Sei sulla pagina 1di 9

Current managers face various challenges and will continue to face challenges ahead.

One of the real

challenges is how organizations will compete successfully not only in the local or national markets
but also internationally or globally. The challenge of international competition has led to the mind-
management of managers on matters such as how organizations need to be structured and work
have to be done more effectively and efficiently. Its own management team, overall quality
management and the 'just-in-time' inventory are some examples that show where managers are
looking for more effective ways to enable them to compete in international markets.

When world competition becomes more powerful, organizations need to work towards the most
valuable resources to find new rules of competition that are human. Hence human being the most
valuable source, it is very important for a manager to know how to maximize the resources so that
his organization has the advantage of competition.

Another challenge faced by managers is to produce quality products and services. At present, the
overall quality management concept (TQM) is practiced by most progressive companies. Overall
quality management is the organization's overall commitment to continuous progress and customer

In meeting customer needs, managers also need to improve productivity within their organization.
Productivity is an output relationship measurement (ie product or service) with input (ie human,
material, money and information). Managers need to think about or issue new methods to improve
productivity to enable their organization to compete in international markets. According to Jack
Welch, general manager of General Electric, "For a company and country, productivity is an
important thing for 'survival'."

Integrative framework (Fleet & Peterson Integrative framework) (1994) has created four managerial
models based on theoretical management approach. According to the authors, each management
model describes part of the overall management process. These four models - Scientific
management model, Administrative management model, Human resource model and open system
model will provide a beneficial framework to managers to help them perform their roles more

Based on these four models, an integrative framework has been established to help managers
understand the relationships and interactions among these models. The framework is formed in two
continuum (Figure 5.l). Horizontal continuum extends from internal focus to external focus.
Managers move along the continuum to meet the internal requirements of the organization and the
external environment requirements. Internal focus helps to stabilize an organization such as
employee involvement in decision-making and information management. External focus helps to
form competitive advantages for an organization. For example, such as organizational growth and
Vertical continuum extends from efficiency to emphasis flexibility. Managers move in this continuum
to create an organization that is efficient or efficient and at the same time the organization can
adapt to the forces of the environment. Efficiency emphasis helps managers to fully utilize
resources. The emphasis of flexibility helps managers adjust to change. The efficiency dimension
refers to stability and direction while the dimensions of flexibility refer to employee engagement
and innovation. The two axes illustrate the dynamic tension faced by a manager.

Scientific Management Model

This model focuses on producing the best product by using an efficient production method. Its main
purpose is to meet customers' needs ie producing quality products with the lowest production cost.

• Administrative Management Model

This model focuses on the organization's internal operations. Its main purpose is to provide efficient
administrative procedures by finding better rules in coordinating and monitoring the organization's
duties. This will make the organization more stable. This model can meet the needs of managers as
well as enable managers to assess their organizational productivity. This can improve every
weakness that arises.

• Human Resource Model

This model emphasizes on organizational flexibility to suit internal change. It focuses on people in
the organization. It aims to build team orientation and engagement of employees among members
in the organization. In doing so, it is hoped that workers will be more committed to the organization
as well as adaptation to organizational change. This model can meet individual needs within the
organization. Usually organizations that value employee engagement will be respected and
considered to be a fun place of work.

• Open Systems System-Model

This model emphasizes the flexibility to suit external changes. It focuses on adapting feedback from
external forces creatively and innovatively. It requires application of 'entrepreneurial' role. By always
seeking new rules and ideas for producing old products, the organization will maintain its
competitive position in the international economy. This model meets the needs of the organization
Managing Multiple Manpower

Organizations today also face the challenge of adapting to diversity in the workforce, that is, in terms
of gender, age, race and ancestry.

In the past we rarely found women holding high positions in the organization but now it is not
surprising. In addition, those with disabilities are also given opportunities in the workplace. Different
cultures and backgrounds are not a barrier for employees to be in an organization. Even this diverse
workforce enhances creativity and innovation within the organization. They are in fact an asset to
the organization if recognized and treated fairly. Managers can no longer assume that all employees
are equal but need to appreciate the differences that each individual has. The term 'melting-pot' is
no longer suitable in dealing with this diverse workforce.

Managers need to understand the diversity of the workforce and the abnormalities of employees.
Each of these different workforce has the potential competitive advantage for company
development. Managers need not worry about the heterogeneous increase of the workforce but
instead make it an advantage of the company to grow more advanced. The concept of managing the
abnormalities of the workforce should be carefully understood to understand every subordinate
disability. A successful global manager needs a distant view and careful thought as engaging in a new
culture According to Solomon (1995). This situation helps managers develop social networks and
provide a wealth of information about a culture. This is one of the cross-cultural skills in the
management of the disparity of the work outlined by Solomon in the seven featured skills. It is a
heavy duty to the manager to challenge himself in understanding the diversity that exists in his
organization. For example, a company, Petronas is a multinational-owned multinational company
with a diverse range of backgrounds but this company is able to endure today as each of its
employees understands and respects each other as well as they hold strong principles and values
Emphasized by Petronas itself is professionalism, proactivity, trust, loyalty and loyalty of
corporations. This understanding clearly shows that each of these different individuals is able to
reach agreement in the work. A manager needs to be smart in dealing with the challenges of
managing the heterogeneous workforce that exists within his organization. High cost challenges in
managing some aspects such as employee visas, health and others is a responsibility that every
employer needs to take. Examples of foreign workers in Malaysia are said to be very crowded at the
moment given the opportunity given by employers looking for opportunities to limit the cost of
workers. However, an employer or manager should not do so because it violates the rules and
regulations. Therefore, a manager should be wise in understanding and managing the diversity of
manpower and cultural appropriateness in his management.

3.3 Ethics

Experiencing challenges and ethical problems is a factor that can not be avoided by a manager.
Organizations with clear policies and work practices are usually very successful in managing
challenges and dilemmas that involve ethics. However, some organizations face difficulties in
managing the ethical issues associated with them. This is because not all individuals or employees
have the same opinion. Fortunately, today's society is generally more knowledgeable about their
need to act within the limits of laws and regulations, fully aware that taking bribes, breach of trust
and pursuing one's personal interests at the expense of their respective organizations will result in a
Undesirable to them and the organization. Overall, work ethics management refers to the ability of
an individual to make decisions and choose the right conduct, which does not conflict with the
general values and principles of the organization. These values need to be applied to all individuals
from the beginning.
4.0 Proposal How to Handle The Challenges Well.

Here are some suggestions made by the Sarawak State Education Technology Division for the
purpose of organizational improvement.


Technician Division managers need to revamp some strategies for example creating an idea sharing
with managers. This is aimed at establishing a good relationship, involving managers in making
departmental strategies. Suggestions' recommendations to be considered are: -

4.1.5 The Benefits of a Highly Qualified Worker

The public and private sectors in Malaysia should work together to develop and improve the skills
employers will have knowledge in the future technology of technology. The priority of a manager is
to help create a culture that is concerned with the development of knowledge such as rewarding
scholarships to employees to pursue education, related training members Dengue work and study
leave to improve the skills of workers. With this recognition workers will feel they are valued,
respected and loyal to the organization.


The diversity of workforce includes a variety of differences including education background,

geographical location, parental status, work experience, and more. To manage this diversity we need
to focus more on policy and legal requirements Workplace diversity can also benefit, out of the box
of thinking, greater teamwork, better morality and the atmosphere of understanding and respect.

It is our responsibility to change the organizational culture so that it more closely reflects the various
workforce values. Among the skills required are: the concept of managing the diversity of
recognition of understanding and acceptance that diversity is through every aspect of self-awareness
management, in terms of your own understanding of culture, identity, bias, prejudice and
stereotyping readiness to challenge and alter the practice of institutions that present barriers to the
group - different groups. To achieve working skills effectively in a variety of occupational
environments, for example: we must demonstrate the ability to work effectively in a diverse work
environment "


4.4.1 Trust In Work

The nature of trust is the core of harmony and the success of a community or employment
institution; A company for example. Imagine if an employee or employee has no trustworthiness; All
matters will not work perfectly and lead to the destruction of the institution or company. The
trustworthy nature of trust in work will certainly result in the good values of a good employee. The
role of division chiefs or employers is crucial in combating trustworthiness in work. Employees
should adhere to the instructions given and perform the task well. This trait not only affects ordinary
workers, but also the employers or their own leaders who practice this non-trust nature.

4.4.2 Committed to Career.

The key to success of an individual is to be committed to his career. Committed here is concentrating
on what is done. This committed nature can contribute to the creation of excellent work or service
quality. The work must always seek opportunities for excellence in work. Employees will be willing to
take advantage of opportunities created or created by themselves. The words of wisdom in business
that are often used as the leading entrepreneur, namely, "Opportunity must be sought, it is not
given". This is an important factor in achieving success. Moral is the core of professional ethics
formation. The noble character possessed by an employee or leader is a symbol of personal height
and the quality of the individual involved. What is the point of being a highly educated person and
then taking a good job if it is bad? Bad morals here are examples of practices of corrupt, favorable
working, and unrepentant working conditions. There are many examples we can see in the
administration of our own country where corrupt politicians and not the least who accept bribes to
approve a project. In fact

A political phenomenon of Wang has thrown a political giant in our country.

4.4.3 Honest

In the work, honest or truthfulness can establish a healthy relationship among workers, workers and
employers and fellow customers or persons dealing in the work. The honest and true nature can
curb all feelings of suspicion and deceit or lies. An example of trickery in a job is a dealer who loves
to deceive his customers with the goal of multiplying profits.

4.4.5 Time Management

In the course of work, it is important to focus on time management because one of the success
factors in the job is effective time management. Efficient time management can help ease the
burden of duties while facilitating all work matters.


Organizational Behavior Manager is a field of research that seeks to investigate the effects that
individuals, groups, and so on structure of behavior in the organization, and then use this knowledge
to make the organization more effective. We always make a general impression on human behavior
As a brilliant leader and manager need to play a role in developing interpersonal, and humanitarian
skills if they want to carry out their duties effectively. They must be smart in solving the problem of
the worker and be a good example and can communicate with his people. Organizational behavior
should focus on how to increase productivity, increase job satisfaction and reduce disability among
workers. Managers should be sensitive to the development of the environment, especially the
behavior of workers in an organization. Likewise, managers need to be prepared to deal with diverse
work ethic challenges, globalization and current technological change. With the commitment of the
organization to the organization, there is no problem to compete with the parties in the country or
abroad. It also gives managers the opportunity to improve their humanitarian skills, addressing ever-
changing environmental conditions such as downsizing
Managers' concerns over the increasing number of employees comprising workers with ethnic
backgrounds, races, age and gender, and different cultures can be overcome with understanding on
the concept of managing the workforce variations and positive thinking on these changes. The
previous manager needs to understand the important aspects of why heterogeneous labor is needed
and essential for a multinational company. There are two important aspects that managers need to
understand is that companies need to manage the increasingly diversified workforce by
understanding the differences in the employees and each of these different workforce has the
potential competitive advantage for company development. Managers should not worry about
worrying about the heterogeneous increase of the workforce but instead make it an advantage of
the company to grow more.

Managers need to understand the concept of managing the workforce abnormally and
thoroughly to understand every subordinate problem. There are some important issues that
managers need to understand in managing the workforce diversity of race, language, age, gender,
religious sensitivities and universal values held by them such as fundamental rights of liberty.
According to Solomon (1995), a successful glokal manager needs a distant view and careful thought
as engaging in a new culture. This situation helps managers develop social networks and provide a
wealth of information about a culture. This is one of the cross-cultural skills in managing the
workforce disparities outlined by Solomon in seven featured skills. Hence, it becomes a heavy duty
to the manager to challenge himself in understanding the diversity that exists in his organization.

A good manager will understand the background of his employees so as to avoid problems in
terms of cultural practices of the people held by his staff. To ensure that each employee has an
understanding of each other. So it is natural that each of them and managers understand the culture
and background of their respective races to avoid any stereotypes. This situation will make the
company's organization more secure and orderly with the mutual understanding that will enhance
the performance of the organization. Petronas, for example, is a multinational-owned local company
having a diverse range of backgrounds but this company is able to survive to this day as each of its
employees understands and respects each other and also holds the strong principles and values that
Emphasized by Petronas itself is professionalism, proactive, trustworthy, loyalty and corporate
loyalty. This understanding clearly shows that each of these different individuals is able to reach
agreement in the work.

A manager also does not need to be confused with the language variation in his organization.
On the contrary, managers need to feel lucky because in a multi-racial and multi-lingual Malaysian
context it is an advantage in extending the empire of the organization to various states and
countries. Hence, managers need to take the initiative to prioritize capable staff who speak more
than one language to be trusted in managing and implementing organizational responsibilities. With
this, companies do not have to work hard to train their employees to master other languages and
this can reduce the cost of organizational management. In fact, communication is very important in
a multinational organization. The language most often used in an organization is English. This is
because the language is an international language understood by almost the whole world. This fact
is a fact when this scenario can be seen in search-seeking ads in Malaysia, which is a multinational
company and a local company that puts the requirement of speaking and writing skills in English as
one of their criteria in finding skilled workers.

Managers also need to understand another important aspect of the organization ie age. Older
workers are usually said to be experienced in terms of their skills. However, they are also said to be
unable to adapt to the new working conditions or conditions, not from their time. Therefore, as a
manager it is necessary to understand this situation so that the skills available to each employee in
varying ages can be used optimally. For younger employees they should be given the opportunity to
gain work experience and need to be trained specifically to become an asset to the organization in
the future. As such, there will be no problem of workers' oppression by the age of the worker who
can be said to be "senior" and junior workers. Managers should be lucky to have variations in the
age of the worker who can provide different workforce according to the level of work done.
Therefore, managers need to understand each person's personality or style of work by age. In
certain societies such as in Japan, the more mature one will be respected by others. They believe
that the ages of a person, the higher their level of thinking. This is recognized in Sanwa Electric Co.
Ltd in Japan which allows its employees to work until age 65 because they believe and appreciate
their experience and ability to perform the task. The company is the leader of Japan in leveraging the
talent of the elderly and it is sheltered under the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) of
Japan. Such a business is needed by a manager in managing his organization.

Gender issues are also one of the important aspects that a manager needs to address in
addressing the diversity of the workforce in his organization. A manager should understand that
every employee should be treated fairly, both men and women. Managers should understand that
women are now able to do all the work that men do. The stereotype that the woman is weak is
inaccurate for the context now because these people are now able to compete with men. Therefore,
a manager needs to understand his / her employees and is not biased in giving assignments and
powers to his / her subordinates. With this action, employees will be valued and eager to compete
with each other to ensure that their organization is progressing and further propelling the
company's name in line with other leading companies. This gender issue is important so there is a
rule or act that protects their rights and freedoms. In Malaysia, for example, there is a policy for
women, the National Women's Policy 2009, which is generally created to achieve gender equality
and sustainable and sustainable development of the country. This policy details the actions needed
by government agencies, non-governmental organizations, private sector and civil society to achieve
the objectives and goals of the National Women's Policy. Thus, there will be no gender
discrimination in an organization that has cultural diversity.

There is another important issue that has become a priority for the manager to understand
that is the issue of religion. In the diversity of manpower in an organization will certainly be different
religious beliefs. Therefore, as a manager it is desirable to understand any religious hold held by the
employee. For example, a manager needs to understand that prayer is a mandatory thing that
Muslims need to do. Therefore, a manager needs to understand it and grant freedom to its
employees to carry out that religious responsibility. Similarly, other religions who require their
employees to take leave or rest to perform their religious duties. The tolerance given by this
employer will make his employees feel respectful to the employer and will be enthusiastic and work
hard with the company so that the goals set by the company's organization are achieved. The most
appropriate example is in Saudi Arabia where every time the call to prayer the whole worker around
the Holy Mosque will perform the prayers in congregation. Therefore, it is important for a manager
to understand the cultural and religious background of his organization.

The uniqueness of the diversity of workforce in the organization has indeed been a huge
challenge for employers and organizations as they need to figure out how to keep all employees
adhere to the principles and direction of the company thus making the company prosper and
competitive. There are some challenges that the employers need to face, among them cost,
communication, loyalty, and more.
For an organization that has a heterogeneous workforce, the problem or challenge that is often
experienced is communication. This is because most employees who come from different races also
carry different languages that may be difficult to understand by managers. This situation will make
the process of providing information or instruction be affected because the communication used is
unavailable. As a result, all assignments will be delayed and further delay the productivity of the
company. Therefore, managers need to be smart in managing their heterogeneous workforce by
ensuring that every employee has high communication skills to avoid any problems from happening.
A manager does not even have to worry about his organization having a heterogeneous workforce
because this is an advantage because of course many of the employees have diverse language skills.
Thus, the company has the potential to expand its empire to a place. This challenge is clear because
some countries like Japan are especially concerned with their own language in various official affairs
and so on. Therefore, it is a challenge for managers to learn their language in order to make
adjustments and manage the organization well.

Another challenge faced by the manager is a perception and attitude of parochialism by the
manager himself. Parokialism is a tendency to respond to what is around it based on its cultural
perspective. In other words, parokialism is the individual or manager who fails to recognize and
appreciate the diversity of cultures around the world that require adaptation when we are in a
different cultural environment. This culture or attitude is a great challenge for every manager in the
face of heterogeneous workforce. Alder (1991) notes that most of the managers of the United States
failed to manage their overseas companies due to parokialism. In fact, they only use American-style
approaches without understanding and learning local management approaches. For example, the
Disneyland park in France, the Euro Disneyland has been massively bogged down, though the same
theme parks in California and Florida have multiplied profits only due to parokialism. It is clear that
the french society's lifestyle and value differ from

Community in the United States. Therefore, a manager should be wise in understanding and
managing the diversity of manpower and cultural appropriateness in his management.

In summary, the ability of managers to master or willing to tolerate diversity will make it
easier for them to deal with different parties in different situations. Thus, the company will benefit
from the manager's ability to manage the heterogeneous workforce. However, most of the
concepts, theories, and approaches of organizational behavior are developed in Western countries,
especially the United States and the United Kingdom are not very suitable in the context of other
countries including Malaysia as this knowledge is based on research done in The context of their
own country. This fact is clearly recognized by some US managers who fail to manage heterogeneous
labor in their organizations in other countries around the world. This is because their assumptions
about this universal management style are applicable everywhere. But, it is clear that their
assumptions are missed and can not be used in managing the heterogeneous workforce in different
cultures. In conclusion, knowledge of cross-cultural management is very important for a glokal
manager who manages the heterogeneous workforce in his organization to achieve the goals of the
organization more effectively and effectively.