguished by an obscurity, which arose, in or before the first century after Christ, as he
according to Meineke, from his choice of the most is mentioned by Erotianus. (Gloss. Hijypocr. p.
sat of the way subjects, from the cumbrous learning 12.) [W. A. G.]
with which he overloaded his poems, from the ar ETJPHO'RION, a distinguished statuary and
bitrary changes which he made in the common le silver-chaser, none of whose works were extant in
gends, from his choice of obsolete words, and from Pliny's time. (Plin. xxxiv. 8. s. 19, § 25.) [P. S.]
his use of ordinary words with a new meaning of EUPHRADES, THEMI'STIUS. [Themis-
his own. The most ancient and one of the most TIOK.)
interesting judgments concerning him is in an epi EUPHRA'NOR(Ei)o>£wp). 1. Of Seleuceia,
gram by Crates of Malltu (Brunck, Anal., vol. ii. a disciple of Timon and a follower of his sceptical
p. 3), from which we learn that he was a great school. En lml us of Alexandria was his pupil.
admirer of ChoerOus [Chokhili'S, vol. i. p. 697, (Diog. Laert. ix. 115, 116.)
a.], notwithstanding which, however, the frag 2. A slave of the philosopher Lycon, who was
ments of his poetry shew that he also imitated manumitted by his master's will. (Diog. Laert. v. 73.)
Annxaachus. Meineke conjectures that the epi 3. A Pythagorean philosopher, who is mentioned
gram of Crates was written while the contest about by Athenaeus (iv. pp. 182, 184, xiv. p. 634) as the
receiving Antiznachus or Choeriras into the epic author of a work on flutes and flute players, (riejil
canon was at its height, and that some of the Alex av\uy and *fpi cuiAirrwr.) It is not impossible
andrian grammarians proposed to confer that ho that the Evanor mentioned by lamblichus ( ViU
nour on Eophorion. In the same epigram Enpho Pyth. 36) among the Pythagoreans, is the same as
rion is called 'Opspuot, which can only mean that our Euphranor.
be endeavoured, however unsuccessfully, to imitate 4. A Greek grammarian, who was upwards of
Homer. — a met which his fragments confirm. one hundred years old at the time when Apion was
(Comp. Cie. de Die. I. c) That he also imitated his pupil. (Suid. ». c. "Axiair.) [L. S.]
Hesiod, may be inferred from the fact of his writ EUPHRA'NOR(Ei)<ppd>'wp). 1. One of the
ing a poem entitled 'Hshooos ; and there is a cer greatest masters of the most flourishing period of
tain similarity in the circumstance of each poet Grecian art, and equally distinguished as a statuary
making a personal wrong the foundation of an epic and a painter. (QuintiL xii. 10. § 6.) He was a
poem.— Hesiod in the "tpya sal 'HpJpai, and Eu- native of the Corinthian isthmus, but he practised
pbarion in the XiXiiSt t. his art at Athens, and is reckoned by Plutarch as
As above stated. Enphorion was greatly admired an Athenian. (De Glor. Ath. 2.) He is placed by
st csuy of the Romans, and some of his poems Pliny (xxxiv. 8. s. 19) at 01. 104, no doubt be
were imitated or translated by Cornelius Gallus ; cause he painted the battle of Mantineia, which
bat the arguments by which Heyne and others was fought in 01. 104, 3 (a a 36f), but the list of
save attempted to decide what poems of Euphorion his works shews, almost certainly, that he flourished
wen so translated, are quite inconclusive. (Vos- till after the accession of Alexander, (b. c 336.)
sssa, de HuL Grate, pp. 142, 143, ed. Wester- As a statuary, he wrought both in bronze and
sbbtb ; Fabric BihL Grate, vol i. p. 594, &c ; marble, and made figures of all sizes, from colossal
Xeneke, de Euphoriant Otalcidensu Vita et Scrip statues to little drinking-cups. (Plin. xxxv. 8,
ts, Gedan. 1 8*23, in which the fragments are col- s. 40, § 25.) His most celebrated works were, a
hated; a new edition of this work forms part of Paris, which expressed alike the judge of the god
Xrmeke'a Analecta Ateiasulrma, BeroL 1843; desses, the lover of Helen, and the slayer of Achil
Gmton. Pott. Hell, vol iii. pp. 311, 312.) les ; the very beautiful sitting figure of Paris, in
4. Of Chersonesus, an author of that kind of licen- marble, in the Museo Pio-Clemcntino is, no doubt,
osui poetry which was called Upiima, is mentioned a copy of this work : a Minerva, at Rome, called
»v Hephaestion (de Metr. xv. 59), who gives three the Catulian, from its having been set up by Q.
verses, which do not, however, appear to be conse- Lutatius Catulus, beneath the Capitol : an Agatho-
esdve, bat are probably single verses chosen as daemon (simulacrum Boni Eventus), holding a
ns of the metre. Dut yet some information patera in the right hand, and an ear of corn and a
say be gleaned from them, for the poet refers to poppy in the left : a Latona puerpera, carrying the
rites in honour of the "young Dionysus," ccle- infants, Apollo and Diana, in the temple of Con
tiued at Pehuram. Hence Meineke infers that cord ; there is at Florence a very beautiful relief
tsis Eophorion was an Egyptian Greek, and that representing the same subject : a Key-bearer (Cli-
tie Cbersonesus of which he was a native was the duchus), remarkable for its beauty of form : colossal
rty of that name near Alexandria. He also con statues of Valour and of Greece, forming no doubt
jectures, and upon good grounds, that the " young a group, perhaps Greece crowned by Valour. (Miil-
ftjnysos*" was Ptolemy Philopator, who began to ler, Arch'dol. d. Kunst, § 405, n. 3) : a woman
Riga in a. c 22ft It is probable that the passage wrapt in wonder and adoration (admirantem et
h2
ioo EUPHRANOR. EUPHRON.
praeceptis symmetriarum. (Vitniv. vii. Praef. §
adorantem) : Alexander and Philip riding in four-
horsed chariots, and other quadrigae and bigae.14.) [P.S.]
(Plin. xxxiv. 8. s. 19, i 16.) The statue of ApolloEUPHRA'SIUS (EitypoW), a New Platonist
and a disciple of Iamblichus. (Eunap. Vii. Soph. p.
Patroiis, in his temple in the Cerameicus at Athens,
21. cd. Hadrian. Junius.)
was by Euphranor. (Paus. i. 3. § 3.) Lastly, his [L. S.]
statue of Hephaestus, in which the god was not EUPHRATES (Eieppirns), an eminent Stoic
lame, is mentioned by Dion Chrysostom. {Oral. philosopher of the time of Hadrian. According to
p. 4«6, c.) Philostratus ( Vii. Soph. i. 7, Vit. Apoll. i. 13), he
As a painter, Euphranor executed many greatwas a native of Tyre, and according to Stephanus
of Byzantium (s. v. 'Eirufxiveia), of Epiphancia in
works, the chief of which were Been, in the time
of Pausanias, in a porch in the Cerameicus. On Syria ; whereas Eunapius (p. 3, cd. Boissonade)
calls him an Egyptian. At the time when Pliny
the one side were the twelve gods ; and on the op
posite wall, Theseus, with Democracy and Demos the younger served in Syria, he became acquainted
(AtlfiOKparla re teal Arjims). in which picture with Euphrates, and seems to have formed an inti
Theseus was represented as the founder of the mate friendship with him. In one of his letters
equal polity of Athens. In the same place was (Epist. i. 10) he gives us a detailed account of the
his picture of the battle between the Athe virtues and talents of Euphrates. His great power
nian and Boeotian cavalry at Mantineia, contain as an orator is acknowledged also by other contem
ing portraits of Epaminondas and of Gryl- poraries (Arrian, Dissert. Epictet. iii. 15, iv. 8;
lus, the son of Xenophon. (Paus. i. 3. § 2, 3.) M. Aurel. x. 31), though Apollonius of Tyana
There were also some celebrated pictures by him charges him with avarice and servile flattery.
at Ephesus, namely, Ulysses, in his feigned mad When he had arrived at an advanced age, and
was tired of life, he asked and obtained from Ha
ness, yoking an ox with a horse (it is difficult to
drian the permission of putting an end to himself
understand the next words of Pliny, " et palliati
cogitantes") ; and a commander sheathing his by poison. (Dion Cass. lxix. 8.) [L. 8.]
sword. (Plin. xxxv. 1 1. s. 40. § 25.) EUPHRON (E&ppM'), a citizen of Sicyon,
Euphranor also wrote works en proportion andwho held the chief power there during the period
of its subjection to Sparta. In B. c. 368 the city
on colours (de Symmetria et Coloribus, Plin. I. c),
was compelled by Epameinondas to join the Theban
the two points in which his own excellence seems
alliance ; and, though its constitution appears to
chiefly to have consisted. Pliny says that he was
the first who properly expressed the dignity of have remained unchanged, the influence of Eu-
phron was no doubt considerably diminished. In
heroes, by the proportions he gave to their statues;
order, therefore, to regain it, he took advantage of
and Hirt observes that this statement is confirmed
the dissatisfaction of the Arcadians and Argives
by the existing copy of his Paris. (Gesch. d. llild.
Kunst, p. 208.) He made the bodies somewhat with the moderation of Epameinondas, in leaving
the old oligarchical governments undisturbed
more slender, and the heads and limbs larger. His
[Epambinondas], and, representing to them that
system of proportion was adopted, with some varia
tion, by his great contemporary, Lysippus : in the supremacy of Lacedaemon would surely be
restored in Sicyon if matters continued as they
painting, Zeuxis had already practised it. It was,
were, he succeeded, through their assistance, in
no doubt, with reference to proportion, as well as
establishing democracy. In the election of gene
colouring, that he used to say that the Theseus of
rals which followed, he himself was chosen, with
Parrhasius had been fed on roses, but his on flesh.
(Plin. /. c; Plut de Glor. Ath. 2.) In his greatfour colleagues. He then procured the appoint
picture of the twelve gods, the colouring of thement of his own son, Adeas, to the command of
hair of Hera was particularly admired. (Lucian, the mercenary troops in the service of the re
Iniatj. 7.) Of the same picture Valerius Maximuspublic ; and ho further attached these to his cause
relates that Euphranor invested Poseidon with by an unsparing use, not only of the public money
such surpassing majesty, that he was unable to and the sacred treasures, but of the wealth also of
give, as he had intended, a nobler expression tomany whom he drove into banishment on the
charge of Laconism. His next step was to rid
Zeus. (viii. 11, ext 5.) It is said that the idea
himself of his colleagues ; and having effected this
of his Zeus was at length suggested by his hearing
by the exile of some and the murder of the rest,
a scholar recite the description in Homer : —'A/u-
Gp6aicu 5' ipa xa"<ui &c. (Eustath. ad II. i. 529.)
he became tyrant of Sicyon. He was not, how
ever, entirely independent, for the citadel was
M'uller believed that Euphranor merely copied the
Zeus of Phidias. (Arch. d. Kuiist, § 140, n. 3.)occupied by a Theban harmost, sent there, as it
would seem, after the democratic revolution ; and
Plutarch (/. c), amidst much praise of the picture
of the battle of Mantineia, says that Euphranor we find Euphron co-operating with that officer
painted it under a divine inspiration (oiSk dvevBou-
in a campaign against Phlius, probably in B. c 365.
mdo-Twi). Philostratus, in his rhetorical style,Not long after this oligarchy was again estab
ascribes to Euphranor to ivitkiov (light and shade)
lished in Sicyon, by Aencias, of Stymphalus, the
Kal to tvrvovv (expression) Kal to tlaixov Te Ka^
Arcadian general, and apparently with the con
*£*X0V (perspective and foreshortening). ( ViL Apol-
currence of the Theban harmost. Euphron upon
lou. ii. 9.) Pliny (J, c.) says that Euphranor was,
this fled to the harbour, and, having sent to Co
above all men, diligent and willing to learn, and
rinth for the Spartan commander Pasimelus, deli
always equal to himself. His disciples were,
vered it up to him, making many professions at
Antidotus (Plin. I. c. § 27), Carmanides (i'A. the same time (to which little credit seems to have
§ 42), and Leonidas of Anthedon. (Stcph. Byz. been given) of having been influenced in all he
s. v. 'AfffafcW.) He was himself a disciple of had done by attachment to the interests of Lace
Ariston, the son 'of Aristeides of Thebes. [Arls-
daemon. Party-strife, however, still continuing at
TEIDBS.] Sicyon, he was enabled, by help from Athens, to
2. An architect of little note, who wrote de regain possession of the city ; but he was aware that
EUPOLEMUS. EUP0L1S. 101
be could not hold it in the face of opposition from 2. An Actolian, one of the commanders of tho
the Tbeban garrison (to say nothing of his having Aetolian auxiliaries, who served in the army of
now decisively incmred the enmity of Sparta), and Flamininus against Philip, king of Macedonia, B. c.
he therefore betook himself to Thebes, hoping to 197. (Polyb. xviii. 2, 4.)
obtain, by corruption and intrigue, the banishment 3. A general of the Aetolians, who defended
of his opponents and the restoration of his own Ambracia against the Roman army under M.
powrr. Some of hia enemies, however, followed Fulvius, b. c. 189. (Liv. xxxviii. 4— 10.) When
him thither, and when they found that he was peace was granted to the Aetolians, he was carried
indeed advancing towards the attainment of his off a prisoner to Rome, together with the Aetolian
object, they murdered him in the Cadmeia, while general-in-chief, Nicander. (Polyb. xxviii. 4.) It
the council was actually assembled there. Being is not improbable that this was the same person
arrested and brought before the council, they with the preceding.
pleaded their cause boldly, justified their deed, and 4. A citizen of Ilypata in Thessaly, at the time
were acquitted. But Euphron's partisans were it was subject to the Aetolian league. He was the
numerous at Sicyon, and having brought home his leader of one of the parties in that city, and having
bxly, they buried it in the Agora—an unusual induced his chief adversaries to return from exile
honour (see Plut. Aral. 53)—and paid worship to under a promise of security, had them all put to
arm as a hero and a founder ('ApxvW'")*)- (Xen. death. (Liv. xli. 25.) [E. H. B.]
H«fl. vii. 1 — 3; I)iod. if. 69,70.) [E. E] EUPO'LEMUS (EoiroXfuos.) 1. Ismentioned
EVJPHRON (EtVpaM'), an Athenian comic poet by Arrian and Aelian in the introductions to their
of the new comedy, whose plays, however, seem to works on tactics, as an author who had written on
have partaken largely of the character of the middle the military art ; but he is otherwise unknown.
comedy. We have the titles and some consider 2. A Greek historian who lived previous to the
able fragments of the following plays :—'AoeAoW, Christian aera and wrote several works on the his
Aurxfia, 'AxaSioiMftTa (according to the excellent tory of the Jews, of which the following are known
emendation of Meineke, Efcppaw for Ei(popluv, by their titles : 1. ITcpl ruv iv rp 'IooSafet jSaot-
Athen. xi. p. 503, a.), AiSvuoi, Star 'Ayopd, \tm> (Clem. Alex. Strom, i. pp. 146, 148.) 2. ITspl
Bopoi, MoiaaL, TlapaBtoofiUrn (or, as Meineke rfts 'HA(ou *po<prrrtias (Joseph, e. Apion. i. 23), and
thinks it should perhaps be, Tlap*K&tdofiiv7i, which nepl twv rijs 'Aaavpias 'IoooaW. It has been
is the title of a play of Antiphanes), 2ur«pnSoi. supposed that Eupolemus was a Jew, but from the
(Said, a vs. ; Athen. passim ; Stobaeua, Flor. xv. manner in which Josephus (/. c.) speaks of him, we
2, xzviu. 11, xcriii. 12; Meineke, Frag. Com. must infer that he was not a Jew. (Comp. Euseb.
Graee. voL L pp. 477, 478, vol. iv. pp. 486 — Praep. Evang. x. 17, 30; Hieronyra. de i/lustr.
495 ; Fabric BM. Urate, vol. ii. p. 444.) [P.S.] Script. 38 ; Chron. Alexandr. pp. 148,214 ; C.G.
EUPHRO'XIDES (EwppoWoiir), of Corinth, a A. Kuhlmey, Eupolemi fragmenta proh-gom. et com-
Greek grammarian, who is mentioned among the menlar. instructa, Berlin, 1840, 8vo.) [L. S.]
teachers of Aristophanes of Byzantium. (Suid. s. r. EUPO'LEMUS (EJjtoA.uoj), an Argive archi
'Aptaro^dmfs.) [L. S.] tect, who built the great Heraeum at Mycenae,
EUPHRO'NIDES, a statuary, contemporary after its destruction by fire in B. c. 423. Tho
wish Lrsippus and Alexander the Great, OL 114, entablature was ornamented with sculptures repre
B. c 324. (Plm. xxxiv. 8. a. 19.) [P.S.] senting the wars of the gods and giants, and the
EUPHRO'NIUS. [Eiphorion, No. 4.] Trojan war. A full description of the other works
EUPHRO'SYNE. [Charites.] of art connected with this temple is given by Pau-
EUPI'THIUS (Eils-lflwi), an Athenian gram sanias. (Paus. ii. 17. § 3; Thuc.iv. 133.) [P.S.]
marian, the author of one epigram in the Greek EU'POLIS (EimoAis), son of Sosipolis an
Anthology (Brunck, Anal. vol. ii. p. 40*2 ; Jacobs, Athenian comic poet of the old comedy, and one of
Antk. Orate. vol. iii. p. 110), which contains all the three who arc distinguished by Horace, in his
we know of him, and from the contents of which, well-known line,
as well as from its title in the Vatican MS., rot u Eupolis, atquc Cratinus, Aristophanesque poetae,"
s-rtfcrTov tiJf koooAov, we leam that Eupithius above all tho
bad spent much grammatical labour on the punctu ..." alii quorum prisca comoedia viroram est,"
ation and accentuation of the KaSoKixil Trpoaipoia, a judgment which is confirmed by all we know of
at ij koBqKov (so v«x*^7) of Herodian. Herodian the works of the Attic comoedians.
douriihed under the emperor Marcus Antoninus. Eupolis is said to have exhibited his first drama
(Jacobs, Aatk. Grate, vol. x. pp. 186, 187, voL xiii. in the fourth year of the 87th Olympiad, m. c. 42§,
p. 8« ; Fabric. BM-Gruec. vol. iv. p. 475.) [P.S.] two years before Aristophanes, who was nearly of
EUPLL'S (Etf**Aow), an engraver of gems, the same age as Eupolis. (Anon, de Com. p. xxix. ;
whose time and country are unknown. The name Cyrill. c Julian, i, p. 13, b.; Syncell. Chron. p.
u seen on a gem of Love sitting on a Dolphin. 257, c.) According to Suidas (s. r.), Eupolis was
Some take the inscription ETHAO, not for tho then only in the seventeenth year of his age ; he
came of the artist, but for an allusion to the sub was therefore born in B. c. 44§. (Respecting the
ject of the gem. (Bracci, Tab. 72) [P. S.] supposed legal minimum of the age at which a per
EUPO'LEMUS (EiJxo*«/«»)- 1. One of the son could produce a drama on the stage, sec
paeon* of Casaander, was sent by him in 314 Clinton, Fa*t. Hell. voL ii. Introd. pp. lvi.—Iviii.)
a. c. to invade Caria, but was surprised and taken The date of his death cannot be so easily fixed.
prisoner by Ptolemy, who commanded that pro- The common story was, that Alcibiadcs, when
viace for Antigonus." (Diod. xix. 68.) He must sailing to Sicily, threw Eupolis into the sea, in
have been liberated again directly, as the next revenge for an attack which he had made upon
vtar we find him commanding the forces left by him in his BdVrcu. But, to say nothing of the
tas»ander in Greece, when he moved northward improbability of even Alcibiadcs venturing on such
•picst Antigonua, (Died. xix. 77.) an outrage, or the still stranger fact of its not
102 EUPOLIS. EUPOMPIDAS.
being alluded to by Thucydides or any other trust abuse, for there are still extant some lines of his, in
worthy historian, the answer of Cicero is conclu which Cimon is most unmercifully treated. (Plut.
sive, that Eratosthenes mentioned plays produced Can. 15; SchoL ad Aristeid. p. 515.) It a
by Eupolis after the Sicilian expedition. (Ad Att. hardly necessary to observe that these attacks were
vi. 1.) There is still a fragment extant, in which mingled with much obscenity. (SchoL ad Aristoph.
the poet applies the title <rrpartiy6y to Aristarchus, Pac. 741, 1142, Nub. 296, 541.)
whom we know to have been (rrpanryis in the A close relation subsisted between Eupolis and
year a c. 41^, that is, four years later than the Aristophanes, not only as rivals, bnt as imitators
date at which the common story fixed the of each other. Cratinus attacked Aristophanes for
death of Eupolis. (Schol. Victor, ad. Iliad, xiii. borrowing from Eupolis, and Eupolis in bis Barrcu
353.) The only discoverable foundation for this made the same charge, especially with reference to
story, and probably the true account of the poet's the Knights, of which he says,
death, is the statement of Suidas, that he perished KCLKC IVOVS TOM 'iWTT&W

at the Hellespont in the war against the Lacedae (i/pcirofljtra t£ (paKaxpy rovrtp Kdbwpritrafxrjy.
monians, which, as Meineke observes, must refer The Scholiasts specify the last Parabasis of the
cither to the battle of Cynossema (a c. 41 1 ), or to Knights as borrowed from Eupolis. (Schol. ad
that of Aegospotami (a c. 40.5). That he died in Arutoph. Equit 528, 1288, Nub. 544, foil.) On
the former battle is not improbable, Bince we never the other hand, Aristophanes, in the second (or
hear of his exhibiting after b. c. 412 ; and if so, it third) edition of the Clouds, retorts upon Eu
is very likely that the enemies of Alcibiades might polis the charge of imitating the Knights in his
charge him with taking advantage of the confusion Maricus (Nub. I. c), and taunts him with the
of the battle to gratify his revenge. Meineke further indignity of jesting on his rival's baldness.
throws out a conjecture that the story may have There are other examples of the attacks of the two
arisen from a misunderstanding of what Lysias poets upon one another. (Aristoph. Pax, 762,
says about the young Alcibiades (i. p. 541 ). There and Schol. ; Schol. ad Vesp. 1020; SchoL ad
are, however, other accounts of the poet's death, Platon. p. 331, Bekker ; Stobaeus, Serm. iv. p.
which are altogether different. Aelian ( N. A. x. 53.)
41 ) and Tzetzes (CM. iv. 245) relate, that he died The number of the plays of Eupolis is stated by
and was buried in Aegina, and Pnusanins (ii. 7. Suidas at seventeen, and by the anonymous writer
§ 4) says, that he saw his tomb in the territory of at fourteen. The extant titles exceed the greater
Sicyon. Of the personal history of Eupolis nothing of these numbers, but some of them are very
more is known. Aelian (I. c.) tells a pleasant tale doubtfuL The following fifteen are considered by
of his faithful dog, Augeas, and his slave Ephialtes. Meineke to be genuine : Alyts, 'AffTperrtwTot ti
The chief characteristic of the poetry of Eupolis ' AvZpuyvvai. AllrdAtfKor, Bdrrai, AiJ/joi, Aianiv,
seems to have been the liveliness of his fancy, and ETA&rrsr, K0*Aok€s, MapiKas, Nov/i-ny'tat, XlAxtis,
the power which he possessed of imparting its Upoawd\Tioi, Tajiapxo", "tipiOTob'mai, Xpvaovv
images to the audience. This characteristic of his yivoi. An analysis of these plays, so far as their
genius influenced his choice of subjects, as well as subjects can be ascertained, will be found in the
his mode of treating them, so that he not only ap works quoted below, and especially in that of
pears to have chosen subjects which other poets Meineke. The following are the plays of Eupolis,
might have despaired of dramatizing, but we are the dates of which are known :—
expressly told that he wrought into the body of his b. c. 425. At the Lenaea. Navfuirau. Third
plays those serious political views which other Prise. 1st. Aristophanes, 'Axapvfts.
poets expounded in their parabases, as in the 2nd. Cratinus, Xt tpajb/iOa.
Afiaoi, in which he represented the legislators of „ 423 or 422. 'AorrtffTfirroi.
other times conferring on the administration of the ., 421. Maputo's. Probably at the Lenaea.
state. To do this in a genuine Attic old comedy, „ ., KoAaufS. At the great Dionvsia.
without converting the comedy into a serious phi First Prize. 2nd. Aristoph. EipT^m.
losophic dialogue, must have been a great triumph „ 420. AiWAwcor.
of dramatic art. (Platon. de Div. Char. p. xxvi.) Eupolis, like Aristophanes and other comic,
This introduction of deceased persons on the stage poets, brought some of his plays on the stage in
appears to have given to the plays of Eupolis a the name of another person, Apollodorus. (Allien.
certain dignity, which would have been inconsistent v. p. 216, d.)
with the comic spirit had it not been relieved by Hephaestion (p. 109, ed. Gaisf.) mentions a
the most graceful and clever merriment. (Platon. peculiar choriambic metre, which was called Eu-
I. c.) In elegance he is said to have even sur polidean, and which was also used by the poets of
passed Aristophanes {Ibid. ; Macrob. Sut. vii. 5), the middle and of the new comedy.
while in bitter jesting and personal abuse he The names of Eupolis and Eubulus arc often
emulated CratinUB. (Anon, de Com. p. xxix. ; confounded.
Pers. Sal. i. 124 ; Lucian. Jov. Ace. vol. ii. p. 832.) (Fabric Bib!. Grate, vol. it pp. 445—448 ;
Among the objects of his satire was Socrates, on Meineke, Frag. Com. Grace, vol. i. pp. 104— 146,
whom he made a bitter, though less elaborate voL ii. pp. 426—579 ; Bergk, Comment, de Reliq.
attack than that in the Clouds of Aristophanes. Com. Att. Ant. pp. 332—366 ; Clinton, Fast.
(Schol. ad A ristoph. Nub. 97, 1 80 j Etym. Mag. p. 1 8. IMir u. vol. ii. suli II il Ii is.) [P. S-]
10 ; Lucian. Pise, vol. i. p. 595.) Innocence seems EUPO'MPIDAS (EilirojuirfSoi), son of Daima-
to have afforded no shelter, for he attacked Auto- chuB, one of the commanders in Plataea during its
lycus, who is said to have been guilty of no crime, siege by the Lacedaemonians, a c 429—8. He
and is only known as having been distinguished with Thcaenetus, a prophet, in the winter follow
for his beauty, and as a victor in the pancratium, ing this second year, devised the celebrated plan
as vehemently as Callias, Alcibiades, Melanthius, for passing the lines of circuinvallation, which, ori
nnd others. Nor were the dead exempt from his ginally intended for the whole number of the be
EURIPIDAS. EURIPIDES. 103
sv^ed. was in the end successfully executed by but was pursued and defeated by Lycus, the
212 of them, under the guidance of the same two lieutenant-general of the Achaeans. (l'olyb. iv.
leader*. (Thoc. iii 20—23.) [A. H. C] 19, 59, 69—72, v. 94, 95.) [E. E.]
E17P0MPCS (Euramrot), of Sicyon, one of EURI'PIDES (Edpiirfonf). 1. A tragic poet
the most dUungni&hed Greek painters, was the of Athens, is mentioned by Suidas as having
contemporary of Zeuxis, Parrhasius,andTunanthes, flourished earlier than his more celebrated name
and the instructor of Pamphilus, the master of sake. He was the author of twelve plays, two of
Apelles. fie was held in such esteem by his con which gained the prize. (Suid. s. v. Ei/ptTt5?}?.)
temporaries, that a new division was made of the 2. The distinguished tragic writer, of the Athe
schools of art, and he was placed at the head of nian demus of Phlya in the Cecropid tribe, or, as
one of them. Formerly only two schools had been others state it, of Phylc in the tribe Ocnei's, was
recognized, the Greek Proper or Helladic, and the the son of Mnesarchus and Cleito, and was born in
Asiatic ; but the fame of Eupompua led to the B. c. 485, according to the date of the Arundel
creation of a new school, the Sicyonian, as a branch marble, for the adoption of which Hartung con
of the Helladic, and the division then adopted was tends. (Eur. Restitutm, p. 5, &c.) This testi
the Ionian, the Sicyonian, and the Attic, the last mony, however, is outweighed by the other
of which had, no doubt, Apollodoms for its head. statements on the subject, from which it ap
Another instance of the influence of Eupompus is pears that his parents were among those who, on
kia celebrated answer to Lysippus, who, at the be the invasion of Xerxes, had fled from Athens to
ginning of his career, asked the great painter whom Salami* (Herod, vii. 41), and that the poet was
he should take for his model ; and Eupompus born in that island in u. c 480. (See Clinton,
answered that he ought to imitate nature herself, sub anno.) Nor need we with M'uller (Greek
and no single artist. The only work of Eupompus Literature, p. 358) set it down at once as a mere
which is mentioned is a victor in the games carry legend that his birth took place on the very day of
ing a palm. (Phn. xxxir. 8. a. 19. v 6, xxxv. 9, the battle of Salamis (Sept. 23), though we may
10. a. 36. ti 3,7.) [P. S.] look with suspicion on the way in which it was
EU'PREPES, celebrated in the racing annals of contrived to bring the three great tragic poets of
Rome as having carried off 782 chaplets of victory, Athens into connexion with the most glorious day
—a greater number than any single individual be in her annals. (Hartung, p. 10.) Thus it has
fore his time bad ever won. He was put to death been said that, while Euripides then first saw the
when an old man, upon the accession of Caracalla light, Aeschylus in the maturity of manhood
(a-d. 211), because the colours which he wore in fought in the battle, and Sophocles, a beautiful boy
the circus were different from those patronised by of 15, took part in the chorus at the festival which
the prince, who favoured the Blues. (Dion Cass. celebrated the victory. If again we follow the
Lrxni. 1.) [YV. It. | exact date of Eratosthenes, who represents Euri
EURi'PIDAS, or EURI'PIDES (Efonriooj, pides as 75 at his death in a c. 406, his birth
Efrotvi&vs), an Aetolian, who, when his country must be assigned to b. c. 481, as M'uller places it.
men, with the help of Scerdilaidaa the lllyrian, It has also been said that he received his name in
had gained possession of Cynaetha, in Arcadia commemoration of the battle of Artemisium, which
(a. a 220), was at first appointed governor of the took place near the Euripus not long before he was
town ; but the Aetolians soon after set fire to it, born, and in the same year ; but Euripides was
fearing the arrival of the Macedonian succours for not a new name, and belonged, as we have seen,
which Aratus had applied. In the next year, B. c. to an earlier tragic writer. (Sec, too, Thuc. ii.
215), being sent as general to the Eleans, then 70, 79.) With respect to the station in life of his
slued with Aetolia, he ravaged the lands of Dyme, parents, we may safely reject the account given in
Pharae, and Tritaea, defeated Miccus, the lieu Stobaeus (see Barnes, Eur. Vit. § 5), that his
tenant-general of the Achaeans, and seized an father was a Boeotian, banished from his country
ancient stronghold, named Teichos, near Cape for bankruptcy. His mother, it is well known, is
Araxus, whence he infested the enemy's territory represented by Aristophanes as a herb-seller, and
more effectually. In the winter of the same year not a very honest one either (Ach. 454, Thesni.
he advanced from Psophis, in Arcadia, where he 387. 456, 910, Eq. 19, Ran. 839 ; Plin. xxii. 22;
bad his bead-quarters, to invade Sicyonia, having Suid. s. w. 2#cdVot{, SiacKcu'oiiciVns ; Iiesych. *. r.
with him a body of 2200 foot and 100 horse. 2k-oi/Si{) ; and we find the same statement made
During the night be passed the encampment of by Gellius (xv. 20) from Theopompus ; but to
the Macedonians, in the Phliasian territory, with neither of these testimonies can much weight lie
out being aware of their vicinity ; on discovering accorded (for Theopompus see Plut. Lt/s. 30 ;
which from some foragers in the morning, he AeL V. H. iii. 18 j Clem. Alex. Strom, i. 1 ;
hastened back, hoping to pass them again, and to Joseph, c. Apion. i. 24; C. Nep. Ale. 11), and
arrive at Psophis without an engagement ; but, they are contradicted by less exceptionable autho
falling m with them in the passes of Mount Ape- rities. That the family of Euripides was of a rank
surrui, between Phlius and Stymphalus, he basely far from mean is asserted by Suidas (>. t>. ) and
deserted his troops, and made his escape to Pso- Moschopulus ( Fit. Eur.) to have been proved by
pais, with a small number of horsemen, while Philochorus in a work no longer extant, and seems,
almost all the Eleans were either cut to pieces by indeed, to be borne out by what Atlienaeus (x. p.
the Macedonians, or perished among the moun 424, e.) reports from Theophrastus, that the poet,
ts™. Philip then advanced on Psophis, and when a boy, was cup-bearer to a chorus of noble
compelled it to capitulate, Euripidas being allowed Athenians at the Thargelian festival,—an office for
» return in safety to Aetolia. In B. c. 217 we which nobility of blood was requisite. We know
fed aim acting again n» general of the Eleans, who also that he was taught rhetoric by Prodicus, who
sad requested that he might be sent to supersede was certainly not moderate in his terms for in
Prrrhiaa, He ravaged Achaia in this campaign, struction, and who was in the habit, as I'hilos
101 EURIPIDES. EURIPIDES.
tratus tells us, of seeking his pupils among youths ascribes also to the same date the composition of
of high rank. (Plat. Apol. p. 19, e. ; Stallb. ad the Veiled Hippolytus. The representation of
loc.; Arist, Rhtt. iii. 14. § 9 ; Philostr. Vii. Soph. the Peliades, the first play of Euripides which
Prodicus.) It is said that the future distinction was acted, at least in his own name, took place in
of Euripides was predicted by an oracle, promising b. c. 455. This statement rests on the authority
that he should be crowned with " sacred garlands," of his anonymous life, edited by Elmsley from a
in consequence of which his father had him trained MS. in the Ambrosian library, and compared with
to gymnastic exercises ; and we learn that, while that by Thomas Magister ; and it is confirmed by
yet a boy, he won the prize at the Eleusinian and the life in the MSS. of Paris, Vienna, and Copen
Thesean contests ( see Diet, of Ant. pp. 374, 964), hagen. In b. c. 441, Euripides gained for the first
and offered himself, when 17 years old, as a can time the first prize, and he continued to exhibit
didate at the Olympic games, but was not admitted plays until B. c. 408, the date of the Orestes.
because of some doubt about his age. (Oenom. ap. (See Clinton, sub annis.) Soon after this he
Euseli. Praep. Evan. v. 33 ; Gell. xv. 20.) Some left Athens for the court of Archelals, king of
trace of his early gymnastic pursuits is remarked Macedonia, his reasons for which step can only be
by Mr. Keble (Prod. Acad. xxix. p. 605) in the matter of conjecture. Traditionary scandal has
detailed description of the combat between Eteocles ascribed it to his disgust at the intrigue of his
and Polynices in the Phocnissae. (v. 1 392, &c.) wife with Cephisophon, and the ridicule which was
Soon, however, abandoning these, he studied the showered upon him in consequence by the comic
art of painting (Thorn. Mag. Vit.Eur. ; Suid. «. v.), poets. But the whole Btory in question has been
not, as we leam, without success ; and it has been sufficiently refuted by Hartung (p. 165, &c),
observed that the veiled figure of Agamemnon in though objections may be taken to one or two of
the Iphigcneia of Timanthes was probably sug his assumptions and arguments. The anonymous
gested by a line in Euripides' description of the author of the life of Euripides reports that he
same scene. (Iph, in Aid. 1550 ; Barnes, ad loc. ; married Choerilla, daughter of Mnesilochus, and
comp. Ion, 183, &c.) To philosophy and literature that, in consequence of her infidelity, he wrote the
he devoted himself with much interest and energy, Hippolytus to satirize the sex, and divorced her.
studying physics under Anaxagoras, and rhetoric, He then married again, and his second wife,
as we have already seen, under Prodicus. (Diod. named Melitto, proved no better than the first.
i. 7, 38; Strab. xiv. p. 645 j Heracl. Pont.^1%. Now the Hippolytus was acted in B. c. 428, the
Homer. § 22.) We learn also from Athenaeus Thesmophoriaxusae of Aristophanes in 414, and
that he was a great book-collector, and it is re at the latter period Euripides was still married to
corded of him that he committed to memory certain Choerilla, Mnesilochus being spoken of as his
treatises of Heracleitus, which he found hidden in K7/8eoT7Jr with no hint of the connexion having
the temple of Artemis, and which he was the first ceased. (See Thesm. 210, 289.) But what can
to introduce to the notice of Socrates. (Athcn. i. be more unlikely than that Euripides should have
p. 3, a.; Tatian, Or. c Grace, p. 143, b.; Hartung, allowed fourteen years to elapse between his dis
Eur. Pest. p. 131.) His intimacy with the latter covery of his wife's infidelity and his divorce of
is beyond a doubt, though we must reject the her ? or that Aristophanes should have made no
statement of Gellius (/. c), that he received in mention of so piquant an event in the Thetmo-
struction from him in moral science, since Socrates plioriazusae? It maybe said, however, that the
was not born till B.C. 468, twelve years after the name Choerilla is a mistake of the grammarians
birth of Euripides. Traces of the teaching of for Melitto ; that it was the latter whose infidelity
Anaxagoras have been remarked in many passages gave rise to the Hippolytus; and that the in-
both of the extant plays and of the fragments, and trigueof the former with Cephisophon, subsequent to
were impressed especially on the lost tragedy of 414, occasioned Euripides to leave Athens. But
Melanippa the Wise, (Orest. 545, 971 ; Pore. this is inconsistent with Choerilla's age, according
ad loc. ; Plat Apol. p. 26, d. e.; Troad. 879, Hel. to Hartung, who argues thus:— Euripides had
1014 j Fragm. Melanipp., ed. Wagner, p. 255 ; Cic. three sons by this lady, the youngest of whom
Tusc. Dap. i. 26 ; Hartung, p. 109 ; Barnes, ad must have been born not later han 434, for he
Eur. Ihracl 529 ; Valck. Diatr. c. 4, &c.) The exhibited plays of his father (?) in 404, and must
philosopher is also supposed to be alluded to in the at that time, therefore (?), have been thirty years
Alcesiis (v. 925, &c. ; comp. Cic Tusc. Disp. iii. old (comp. Hartung, p. 6) ; consequently Choerilla
14). "We do not know," says Miiller (Greek must have become the wife of Euripides not later
Literature, p. 358), " what induced a person with than 440. At the time, then, of her alleged adul
such tendencies to devote himself to tragic poetry." tery she must have been upwards of fifty, and
He is referring apparently to the opposition be must have been married thirty years. But it may
tween the philosophical convictions of Euripides be urged that Choerilla may have died soon after
and the mythical legends which formed the subjects the representation of the Thesmophoriazusae (and
of tragedy ; otherwise it does not clearly appear no wonder, says Hartung, if her death was hast
why poetry Bhould be thought incompatible with ened by so atrocious an attack on her husband and
philosophical pursuits. If, however, we may trust her father ! ), and Euripides may then have married
the account in Gellius (/. c), it would seem, — and a young wife, Melitto, who played him false. To
this is not unimportant for our estimation of his this it is answered, that it is clear from the Frogs
poetical character, — that the mind of Euripides that his friendship with Cephisophon, the supposed
was led at a very early period to that which gallant, continued unbroken till his death. After
afterwards became the business of his life, since he all, however, the silence of Aristophanes is the best
wrote a tragedy at the age of eighteen. That it refutation of the calumny. [Cephisophon.] With
was, therefore, exhibited, and that it was proba respect to the real reason for the poet's removal
bly no other than the Rhesus are points unwar into Macedonia, it is clear that an invitation from
rantably concluded by Hartung (p. 6, &c.), who Archelaus, at whose court the highest honours
EURIPIDES. EURIPIDES. 10.5
-awaited him, would have much temptation for one with vicious habits, yet it is also one on which
situated as Euripides was at Athens. The attacks men are very apt to avenge themselves by reports
of Aristophanes and others had probably not been and insinuations of the kind we are alluding to.
witijont their effect ; there was a strong, violent, Certainly the calumny in question seems to bo
sjid unscrupulous party against him, whose in contradicted in a great measure by the spirit of the
trigues and influence were apparent in the results Hippolyius, in which the hero is clearly a great
of the dramatic contests ; if we may believe the favourite with the author, and from which it has
testimony of Varro (ap. Oiit. xvii. 4), he wrote 75 been inferred that his own tendency was even to
nagfdies and gained the prize only five times ; ac asceticism. (Keble, Prael. Acad. p. 606, &c.)
cording to Thomas Magister, 1 5 of bis plays out of It may be added, that a speculative character, like
9"2 <rere successful. After his death, indeed, his that of Euripides, is one over which such lower
high poetical merits seem to have been fully and temptations have usually less power, and which is
generally recognized ; but so have been those of liable rather to those of a spiritual and intellectual
Wordsworth among ourselves even in his lifetime ; kind. (See Butler's Anal, part ii. c. 6.) Nor
and yet to the poems of both, the extvatrra awe- does there appear to be any better foundation for
T«tfi of Pindar is perhaps especially applicable. that other charge which has been brought against
Euripides, again, must have been aware that his him, of hatred to the female sex. The alleged
philosophical tenets were regarded, whether justly infidelity of his wife, which is commonly adduced
or not. with considerable suspicion, and he had to account for it, has been discussed above ; and
already been assailed with a charge of impiety in a we may perhaps safely pass over the other state
court of justice, on the ground of the well-known line ment, found in Collins (xv. 20}, where it is attri
in the HippUftat (607), supposed to be expres buted to his having had two wives at once,— a
sive of mental reservation. (ArisL Rhet. iii. 15. §8.) double dose of matrimony 1 The charge no doubt
He did n«t live long to enjoy the honours and originated in the austerity of his temper and de
pleasures of the Macedonian court, as his death meanour above mentioned (Suid. $. v.) ; but cer
took place in B. c. 406. Most testimonies agree tainly he who drew such characters as Antigone,
in stating that be was torn in pieces by the king's Iphigeneia, and, above all, Alcestis, was not blind
dogs, which, according to some, were set upon him to the gentleness, the strong affection, the self-
through envy by Arrhidaeus and Crateuas, two abandoning devotedness of women. And if his
rival poets. But even with the account of his end plays contain specimens of the sex for different
trwvfal has been busy, reporting that he met it at from these, we must not forget, what has indeed
the hands of women while he was going one night almost passed into a proverb, that women are both
to keep a criminal assignation,—and this at the age better and worse than men, and that one especial
of 75 ! The story teems to be a mixture of the characteristic of Euripides was to represent human
two calumnies with respect to the profligacy of his nature as it is. (Arist Poet. 46.)
character and his hatred of the female sex. The With respect to the world and the Deity, ho
Athenians sent to ask for his remains, but Arche- seemB to have adopted the doctrines of his master,
bus refused to give them up, and buried them in not unmixed apparently with pantheistic views.
Macedonia with great honour. The regret of So- [Anaxagoras.] (Valck. Diutr. 4— 6 ; Hartung,
soocles for his death is said to have been so great, Eur. Rett. p. 95, &c.) To class him with atheists,
teat at the representation of his next play he made and to speak in the some breath, as Sir T. Browne
his actors appear uncrowned. (Ael. V. H. xiii. 4 ; does (RcL Med. $ 47), of " the impieties of Lucian,
Died. xiii. 1 03 ; Gell. xv. 20 ; Paus. i. 20 ; Thorn. Euripides, and Julian," is undoubtedly unjust.
Mag. Fit Eur.; Suid. s. v. EilpivlJnJ ; Steph.Byz. At the same time, it must be confessed that we
a. t. Bap^.'o'Koi ; Eur. Arch. ed. Wagner, p. Ill; look in vain in his plays for the high faith of
see Barnes, Vit. Eur. § 31 ; Bayle, Diet, tliitor. Aeschylus, which ever recognizes the hand of Pro
l r. Euripides, and the authorities there re vidence guiding the troubled course of events and
ferred to.) The statue of Euripides in the theatre over-ruling them for good ; nor can we fail to ad
at Athens is mentioned by Pausanias (i. 21). The mit that the pupil of Anaxagoras could not sympa
admiration felt for him by foreigners, even in his thise with the popular religious system around him,
Efrtimc, may be illustrated not only by the patro nor throw himself cordially into it. Aeschylus
nage of ArchelaUs, but also by what Plutarch indeed rose above while he adopted it, and formally
r»v«rds (Xic 29), that many of the Athenian retaining its legends, imparted to them a higher
^runners in Sicily regained their liberty by re and deeper moral significance. Such, however,
eling his verses to their masters, and that the was not the case with Euripides ; and there is
Cannons on one occasion having at first refused to much truth in what Miiller says (Greek Literature,
acmit into their harbour an Athenian ship pur- p. 368), that " with respect to the mythical tradi
seed by pirates, allowed it to put in when they tions which the tragic muse had selected as her
fvsnd that some of the crew could repeat fragments subjects, he stood on on entirely different footing
«f his poems. from Aeschylus and from Sophocles. He could
We have already intimated that the accounts not bring his philosophical convictions with regard
which we find in Athenaeus and others of the pro- to the nature of God and His relation to mankind
fngacv of Euripides are mere idle scandal, and into harmony with the contents of these legends,
scarcely worthy of serious refutation. (Athcn. xiii. nor could he pass over in silence their incongrui
pp. io7, e, 603, e. ; corop Said. /. c. ; ArisL Ran. ties. Hence it is that he is driven to the strange
1045; SchoL ad toe.) On the authority of Alex necessity of carrying on a sort of polemical discus
ander Aetolus (ap. Gell. xv. 20 ; comp. Ael. V. H. sion with the very materials and subjects of which
nii. 13) we learn that he was, like his master he had to treat." (Here. Fur. 1316, 1317, Androm.
Anaxagoras, of a serious temper and averse to 1138, Orest. 406, /on, 445, &c., Fragm. Better.
ra-jio (iTTpvfris gal pMrayMws); and though such ed. Wagner, p. 147 ; Clem. Alex, l'rotrcpt. 7.)
a character is indeed by do means incompatible And if we may regard the Bacchae, written to
106 EURIPIDES. EURIPIDES.
wards the close of his life, as a sort of recantation of Euripides, viz. the enervating tendency of his
of these views, and as an avowal that religious exhibitions of passion and suffering, beautiful as
mysteries are not to be subjected to the bold scru they are, and well as they merit for him from
tiny of reason (see Miiller, Gr. Lit. p. 379, Eumen. Aristotle the praise of being "the most tragic of
§ 37; Keble, Prael. Acad. p. 609), it is but a sad poets." (Poet. 26.) The philosopher, however,
picture of a mind which, wearied with scepticism, qualifies this commendation by the remark, that,
and having no objective system of truth to satisfy while he provides thus admirably for the excite
it, acquiesces in what is established as a deadening ment of pity by his catastrophes, " he does not
relief from fruitless speculation. But it was not arrange the rest well " (tl Kai tA 4\Ao /ii) (3
merely with respect to the nature and attributes of oiKovopLti) ; and we may mention in conclusion the
the gods that Euripides placed himself in opposi chief objections which, artistically speaking, have
tion to the ancient legends, which we find him been brought with justice against his tragedies.
altering in the most arbitrary manner, both as to We need but allude to his constant employment
events and characters. Thus, in the Orestes, Me- of the * Deus ox machina," the disconnexion of
rielaus comes before us as a selfish coward, and his choral odes from the subject of the play (Anst.
Helen as a worthless wanton j in the Helena, the Poet. 32; Hor. Ep. ad Pis. 191, &c), and the
notion of Stesichorus is adopted, that the heroine extremely awkward and formal character of his
was never carried to Troy at all, and that it was a prologues. On these points some good remarks
mere MuXov of her for which the Greeks and will be found in Miiller (Greek Lit. pp. 362—364)
Trojans fought (comp, Herod, ii. 112— 12U) ; and in Keble. (Prael Acad. p. 590, &c.) Another
Andromache, the widow of Hector and slave of serious defect is the frequent introduction of frigid
Neoptolemus, seems almost to forget the past in yyu/juxi and of philosophical disquisitions, making
her quarrel with Hcrmione and the perils of her Medea talk like a sophist, and Hecuba like a free
present situation ; and Electra, married by the thinker, and aiming rather at subtilty than sim
policy of Aegisthus to a peasant, scolds her hus plicity. The poet, moreover, is too often lost in
band for inviting guests to dine without regard to the rhetorician, and long declamations meet us,
the ill-prepared state of the larder. In short, with equally tiresome with those of Alfieri. They are
Euripides tragedy is brought down into the sphere then but dubious compliments which are paid him
of every-day life, to oIkuo. wpayfiarcL, ots xpe^t*©", in reference to these points by Cicero and by
oh iiytaittv (Arist. Ran. 957) ; men are repre Quintilian, the latter of whom says that he is
sented, according to the remark of Aristotle so worthy to be compared with the most eloquent
often quoted (Poet. 46), not as they ought to be, pleaders of the forum (Cic ad /'um. xvi. 8 ; Quint.
but as they are ; under the names of the ancient lusl. Or. x. 1 ) ; while Cicero so admired him, that
heroes, the characters of his own time are set be he is said to have had in his hand his tragedy of
fore us ; it is not Medea, or Iphigencia, or Alcestis Medea at the time of his murder. (Ptol. Hephaest.
that is speaking, says Mr. Keble (Prael. Acad. t. 6.)
p. 596), but abstractedly a mother, a daughter, or Euripides has been called the poet of the so
a wife. All this, indeed, gave fuller scope, perhaps, phists,—a charge by no means true in its full ex
for the exhibition of passion and for those scenes tent, as it appears that, though he may not have
of tenderness and pathos in which Euripides espe escaped altogether the seduction of the sophistical
cially excelled ; and it will serve also to account in spirit, yet on the whole, the philosophy of Socrates,
great measure for the preference given to his plays the great opponent of the sophists, exercised most
by the practical Socrates, who is said to have influence on his mind. (Hartung, Eur. Jtct.
never entered the theatre unless when they were p. 128, &c.)
acted, as well as for the admiration felt for him by On the same principles on which he brought his
the poets of the new comedy, of whom Menander subjects and characters to the level of common life,
professedly adopted him for his model, while Phi he adopted also in his style the every-day mode of
lemon declared that, if he could but believe in the speaking, and Aristotle (/ihet. iii. 2. § 5) commends
consciousness of the soul after death, he would him as having been the first to produce an effect
certainly hang himself to enjoy the sight of Euri by the skilful employment of words from the ordi
pides. (Schlegel, Dram. Lit. lect. vii.; Aelian, I '. nary language of men (comp. Long, de SuU, 31),
//. ii. 13 ; Quint. Inst. Or. x. 1 ; Thorn. Mag. Vii. peculiarly fitted, it may be observed, for the ex
Eurip. ; Meineke, Fragm. Com. Grace, i. p. 286, pression of the gentler and more tender feelings.
iv. p. 48.) Yet, even as a matter of art, such a (See Shakspeare, Merck, of Venice, act v. sc I ;
process can hardly be justified : it seems to partake comp.Miiller, Greek Lit. p. 366.)
too much of the fault condemned in Boileau's line : According to some accounts, Euripides wrote, in
Peindre Caton galant et Brutus damoret ; all, 75 plays ; according to others, 92. Of these,
and it is a graver question whether the moral ten 1 8 are extant, if we omit the Rhesus, the genuine
dency of tragedy was not impaired by it,—whether, ness of which has been defended by Vater and
in the absence especially of a fixed external stan Hartung, while Valckenaer, Hermann, and Miiller
dard of morality, it was not most dangerous to have, on good grounds, pronounced it spurious. To
tamper with what might supply the place of it, what author, however, or to what period it should
however ineffectually, through the medium of the be assigned, is a disputed point. (Valcken. Diatr.
imagination,—whether indeed it can ever be safe 9, 10 ; Hermann, de liheeo iragocdia, Opusc. vol.
to lower to the common level of humanity charac iii. ; Miiller, Gr. Lit. p. 380, note.) A list is
ters hallowed by song and invested by tradition subjoined of the extant plays of Euripides, with
with an ideal grandeur, in cases where they do not their dates, ascertained or probable. For a fuller
tend by the power of inveterate association to account the reader is referred to Miiller (Gr. Lit.
colour or countenance evil. And there is another p. 367, &c.) and to Fabricius (BibL Grace, vol. ii.
obvious point, which should not be omitted while p. 239, &c), the latter of whom gives a catalogue
we are speaking of the moral effect of the writings also of the lost dramas.
EURIPIDES. EURIPIDES. 107
Alcntis. n. c 438. This play was trought ant Cyclops, of uncertain date. It is interesting as
as the last of a tetralogy, and stood therefore in the only extant specimen of the Greek satyric
the place of a satyric drama, to which indeed it drama, and its intrinsic merits seem to us to call
bears, in some parts, great similarity, particularly for a less disparaging criticism than that which
in the representation of Hercules in his cups. This Miiller passes on it.
circumstance obviates, of course, the objection Besides the plays, there are extant five letters,
against the scene alluded to, as a " lamentable in- purporting to have been written by Euripides.
terraption to our feelings of commiseration for the Three of them are addressed to king Archelaiis,
calamities of Admetus,"—an objection which, as it and the other two to Sophocles and Cephisophon
seems to ns, would even on other grounds be un respectively. Bentley, in a letter to Barnes (Bent-
tenable. (See Herra. Dissert, de Eurip. A lead., ley's Correspondence, ed. Wordsw. vol. i. p. 64),
prefixed to Monk's edition of 1837.) While, mentions what he considers the internal proofs of
however, we recognize this satyric character in the their spuriousness, some of which, however, are
Aicntts, we most confess that we cannot, as Miiller drawn from some of the false or doubtful state
does, see anything farcical in the concluding scene. ments with respect to the life of Euripides. But
Medea. B. c. 431. The four plays represented we have no hesitation in setting them down as
m this year by Euripides, who gained the third spurious, and as the composition of some later
prize, were Medea, Philoctetis, Dictys, and Me»- iptraKiyos, though Barnes, in his preface to them,
sura or ©tpnTToi, a satyric drama. (See Hartung, published subsequently to Bentley's letter, declares
Eur. Rest, pp. 332—374.) that he who denies their genuineness must be
HrppUyha Coroni/er. B. a 428. In this year either very impudent or deficient in judgment.
Euripides gained the first prize. For the reason of The editio princeps of Euripides contains the
the title (S<,rmxfer (<rr««>ai-n<f>o'por>, see vv. 72, &c. Medea, Hippolyius, Alcestis, and Andromache, in
There was an older play, called the Veiled Hippo- capital letters. It is without date or printer's
lytut, no longer extant, on which the present name, but is supposed, with much probability, to
tragedy was intended as an improvement, and in have been edited by J. Lascaris, and printed by
which the criminal love of Phaedra appears to have De Alopa, at Florence, towards the end of the
been represented in a more offensive manner, and 15th century. In 1503 an edition was published
as avowed by herself boldly and without restraint. by Aldus at Venice: it contains 18 plays, including
For the conjectural reasons of the title KoAwrro- the Rhesus and omitting the Electro. Another,
parot, applied to this former drama, see Wagner, published at Heidelberg in 1597, contained the
fragm. Eurip. p. 220, &c ; Valcken. Praef. in Latin version of Aemil. Portus and a fragment of
UipptA. pp. 19, 20 ; camp. Hartung. Eurip. Best. the Danat, for the first time, from some ancient
pp. 11, JbL,401,&c MSS. in the Palatine library. Another was pub
Ileesda. This play must have been exhibited lished by P. Stephens, Geneva, 1602. In that of
before B. c. 423, as Aristophanes parodies a pas Barnes, Cambridge, 1694, whatever be the defects
sage of it in the Clouds (1 148), which he brought of Barnes as an editor, much was done towards the
out in that year. Miiller says that the passage in correction and illustration of the text. It contains
the HectAa (645, ed. Pore.), cjts'mi Si no! Tit also many fragments, and the spurious letters.
a. v. A., "» aeems to refer to the misfortunes of the Other editions are that of Musgrave, Oxford, 1778,
Spartans at Pylos in B. c 425." This is certainly of Beck, Leipzig, 1778— 88, of Matthiae, Leipzig,
y*sibU ; and, if it is the case, we may fix the re- 1813—29, in 9 vols, with the Scholia and frag
presestatioa of the play in B. c. 424. ments, and a variorum edition, published at Glasgow
HeracUtdae, Miiller refers it, by conjecture, to in 1821, in 9 vols. 8vo. The fragments have been
B. c 421. recently edited in a separate form and very satis
Sttpplioe*. This also he refers, by conjecture, to factorily by Wagner, Wratislaw, 1844. Of separate
about the same period. plays there have been many editions, «. g. by Por-
Ion, of uncertain date. son, Elmsley, Valckenaer, Monk, Pflugk, and Her
//tracks Purens, of uncertain date. mann. There are also numerous translations of
Andruusaeke, referred by Miiller, on conjecture, different plays in several languages, and the whole
to the 90th Olympiad, (b. c. 420—(17.) works have been translated into English verse by
Troudes. B. c. 415. Potter, Oxford, 1814, and into German by Bothe,
Ehtetra, assigned by Miiller, on conjecture and Berlin, 1800. The Jocasta, by Gascnigne and
from internal evidence, to the period of the Sicilian Kinwelmarsh, represented at Gray's Inn in 1566,
expedition. (B.C. 415—413.) is a very free translation from the Phoenissae, much
Hrlrma. b. c. 412, fat the same year with the being added, omitted, and transposed.
i*t play of the Andromeda. (SchoL ad Arist. 3. The youngest of the three sons of the above,
Imam. 1012.) according to Suidas. After the death of his father
Ipknjenria at Tauri. Date uncertain. he brought out three of his plays at the great Dio-
Orestes. B. c. 408. nysia, viz. the Alcmaeon (no longer extant), the
Plnemstae. The exact date is not known ; but Iphigeneia at Aulis, and the Bacchae. (Schol. ad
the play was one of the last exhibited at Athens Arist. Ran. 67.) Suidas mentions also a nephew
by at author. (SchoL ad Arist. Ran. 53.) of the great poet, of the same name, to whom he
Bact&ae. This play was apparently written for ascribes the authorship of three plays, Medea,
representation in Macedonia, and therefore at a Orestes, and Polyiena, and who, he tells us, gained
very hue period of the life of Euripides. See a prize with one of his uncle's tragedies after the
above. death of the latter. It is probable that the son
IpMgeneia at Aula. This play, together with and the nephew have been confounded. Aristo
tie Ajrtiae and the Alcmaeon, was brought out at phanes too (Eccles. 825, 826, 829) mentions a cer
Athm, after the poet's death, by the younger tain Euripides who had shortly before proposed a
r-aripides, [No. 3.] property-tax of a fortieth. The proposal mode him
108 EURYANAX. EURYCLES.
at first very popular, but the measure was thrown royal house of the Agids. He was the son of Do-
out, and he became forthwith the object of a gene rieus, and was one of the commanders of the Lace
ral outcry, about b.c. 394. It is doubtful whether daemonians at the battle of Plataeae, b. c. 47U.
he is to be identified with the son or the nephew (Herod, ix. 10, 53, 55.) [See Dokiels, vol. i. p.
of the poet (See Bb'ckh, Publ. Earn, of Athens, 1067, a.] IC.P.M.]
pp. 493, 506, 5-20.) [E. E.] EURY'BATES (Eupufttnjs). 1. By Latin writers
EURO'PA (EJowmi), according to the Iliad called Eribotes, was a son of Teleon, and one of
(xiv. 3'21), a daughter of Phoenix, but according the Argonauts. He was skilled in the medical
to the common tradition a daughter of Agenor, was art, and dressed the wound which Oileus received
carried off by Zeus, who had metamorphosed him from one of the Stymphalian birds. ( Apollon. Rhod.
self into a bull, from Phoenicia to Crete. (Apollod. i. 73, ii. 1040; Hygin. Fab. 14; Vol Flacc i.
iii. 1. § 1 ; Mosch. ii. 7 ; Herod, i. 173; Paus. 402.)
vii. 4. § 1, ix. 19. §i 1; Ov. Met. ii. 839, &c. ; 2. The herald of Odysseus, who followed his
Comp. Agknob.) Europe, as a part of the world, master to Troy. He is humorously described as
was believed to have received its name from this hump-backed, of a brown complexion, and with
fabulous Phoenician princess. (Horn. Hymn, in curly hair ; but he was honoured by his master, since
Apoll. 251 ; Herod, iv. 45.) There are two other he was kind and obedient. (Horn. II. i. 319, ii.
mythical personages of this name (lies. Thcog. 184, ix. 170, Od. xix. 246.) [L. S.]
357 ; Pind. Pyth. iv. 46), which occurs also as a EURY'BATES (EipvSaTiis), an Argive, the
surname of Demeter. (Paus. ix. 39. § 4.) [L. S.] commander of 1000 volunteers who went to the
EURO'PUS (Eup«ir<S$), a son of Macedon and assistance of the Aeginetans in their war with the
Oreithyia, the daughter of Cecrops, from whom the Athenians just before the Persian invasion. He
town of Europus in Macedonia was believed to had practised the pentathlum, and challenged four
have received its name. (Steph. Byz. s. r.) [L. S.] of the Athenians to single combat. Three lie slew,
EUROPS (ECpaiif), the name of two mythical but fell himself by the hand of the fourth. (Herod,
personages, the one a son of Aegialeus and king of vi. 92, ix. 75.) [C. P. M.]
Sicyon, and the other a son of Phoroncus. (Paus. EURY'BATUS (EfyifcaTos). 1. A Laconian,
ii. 5. § 5, 34. § 5.) [L. S.] who was victor in the wrestling-match, in Ol. 1 8,
EURO'TAS (Eilpofraj), a son of Myles and when this species of contest was first introduced.
grandson of Lelex. He was the father of Sparte, (Paus. v. 8. § 7.)
the wife of Laccdaemon, and is said to have carried 2. An Ephesian, whom Croesus sent with a
the waters, stagnating in the plain of Lacedaemon, large sum of money to the Peloponnesus to hire
into the 6ea by means of a canal, and to have mercenaries for him in his war with Cyrus. He,
called the river which arose therefrom after his however, went over to Cyrus, and betrayed the
own name. En rotas. (Paus. iii. 1. § 2.) Apollo- whole matter to him. In consequence of this
dorus (iii. 10. § 3) calls him a son of Lelex by the treachery, his name passed into a proverb amongst
nymph Cleochareia, and in Stephanus of Byzantium the Greeks. (Diod. Ercerpt. de Virt. el VU. p. 553 ;
(s. v. Tavyerov} his mother is called Taygete. Ulpian, in Dem. de Coron. p. 137 ; Aeschin. -in
(Comp. Schol. ad Pind. Pyth. iv. 15, 01. vi. 46, Ctex. c. 43; Plat. Prolog, p. 327.) [C. P. M.]
ad Lymph. 886.) [L. S.] EURY'BIA (KipvSia), a daughter of Pontus
EURY'ALE (Eipvd\ri), the name of three my and Ge, who became by Crius the mother of
thical beings. (lies. Thcog. 276 ; Pind. Pyl/t. Astraeus, Pallas, and Perses. (Ilea. Tlw(*i. 375 ;
xxii. 20; Apollod. i. 4. § 3; Val. Flacc. v. 312 ; Apollod. i. 2. § 2.) There are two other mythi
comp. Orion.) [L. S.l cal personages of this name. (Apollod. ii. 7. § 8 ;
EURY'ALUS (Eu>iaXo!). 1. A son of Me- Diod. iv. 16.) [L.S.]
cisteus, is mentioned by Apollodorus (i. 9. § 16) EURYBI'ADES. [Tiiemistoclks]
among the Argonauts, and was one of the Epigoni EURYCLEIA (EupiSitAeia). 1. According to
who took nnd destroyed Thebes. (Paus. ii. 20. a Thessalian tradition, a daughter of Athamas and
§ 4 ; Apollod. iii. 7. § 2.) He was a brave war Themisto, and the wife of Melas, by whom she
rior, and at the funeral games of Oedipus he con became the mother of Hvpercs. (Schol. ad Pind.
quered all his competitors (Horn. //. xxiii. 608) Pyth. iv. 221.)
with the exception of Epeius, who excelled him 2. A daughter of Ops, was purchased by Laertes
in wrestling. He accompanied Diomedes to Troy, and brought up Telemachus. When Ody66eus re
where he was one of the bravest heroes, and slew. turned home, she recognized him, though he was
several Trojans. (II. ii. 565, vi. 20; Paus. ii. 30. in the disguise of a beggar, by a scar, and after
§ 9.) In the painting of Polygnotus at Delphi, he wards she faithfully assisted him against the
was represented as being wounded ; and there was suitors. (Horn. Oof. L 429, &c, iv. 742, &c, xix.
also a statue of him at Delphi, which stood between 385, &c, xxii. xxiii.) [L. S.]
those of Diomedes and Aegialeus. (Paus. x. 10. EURYCLEIDAS (ErfpwcXtMas), an Athenian
§ 2, 25. § 2.) orator, who, together with Micon or Micion, pos
2. One of the suitors of Hippodameia. (Paus. sessed much influence with the people, which they
vi. 21. § 7; Schol. ad Pind. Ol. i. 127.) used unworthily, as the Athenians under their
3. A son of Odysseus and Evippe, also called guidance launched forth, according to Polybius,
Doryclus or Leontophron, was killed by Tele- into the moBt unrestrained flattery towards the
machus. (Parthen. Erot. 3; Eustath. ad Horn. kings, whose favour they desired to gain, espe
p. 1796.) There are four other mythical per cially Ptolemy IV. (Philopator) of Egypt. Pau-
sonages of this name. (Apollod. i. 8. § 5 ; Horn. sanias tells us that Philip V. of Macedon caused
Od. viii. 115, &c; Virg. Ann. ix. 176, &c ; Paus. them both to be removed by poison. (Polyb. v. 1 06 ;
iv. 20. § 3.) [L. S.] Paus. ii. 9.) [E. E.]
EURYANASSA. [Pelovs.] EURYCLES (EipvKXrjs), a Spartan architect,
EURY'ANAX (Evpvdvai), a Spartan of the who built the finest of the baths at Corinth, and
EURYDICE. EURYDICE. 103
adorned it with beautiful marbles. (Paus. ii. 3. another pretender to the throne, Pausanias, who
i 5.) [P. S.] was joined by the greater part of the Macedonians,
EITRYCLES (EiowrAflr), a Greek physician reduced Eurydice to great difficulties, and led her
or grammarian, who mast have lived in or before to invoke the assistance of the Athenian general
the nrst century after Christ, as he ia mentioned Iphicrates, who readily espoused her cause, drove
by Erotianus. (Glom. Hippocr. p. 308.) He ap out Pausanias, and reinstated Eurydice and Ptolemy
pears to have written a commentary on Hippocrates, in the full possession of Macedonia, the latter being
dt ArttnlU. which does not now exist. [\V. A. G.] declared regent for the young king Perdiccas.
E U R Y 'C RAT ES ( EupyitfKrrnt ) I., was the 1 1 th (Aeschin. de FaU. Leg. §§ 8, 9 ; Corn. Nep. Iphi-
ting of Sparta in the Agid house : his reign was crat. 3; Suidas, >. v. Kapavos.) Justin represents
coincident with the conclusion of the first Messe- Eurydice as having subsequently joined with
man war. (Pans. iii. 3. § 3.) Ptolemy in putting to death Perdiccas also ; but
II. Grandson of the above, called also (Herod. this is certainly a mistake. On the contrary, Per
vii. 204) Eurycratides, was 13th of the same line, diccas in fact put Ptolemy to death, and succeeded
and reigned during the earlier and disastrous part him on the throne : what part Eurydice took in
of the war with Tegea (Herod, i. 65), which his the matter we know not, any more than her sub
grandson Anaxandrides brought to a happy issue. sequent fate. (Diod. xvi. 2 ; Syncell. p. 263, b.)
(Pans. in. 3. f 5.) [A. H. C] 2. An Illyrian by birth, wife of Philip of Mace-
EURYCYT>E. [Ekdywos.] don, and mother of Cynane or Cynna. ( Arrian, ap.
EURY'DAMAS (Eiipu&km). 1. A son of Phot. p. 70, b. ; Kuhn, ad Aelian. V. H. xiii. 36 ;
Iras and Demooassa, was one of the Argonauts. Paus. v. 1 7. § 4.) According to Diraearchus (op.
(Hygia. Fab. 14.) Apollonius Rhodius (i. 67 ; A then. xiii. p. 557, c), her name was Audata.
eomp- Orph.„4ro. 164) calls him a son of Ctimenus. 3. Daughter of Amyntas, son of Perdiccas III.,
2. One of the suitors of Penelope, who was king of Macedonia, and Cynane, daughter of
Jtilled by Odysseus. (Horn. Od. xviii. 297, xxii. Philip. Her real name appears to have been
283.) There are two more mythical personages Adea (Arrian, ap. Phot. p. 70, b.) ; at what time
of this name (Apollod. ii. 1 . § 5 ; Horn. //. v. 1 48), it was changed to that of Eurydice we are not told.
which Ovid (/4- 331) uses as a surname of Hector She was brought up by her mother, and seems to
in the tense of *■ ruling far and wide." [L. S.] have been early accustomed by her to those mascu
EURYDA'MIDAS (EupvSa/iiSas), son of Agis line and martial exercises in which Cynane herself
IV., king of Sparta- At the death of his father delighted. (Polyaen. viii. 60 j Allien, xiii. p.
be was yet a child. According to Pausanias, he 560.) She accompanied her mother on her daring
was poisoned by Ckomene3 with the assistance of expedition to Asia [Cynane] ; and when Cynane
the ephorv and the royal power of his family waB put to death by Alcetas, the discontent ex
transferred to his brother Eucleides. The truth of pressed by the troops, and the respect with which
this story is. however, questionable. (Paus. ii. 9. they looked on Eurydice as one of the surviving
§ 1, iii. 10. § 6; Manso, Sparta, vol. iii. 2, p. members of the royal house, induced Perdiccas not
J 36.) [C. P. M.] only to spare her life, but to give her in marriage
EURY'DICE (EipvoUv). The most celebrated to the unhappy king Arrhidacus. (Arrian, ap.
of the many mythical personages bearing this Phot. p. 70, b.) We hear no more of her during
came is Enrydice, the wife of Orpheus. [Orfhkus.] the life of Perdiccas ; but after his death her active
There are seven others beside, viz. one of the Da- and ambitious spirit broke forth : she demanded of
naide* ( Apollod. ii. 1. § 5), a daughter of Adras- the new governors, Pithon and Arrhidaeus, to be
tn* artd mother of Laomedon (Apollod. iii. 12. § 3), admitted to her due share of authority, and by her
a daughter of Lacedaemon and wife of Acrisius intrigues against them, and the favour she enjoyed
(Apollod. ii. 2. § 2, iii. 10. § 3 ; Paus. iii. 13. § 6), with the army, she succeeded in compelling them
a daughter of Clymenus and wife of Nestor (Horn. to resign their office. But the arrival of her mortal
Od. iii. 452), the wife of Lycurgus and mother of enemy, Antipatcr, disconcerted her projects : she
A rcbemoro* (Apollod. i. 9. $ 14), the wife of Creon, took an active part in the proceedings at Tripara-
king of Thebes (Soph. Antigone), and, according to deisus, and even delivered in person to the assem
the * Cypria," the wife of Aeneias. (Paus. x. 26. bled soldiery an harangue against Antipater, which
§ 1.) [L. S.] had been composed for her by her secretary Ascle-
EURY'DICE (ttfniiinfi. 1. An Illyrian prin piodorus ; but all her efforts were unavailing, and
cess, wife of Amyntas 1 1„ king of Macedonia, and Antipater was appointed regent and guardian of
Bother of the famous Philip. According to Justin the king. (Arrian, ap. Phot. p. 71 ; Diod. xviii.
(vii. 4, 5), she engaged in a conspiracy with a 39.) She was now compelled to remain quiet, and
paramour against the life of her husband ; but accompanied her husband and Antipater to Europe.
liioGjrb the plot was detected, she was spared by But the death of Antipater in 319, the more feeble
Amyntas out of regard to their common offspring. character of Polysperchon, who succeeded him as
After the death of the latter (a c. 369), his eldest regent, and the failure of his enterprises in Greece,
s&n, Alexander, who succeeded him on the throne, and above all, the favourable disposition he evinced
was murdered after a short reign by Ptolemy towards Olympias, determined her again to take
Alorilea, and it seems probable that Eurydice was an active part : she concluded an alliance with
concerned in this plot also. From a comparison of Cassander, and, as he was wholly occupied with
the itatements of Justin (vii. 5) and Diodorus (xv. the affairs of Greece, she herself assembled an army
71. 77, xvi. 2), it would appear that Ptolemy was and took the field in person. Polysperchon ad
li» paramour at whose instigation Eurydice had vanced against her from Epeirus, accompanied by
atMnpted the life of her husband ; and she cer- Acacides, the king of that country, and Olympias,
■ainJy went to have made common cause with him as well as by Roxana and her infant son. But
after the assassination of her son. (Thirlwall's the presence of Olympias was alone sufficient to
Orm, voL r. p. 164.) But the appearance of decide the contest : the Macedonian troops refused
110 KURYLEON. EURYLOCHUS.
to fight against the mother of Alexander, and went EURY'LEON (MpvKiur.) 1. One of the com
over to her side. Eurydice fled from the field of panions of Dorieus, with whom he went out to esta
battle to Amphipolis, but was seized and made blish a colony, Heracleia in Sicily. Nearly all the
prisoner. She was at first confined, together with Spartan colonists, however, were slain by the Car
her husband, in a narrow dungeon, and scantily thaginians and Egestaeans. Euryleon was the only
supplied with food ; but soon Olympian, becoming one of the leaders who escaped: he gathered the
alarmed at the compassion excited among the remnants of the Lacedaemonians and took possession
Macedonians, determined to get rid of her rival, of Minna, a colony of Selinus, and assisted the Se-
and sent the young queen in her prison a sword, a linuntians in getting rid of their tyrant Peithagoraa,
rope, and a cup of hemlock, with orders to choose ( Herod, v. 46 ; comp. DoRisvs.)
her mode of death. The spirit of Eurydice re 2. A commander of the Lacedaemonians in their
mained unbroken to the last ; she still breathed first war against the Messenians. He was of The-
defiance to Olympias, and prayed that she might ban extraction, and a descendant of Cadmus. (Paus.
soon be requited with the like gifts ; then, having iv. 7. v 3.) [L. S.)
paid as well as she could the last duties to her EURY'LOCHUS (EdpoAoxof), one of the com
husband, she put an end to her own life by hang panions of Odysseus in his wanderings. He was
ing, without giving way to a tear or word of the only one that escaped from the house of Circe,
lamentation. (Diod. xix. 11; Justin, xiv. 5; while his friends were metamorphosed into swine ;
Athen. xiii. p. 560, f. ; Aelian, V. H. xiii. 36.) and when Odysseus went to the lower world, Eu-
Her body was afterwards removed by Cassander, rylochus and Perimedes performed the prescribed
and interred, together with that of her husband, sacrifices. It was on his advice that the com
with royal pomp at Aegae. (Diod. xix. 52; panions of Odysseus carried off some of the oxen
Athen. iv. p. 15.5, a.) of Helios. (Horn. Od. x. 203, &c, xi. 23, &c,
4. Daughter of Antipater, and wife of Ptolemy, xii. 339, &c.) Another personage of the same name
the son of Lagus. The period of her marriage is is mentioned among the sons of Aegyptus. (Apol-
not mentioned by any ancient writer, but it is pro lod. ii. 1. § 5.) [L. S.]
bable that it took place shortly after the partition EURY'LOCHUS (EiSptiAox<"), a Spartan com
of Triparadeisus, and the appointment of Antipater mander, in the sixth year of the Peloponnesian
to the regency, B. c. 321. (See Droysen, Gach. d. war, b. a 426, was sent with 3000 heavy-armed
AWi/o/p«r, p. 154.) She was the mother of three of the allies, at the request of the Aetolians to act
sons, viz. Ptolemy Ceraunus, Meleager, who suc with them against the Messenians of Naupactus,
ceeded his brother on the throne of Macedonia, and where Demosthenes, whom they had recently de
a third (whose name is not mentioned), put to feated, was still remaining, but without any force.
death by Ptolemy Philadelphus (Paus. i. 7. $ 1) ; Eurylochus assembled his troops at Delphi, re
and of two daughters, Ptolemais, afterwards mar ceived the submission of the Ozolian Locrians, and
ried to Demetrius Poliorcetes (Plut. Dtmttr. 32, advanced through their country into the district of
46), and Lysandra, the wife of Agathocles, son of Naupactus. The town itself was saved by Acar-
Lysimachus. (Paus. i. 9. $ 6.) It appears, how nanian succours obtained by Demosthenes, on the
ever, that Ptolemy, who, like all the other Greek introduction of which, Eurylochus retired, but
princes of his day, allowed himself to have several took up his quarters among his neighbouring allies
wives at once, latterly neglected her for Berenice with a covert design in concert with the Ambra-
(Plut. Pijrrh. 4) ; and it was probably from resent ciots against the Amphilochian Argives, and Acar-
ment on this account, and for the preference shewn nnnians. After waiting the requisite time he set his
io the children of Berenice, that she withdrew from army in motion from Proschium, and, by a well-
the court of Egypt In 287 we find her re chosen line of march contriving to elude the Am-
siding at Miletus, where she welcomed Demetrius philochianB and their allies, who were stationed to
Poliorcetes, and gave him her daughter Ptolcmai's oppose him, effected a junction with his friends at
in marriage, at a time when such a step could not but Olpae. Here, on the sixth day following, the
be highly offensive to Ptolemy. (Plut. Demetr. 46.) enemy, under Demosthenes, attacked him. Eury
5. An Athenian, of a family descended from the lochus took the right wing opposed to Demosthenes
great Miltiades. (Plut. Demetr, 14 ; Diod. xx. 40.) with the Messenians and a few Athenians ; and
She was first married to Ophelias, the conqueror of here, whon already taking them on the flank, he
Cyrene, and after his death returned to Athens, was surprised by the assault of an ambuscade in
where Bhe married Demetrius Poliorcetes, on oc his rear ; his troops were routed, himself slain, and
casion of his first visit to that city. (Plut. Demelr. the whole array in consequence defeated. (Thuc.
14.) She is said to have had by him a son called iii. 100— 102, 105— 109.) [A. H. C]
Corrhabns. (Id. 53.) EURY'LOCHUS (EtfpuAoxos)- 1- A native
6. A daughter of Lysimachus, king of Thrace, of Lusiae in Arcadia, whose name is frequently
who gave her in marriage to Antipater, son of mentioned by Xenophon in the Anabasis. On one
Cassander, king of Macedonia, when the latter occasion, when the army was marching through
invoked his assistance against his brother Alexan the territory of the Carduchii, he protected Xeno
der. (Justin, xvi. 1; Euseb. Arm. p. 155.) After phon, whose shield-bearer had deserted him. He
the murder of Antipater [see vol. i. p. 202, a,], she was one of the deputies sent by the army to
was condemned by her father to perpetual im Anaxibius. Afterwards we find him counselling
prisonment. (Justin, xvi. 2.) his comrades to extort from Seuthes the par which
7. The sister and wife of Ptolemy Philopator is he owed them. (Xen. Anab. iv. 2. § 21, 7. § 11,
called by Justin (xxx. 1) Eurydice, but her real vii. 1. § 32. 6. § 40.)
name was Arsinoe. [Arsinoe, No. 5.] [E.H.B.] 2. A sceptical philosopher, a disciple of Pyrrho,
EURY'LEON (EiIpuAfW), is said to have been mentioned by Diogenes I.-iertius (ix. 68). The
the original name of Ascanius. (Dionys.i. 70 ; Ap- same writer mentions another Eurylochus of La-
pian, dc Reg. Horn, i.) [L. S.] rissa, to whom Socrates refused to place himself
EURYMEDON. EURYMEDON. Ill
wider obligation by accepting money from him, or At the end of this campaign, he was appointed
going to his house (it 25). [C P. M.] one of the commanders of the large reinforcements
EURY'MACHUS (Eopiiuaxoj), the name of destined for Sicily, and early in a c. 425 set soil
four nytaieal personages, viz. one of the suitors of with forty ships, accompanied by his colleague
Hrppodameia (Pans. vi. 21. § 6), a prince of the Sophocles, and by Demosthenes also, in a private
Piif<T« who attacked and destroyed Thebes after capacity, though allowed to use the ships for any
the death of Amphion and Zethus (Eustath. ad purpose he pleased on the coast of Peloponnesus.
I/am. p. 933), a son of Theano (Pans, x. 27), and They were ordered to touch at Corcyra on their
one of the suitors of Penelope. (Horn. 01. i. 399, way, and information of the arrival there of a Pe
term 8«.) [L.S-] loponnesian squadron made the commanders so
EURY'MACHUS (Eihw/ioxo*), grandson of anxious to hasten thither, that it was against their
another Etiryrnachus and son of Leontjades, the will, and only by the accident of stormy weather,
Tbeban commander at Thermopylae, who led his that Demosthenes contrived to execute his project
men over to Xerxes. Herodotus in his account of of fortifying Pylos. [Dbmosthknes.] This how
the father's conduct relates, that the son in after ever, once completed, had the effect of recalling
time was killed by the Plataeans, when at the the enemy from Corcyra : their sixty ships passed
beta of fonr hundred men and occupying their unnoticed by Eurymedon and Sophocles, then in
chy. (Herod, vii. 233.) This is, no doubt, the Zacynthus, and made their way to Pylos, whither
same event which Thucydides (ii. 1 —7) records on intelligence from Demosthenes, the Athenian
as the first overt act of the Peloponnesian war, squadron presently pursued them. Here they ap
n. c. 431. The number of men was by his account pear to have remained till the capture of the Spar
only a little more than three hundred, nor was Eury- tans in the island ; and after this, proceeded to
maehaft the actoal commander, but the enterprise Corcyra to execute their original commission of
had been negotiated by parties in Plataea through reducing the oligarchical exiles, by whose warfare
him. and the conduct of it would therefore no from the hill Istone the city was suffering severely.
doak be entrusted very much to him. The In this they succeeded : the exiles were driven
fmuy was dearly one of the great aristocratical from their fortifications, and surrendered on condi
hossev. Thucydides (ii. 2) calls Eurymachus " a tion of being judged at Athens, and remaining, till
nan of the greatest power in Thebes.1* [A. II. C] removal thither, in Athenian custody ; while, on
EURYME"DE (EspvpirSn), the name of two the other hand, by any attempt to escape they
mythical personages. [Glaucus ; Mki.kager.] should be considered to forfeit all terms. Into
' EU RY 'MEDOS (Z&pu^vv). 1. A Cabeirus, such an attempt they were treacherously inveigled
a son of Hephaestus and Cabeiro, and a brother of by their countrymen, and handed over in conse
Alcoa. (Norm. l>xxm- xiv. 22; Cic de Nat. quence by the Athenian generals to a certain and
Dror. iiL 21.) cruel death at the hands of their betrayers. This
2. One of the attendants of Nestor. (Horn. II. shameful proceeding was encouraged, so Thucy
riii. IH, xi. 620.) dides expressly states, by the evident reluctance of
3. A son of Ptolemaeus, and charioteer of Aga Eurymedon and Sophocles to allow other hands
memnon ; his tomb was shewn at Mycenae. (Horn. than their own to present their prizes at Athens,
VZ-rr. 228; Pans. ii. 16. §5.) There are two while they should be away in Sicily. To Sicily
more mythical personages of this name. (Horn. Of. they now proceeded; but their movements were
to. 58 ; A polled, iii. 1 . § 2. ) Eurymedon signifies a presently put an end to by the general pacification
being ruling far and wide, and occurs as a surname effected under the influence of Hermocratcs, to
<i several divinities, such as Poseidon (Pind. 01. which the Athenian commanders themselves, with
»5i. 31), Perseus (Apollon. Rhod. iv. 1514), and their allies, were induced to accede. For this, on
Hermes. (Hesvch. s. «.) [L. S.J their return to Athens, the people, ascribing the
EURYMEDON (E4f>i>^oWv),asonof Thucles, defeat of their ambitious schemes to corruption in
an Athenian general in the Peloponnesian war, their officers, condemned two of them to banish
held in its fifth year, B. c 428, the command of ment, visiting Eurymedon, who perhaps had shown
sixty ships, which the Athenians, on hearing of more reluctance than his colleagues, with the milder
the intestine troubles of Corcyra, and the inove- punishment of a fine. (Thuc. iii. 115, iv. 2—8,
steut of the Peloponnesian fleet under Alcidas and 13, 46—48, 65.)
Brasidas to take advantage of them, hastily de- Eurymedon is not known to hare held any other
rpsirsjed to maintain their interest there. This, it command till his appointment at the end of b. c.
was {band, had already been secured by Nicostra- 414, in conjunction with Demosthenes, to the com
ts« with a small squadron from Naupactus. Eury mand of the second Syracusan armament. He
medon, however, took the chief command ; and the himself was sent at once, after the receipt of Ni-
sfText days of his stay at Corcyra were marked by cias's letter, about mid-winter, with a supply of
tse wildest cruelties inflicted by the commons on money and the newsof the intended reinforcements :
thvir political opponents. These were no doubt in the spring he returned to meet Demosthenes at
prxowraged by the presence of so large an Athenian Zacynthus. Their subsequent joint proceedings
fcree : how sir they were personally sanctioned, or belong rather to the story of his more able col
sow 6u* they could have been checked by Eury- league. In the night attack on Epipolae he took
medoa. can hardly be determined. (Thuc iii 80, a share, and united with Demosthenes in the sub
81. 85.) sequent representations to Nicias of the necessity
In the following summer he was united with for instant departure. His career was ended in
II Pfonicus in command of the whole Athenian the first of the two sea fights. His command was
free by land, and, co-operating with a fleet under on the right wing, and while endeavouring by
N oas, ravaged the district of Tanagra, and ob the extension of his line to outflank the enemy, he
tained sufficient success over some Thebans and was, by the defeat of the Athenian centre, cut off
Tasagaeaai to justify a trophy. (Thuc. iii. 91.) and surrounded in the recess of the harbour, his
112 EURYPHON. EURYPYLUS.
ships captured, and himself slain. Diodorus, writ VI." i. 29. vol. xvii. pt. i. p. 886, where for Biaif
ing perhaps from Epborus, relates, that Agatharchus we should read KvtSiais), and also that some persons
was the Syracusan general opposed to him, and attributed to him several works included in the
represents the defeat as having begun with Eury- Hippocratic Collection (Comment, in Hippocr. MDc
medon's division, and thence extended to the cen Humor." i. prooem. voL xvi. p. 3), viz. those enti
tre. (Thuc. vii. 16, 31, 33, 42, 43, 49, 52 ; Diod. tled Tltpl Aio(tt|5 "rTKivTJs, de Salubri Vktus Ra-
xiii. 8,11, 13; Plut Niciat, 20, 24.) [A.H.C.] tione (Comment, in Hippocr. " De Bat. Vict, in
EURY'MEDON (ZipuiUtm.) 1. Of Myr- Morb. Acut." i. 17. voL xv. p. 455), and Ileal
rhiuus, a friend of Plato, who, in his will, appointed Aiain)?, de Victus Ration*. (De Aliment. Facult.
him one of his executors. (Diog. Laert iii. 42, 43.) i. 1. voL vi. p. 473.) He may perhaps be the au
2. Of Tarentum, a Pythagorean philosopher men thor of the second book n«pt tiovauv, De Morbis,
tioned by Iamblichus. ( Vit. PgtiL 36.) which forms part of the Hippocratic Collection,
3. A person who was suborned by Demophilus to but which is generally allowed to be spurious, as a
bring an accusation of impiety against Aristotle for passage in this work (vol. ii. p. 284) is quoted by
speaking irreverently of Hermes in a poem, which Galen (Comment, in Hippocr. " De Aforb. Vulgar.
is preserved in Athenaeus. (xv. p. 696.) [L. S.] VI." i. 29. vol. xvii. pt. i. p. 888), and attributed
EURY'NOME (EilpwdVij). 1. A daughter of to Euryphon (see Littre's Hippocr. vol. i. pp. 47,
Oceanus. When Hephaestus was expelled by Hera 363); and in the same manner M. Ermerins (Hip
from Olympus, Eurynome and Thetis received him pocr. de Rat. Vicl. in Morb. Acut. pp. 368, 369 )
in the bosom of the sea. (Horn. II. xviii, 395, &c. ; conjectures that he is the author of the work Ilcpl
Apollod. i. 2. § 2.) Previous to the time of Cronos Twauctlnt ♦i/<rioy, da Natura Muliebri, as Soranus
mid Rhea, Eurynome and Ophion had ruled in appears to allude to a passage in that treatise (vol.
Olympus over the Titans, but after being conquered ii. p. 533) while quoting the opinions of Euryphon.
by Cronos, she had sunk down into Tartarus or (De Arte Obstetr. p. 124.) From a passage in
Oceanus. (Apollon. Rhod. i. 503, &c. ; Tzetz. ad Caelius Aurelianus (de Morb. Chron. ii. 10. p. 390)
Lycoph. 1191.) By Zeus she became the mother it appears, that Euryphon was aware of the differ
of the Charitcs, or of Asopus. (Hes. Theog. ence between the arteries and the veins, and also
908 j Apollod. iii. 12. § 6.) considered that the former vessels contained blood.
2. A surname of Artemis at Phigalea in Arcadia. Of his works nothing is now extant except a few
Her sanctuary which was surrounded by cypresses, fragments, unless he be the author of the treatises
was opened only once in every year, and sacrifices in the Hippocratic Collection that have been attri
were then offered to her. She was represented buted to him. [W.A.G.]
half woman and half fish. (Paus. viii. 41. § 4.) EURYPON, otherwise called EURY'TION
There are four more mythical personages of this (Evpvwwv, Evpvrlvv), grandson of Procles, was the
name. (Horn. Od. xviii. 168 ; Apollod. iii. 9. § third king of that house at Sparta, and thencefor
2.) [Adrastus, Agbnob.] [L. S.] • ward gave it the name of Eurypontidae. Plutarch
EUHY'NOMUS (Vipumuos), a daemon of the talks of his having relaxed the kingly power, and
lower world, concerning whom there was a tradi played the demagogue ; and Polyaenus relates a
tion at Delphi, according to which, he devoured the war with the Arcadians of Mantineia under his
flesh of dead human bodies, and left nothing but command. (Paus. iii. 7. § 4 ; Plut Luc 2 ; Poly-
the bones. Polygnotus represented him in the aen. ii. 13.) [A-H.C]
Lesche at Delphi, of a dark-blue complexion, shew EURY'PTOLEMUS (EiVwrniA^j). 1. One
ing his teeth, and sitting on the skin of a vulture. of the family of the Alcmaeonidae, the son of
(Paus. x. 28. § 4.) There are two other mythi Megaclcs and father of Isodice, the wife of Cimon.
cal personages of this name, one mentioned by (Plut. Cimon, 4.)
Ovid (Met. xii. 311) and the other in the Odyssey 2. Son of Peisianax, and cousin of Alcibiadcs.
(ii. 22). [L. S.] We find him coming forwards on the occasion ot
EURYPHA'MUS or EURYPHE'MUS (Ed- the trial of the victorious generals after the battle
pwpafios), a Pythagorean philosopher of Metapon- of Arginusae to oppose the illegal proceedings in
tum. (Iamblich. de Vit.Pytlu 30, 36.) Lysis was stituted against them. His speech on the occasion
his fellow-pupil and his faithful friend. Eurypha- is quoted by Xenophon. He asked that a day
mus was the author of a work TltpX filov, which is should be granted for the separate trial of each
lost, but a considerable fragment of it is preserved prisoner (Xen. Hell. i. 7. § 16, &c.)
.m Stobaeus. (Serm. tit. 103. 27.) [L. S.] 3. Another Euryptolcmus, of whom nothing else
EU'RYPHON (ZipiKpuv), a celebrated physi is known, is mentioned by Xenophon as having been
cian of Cnidos in Caria, who was probably bom in sent as ambassador to the Persian court. He could
the former half of the fifth century b. c, as Soranus not have been the same with the cousin of Alcibiades,
( Vila Hippocr. in Hippocr. Opera, vol. iii. p. 851) as he had not returned from his mission when the
says that he was a contemporary of Hippocrates, but latter was at Athens ready to welcome his cousin
older. The same writer says that he and Hippocrates on his return from banishment (IlrH. i. 3. § 13;
were summoned to the court of Pcrdiccas, the son 4. § 7, 19.) [C. P. M.]
of Alexander, king of Macedonia ; but this story EURY'PYLUS (EiSpinruAoj.) 1. A son of
is considered very doubtful, if not altogether apo Euaemon and Ops. (Hygin. Fab. 81.) He ap
cryphal. [Hippocrates.] He is mentioned in a pears in the different traditions about him, as a
corrupt fragment of the comic poet Plato, preserved hero of Ormenion, or Hyria, or as a king of Cy-
by Galen (Comment, in Hippocr. "Ap/ior." vii. 44. rene. In the Iliad he is represented as having led
vol. xviii. pt i. p. 149), in which, instead of otuoj, the men of Ormenion and other places to Troy
Alcinekc reads iroyos. He is several times quoted with forty ships, and he is one of those who offer
by Galen, who says that he was considered to be the to fight with Hector, (ii. 734, vii. 167.) He slew-
author of the ancient medical work entitled Kvioiat many a Trojan, and when he himself was wounded
IVa),uai (Comment, in Hippocr. " De Mori. Vulgar. by Paris, he was nursed and cured by Patroclus.
EURYSTHENES. EURYTUS. 113
(xL 841, xr. 390 ; comp. Apollod. iii. 10. $ 8 ; story, after their father's return to Peloponnesus
Hygin. Fab. 97 ; Ov. Met. xiii. 357.) According and occupation of his allotment of Laconia. He
to a genealogy of the heroes of Onnenion he was died immediately after the birth of his children
sun of Hyperochus, and the lather of Ormenus. and had not even time to decide which of the
(ScboL ad. Find. Ol. vii 42.) Among the heroes two should succeed him. The mother professed
of Hvria, be is mentioned as a son of Poseidon to be unable to name the elder, and the Lacedae
andCelaeno, and went to Libya before Cyrene who monians in embarrassment applied to Delphi,
fought against the lion that attacked his flocks, and were instructed to make them both kings,
ted in Libya he became connected with the Ar- but give the greater honour to the elder. The
pnants. (SchoL ad Apollon. Rkod. ir. 1561 ; difficulty thus remaining was at last removed at
Tiki, ad Lympi. 902. ) He is said to have been the suggestion of Panites, a Messenian, by watch
married to Sterope, the daughter of Helios, by ing which of the children was first washed and fed
Thorn he became the father of Lycaon and Leu- by the mother ; and tbe first rank was accordingly
eppus. (SchoL ad Find. Pyth. ir. 57 ; Tsetz. ad given to Eurysthenes and retained by his descend
If ofk. 886. ) The tradition which connects him ants. (Herod, vi. 51, 52.) The mother's name
Ttta the legends about Dionysus, is given under was Argeia, and her brother Theras was, during
Akstmxktxs, and Eurypylus as connected with their minority, their joint-guardian and regent.
Dionysus, dedicated a sanctuary to Soteria at Pa (Herod, iv. 147.) They were married to two sis
use (Pans. vii 21. 4 2), which also contained a ters, twins like themselves, the daughters of Ther-
comment of him, and where sacrifices were offered sander, the Heracleid king of Cleonae, by name
to Vim every year after the festival of Dionysus. Lathria and Anaxandra, whose tombs were to be
(vfi. 19. \S 1, 3, ir. 41. ; 1.) From Pausanias seen at Sparta in the time of Pausanias (iii. 16.
we learn that Eurypylus was called by some a son $5). The two brothers are said to have united
of Dr-xamenus. (Comp. Miiller, Orvhom. p. 341, with the son of Temenus to restore Aepytus, the
eic 2nd edit-) son of Cresphontes, to Messenia. Otherwise, they
2. A son of Poseidon and Astypalaca, was king were, according to both Pausanias and Herodotus,
of Cos and was killed by Heracles who on his re in continual strife, which perhaps may give a mean
turn from Troy landed in Cos, and being taken for ing to the strange story related inPolyaenus (i. 10),
a pirate, was attacked by its inhabitants. (Apol that Procles and Temenus attacked the Eurysthei-
lod. ii_ 7. |§ 1,8.) According to another tradi dae then in occupation of Sparta, and were success
tion Heracles attacked the island of Cos, in order ful through the good order preserved by the flute,
to obtain possession of Chalciope, the daughter of the benefit of which on this occasion was the origin
Eurypylus, whom he loved. (SchoL ad Find. of the well-known Spartan practice. Ephorus in
Nam. it. 40 ; comp. Horn. II. ii 676, xiv. 250 &c, Strabo (viii. p. 366) states, that they maintained
xr. 25.) themselves by taking foreigners into their service,
3. A son of Telephos and Astyoche, was king and these Clinton understands by the name Eurys-
of Moesia or Cilicia. Eurypylus was induced by theidae ; but Miiller considers it to be one of the
the presents which Priam sent to his mother or transfers ma