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Jeans ________________ (invent) in the United States by Levi Strauss in 1872.

Jeans
________________ (be) a type of pants made from heavy, strong cotton material called denim.
In the late 1800s, they ________________ (wear) by workers.
The word 'jeans' ________________ (come) from the French name of the city in Italy where a
strong cotton fabric ________________ (make). The Italian city's name, Genoa,
________________ (spell) 'jene' in Middle English and 'Gênes' in the French language. In the
1950s, jeans ________________ (become) a popular fashion for teenagers and young adults.
Today Jeans ________________ (wear) in many countries around the world and they
________________ (make) in many styles and colours. Now, jeans ________________ (be) a
very popular type of pants. Historic brands ________________ (include) Levi's, Lee and
Wrangler. Jeans ________________ (come) in various types. Lately, a new range of snowboard-
related jeans ________________ (be) introduced by Levis. Jeans ________________ (be) the
symbol of American cultural influence in the world.

Animated movies __________(change) a lot over the last 100 years. Winsor McCay _________
(consider) the father of animation. In the early 1900s, McCay ________ (animate) his films by
himself. He _______ (drew) every picture separately and had them photographed, one at a time.
Hundreds of photographs ________ (need) to make a one-minute film. Sometimes it would take
him more than a year to make a five-minute cartoon. In 1914, the development of celluloid (a
transparent material) _______ (make) animation easier. Instead of drawing each picture
separately, the animator could make a drawing of the background, which remained motionless,
while only the characters moved. Walt Disney _______ (take) animation to a new level. He
______ (create) Mickey Mouse, ______ (add) sound and music to his movies, and ______
(produce) the first full-length animated film, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. Many people
think he was a great cartoonist, but he wasn’t. Instead, he was a great story editor and clever
businessman who had other artists do most of the drawings. Today most animated films _______
(not draw) by hand. The animation _______ (do) by computer software. Also special effects for
movies, such as Star Wars, _______ (do) by computer animation. To create the illusion of
movement, an image _______ (put) on the computer and then quickly replaced by a similar
image with a small change. While this technique is similar to hand-drawn animation, the work
________ (can do) much faster by computer. In fact, anyone with a home computer and special
software can create a simple animation.