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C H A P T E R

14

Revision

Revision of

Chapters 12 and 13

14.1 Multiple-choice questions

1 The velocity, V, of a body is given by V = (x − 2)2 , where x is the position of the body at

time t. The acceleration of the body at time t is given by:

(x − 2)2

A 2(x − 2) B C 2(x − 2)3

t

D x2 − 4x + 4 E x−4

60° 30°

two wires attached to a horizontal beam. The

tensions in the wires are T1 kg wt and T2 kg wt. T1 T2

20

Which one of the following statements is not true?

T1 T2

A = B T2 = 20 sin 30◦ C T1 = 20 cos 30◦

sin 60◦ sin 30◦

connected by strings over smooth fixed pulleys.

24 kg

7 kg 25 kg

514

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Which one of the following force diagrams is an accurate representation of the forces

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acting on the 25 kg mass?

A 7 B 7 C 7

25 25 25

24 24 24

D 7 E

24 24

25 25

7

4 The system shown rests in equilibrium, with the string passing

over a smooth pulley. The other parts of the string are vertical.

When the string connecting P and Q is cut, the acceleration of

R is of magnitude:

g 15g

A B g C 5 kg R

4 4 P 3 kg

D 4g E none of these

Q 2 kg

5 A particle, P, of unit mass moves under a resisting force −kv, where k is a positive

constant and v is the velocity of P. No other forces act on P, which has a velocity V at

time t = 0. At time t, the velocity of the particle is:

V V

A Ve kt B e kt

C Ve −kt D e−kt E V(1 − kt)

k k

6 A particle of mass m lies on a horizontal platform that is being accelerated upwards with

an acceleration f. The force exerted by the platform on the particle is:

mf

A m( f − g) B m(g + f ) C m(g − f ) D E mf

g

7 A particle of mass 10 kg is subject to forces of 3i newtons and 4j newtons. The

acceleration of the particle is described by the vector:

1 1

A 5i B 0.3i + 0.4j C 5 √ i+ √ j

2 2

D 5j E 3i + 4j

8 A particle moves in the x–y plane so that its position vector r at time t seconds is given by

r = 2t2 i + t3 j metres. When t = 1, the speed in m/s of the particle is:

√

A 34 B 5 C 5 D 7 E 25

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9 A body falls, under gravity, against a resistance of kv2 per unit mass, where v is the speed

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and k is a constant. After time t the body has fallen a distance s. Which of the following

equations describes the motion?

dv dv d 2s

A v = g − kv 2 B v = g + kv 2 C = g + kv 2

ds dt dt 2

dv dv

D v = −(g + kv 2 ) E = −g + kv 2

ds dt

10 A particle moves in the x–y plane so that its position vector r at time t seconds is given by

r = sin 2ti + e−t j metres. When t = 0, the speed in m/s of the particle is:

√ √

A 1 B 3 C 3 D 5 E 5

11 A block of weight w slides down a fixed slope of angle where tan = 34 . The coefficient

of friction is 12 . The horizontal component of the resultant force acting on the block is:

w 2w 6w 4w

A 0 B C D E

4 5 25 25

12 A particle starts at rest at a point O, and moves in a straight line so that after t seconds its

velocity v is given by v = 4 sin 2t. At this time the displacement, s, from O is given by:

A s = 8 cos 2t B s = 2 cos 2t C s = −2 cos 2t

D s = 8 cos 2t − 8 E s = 2 − 2 cos 2t

horizontal, where sin = 45 . The boy’s acceleration down the slide, in m/s2 , is:

3 4 D 48g E g

A 5

g B 5

g C 36g

14 The position of a particle at time t = 0 is given by r(0) = 2i + 5j + 2k. The position of the

particle at time t = 2 is r(2) = 4i − j + 4k. The average velocity for the interval [0, 2] is:

A 12 (6i + 4j + 6k) B i − 3j + k C 24i + k

D i − 2j + 3k E 12 i − 32 j + 12 k

P

inclined plane. The normal force exerted by the

plane is N, and the friction force is F. The force P

just prevents the particle from sliding down the plane.

W

Which one of the following is true?

θ

A P = W sin − F B P = F + W sin

C P=F D N = W sin E W = N cos

16 The acceleration of a particle at time t is given by the vector equation ẍ (t) = 2i + tj. If the

velocity of the particle at time t = 0 is described by the vector 2i, the velocity at time t is:

2

t2 t

A ẋ(t) = 2ti + j B ẋ(t) = (2t + 2)i + j C ẋ(t) = 2i + (2i + tj)t

2 2

2

t

D ẋ(t) = 2(2i + tj) E ẋ(t) = 2 + (2t)i + j

2

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17 A mass is hanging in a lift, being suspended by a light inextensible string. The lift

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ascends, first moving with uniform acceleration, then with uniform speed, and finally

retarding to rest with a retardation of the same magnitude as the acceleration. Given that

the tension, T, is greater than zero throughout, which of the following is the graph that

best represents T against t?

A T B T

t t

C T D T

t t

E T

a force of 4 g newtons acting up the sloping ramp and parallel to it. The frictional force

acting on the mass is:

A 10g newtons down the plane B 10g newtons up the plane

C g newtons up the plane D 6g newtons down the plane

E 6g newtons up the plane

19 A particle is moving so its velocity vector at time t is ṙ (t) = 2ti + 3j where r(t) is the

position vector of the particle at time t.

If r(0) = 3i + j then r(t) is equal to:

A 2i B 5i + 3j C (3t + 1)i + (3t2 + 1)j

D (t2 + 3)i + (3t + 1)j E 2t2 i + 3tj + 3i + j

magnitude of the particle’s acceleration is equal to:

A 1 m/s2 B 7 m/s2 C 1.2 m/s D −1.2 m/s E 5 m/s2

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F1 = 3i + 2j + k and F2 = i − 2j. The force F3 is:

A 4i + k B 2i + 4j + k C 3i + 4j + k

D i E −4i − k

rest but just about to move down the plane. The frictional force in newtons is:

A m cos B mg sin C mg tan D mg E mg cos

23 A block of wood of mass 4 kg rests on a rough horizontal table, the coefficient of friction

is 0.4. The least force that will cause the block to move when applied horizontally is:

A 15.68 kg wt B 1.6 kg C 1.6 newtons

D 1.6 kg wt E 15.68 kg

as shown in the diagram. θ

3N

The magnitude of angle is:

P

A sin−1 35 B cos−1 35 C tan−1 35

D 90◦ E tan−1 43

5N

25 A particle of mass 5 kg is acted upon by two forces of 0.3 kg wt and 0.4 kg wt, at right

angles to each other. The magnitude of the acceleration of the particle is:

A 0.1 m/s2 B 10 m/s2 C 0.14 m/s2 D 50

7

m/s2 E 0.98 m/s2

force of 5 N. The magnitude of the resulting acceleration is:

5 5

A 32 m/s2 B m/s2 C m/s2 D 1.6 m/s2

8g 8

E cannot be found

in the diagram. The magnitude of the resultant 7N

force is:

A 10 N B 7 + 3 cos 50◦

C 3 + 7 cos 50◦ D 10 cos 25◦

E none of these

50°

x

0 3N

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y

28 Two forces of 3 N and 2 N act at a point as

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shown in the diagram. The resultant of 3N

these forces makes an angle with the

positive direction x axis. Which one of

the following is true?

A cos = 23√ B = 60◦

C tan = 3 3 D = 90◦

√ 60°

6 3 x

E sin = √ 0 2N

107

29 A particle of mass m kg slides down a rough plane inclined at an angle to the horizontal.

The coefficient of friction between the particle and the plane is . The magnitude of the

resultant of all the forces acting on the particle is:

A mg − B mg sin − C mg(cos − sin )

D mg(sin − cos ) E mg(cos − sin )

by a string that passes over a smooth pulley,

and then are released. The magnitude of the

acceleration of the particles is:

A 1 m/s2 B 14 m/s2 C g m/s2

g 5 kg 3 kg

D m/s2 E 0

4

31 A particle of weight 4 N is held in equilibrium

on a smooth slope by a string that passes over a

smooth pulley and is tied to a suspended particle

of weight 3 N. The angle , correct to one decimal place: 3N

◦ ◦ ◦ 4N

A is 48.6 B is 41.4 C is 36.9 θ

D is 53.1◦ E does not exist

32 A particle has its position in metres from a given point at time t seconds defined by the

vector r(t) = 4ti − 13 t 2 j. The average speed of the particle in the third second is:

A 4 m/s B 3 23 m/s C 4 13 m/s D 6 23 m/s E 9 m/s

r(t) = (t2 − 2t)(i − 2j + 2k) measured in metres from a fixed point. The distance

travelled by the particle in the first two seconds is:

A 0m B 2m C −2 m D 6m E 10 m

r(t) = 13 t 3 − 4t 2 + 15t i + t 3 − 15

2

t 2 j. When the particle is instantaneously at rest, the

acceleration vector of the particle is given by:

A 15i B −18j C 2i + 15j D −8i − 15j E −2i + 3j

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35 A particle moves, with its position defined with respect to time t by the position

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vector r(t) = (3t3 − t)i + (2t2 + 1)j + 5tk. When t = 12 , the magnitude of the acceleration

is given by:

√ √

A 12 B 17 C 4 3 D 4 5 E none of these

36 The velocity of a particle is given by the vector ṙ (t) = sin ti + cos 2tj. At time t = 0, the

position of the particle is given by the vector 6i − 4j. The position of the particle at time t

is given by:

A (6 − cos t)i + 12 sin 2t + 4 j B (5 − cos t)i + 12 sin 2t − 3 j

C (5 + cos t)i + (2 sin 2t − 4)j D (6 + cos t)i + (2 sin 2t − 4)j

1

E (7 − cos t)i + 2 sin 2t − 4 j

37 The initial position, velocity and constant acceleration of a particle are given by 2i, 3j and

i − j respectively. The position of the particle at time t is given by:

t2

A (4 + t)i + 3 − j B 2i + 3tj C 2ti + 3tj

2

t2 t

D 2+ i + (6 − t)j E (2 + t)i + (3 − t)j

2 2

wires attached to a horizontal beam. The tensions 50° 40°

in the wires are T1 N and T2 N. Which of the T1 T2

following statements is not true?

T1 T2

A ◦

= B T1 = sin 50◦

sin 50 sin 40◦

C T2 = cos 50◦ D T1 cos 50◦ + T2 cos 40◦ = 1 1 N

E T1 cos 50◦ = T2 cos 40◦

39 A particle of mass 5 kg has its momentum defined by the vector 30i − 15j + 10k kg m/s.

The magnitude of the velocity of the particle is:

√

A 25 m/s B 5 m/s C 7 m/s D 31 m/s E 11 m/s

1 The position vector of a particle at time t seconds is given by r1 (t) = 2ti − (t2 + 2)j where

distances are measured in metres.

a What is the average velocity of the particle for the interval [0, 10]?

b By differentiation, find the velocity at time t.

c In what direction is the particle moving when t = 3?

d When is the particle moving with minimum speed?

e At what time is the particle moving at the average velocity for the first 10 seconds?

f A second particle has its position at time t given by r = (t3 − 4)i − 3tj. Are the two

particles coincident at any time, t?

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inclined at an angle to the horizontal. The

particle is connected by a light inextensible

string that passes over a smooth

pulley at the top of the plane to another mg

particle of mass 2m that hangs vertically. 2mg

lighter particle is on the verge of moving up the plane.

b i If another particle of mass 3m is attached to the particle hanging vertically, find

the acceleration of the particles.

ii Find the time for the particle to go two metres up the slope (starting from rest).

r̈ (t) = −3 (sin 3ti + cos 3tj).

a Find the position vector, r(t), given that ṙ (0) = i and r(0) = −3i + 3j.

b Show that the path of the particle is a circle and state the position vector of its centre.

c Show that the acceleration is always perpendicular to the velocity.

His position attime t is givenby t t

t t 13.5 P 18 cos , 13.5 sin

r = 18 cos i + 13.5 sin j. 3 3

3 3

When t = 0, r = 18i. t

18

a How long does the skater take to

go around the path once?

b Find:

i the velocity of the iceskater at t = 2

ii the acceleration of the iceskater at t = 2.

c i Find an expression for the speed of the skater at time t.

ii At what time is his speed greatest?

d Prove that acceleration r̈ = kr and, hence, find when the acceleration has a maximum

magnitude.

resting on a rough plane, inclined at an

angle (where tan = 43 ) to the 90°

g

3k

g

over a smooth pulley to a block of mass α

90° _ α

2 kg resting on an equally rough plane

inclined at an angle of (90◦ − ) to the

horizontal. Both parts of the string lie in

a vertical plane that meets each of the

inclined planes in a line of greatest slope.

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a If the 3-kg block is on the point of sliding down the plane, show that , the coefficient

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6

of friction between the blocks and the planes, is 17 .

b Calculate the least additional mass that must be attached to the 2-kg block in order that

the 3-kg block should be on the point of sliding up the plane.

c If an 8-kg mass is added to the 2-kg mass, find the acceleration of the system and the

tension in the string.

6 a The velocity vector of a particle, P, at time t is ṙ 1 (t) = 3 cos 2ti + 4 sin 2tj where

r1 (t) is the displacement from O at time t. Find:

i r1 (t), given that r1 (0) = −2j

ii the acceleration vector at time t

iii the times when the displacement and velocity vectors are perpendicular

iv the cartesian equation of the path.

b At time t, a second particle Q has displacement vector (relative to O) of r2 (t) = 32 sin 2ti

+ 2 cos 2tj + (a − t)k. Find the possible values of a in order for the particles to collide.

plane inclined at 30◦ . It is attached by a light inelastic

string to a particle B of mass 1 kg. The string passes A

over a smooth pulley and the particle B hangs

B

1 m from the floor.

30°

The particles are released from rest. Find:

a the magnitude of the acceleration of the particles gN

b the tension in the string during this first phase of the motion

c the magnitude of the velocities of the particles when particle B hits the ground

d the time taken before the string is taut again, assuming that there is room on the plane

for A to continue travelling up the plane.

8 a Two particles of respective masses 1.2 kg and 1.3 kg are connected by a light

inextensible string that passes over a fixed light smooth pulley. The system is released

from rest with string taut and the straight parts of the string vertical.

i Calculate the acceleration of each particle.

ii Calculate the tension in the string.

iii Calculate the velocity of the 1.2-kg mass after 2 seconds have elapsed, and the

distance it has travelled.

b When two seconds have elapsed after the system starts from rest, the lighter particle

picks up a mass of 1 kg that was given the same velocity as the lighter particle just

before being picked up.

i Calculate the further time that elapses before the system comes instantaneously to

rest.

ii Calculate the total distance that the lighter particle has moved.

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9 An aircraft takes off from the end of a runway in a southerly direction and climbs at an

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√

angle of tan−1 12 to the horizontal at a speed of 225 5 km/h.

a Show that t seconds after take-off, the position vector r of the aircraft with respect to

t

the end of the runway is given by r1 = (2i + k), where i, j and k represent vectors

16

of length 1 km in directions south, east, and vertically upwards respectively.

√

b At time t = 0, a second aircraft, flying horizontally south-west at 720 2 km/h, has

position vector −1.2i + 3.2j + k.

i Find its position vector r2 at time t in terms of i, j and k.

ii Show that there will be a collision and state the time at which it will occur.

10 A particle moves in a straight line, starting from point A. Its motion is assumed to be with

constant retardation. During the first, second and third seconds of its motion it covers

distances of 70 m, 60 m and 50 m respectively, measured in the same sense.

a i Verify that these distances are consistent with the assumption that the particle is

moving with constant retardation.

ii Find the retardation and an expression for the displacement of the particle.

b If the particle comes instantaneously to rest at B, find distance AB.

c At the same instant that the first particle leaves A, a second particle leaves B with an

initial velocity of 75 m/s and travels with constant acceleration towards A. It meets the

first particle at a point C, 1 12 seconds after leaving B.

i Find distance BC.

ii Show that the acceleration of the second particle is 60 m/s2 .

a Show that one possible vector representing the position of the particle is

r(t) = (t − 1)i + (t2 − 1)j.

b Show that r(t) = (e−t − 1)i + (e−2t − 1)j is also a possible representation of the

position of the vector.

c Two particles travel simultaneously. The position of the particles are given by

r1 (t) = (t − 1)i + (t2 − 1)j and r2 (t) = (e−t − 1)i + (e−2t − 1)j respectively.

i Find the initial position of the two particles.

ii Show that the particles travel in opposite direction along the path

defined by y = x2 + 2x.

iii Find, correct to two decimal places, the point at which the two particles collide.

an angle to the horizontal. An external variable force, F

F, is applied to the particle so that its line of action makes

an angle with the vertical, as shown in the diagram. The

coefficient of friction between the particle and the plane is .

θ

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a Show that, if < tan and F = 0, the particle will slide down the plane.

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Assume that < tan for the rest of this problem.

b Given = , find:

i the reaction force between the plane and the particle

ii the maximum friction force between the plane and the particle

iii the minimum value of F that will prevent the particle from moving.

c Given = , find:

2

i the reaction force between the plane and the particle

ii the minimum value of F that will prevent the particle from moving down the plane

iii the minimum value of F that will just move the particle up the plane.

d Consider ≤ .

i Show that the component of F normal to the plane is F cos( − ).

ii Find an expression for the minimum value of F that will prevent the particle from

moving down the plane.

iii Hence, show that in this case > − tan−1 .

13 A particle is fired from the top of a cliff h m above sea level with an initial velocity V and

inclined at an angle above the horizontal. Let i and j define the horizontal and upward

vertical vectors in the plane of the particle’s path.

a Define:

i the initial position vector of the particle

ii the particle’s initial velocity.

b The acceleration vector of the particle under gravity is given by a = −gj. Find:

i the velocity vector of the particle t seconds after it is projected

ii the corresponding position vector.

c Use the velocity vector to find the time at which the projectile reaches its highest point.

d Show that the timeat which the particle hits the sea is given by the formula:

V sin t + V 2 sin2 + 2gh

t= .

g

14 A lift that has mass 1000 kg when empty is carrying a man of mass 80 kg. The lift is

descending with a downward acceleration of 1 m/s2 .

a Calculate:

i the tension in the lift cable

ii the vertical force exerted on the man by the floor of the lift.

b The man drops a coin from a height of 2 m. Calculate the time taken for it to hit the

floor of the lift.

c The lift is designed so that during any journey, the magnitude of the acceleration

reaches, but does not exceed, 1 m/s2 . Safety regulations do not allow the lift cable to

bear a tension greater than 20 000 N. Making reasonable assumptions, suggest the

number of people that the lift should be licensed to carry. (Hint: the maximum tension

in the lift cable occurs when the lift is accelerating upwards.)

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15 Two trains, T1 and T2 , are moving on perpendicular tracks that cross at the point O.

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Relative to O, the position vectors of T1 and T2 at time t are r1 and r2 respectively, where

r1 = Vti and r2 = 2V(t − t0 )j and where V and t0 are positive constants.

a i Which train goes through O first?

ii How much later does the other train go through O?

4t0

b i Show that the trains are closest together when t = .

5

ii Calculate their distance apart at this time.

iii Draw a diagram to show the positions of the trains at this time. Also show the

directions in which they are moving.

16 A particle of mass m moves from rest through a distance, d, under a horizontal force, F,

on a rough horizonal plane with coefficient of friction . It then collides with another

particle of mass 2m, at rest.

a Find the velocity with which the first particle hits the second (in terms of F, m, d

and ).

b The two particles adhere to each other. The combined mass moves a further distance d

under friction alone.

i Find the retardation of the two particles.

ii Find the initial velocity of the two particles.

c Find F in terms of m and .

17 Two particles, A and B, of mass m and 0.7m

respectively, are linked by a light inelastic string

A B

that passes over a smooth pulley, one on either

side of a wedge (as shown in the diagram).

The coefficients of friction between each

30° 30°

of the particles A and B, and the wedge

are and 2 respectively. The string is

under tension.

a i Show that A must be in limiting equilibrium.

ii Use the resolved forces at A to find an expression for the tension in the string.

b B is also in limiting equilibrium. Find:

i the friction force at B

ii the tension force in the string (by considering forces on B).

c Find .

d The particles are now placed on the same side of the wedge, with the string taut and

with A below B, and then released. Find:

i the acceleration of the particles ii the tension in the string.

e Describe what would happen in d if B was placed below A initially.

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18 A ball is projected against a wall that rebounds the ball in its plane of flight. If the ball has

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a velocity ai + bj just before hitting the wall, its velocity of rebound is defined

as −0.8ai + bj. The ball is projected from ground level, and its position vector before

√

hitting the wall is defined by r(t) = 10ti + t(10 3 − 4.9t)j, t ≥ 0.

a Find:

i the initial position vector of the ball

ii the initial velocity vector of the ball and, hence, the magnitude of the velocity and

direction (to be stated as an angle of elevation)

iii an expression for the acceleration of the ball.

b The wall is at a horizontal distance x from the point of projection. Find in terms of x:

i the time taken by the ball to reach the wall

ii the position vector of the ball at impact

iii the velocity of the ball immediately before impact with the wall

iv the velocity of the ball immediately after impact.

c Let the second part of the flight of the ball be defined in terms of t1 , a time variable,

where t1 = 0 at impact. Assuming that the ball is under the same acceleration vector,

find in terms of x and t1 :

i a new velocity vector of the rebound

ii a new position vector of the rebound.

d Find the time taken for the ball to hit the ground after the rebound.

e Find the value of x (correct to two decimal places) for which the ball will return to its

initial position.

19 An aeroplane takes off from an airport and, with respect to a given frame of

reference, its path with respect to the variable time t is described by the vector

r(t) = (5 − 3t)i + 2tj + tk, t ≥ 0, where t = 0 seconds at the time of take-off.

a Find the position vector that represents the position of the plane at take-off.

b Find:

i the position of the plane at times t1 and t2

ii the vector which defines the displacement between these two positions in terms of

t1 and t2 (t2 > t1 ).

c Hence, show that the plane is travelling along a straight line and state a position vector

parallel to the flight.

d A road on the ground is defined by the vector r1 (s) = si, s ≤ 0.

i Find the magnitude of the acute angle between the path of the plane and the road,

correct to two decimal places.

ii Hence, or otherwise, find the shortest distance from the plane to the road six

seconds after take-off, correct to two decimal places.

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20 The vector r1 (t) = (2 − t)i + (2t + 1)j represents the path of a particle with respect to

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time t measured in seconds.

a Find the cartesian equation that describes the path of the particle (assume t ≥ 0).

b i Rearrange the above function in the form r1 (t) = a + tb, where a and b are vectors.

ii Describe the vectors a and b geometrically with respect to the path of the particle.

c A second particle which started at the same time as the first particle travels along a

path that is represented by r2 (t) = c + t (2i + j), t ≥ 0. The particles collide after

5 seconds.

i Find c. ii Find the distance between the two starting points.

21 The paths of two aeroplanes in an aerial display are simultaneously defined by the vectors:

r1 (t) = (16 − 3t)i + tj + (3 + 2t)k

and r2 (t) = (3 + 2t)i + (1 + t)j + (11 − t)k

where t represents the time in minutes. Find:

a the position of the first plane after one minute

b the unit vectors parallel to the flights of each of the two planes

c the acute angle between their lines of flight, correct to two decimal places

d the point at which their two paths cross

e the vector which represents the displacement between the two planes after t seconds

f the shortest distance between the two planes during their flight.

22 A hiker starts from a point defined by the position vector −7i + 2j and travels at the rate

of 6 km/h along a line parallel to the vector 4i + 3j. The units in the frame of reference are

in kilometres.

a Find the vector which represents the displacement of the hiker in one hour.

b Find, in terms of position vectors, the position of the hiker after:

i 1 hour ii 2 hours iii t hours.

c The path of a cyclist along a straight road is defined simultaneously by the vector

equation b(t) = (7t − 4)i + (9t − 1)j.

i Find the position of the hiker when she reaches the road.

ii Find the time taken by the hiker to reach the road.

iii Find, in terms of t, the distance between the hiker and the rider t seconds after the

start.

iv Find the shortest distance between the hiker and the rider, correct to two decimal

places.

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