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TS40 Control Valve Selection for

Multi-Phase Flows

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Contents

 Contents TS40.1 Nomenclature 2 TS40 Control Valve Selection for Multi-Phase Fluid Flows 3 4 TS40.2 Multi-phase Flow Valve Sizing Procedure 5 TS40.3 Process/Application Data Requirements 6 TS41 Multi-phase Sizing 7 TS41.1.1 Introduction 7 TS41.1.2Definition of Multi-phase Parameters 8 TS41.2.1Multi-phase Sizing Equations 9

TS42 Multi-phase Velocity

15

 TS42.1 Introduction 15 TS42.1 Factors Influencing Velocity Limitations 15 TS42.2 Basis of Velocity Calculations 16 TS42.3 Procedure 17

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TS40 Control Valve Selection for Multi-Phase Fluid Flows

Selection of a control valve for a multi-phase flow application involves a number of factors, which should be considered in a logical sequence. This section of the Technical Manual provides the information necessary to consider these factors, which include C V calculation, fluid velocity and noise level prediction. It is important to note that omission of these aspects could lead to incorrect selection of a control valve for a particular application.

It should be noted that the process of sizing multi-phase fluids is extremely complicated involving phase transfer of energy.

The process and application information necessary to fully specify the size and type of valve required is detailed, together with a flow chart indicating the sequence of steps involved.

The C V calculation includes consideration of the various flow regimes.

To ensure correct selection of valve size and to maximise operational life, fluid velocity calculations and limitations are detailed for the various flow regimes.

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Nomenclature

Unit

C V

K V

C f

d

D

P 1

P 2

P

P

sl

P l(limit)

P

sg

P g(limit)

 Description Imp Valve Flow Coefficient U.S. units Valve Flow Coefficient S.I. units Valve Pressure Recovery Factor - Valve Bore Size inches Pipe Bore Size inches Upstream Pressure p.s.i.a. Downstream Pressure Pressure Drop across Valve p.s.i. p.s.i.a. Sizing Pressure Drop for Liquid Phasep.s.i. Limiting Pressure Drop for Critical Flow of liquid phase p.s.i. Sizing Pressure Drop for Gas Phase p.s.i. Limiting Pressure Drop for Critical Flow of gas phase p.s.i.

P sg(dissolved) Sizing Pressure Drop for dissolved vapour p.s.i.

T 1

Q L

W L

Q g(ref) Volume Flow Rate of gas phase

Inlet Temperature

Volume Flow Rate of liquid phase Mass Flow Rate of liquid phase

°F

S ft 3 /hr

U.S.gall./min

lb/hr

 Wg Mass Flow Rate of gas phase X Gas/vapour fraction (W g /W tot ) X V Gas/vapour fraction (Q g /Q tot )

-

K Expansion correction factor gas phase-

G Specific Gravity

M W

Molecular Weight of gas/vapour phase

 F K γ/1.4 (γ=ratio of specific heats) Z Compressibility factor for gas/vapour Vg Gas/vapour phase Fluid Velocity V L Liquid phase Fluid Velocity

-

ft/sec

lb/hr

-

-

-

-

ft/sec

SPL Sound Pressure Level

B Liquid noise efficiency term

H 1

Z 1

Liquid noise trim style correction

Liquid noise bulk flow factor

-

-

dBA

dB

 X Pressure Coefficient gas noise Y Pressure Ratio Coefficient gas noise Zg Gas flow bulk noise factor Hg Trim style attenuation factor T Valve opening reduction Subscripts 1 Upstream 2 Downstream g refers to gas/vapour phase l refers to liquid stage Tot or TOT Total Dissolved refers to dissolved gas s sizing a void fraction A flow area

-

-

dB

-

dB

 SI U.S. units S.I. units - mm mm BarA BarA BarA Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar °C m 3 /hr kg/hr Nm 3 /hr kg/hr - - - - - - - m/sec m/sec dBA - dB - - - - dB dB

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Multi-phase Flow Valve Sizing Procedure

The following flowchart details the overall sequence of steps used during the sizing and selection of a control valve for a multi phase flow application. For individual consideration of multi-phase sizing, multi-phase velocity and multi phase noise prediction, reference should be made to Sections TS41, TS42 and TS43 respectively.

START
Select Trim Style* (single stage)
* Usually preferred due to interstage erosion
problems on multiphase liquids
Convert flowrates to flow by weight
Determine gas/vapour fraction
Is dissolved gas content
known
Yes
Determine the CV (use 2 term equation) No
Determine the CV (use 3 term equation)
Select Design CV and Valve Size
Determine C f value at valve opening
Re-calculate CV using appropriate equations
N
Is Design CV OK?
Calculate Flow Velocities
N
Yes
Is Velocity OK?
Select Design CV & Valve Size
Yes
Calculate Sound Pressure Level
N
Select Different Trim Style
Is SPL OK
Yes
END

Process/Application Data Requirements

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The information required to fully specify the size and type of valve for multi-phase service applications can be broken down into different categories. For valve sizing and selection, this information can be classified as essential, preferred or additional. The following chart categorises the information required into these three areas. The information presented here relates to valve selection only, for actuator selection refer to TS8O.

 Process Units Flow Units - Temp Units - Flow Condition Max Normal Minimum 1 Quantity 2 Line Fluid 3 Liquid Phase Flow Rate Gas/vapour Phase Flow Rate 4 Inlet 5 Pressures Outlet 6 P 7 Temp. at Inlet 8 SpecificGravity/Molecular Weight M W 9 Compressibility Factor, Z 10 Vapour Pressure/Ratio of Specific Heats, γ 11 Critical Pressure 12 DP Actuator Sizing 13 Design Press./Temp. 14 Line Size In/Out/Sch. 15 16 Predicted SPL (dBA) 17 Calculated Cv 18 19 Valve Size C.M. Trim 20 Body Form Design CV 21 Catalogue No. 22 End Conns. Style Rating 23 Rated Press. Temp. 24 Body Material 25 No of Seats Design 26 Trim Type Rings 27 Char’s Flow Dir 28 Material 29 Type of Bonnet 30 Packing Lub. /Lub No 31 Max. Leakage 32 Stem Dia Valve Duty
 Absolute minimum flow information (essential) Information required for full analysis (preferred) Additional design information Full valve specification

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TS41

Multi-phase Sizing

Introduction

When two phases, one incompressible and the other compressible flow together ma pipe, a number of different flow patterns may exist, such as bubble, mist, annular and slug flow. Therefore the prediction of the behaviour of the two-phase flow is very complicated. In contrast to single component flows, for which relatively simple flow equations can be derived, the flow equations for two component flows are very complicated and cannot be applied directly to the valve sizing problem. The complexity of the equations is attributable to the fact that the flow cannot be assumed to be homogeneous or in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium.

Valve manufacturers have relied heavily on the limited data available for two-phase flows through valves or flow restrictions such as orifice plates. This information is limited to certain flow conditions and even then has a high level of uncertainty.

Experimental data for such flows is in general for low pressures. In applying this to a valve sizing technique the data has to be scaled to high pressure applications. In a single-phase flow this is a relatively simple task, however, in a multi-component flow this is extremely difficult and leads to greater inaccuracies.

Introl in conjunction with a major oil company, have developed the multi-phase sizing procedure presented here. The procedure has been proven by numerous flow tests and field data, and has shown to be a reliable engineering tool for selecting control valves operating on multi-phase flow applications.

Definition of Multi-phase Parameters

Gas Fraction

This is the ratio of the gas/vapour phase mass flow rate to the total two-phase mass flow rate.

X =

Slip Ratio

W

W TOT

When a two-phase fluid flows along a pipe the velocity of each phase will be different. The slip ratio is the ratio of the gas/vapour phase velocity to the liquid phase velocity.

S =

u

g

u

t

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Void Fraction

This is the ratio of the cross-sectional area of the gas phase to the cross-sectional area of the pipe.

a =

A

g

A

Gas Oil Ratio (GOR)

Used to quantify the amount of gas in relation to the amount of oil. GOR is the number of Sft 3 of gas per barrel of oil.

Gas Solution Ratio, Rs

Quantifies the amount of gas dissolved in a liquid, i.e. the number of Nm 3 /hr of gas per m 3 /hr of liquid.

Multi-phase Sizing Equations

a) Gas/Vapour Fraction

The valve sizing equations for multi-phase flows are presented for simplicity, in terms of a total mass flow rate and a gas/vapour fraction. In the event of flow rates being presented in volumetric units then the first stage in the multi-phase calculation procedure is to convert volume flows into mass flow rates.

Convert to flow by weight

IMPERIAL

USGPM to lb/hr

W

l

= 501× G × Q

l

ft 3 /hr to lb/hr

ft 3 /hr to lb/hr

W

l

= 62.43 × G × Q

W

g

=

P M

1

W

Z

×

10.72

×

(460

+

T

1

)

S. ft 3 /hr to lb/hr

× Q

g

W

g

= 0.0028 × M

W

× Q

gl

METRIC

m 3 to kg/hr

W

l

= 1000 × G × Q

l

m 3 to kg/hr

W

g

=

P

1

5

× 10 ×

M

W

Z

×

8314

×

(273

+

T

1

)

Nm 3 /hr to kg/hr

W

g

= 0.0044 × M

W

× Q

gl

× Q

g

l

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Calculate the mass flow rate

W TOT

= W + W

l

g

Calculate gas/vapour pressure

X =

W

g

W TOT

b) Sizing Pressure Drop for Liquid Phase

Calculate supercooled vapour pressure
P
V
=
P
0.96
028
P VC
V
P
C

Determine the limiting liquid phase pressure drop

corresponding to the occurrence of critical flow. Refer to

Table 41.1 for values of Cr

p = C P P

lim it

f

1

V

2

(

)

Set the liquid phase sizing pressure drop, psl. If the pressure drop across the valve is less than the limiting pressure drop then the liquid phase is normal and

∆ =∆

p

Sl

p

If the pressure drop across the valve is greater than the

limiting pressure drop, then the liquid phase is critical

and

∆ =∆

p

Sl

p

l

lim

it

c) Sizing Pressure Drop for Gas/Vapour Phase

Calculate limiting pressure drop for gas vapour phase

p

g

lim

it

=

2
C
f
K

F RP

1

where

and

C

f

= 1.33 × C

R = 0.47

f

Refer to Table 41.1 for values of C f or the valve opening is known Figure 41.2.

Set the sizing pressure drop for gas/vapour phase.

If the pressure drop across the valve is less than or equal to the limiting pressure drop the gas/vapour phase is normal and

∆ =∆

p

Sg

p

If the pressure drop is greater than the limiting pressure drop then the gas/vapour phase is critical and

∆ =∆

p

Sg

p

g

lim

it

d) Calculate Phase Specific Volumes

 Liquid Phase IMPERIAL 0.016 ν l = G METRIC 0.001 ν l = G

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 Gas/vapour Phase IMPERIAL = Z × 10.72 × ( 460 + T ) ν g M W × P 1 METRIC = Z × 8314 × ( 273 + T ) ν g M W × P 1

e) Calculate the Expansion Correction Factor

K = −

1

p

2
C P
f
1

where

γ =− 

0.65

F

K

0.92

γ

or refer to Figure 41.1

f) Calculate Valve Flow Coefficient – Two Phase

 IMPERIAL Cv = 0.0159 × W TOT 2 XK ν ( 1 − X ) ν g l + ∆ p ∆ p sg sl METRIC Cv = 0.0368 × W TOT 2 XK ν ( 1 − X ) ν g l + ∆ p ∆ p sg sl

g) Calculate Valve Flow Coefficient - Three Phase

On many choke applications there is a combination of oil, vapour and water in the flowing media. In such a case, the differences in the liquids specific gravity and the limiting pressure drops must be accounted for in the sizing procedure. The previous two-term equation has been modified so that the sizing pressure drop can be calculated for each liquid phase.

Water phase

The water phase sizing pressure drop is pslw and pslo should be calculated using the equations presented in (b) of this procedure using the water fluid properties.

X lw is the fraction of water present by weight, i.e.

X =

W lw

W TOT

Oil phase

The oil phase sizing pressure drop is pslo and should be calculated using the procedure presented in (b) using the liquid hydrocarbon (oil) fluid properties.

X lo is the fraction of oil present by weight, i.e.

X

lw

=

W lw

W TOT

The sizing equations are:-

IMPERIAL

Cv

=

0.0159

×

W

TOT

2
XK
ν
X
ν
X
ν
g
lo lo
lw lw
+
+
p
p
p
sg
slo
slw

METRIC

Cv

=

0.0368

×

W

TOT

2
XK
ν
X
ν
X
ν
g
lo lo
lw lw
+
+
p
p
p
sg
slo
slw

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h) Calculate Valve Flow Coefficient - Gas Solution Ratio Known (Dissolved Gas Content)

If the gas solution ratio is known this means that the amount of dissolved gas within the liquid phase can be calculated. This dissolved gas will come out of solution as the fluid flows through the valve. The effect of this on the sizing can be taken into account by utilizing the procedure detailed below. This will lead to more a accurate calculation of the flow coefficient.

X free is the free gas content by weight

X dissolved is the dissolved gas content by weight

The sizing pressure drop for the dissolved gas can be determined from the equation below.

p

sg

(

dissolved

)

=

2

C P

f

1

P
1
0.96
028
P
C

The sizing equation becomes:

IMPERIAL
2
X
K
ν
X
ν
X
ν
X
ν
free
g
lo
lo
lw lw
dissolved lo
Cv
=
0.0159
×
W
+
+
+
TOT
p
p
p
p
sg
slo
slw
sg dissolved
(
)
METRIC
2
X
K
ν
X
ν
X
ν
X
ν
free
g
lo lo
lw lw
dissolved lo
Cv
=
0.0368
×
W
+
+
+
TOT
p
p
p
p
sg
slo
slw
sg dissolved
(
)
Note: The sizing pressure drops ∆ and
p
∆p
lo
slw

should be calculated using the procedure shown on TS41.2.1 and using the respective fluid properties.

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 Table 41.1 Valve Pressure Recovery and Incipient Cavitation Coefficients Valve Type Trim Style Trim Size Flow Direction C f K 1 Microspline All sizes Over 0.95 0.95 Under 0.9 0.8 Contoured Full Over 0.85 0.81 Series 10 Under 0.9 0.8 Reduced Over 0.8 0.82 Ported All sizes Over or under 0.93 0.9 HF, HFD, HFT All sizes Over or under 1 0.95 Under 0.9 0.8 Contoured Full Over 0.85 0.81 Under 0.9 0.8 Series 14 Reduced Over 0.8 0.82 Ported All sizes Over or under 0.93 0.9 HF All sizes Over or under 1 0.95 Ported Full Over or under 0.92 0.9 HF All sizes Over or under 0.97 0.95 Series 12 XHF All sizes Over or under 0.98 0.95 HFD All sizes Over or under 0.99 0.95 XHFD,HFT,XHFT All sizes Over or under 0.97 0.95 Full 0.9 0.87 Series 20 Contoured Reduced Over and under 0.8 0.84 HF, HFD, HFT All sizes Over and under 1 0.95 Series 30/31 ‘V’ Port All sizes Mixing and diverting 0.91 0.9 4 Stage All sizes Over 1* 0.95* Series 51/57 7 Stage All sizes Over 1* 0.95* <30% 0.98 0.9 Series 61/62 Vane Open Through 0.9 0.75 <30% 1** 0.9 Vane and baffle Open Through 0.98** 0.9 Under 0.9 0.8 Contoured Full Over 0.45 0.84 Under 0.95 0.8 Reduced Over 0.5 0.82 Series 70/71 Ported All sizes Over or under 0.92 0.9 HF All sizes Over or under 0.96 0.92 HFD All sizes Over or under 0.98 0.95 HFT All sizes Over or under 0.99 0.95 Ported All sizes Over or under 0.92 0.9 HF All sizes Over or under 0.96 0.92 Series 72/73/74 XHF All sizes Over or under 0.97 0.92 HFD All sizes Over or under 0.98 0.95 XHFD ,HFT, XHFT All sizes Over or under 0.99 0.95 Cylindrical All sizes Through 0.95 0.90 Fixed area Flat All sizes Through 0.92 0.90

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Figure 41.2 Valve Pressure Recovery Values for Different Valve Series as a function of Valve Openings

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TS42 Multi Phase Velocity

Introduction

In selecting a valve for a multi-phase flow application one of the major considerations is the effect of fluid velocity. High fluid velocities can lead to erosion and vibration problems. The higher velocity of the gas/vapour phase will tend to lead to an increase in the mean flow velocity of the liquid phase leading to the possibility of an erosion problem. This section covers the limitations imposed because of the possible effects of high flow velocities and includes the velocity calculation procedures for multi-phase fluids along with the recommended velocity limits.

Factors Influencing Velocity Limitations

Selection

consideration of fluid velocity which is limited for the following reasons

systems includes the

of

pipework

 1) reduction in pressure loss, 2) to reduce/eliminate vibration potential, 3) to minimise erosion damage.

A control valve is considered as a major part of the pipework system and the flow velocity is limited for similar reasons.

Although valve and piping velocity limits apply to mean inlet/outlet flow velocities, it should be noted that the flow through a control valve being highly turbulent would exhibit areas of flow velocity much higher than the mean flow velocity. Additionally, dependant on the trim configuration the flow may impinge directly onto the valve body wall. These factors, together with levels of energy dissipation, mechanical vibration response, and the material of construction influence the recommended maximum levels presented in Table 42.1. and 42.2.

Effect of Valve/Trim Style

Reference to Table 42.1 and 42.2 will reveal varying velocity limits for different valve sizes, trim styles and body material. The reasons for these changes are related to the varying flow paths through the different configurations. For example the recommended velocity levels are higher for cage guided trims because the highest flow velocities, occurring just downstream of the minimum flow area, are contained within the more erosion resistant valve trim. Additionally, in cage guided valves the high levels of energy dissipation are controlled by splitting the flow into small jets with the impingement contained within the guide.

Basis of Velocity Calculation

If the % flash is given or can be calculated then the relative velocities of the two phases, liquid and vapour, can be approximated. A measure of the different phase velocities is given by the slip ratio, s. This is the ratio of the vapour phase to the liquid phase velocity. An expression used to determine this value is shown below.

s = X

ρ

l

ρ

v

+

1

X

1

2

It is evident by examining this expression that as the % flash increases so does the slip ratio, and hence the vapour flow velocity. Furthermore, when the vapour density approaches the liquid density, s tends to 1, and the vapour velocity is almost equal to the liquid velocity.

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Procedure
a) Determine the liquid density and downstream vapour
density.
METRIC
ρ
=
G ×1000
42.1
l
5
P
×
10
×
M
ρ
2
W
=
42.2
v
2
8314
×
(
T +
273)
2
IMPERIAL
ρ
=
G × 62.43
42.3
l
P
× M
ρ
2
W
=
42.4
v
2
10.72
×
(
T +
460)
2
b) Determine the slip ratio.
1
ρ v
c) Calculate the liquid and vapour phase mass flow rate.
= X × W
W V
42.06
TOT
= 1 − X × W
(
)
W l
42.07
TOT
d) Calculate the downstream vapour and liquid phase
volume flow rates.
W
W
42.08
ρ V
ρ l
2
e) the
Calculate
downstream
vapour
volume
ratio
where:
Q
V 2
X
=
42.09
v
Q TOT
Q
= Q
2 + Q
TOT
V
l

Table 42.1 Recommended Maximum Velocities for Liquid Service

f) Determine the void fraction and phase flow areas.

a =

X V

Liquid phase flow area

A l

= (1 a ) A

tot

Vapour phase flow area

A V

= aA

tot

42.10

42.11

42.12

Note: use the correct area units in the above equations i.e. m 2 for METIC or ft 2 for IMPERIAL

g) Determine the liquid phase flow velocity.

A

l

Q l

× 3600

h) Determine the vapour phase flow velocity.

A

Q

V × 3600

i) Check that the phase velocities do not exceed their recommended maximum levels, see Table 42.1. The vapour phase flow velocity should not exceed 253m/s (830 ft/sec) or 0.3 Mach. For the complete set of velocity limits for gas/vapour flows refer to Table 42.2.

In the case that the % flash cannot be determined then the

valve size is selected based upon the design C V and

making reference to the line size.

s = X

ρ l

1

+ − X

2

42.05

Q V

2 =

V

Q l =

l

(

X V

+

( 1 X

V

)s )

V

l

=

42.13

V V

=

V 2

42.14

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 Valve Type Valve Rating Trim Style Valve Size Maximum Velocity Carbon Steel Alloy Steel Bronze, Cu/Ni Alloys in mm ft/s m/s ft/s m/s ft/s m/s 0.5-2 15-50 41 12.5 46 14 25 7.6 3-6 80-150 34 10.4 34 10.4 20 6.2 Series All Contoured 8-14 200-350 29 8.9 29 8.9 17 5.2 10/14/20 16-18 400-450 22 6.7 22 6.7 13 4 20 500 18 5.5 18 5.5 11 3.4 24 600 12 3.7 12 3.7 7 2.1 Ported + HF family 1-12 25-300 43 13.1 52 15.8 26 7.9 All 14-20 350-500 35 10.7 43 13.1 21 6.4 24 600 25 7.6 35 10.7 15 4.6 Ported + HF family 1-12 25-300 43 (60) 13.1 (18.3) 52 (70) 15.8 (21.3) 26 (35) 7.9 (10.7) Series 12/51 All 14-20 350-500 35 (50) 10.7 (15.2) 43 (60) 13.1 (18.3) 21 (30) 6.4 (9.1) 24 600 25 (35) 7.6 (10.7) 35 (50) 10.7 (15.2) 15 (21) 4.6 6.4) Up to and including ANSI 600 1-2 25-50 31 9.5 35 10.7 19 5.8 Series 30/31 "V" Port 3-6 80-150 26 8 26 8 16 4.9 8-12 200-300 19 5.8 19 5.8 11 3.4 Up to and including ANSI 300 4-12 100-300 25 7.6 25 7.6 15 4.6 Series 61/62 Vane 14-24 350-600 15 4.6 15 4.6 9 2.7 >24 >600 10 3 10 3 6 1.8 Series 70/71 All Contoured All sizes All sizes Refer to Series 10 velocity limits Series Ported + HF family 1-12 25-300 48 (65) 14.6 (19.8) 57 (75) 17.4 (22.9) 29 (39) 8.8 (11.9) 70/71/72 All 14-20 350-500 40 (55) 12.2 (16.8) 48 (65) 14.6 (19.8) 24 (29) 7.3 (8.8) 73/74/57 24 600 30 (42) 9.1 (12.8) 40 (55) 12.2 (16.8) 18 (25) 5.5 (7.6)
 TABLE 42.2. Recommended Maximum Velocities for Gas/Vapour Valve Valve Trim Maximum Inlet Maximum Outlet Max. Outlet Mach no. for Type Rating Style Valve Size Velocity Velocity Required Noise Level in mm ft/s rn/s ft/s rn/s >95 dBA <95 dBA <85 dBA 0.5-2 15-50 340 104 Up to and 3-6 80-150 295 90 including Contoured 8-14 200-350 265 81 Series ANSI 600 16-18 400-450 190 58 10//14/20 20 500 150 46 830 253 0.65 0.5 0.3 24 600 115 35 1-12 25-300 All Ported + 14-20 350-500 475 144 HF family 24 600 1-12 25-300 Series 12 All Ported + 14-20 350-500 475 144 830 253 0.65 0.5 0.3 HF family 24 600 (1150) (350) (0.9) (0.7) (0.4) Up to and 1-2 25-50 226 78 Series 30/31 including ‘V’ Port 3-6 80-150 220 67 640 195 0.65 0.5 0.3 ANSI 600 8-12 200-300 200 61 Up to and 4-12 100-300 200 61 Series 61/62 including Vane 14-24 350-600 100 30 350 107 0.65 0.5 0.3 ANSI 300 >24 >600 80 24 Refer to Series 10 Series 70/71 All Contoured All sizes velocity limits Sonic 0.65 0.5 0.3 1-12 25-300 Series 70/71 All Ported + 14-20 350-500 475 144 Sonic 0.65 0.5 0.3 72/73 HF family 24 600 (0.9) (0.7) (0.4)