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Focus on Grammar 4

Grammar Chart Transparencies


The purpose of the grammar charts is to help students notice the form of the structure, to pre-teach some of
the grammar notes that follow, and to familiarize students with grammar terminology.The Focus on Grammar
(FOG) transparencies give instructors a tool to more effectively engage students in class as they tackle a new
grammar point together.

Here are some suggestions for using the transparencies.

 Ask questions that will help students become aware of the form of the structure. For example, for
present and future unreal conditionals (FOG 4, Unit 23, page 338), read the statement,“If Mia had money,
she would live in a palace,“ and ask the class to name the verb in the if clause. (Had.) Ask students what
form it is. (The simple past form.) Ask students if the meaning is in the past. (No.) Ask the class to name the
verb in the result clause. (Live.) Ask students what form it is. (The base form.) Ask students what “base form”
means. (The simple form without an ending.)
 Have students use the examples in the charts to practice the form. In the simple past and past pro-
gressive unit (FOG 4, Unit 2, page 11), you might ask students to look at the examples in the chart and
change the affirmative statements to negative ones. (Marie studied at the Sorbonne. → Marie didn’t study
at the Sorbonne.)
 Use the charts with Grammar in Context. Ask students to look at Grammar in Context and find examples
that illustrate the points in the grammar charts. Students can also use the grammar terms in the charts to
label items in Grammar in Context.
 Compare charts. For example, compare the past perfect and past perfect progressive (FOG 4, Unit 4,
pages 29–31). Ask, “Do you use had (not) in statements with both the past perfect and past perfect pro-
gressive?” (Yes, but past perfect progressive uses been after had (not).) Ask,“Do you use the base form with
wh- questions with both the past perfect and past perfect progressive?”(No.The past perfect uses the past
participle.The past perfect progressive uses been + base form + -ing.)
 Help students understand grammar terminology through the use of the charts. All Focus on Grammar
charts are clearly labeled. (Affirmative/Negative, Yes/No Questions, Wh- Questions, Subject, Base Form,
Subject Pronoun, Object Pronoun, etc.) Ask questions to make certain students understand what the
labels mean.
 Use the charts to practice items from a list. For example, in FOG 4, Unit 15, page 228, students could
practice the modals by making up sentences about themselves and classmates. Instead of “You should not
watch this TV show,” they could say,“I should not eat so much junk food,”“I ought to go to museums more
often,”“I had better study for my English test.” etc.
● Ask students to provide personal examples. For example, Unit 23, page 338 of FOG 4, says,“If Mia had
money, she would live in a palace.” Ask students to say what they would do if they had the money to do it.
(“If I had money, I would buy a new car.”)

Guidelines provided by Irene E. Schoenberg

Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Grammar Presentation

SIMPLE PRESENT PRESENT PROGRESSIVE

Affirmative Statements Affirmative Statements


They live in Mexico. Now, they’re living in Mexico.
She always works here. She’s working here today.

Negative Statements Negative Statements


They don’t live in Mexico. They aren’t living in Mexico now.
She doesn’t work here. She isn’t working here now.

Yes / No Questions Yes / No Questions


Do they live in Mexico? Are they living in Mexico now?
Does she work here? Is she working here now?

Short Answers Short Answers


Yes, they do. Yes, they are.
Yes, she does. Yes, she is.
No, they don’t. No, they aren’t.
No, she doesn’t. No, she isn’t.

Wh- Questions Wh- Questions


Where do they live? Where are they living these days?
Why does she work so hard? Why is she working so hard?

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 1 Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Grammar Presentation

SIMPLE PAST PAST PROGRESSIVE

Affirmative Statements Affirmative Statements


Marie studied at the Sorbonne. She was studying at the Sorbonne in 1892.

Negative Statements Negative Statements


Lois didn’t plan to marry Clark at first. She wasn’t planning to get married.

Yes / No Questions Short Answers Yes / No Questions Short Answers


Yes, he did. Yes, he was.
Did he teach? Was he doing research?
No, he didn’t. No, he wasn’t.

Wh- Questions Wh- Questions


Where did they practice? Where were they practicing?

Simple Past and Simple Past Past Progressive and Past Progressive
We won when we skated there. We were winning while we were skating there.

Simple Past and Past Progressive Past Progressive and Simple Past
She met him while she was studying. She was studying when she met him.

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 2 Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Grammar Presentation

PRESENT PERFECT
SIMPLE PAST PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE

Affirmative Statements Affirmative Statements


I built a website last month. I’ve built a website.
I’ve been building a website this month.

Negative Statements Negative Statements


She didn’t write last week. She hasn’t written many letters.
She hasn’t been writing lately.

Yes / No Questions Short Answers Yes / No Questions Short Answers


Yes, he did. Has he moved? Yes, he has.
Did he move?
No, he didn’t. Has he been living in Perth? No, he hasn’t.

Wh- Questions Wh- Questions


Where did he work? Where has he worked?
Where has he been working?

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 3 Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Grammar Presentation

PAST PERFECT

Statements Contractions
Subject Had (not) Past Participle I had = I’d
I you had = you’d
You he had = he’d
He she had = she’d
She received we had = we’d
had (not) awards. they had = they’d
It gotten
We had not = hadn’t
You
They

Yes / No Questions
Had Subject Past Participle
I
you
he
she received
Had awards by then?
it gotten
we
you
they

Short Answers
Affirmative Negative
you you
I I
he he
she she
Yes, had. No, hadn’t.
it it
we we
you you
they they

Wh- Questions
Wh- Word Had Subject Past Participle
When had he received awards?

(continued)
Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 4 Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE
Statements
Subject Had (not) been Base Form + -ing
I
You
He
She
had (not) been working regularly.
It
We
You
They

Yes / No Questions
Had Subject Been + Base Form + -ing
I
you
he
she
Had been working regularly?
it
we
you
they

Short Answers
Affirmative Negative
you you
I I
he he
she she
Yes, had. No, hadn’t.
it it
we we
you you
they they

Wh- Questions
Wh- Word Had Subject Been + Base Form + -ing
How long had he been working?

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 4 Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Grammar Presentation

FUTURE

Affirmative Statements Negative Statements


We are going to leave We are not going to leave
We will leave We will not leave
for Mars soon. for Mars yet.
We are leaving We are not leaving
We leave We don’t leave

Yes / No Questions Short Answers


Affirmative Negative
Is she going to leave she is. she isn’t.
Will she leave she will. she won’t.
for Mars soon? Yes, No,
Is she leaving she is. she isn’t.
Does she leave she does. she doesn’t.

Wh- Questions
When is she going to leave
When will she leave
for Mars?
When is she leaving
When does she leave

(continued)
Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 5 Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
FUTURE PROGRESSIVE

Statements
Be (not) going to /
Subject Will (not) Be + Base Form + -ing
are (not) going to
People be living on Mars by 2050.
will (not)

Yes / No Questions
Be / Will Subject Going to Be + Base Form + -ing
Are they going to
be living on Mars by then?
Will you

Short Answers
Affirmative Negative
they are. they’re not.
Yes, No,
I will. I won’t.

Wh- Questions
Wh- Word Be / Will Subject Going to Be + Base Form + -ing
are they going to
When be living on Mars?
will you

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 5 Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Grammar Presentation

FUTURE PERFECT

Statements
Subject Will (not) Have + Past Participle
I
You
He
She will (not) have earned interest by then.
It
We
They

Yes / No Questions
Will Subject Have + Past Participle
I
you
he
Will she have earned interest by then?
it
we
they

Short Answers
Affirmative Negative
you you
I I
he he
Yes, she will (have). No, she won’t (have).
it it
we we
they they

Wh- Questions
Wh- Word Will Subject Have + Past Participle
How much will she have earned by then?

(continued)
Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 6 Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE

Statements
Subject Will (not) Have been + Base Form + -ing
I
You
He
She will (not) have been earning interest for a month.
It
We
They

Yes / No Questions
Will Subject Have been + Base Form + -ing
I
you
he
Will she have been earning interest for a month?
it
we
they

Short Answers
Affirmative Negative
you you
I I
he he
Yes, she will (have). No, she won’t (have).
it it
we we
they they

Wh- Questions
Wh- Word Will Subject Have been + Base Form + -ing
How long will she have been earning interest?

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 6 Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Grammar Presentation

NEGATIVE YES / NO QUESTIONS


WITH BE AS THE MAIN VERB
Questions Short Answers
Be + Not + Subject Affirmative Negative
Aren’t you from Rio de Janeiro? Yes, I am. No, I’m not.

WITH ALL AUXILIARY VERBS EXCEPT DO


Questions Short Answers
Auxiliary + Not + Subject + Verb Affirmative Negative
Aren’t you moving? I am. I’m not.
Hasn’t he been here before? Yes, he has. No, he hasn’t.
Can’t they move tomorrow? they can. they can’t.

WITH DO AS THE AUXILIARY VERB


Questions Short Answers
Do + Not + Subject + Verb Affirmative Negative
Doesn’t he live here? he does. he doesn’t.
Yes, No,
Didn’t they move last year? they did. they didn’t.

(continued)
Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 7 Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
TAG QUESTIONS
WITH BE AS THE MAIN VERB
Affirmative Statement Negative Tag
Subject + Be Be + Not + Subject
You’re from Rio, aren’t you?

Negative Statement Affirmative Tag


Subject + Be + Not Be + Subject
You’re not from Rio, are you?

WITH ALL AUXILIARY VERBS EXCEPT DO


Affirmative Statement Negative Tag
Subject + Auxiliary Auxiliary + Not + Subject
You’re moving, aren’t you?
He’s been here before, hasn’t he?
They can move tomorrow, can’t they?

Negative Statement Affirmative Tag


Subject + Auxiliary + Not Auxiliary + Subject
You’re not moving, are you?
He hasn’t been here before, has he?
They can’t move tomorrow, can they?

WITH DO AS AN AUXILIARY VERB


Affirmative Statement Negative Tag
Subject + Verb Do + Not + Subject
He lives here, doesn’t he?
They moved last year, didn’t they?

Negative Statement Affirmative Tag


Subject + Do + Not + Verb Do + Subject
He doesn’t live here, does he?
They didn’t move, did they?

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 7 Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Grammar Presentation

SIMILARITY: AND + SO, TOO, NEITHER, NOT EITHER


WITH BE AS THE MAIN VERB
Affirmative Negative
And + So + And + Neither +
Subject + Be Be + Subject Subject + Be + Not Be + Subject
Amy is a twin, and so is Sue. Amy isn’t very tall, and neither is Sue.

Affirmative Negative
And + Subject + And + Subject +
Subject + Be Be + Too Subject + Be + Not Be + Not either
Amy is a twin, and Sue is too. Amy isn’t very tall, and Sue isn’t either.

WITH ALL AUXILIARY VERBS EXCEPT DO


Affirmative Negative
And + So + Subject + And + Neither +
Subject + Auxiliary Auxiliary + Subject Auxiliary + Not Auxiliary + Subject
Amy has had two sons, and so has Sue. Amy can’t ski, and neither can Sue.

Affirmative Negative
And + Subject + Subject + And + Subject +
Subject + Auxiliary Auxiliary + Too Auxiliary + Not Auxiliary + Not either
Amy has had two sons, and Sue has too. Amy can’t ski, and Sue can’t either.

WITH DO AS THE AUXILIARY VERB


Affirmative Negative
And + So + Subject + And + Neither +
Subject + Verb Do + Subject Do + Not + Verb Do + Subject
Amy likes dogs, and so does Sue. Amy doesn’t like cats, and neither does Sue.

Affirmative Negative
And + Subject + Subject + And + Subject +
Subject + Verb Do + Too Do + Not + Verb Do + Not + Either
Amy likes dogs, and Sue does too. Amy doesn’t like cats, and Sue doesn’t either.

(continued)
Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 8 Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
CONTRAST: BUT
WITH BE AS THE MAIN VERB
Affirmative Negative Negative Affirmative
Subject + Be But + Subject + Be + Not Subject + Be + Not But + Subject + Be
Amy is outgoing, but Sue isn’t. Amy isn’t quiet, but Sue is.

WITH ALL AUXILIARY VERBS EXCEPT DO


Affirmative Negative Negative Affirmative
But + Subject + Subject + But + Subject +
Subject + Auxiliary Auxiliary + Not Auxiliary + Not Auxiliary
Amy has traveled, but Sue hasn’t. Amy couldn’t swim, but Sue could.

WITH DO AS THE AUXILIARY VERB


Affirmative Negative Negative Affirmative
Subject + Verb But + Subject + Do + Not Subject + Do + Not But + Subject + Do
Amy lives here, but Sue doesn’t. Amy doesn’t drive, but Sue does.

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 8 Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Grammar Presentation

GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES

Gerunds Infinitives
Eating fast foods is convenient. It’s convenient to eat fast foods.
They recommend reducing fats in the food. They plan to reduce fats in the food.
She started buying McBreakfast every day. She started to buy McBreakfast every day.
We’re tired of reading calorie counts. We were surprised to read the number of calories.
I didn’t like his ordering fries. I urged him to order fries.
It’s time to eat.

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 9 Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Grammar Presentation

MAKE, HAVE, LET, HELP, AND GET

Make, Have, Let, Help


Subject Make / Have / Let / Help Object Base Form
make
have them
They (don’t) learn tricks.
let animals
help*

* Help can also be followed by the infinitive.

Get
Subject Get Object Infinitive
them
They (don’t) get to learn tricks.
animals

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 10 Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Grammar Presentation

PHRASAL VERBS: REVIEW


TRANSITIVE PHRASAL VERBS
Not Separated
Subject Verb Particle Direct Object

She called in a consultant.


He figured out the problem.

Separated
Subject Verb Direct Object Particle
a consultant
called in.
She him
He the problem
figured out.
it

INTRANSITIVE PHRASAL VERBS


Not Separated
Subject Verb Particle

They came back quickly.


It caught on everywhere.

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 11 Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Grammar Presentation

PHRASAL VERBS: SEPARABLE AND INSEPARABLE

Separable Transitive Separable Transitive


Subject Verb Particle Direct Object Subject Verb Direct Object Particle
She picked up the phone. the phone
She picked up.
it

Inseparable Transitive
Subject Verb Particle Direct Object
your calls.
He counts on
them.

Intransitive
Subject Verb Particle
They sat down.

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 12 Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Grammar Presentation

ADJECTIVE CLAUSES WITH SUBJECT RELATIVE PRONOUNS


ADJECTIVE CLAUSES AFTER THE MAIN CLAUSE
Main Clause Adjective Clause
Predicate Subject
Noun/ Relative
Subject Verb Pronoun Pronoun Verb

I read a book that discusses friends.

A friend is someone who knows you well.

Whose + Noun

I have a friend whose home is in Boston.

ADJECTIVE CLAUSES INSIDE THE MAIN CLAUSE


Main Clause Adjective Clause Main Clause (cont.)
Subject Subject
Noun/ Relative
Pronoun Pronoun Verb Verb

The book that discusses friends is by Ruben.

Someone who knows you can give you advice.

Whose + Noun

My friend whose sister writes books lives in Boston.

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 13 Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Grammar Presentation

ADJECTIVE CLAUSES WITH OBJECT RELATIVE PRONOUNS


OR WHEN AND WHERE
ADJECTIVE CLAUSES AFTER THE MAIN CLAUSE
Main Clause Adjective Clause
Predicate (Object
Subject Verb Noun / Pronoun Relative Pronoun) Subject Verb

He read the book (that) she wrote.

She is someone (who[m]) I respect.

Whose + Noun

That is the author whose book I read.

Where / (When)

She loves the city where she grew up.

They cried the day (when) they left.

ADJECTIVE CLAUSES INSIDE THE MAIN CLAUSE


Main Clause Adjective Clause Main Clause (cont.)
(Object Relative
Subject Pronoun) Subject Verb Verb

The book (that) I read is great.

Someone (who[m]) you know was there.

Whose + Noun

The man whose sister you know writes books.

Main Clause Adjective Clause Main Clause (cont.)


Subject Where / (When) Subject Verb Verb

The library where I work has videos.

The summer (when) she left passed slowly.

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 14 Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Grammar Presentation

MODALS AND SIMILAR EXPRESSIONS: REVIEW

Ability: Can and Could Ability: Be able to*


Base Form Base Form
Subject Modal of Verb Subject Be able to of Verb
can (not) act. is (not) act.
She She able to
could (not) act last year. was (not) act last year.

Advice: Should, Ought to, Had better


Base Form
Subject Modal of Verb
should (not)
You ought to watch this TV show.
had better (not)

Necessity: Must and Can’t Necessity: Have (got) to*


Base Form Base Form
Subject Modal of Verb Subject Have (got) to of Verb

must (not) They (don’t) have to


You go. go.
can’t He has (got) to

*Unlike modals, which have one form, be in be able to and have in have (got) to change for different subjects.

Assumptions: May, Might, Could, Must, Can’t Assumptions: Have (got) to**
Base Form Have Base Form
Subject Modal of Verb Subject (got) to of Verb
may (not) They have (got) to actors.
might (not) be
He has (got) to an actor.
They could (not) be actors.
must (not)
can’t

**Unlike modals, which have one form, have in have (got) to changes for different subjects.

Future Possibility: May, Might, Could


Base Form
Subject Modal of Verb
may (not)
It might (not) start at 8:00.
could

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 15 Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Grammar Presentation

ADVISABILITY IN THE PAST:


SHOULD HAVE, OUGHT TO HAVE, COULD HAVE, MIGHT HAVE

Statements Contractions
Past should have = should’ve
Subject Modal* Have Participle could have = could’ve
should (not) might have = might’ve
ought (not) to should not have = shouldn’t have
He have told her.
could
might

*Should, ought to, could, and might are modals. Modals have only one form.
They do not have -s in the third person singular.

Yes / No Questions
Past
Should Subject Have Participle
Should he have told her?

Short Answers
Affirmative Negative
Yes, he should have. No, he shouldn’t have.

Wh- Questions
Past
Wh- Word Should Subject Have Participle
When should he have told her?

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 16 Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Grammar Presentation

SPECULATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS ABOUT THE PAST:


MAY HAVE, MIGHT HAVE, COULD HAVE, MUST HAVE, HAD TO HAVE

Statements Contractions
Past may have = may’ve
Subject Modal* / Had to Have Participle might have = might’ve
may (not) could have = could’ve
might (not) must have = must’ve
They could (not) have seen the statues. could not = couldn’t
must (not) NOTE: We usually do not
had to contract may not have, might
not have, and must not have.
*May, might, could, and must are modals. Modals have only one form.
They do not have -s in the third person singular.

Questions Short Answers


Do / Be Subject Verb Subject Modal / Had to Have Been
Did carve these statues? may (not)
they might (not) have.
Were aliens?
They could (not)
must (not)
have been.
had to

Yes / No Questions: Could Short Answers


Past Subject Modal / Had to Have Been
Could Subject Have Participle
may (not)
seen aliens? might (not) have.
Could he have
been an alien? He could (not)
must (not)
have been.
had to

Wh- Questions
Past
Wh- Word Could Have Participle
Who built the statues?
could have
What happened to these people?

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 17 Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Grammar Presentation
THE PASSIVE

Active Passive

Millions of people buy it. It is bought by millions of people.

Someone published it in 1888. It was published in 1888.

They have reached their goal. Their goal has been reached.

Passive Statements
Past
Subject Be (not) Participle (By + Object)
It is (not) bought by millions of people.
It was (not) published in 1888.
Their goal has (not) been reached.

Yes / No Questions Short Answers


(Been +)
Be / Have Subject Past Participle Affirmative Negative
Is is. isn’t.
sold
Was it in Japan? Yes, it was. No, it wasn’t.
Has been sold has (been). hasn’t (been).

Wh- Questions
(Been +)
Wh- Word Be / Have Subject Past Participle
is
sold?
Where was it
has been sold?

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 18 Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Grammar Presentation

THE PASSIVE WITH MODALS AND SIMILAR EXPRESSIONS

Statements
Past
Subject Modal* Be Participle
will (not)
should (not)
The crew must (not) be replaced next month.
can (not)
had better (not)

*Modals have only one form. They do not have -s in the third person
singular.

Statements
Have (got) to / Past
Subject Be going to** Be Participle
has (got) to
The crew doesn’t have to be replaced next month.
is (not) going to

**Unlike modals, have in have (got) to and be in be going to change


for different subjects. Questions and negatives with have (got) to need
a form of do.

Yes / No Questions Short Answers


Modal Subject Be Past Participle Affirmative Negative
Will will. won’t.
Should should. shouldn’t.
it be replaced? Yes, it No, it
Must must. doesn’t have to be.
Can can. can’t.

Yes / No Questions Short Answers


Auxiliary Have to / Past
Verb Subject Going to Be Participle Affirmative Negative
Does have to does. doesn’t.
it be replaced? Yes, it No, it
Is going to is. isn’t.

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 19 Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Grammar Presentation

THE PASSIVE CAUSATIVE

Statements
Past
Subject Have / Get Object Participle (By + Agent)
She has her hair cut by André every month.
He has had his beard trimmed before.
I get my nails done at André’s.
They are going to get their ears pierced.

Yes / No Questions
Auxiliary Past
Verb Subject Have / Get Object Participle (By + Agent)
Does she have her hair cut by André?
Has he had his beard trimmed before?
Do you get your nails done at André’s?
Are they going to get their ears pierced?

Wh- Questions
Auxiliary Past
Wh- Word Verb Subject Have / Get Object Participle (By + Agent)
How often does she have her hair cut by André?
Where did he get his beard trimmed before?
When do you get your nails done at André’s?
Why are they going to get their ears pierced?

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 20 Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Grammar Presentation

PRESENT REAL CONDITIONALS

Statements Statements
If Clause Result Clause Result Clause If Clause
If I shop online, I save time. I save time if I shop online.
If the mall is closed, I can shop online. I can shop online if the mall is closed.

Yes / No Questions Short Answers


Result Clause If Clause Affirmative Negative
Do you save time if you shop online? I do. I don’t.
Yes, No,
Can you shop online if the mall is closed? I can. I can’t.

Wh- Questions
Result Clause If Clause
What happens if I don’t like it?

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 21 Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Grammar Presentation

FUTURE REAL CONDITIONALS

Statements
If Clause: Present Result Clause: Future
she won’t fail the test.
If she studies,
she’s going to pass the test.
she’ll fail the test.
If she doesn’t study,
she isn’t going to pass the test.

Yes / No Questions Short Answers


Result Clause: Future If Clause: Present Affirmative Negative
Will she pass the test she will. she won’t.
if she studies? Yes, No,
Is she going to pass the test she is. she isn’t.

Wh- Questions
Result Clause: Future If Clause: Present
What will she do
if she passes the test?
What is she going to do

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 22 Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Grammar Presentation

PRESENT AND FUTURE UNREAL CONDITIONALS

Statements
If Clause: Simple Past Result Clause: Would (not) + Base Form
If Mia had money, she would live in a palace.
If she were* rich, she wouldn’t live in a cottage.
If Mia didn’t have money, she wouldn’t live in a palace.
If she weren’t rich, she would live in a cottage.

*With the verb be, use were for all subjects.

Contractions
I would = I’d
you would = you’d
he would = he’d
she would = she’d
we would = we’d
they would = they’d
would not = wouldn’t

Yes / No Questions Short Answers


Result Clause If Clause Affirmative Negative
if she had money?
Would she live here Yes, she would. No, she wouldn’t.
if she were rich?

Wh- Questions
Result Clause If Clause
if she had money?
What would she do
if she were rich?

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 23 Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Grammar Presentation

PAST UNREAL CONDITIONALS

Statements
If Clause: Past Perfect Result Clause: Would (not) have + Past Participle
he would have moved away.
If George had had money,
he wouldn’t have stayed home.
his father’s business would have failed.
If he had not stayed home,
he wouldn’t have married Mary.

Yes / No Questions Short Answers


Result Clause If Clause Affirmative Negative
Would he have left if he had had money? Yes, he would have. No, he wouldn’t have.

Wh- Questions Contractions


Result Clause If Clause would have = would’ve
What would he have done if he had had money? would not have = wouldn’t have

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 24 Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Grammar Presentation

DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

Direct Speech
Direct Statement Subject Reporting Verb
“The check is in the mail,”
“The haircut looks great,” he said.
“The traffic was bad,”

Indirect Speech
Reporting Noun/
Subject Verb Pronoun Indirect Statement
the bank
the check was in the mail.
told Ann
He (that) the haircut looked great.
her
the traffic had been bad.
said

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 25 Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Grammar Presentation

INDIRECT SPEECH: TENSE CHANGES

Direct Speech Indirect Speech


Reporting Reporting Noun/
Subject Verb Direct Statement Subject Verb Pronoun Indirect Statement
“I live in Dresden.” he lived in Dresden.
“I moved here in Jim he had moved
June.” there in June.
me
“I’m looking for he was looking
an apartment.” you for an apartment.
“I’ve started a he had started a
new job.” told him new job.
“I’m going to he was going to
her
stay here.” stay there.
“I’ll invite you for us he would invite
the holidays.” me/us for the
them holidays.
He said, “We can go to He (that) we could go to
museums.” museums.
“I may look for he might look for
a roommate.” a roommate.
“I should get he should get
back to work.” back to work.
“I have to finish said he had to finish
my report.” his report.
“You must come I/we had to come
to visit.” to visit.
“We ought to we ought to
see each other see each other
more often.” more often.

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 26 Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Grammar Presentation

INDIRECT INSTRUCTIONS, COMMANDS, REQUESTS, AND INVITATIONS

Direct Speech Indirect Speech


Reporting Reporting Noun/
Subject Verb Direct Speech Subject Verb Pronoun Indirect Speech
“Drink warm milk.” told
Connie to drink warm milk.
“Don’t drink coffee.” advised
her not to drink coffee.
“Can you turn out He asked
He said, to turn out the light.
the light, please?”
said
“Why don’t you visit
the clinic?” invited her to visit the clinic.

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 27 Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Grammar Presentation

INDIRECT QUESTIONS

Direct Speech: Yes / No Questions


Reporting
Subject Verb Direct Question
“Do you have any experience?”
He asked, “Can you create spreadsheets?”
“Will you stay for a year?”

Indirect Speech: Yes / No Questions


Reporting (Noun /
Subject Verb Pronoun) Indirect Question
she had any experience.
(Melissa) if
He asked she could create spreadsheets.
(her) whether (or not)
she would stay for a year.

Direct Speech: Wh- Questions About the Subject


Reporting
Subject Verb Direct Question
“Who told you about the job?”
He asked,
“What happened on your last job?”

Indirect Speech: Wh- Questions About the Subject


Reporting (Noun /
Subject Verb Pronoun) Indirect Question
(Bob) who had told him about the job.
He asked
(him) what had happened on his last job.

(continued)
Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 28 Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Direct Speech: Wh- Questions About the Predicate
Reporting
Subject Verb Direct Question
“Who(m) did you work for?”
“Where do you work now?”
He asked, “How are you going to get to work?”
“Why have you decided to change jobs?”
“How much are you making?”

Indirect Speech: Wh- Questions About the Predicate


Reporting (Noun /
Subject Verb Pronoun) Indirect Question
who(m) she had worked for.
where she worked now.
(Melissa)
He asked how she was going to get to work.
(her)
why she had decided to change jobs.
how much she was making.

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 28 Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Grammar Presentation

EMBEDDED QUESTIONS

Main Clause Embedded Question


I’m not sure if I left the right tip.
He wondered whether (or not) five dollars was enough.
Can you remember how much our bill was?

Wh- Word + Infinitive


I don’t know how much to tip.
Do you know where to leave the tip?

Focus on Grammar 4, 3e, Unit 29 Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.