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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

SYLLABUS
Engineering Mathematics-I
Subject Code: 15MAT11 IA Marks: 20
Hours/Week: 04 Exam. Hours: 03
Total Hours: 50 Exam. Marks: 80

Course Objectives
To enable students to apply knowledge of Mathematics in various
engineering fields by making hem to learn the following:
• nth derivatives of product of two functions and polar curves.
• Partial derivatives.
• Vectors calculus.
• Reduction formulae of integration to solve First order
differential equations
• Solution of system of equations and quadratic forms.

Module –1
Differential Calculus -1:
Determination of nth order derivatives of Standard functions - Problems.
Leibnitz‟s theorem (without proof) - problems.
Polar Curves - angle between the radius vector and tangent, angle between
two curves, Pedal equation for polar curves. Derivative of arc length -
Cartesian, Parametric and Polar forms (without proof) - problems.
Curvature and Radius of Curvature – Cartesian, Parametric, Polar and
Pedal forms(without proof) and problems. 10hrs

Module –2
Differential Calculus -2
Taylor‟s and Maclaurin‟s theorems for function of o ne variable(statement
only)- problems. Evaluation of Indeterminate forms.
Partial derivatives – Definition and simple problems, Euler‟s
theorem(without proof) – problems, total derivatives, partial differentiation
of composite functions-problems, Jacobians-definition and problems .
10hrs

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

Module –3
Vector Calculus:
Derivative of vector valued functions, Velocity, Acceleration and related
problems, Scalar and Vector point functions.Definition Gradient,
Divergence, Curl- problems . Solenoidal and Irrotational vector fields.
Vector identities - div ( F A), curl ( F A),curl (grad F ), div (curl A).
10hrs

Module- 4
Integral Calculus:
Reduction formulae ∫ sinnx dx ∫cosnx dx ∫sinnxcosmxdx,, (m and n are
positive integers), evaluation of these integrals with standard limits (0 to л/2)
and problems.
Differential Equations:
Solution of first order and first degree differential equations – Exact,
reducible to exact and Bernoulli‟s differential equations. Applications-
orthogonal trajectories in Cartesian and polar forms. Simple problems on
Newton‟s law of cooling. 10hrs

Module –5
Linear Algebra Rank of a matrix by elementary transformations, solution of
system of linear equations - Gauss- elimination method, Gauss- Jordan
method and Gauss-Seidel method. Rayleigh‟s power method to find the
largest Eigen value and the corresponding Eigen vector. Linear
transformation, diagonalisation of a square matrix, Quadratic forms,
reduction to Canonical form 10hrs

COURSE OUTCOMES
On completion of this course students are able to
Use partial derivatives to calculate rates of change of multivariate
functions
Analyse position, velocity and acceleration in two or three dimensions
using the calculus of vector valued functions
Recognize and solve first order ordinary differential equations, Newton‟s
law of cooling
Use matrices techniques for solving systems of linear equations in the
different areas of linear algebra.

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

Engineering Mathematics – I

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

MODULE I
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS-I
CONTENTS:
Successive differentiation …………………………………………..3

Polar curves

Expression for radius of curvature in case of Parametric

Curve………………………………………………………………..36

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

SUCCESSIVE DIFFERENTIATION
In this lesson, the idea of differential coefficient of a function and its successive
derivatives will be discussed. Also, the computation of nth derivatives of some
standard functions is presented through typical worked examples.

1. Introduction:- Differential calculus (DC) deals with problem of calculating rates of

change. When we have a formula for the distance that a moving body covers as a
function of time, DC gives us the formulas for calculating the body‟s velocity and
acceleration at any instant.
Definition of derivative of a function y = f(x):-

f (x x) f ( x)
Fig.1. Slope of the line PQ is
x
The derivative of a function y = f(x) is the function f (x) whose value at each x is
defined as
dy
= f (x) = Slope of the line PQ (See Fig.1)
dx
f (x x) f ( x)
= lim -------- (1)
x 0 x
= lim (Average rate change)
x 0

= Instantaneous rate of change of f at x provided the limit exists.

The instantaneous velocity and acceleration of a body (moving along a line) at any instant
x is the derivative of its position co-ordinate y = f(x) w.r.t x, i.e.,
dy
Velocity = = f (x) --------- (2)
dx
And the corresponding acceleration is given by

d2y
Acceleration f ( x) ---------- (3)
dx 2

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

Successive Differentiation:-
The process of differentiating a given function again and again is called as
Successive differentiation and the results of such differentiation are called
successive derivatives.
The higher order differential coefficients will occur more frequently in spreading
a function all fields of scientific and engineering applications.
Notations:
dy d 2 y d 3 y dny
i. , 2 , 3 ,…….., nth order derivative:
dx dx dx dx n
ii f (x) , f (x) , f (x) ,…..., nth order derivative: f n (x)
iii Dy, D 2 y , D 3 y ,………..., nth order derivative: D n y
iv y , y , y ,……, nth order derivative: y (n )
v. y1 , y 2 , y 3 …, nth order derivative: y n
Successive differentiation – A flow diagram
df
Input function: y f (x) Operation Output function y f (x) (first order
d dx
dx
derivative)

d2 f
Input function y f (x) Operation Output function y f ( x) (second order
d
dx
dx 2
derivative)

d3 f
Input function y f (x) Operation Output function y f ( x) (third order
d
dx
dx 3
derivative)

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
n 1 n 1 n dn f
Input function y f ( x) Operation Output function y f n (x) (nth order
d
dx
dx n
derivative)

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

Calculation of nth derivatives of some standard functions

Below, we present a table of nth order derivatives of some standard functions for
Sl. y = f(x) dny
No yn Dn y
dx n
1 emx mnemx
2 a mx n
m n log a a mx
3 ax b
m
i. m m 1 m 2 .... m n 1 a n ax b
m n
for all m .
ii. 0 if m n
iii. n! a n if m n
m!
iv. x m n if m n
m n!
4 1 ( 1) n n ! n
a
ax b (ax b) n 1
5. 1 ( 1) n (m n 1) ! n
m a
ax b (m 1) !(ax b) m n
6. log( ax b) ( 1) n 1 (n 1) ! n
a
(ax b) n
7. sin( ax b) a n sin( ax b n )
2
8. cos(ax b) a n cos(ax b n )
2
9. e ax sin( bx c) r n e ax sin( bx c n ) , r a2 b2 tan 1 ( b a)
10. e ax cos(bx c) r n e ax cos(bx c n ) , r a2 b2 tan 1 ( b a)
We proceed to illustrate the proof of some of the above results, as only the
above functions are able to produce a sequential change from one derivative to
the other. Hence, in general we cannot obtain readymade formula for nth
derivative of functions other than the above.

1. Consider e m x . Let y e m x . Differentiating w.r.t x, we get

y1 me m x . Again differentiating w.r.t x, we get
y 2 m me m x = m 2 e m x
Similarly, we get
y3 = m 3 e m x
y4 = m 4 e m x
…………….
And hence we get
d n mx
yn = m n e m x e mnem x.
dx n

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11
m
2. ax b
m
let y ax b Differentiating w.r.t x,
m 1
y1 = m ax b a . Again differentiating w.r.t x, we get
m 2
y2 = m m 1 ax b a2
Similarly, we get
m 3 3
y3 = m m 1 m 2 ax b a
………………………………….
And hence we get
m n n
yn = m m 1 m 2 ………. m n 1 ax b a for all m.
Case (i) If m n (m-positive integer),then the above expression becomes
n n
yn = n n 1 n 2 ……….3.2.1 ax b a n
i.e. y n n! a n
Case (ii) If m<n,(i.e. if n>m) which means if we further differentiate the above
expression, the
m
right hand site yields zero. Thus D n ax b 0 if m n
m n
Case (iii) If m>n, then y n m m 1 m 2 ...... m n 1 ax b a n becomes
m m 1 m 2 ...... m n 1 m n ! m n
ax b an
m n!
m! m n n
. i.e yn ax b a
m n!
1
3. m
ax b
1 m
Let y m
ax b
ax b
Differentiating w.r.t x
m 1 m 1
y1 m ax b a 1 m ax b a
m 1 1 2 m 2
y2 1 m m 1 ax b a 1 m m 1 ax b a2
3 m 3
Similarly, we get y3 1 m m 1 m 2 ax b a3
4 m 4
y4 1 m m 1 m 2 m 3 ax b a4
……………………………
n m n
yn 1 m m 1 m 2 ..... m n 1 ax b an
This may be rewritten as
n
1 m n 1 m n 2 ..... m 1 m m 1 ! m n
yn ax b an
m 1!
n
1 m n 1!
or yn m n
an
m 1 ! ax b

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

1
4.
ax b

Putting m 1, in the result

1 ( 1) n (m n 1) ! n
Dn a
(ax b) m (m 1) !(ax b) m n
1 ( 1) n (1 n 1) ! n
we get D n a
(ax b) (1 1) !(ax b)1 n
1 ( 1) n n ! n
or D n a
(ax b) (ax b)1 n

Find the nth derivative of the following examples

(3x 5) 2 (2 3x)
1. (a) log( 9 x 2 1) (b) log (4 x 3)e 5 x 7
(c) log 10
( x 1) 6
Sol: (a) Let y log( 9 x 2 1) log (3x 1)(3x 1)
y log( 3x 1) log( 3x 1) ( log( AB) log A log B )
dn dn
yn n
log( 3x 1) log( 3x 1)
dx dx n
( 1) n 1 (n 1) ! n ( 1) n 1 (n 1) ! n
i.e y n (3) (3)
(3x 1) n (3x 1) n

(b) Let y log (4 x 3)e 5 x 7

log( 4 x 3) log e 5 x 7

log( 4 x 3) (5 x 7) log e e ( log A B B log A )

y log( 4 x 3) (5 x 7) ( log e e 1 )
( 1) n 1 (n 1) ! n
yn ( 4) 0  D(5 x 6) 5
(4 x 3) n
D 2 (5 x 6) 0
n
D (5 x 1) 0 (n 1)

(3x 5) 2 (2 3x)
(c) Let y log 10
( x 1) 6
1 (3x 5) 2 (2 3x) log e X
 log 10 X
log e 10 ( x 1) 6 log e 10

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

1 1 (3x 5) 2 (2 3x)
log  log A B B log A
log e 10 2 ( x 1) 6
A
 log log A log B
B
1
log( 3x 5) 2 log( 2 3x) log( x 1) 6
2 log e 10
1
y 2 log( 3x 5) log( 2 3x) 6 log( x 1)
2 log e 10
Hence,

1 ( 1) n 1 (n 1) ! n ( 1) n 1 (n 1) ! ( 1) n 1 (n 1) ! n
yn 2. (3) ( 3) n 6. (1)
2 log e 10 (3 x 5) n (2 3 x) n ( x 1) n

2. (a) e 2 x 4
62x 4
(b) cosh 4 x cosh 2 4 x
1 1
(c) e x sinh 3x cosh 2 x (d) (6 x 8) 5
(4 x 5) (5 x 4) 4

Sol: (a) Let y e2x 4

62x 4

e2xe4 62x 64
y e 4 (e 2 x ) 1296(6 2 x )
dn dn
hence yn e 4 n (e 2 x ) 1296 n (6 2 x )
dx dx
4 n 2x
e 2 e 1296 2 (log 6) n 6 2 x
n

(b) Let y cosh 4 x cosh 2 4 x

2
e4x e 4x
e4x e 4x

2 2
1 4x 1 4x 2
e e 4x (e ) (e 4 x ) 2 2(e 4 x )(e 4 x )
2 4
1 4x 1 8x
y e e 4x e e 8x 2
2 4
1 n 4x 1 n 8n
hence, yn 4 e ( 4) n e 4 x 8 e ( 8) n e 8n 0
2 4
x
(c) Let y e sinh 3x cosh 2 x
x e3x e 3x
e2x e 2x
e
2 2
e x 3x 3x
(e e )(e 2 x e 2x
)
4

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

e x 5x
e e x e x e 5x
4
1 4x
e e 2x 1 e 6x
4
1
y 1 e4x e 2x e 6x
4
1
Hence, yn 0 (4) n e 4 x ( 2) n e 2 x ( 6) n e 6x

4
1 1
(d) Let y 4
(6 x 8) 5
(4 x 5) (5 x 4)
dn 1 dn 1 dn 5
Hence, yn n
6x 8
dx (4 x 5) dx (5 x 4) 4
n
dx n

( 1) n n ! ( 1) n (4 n 1)!
n 1
(4) n 4 n
(5) n 0
(4 x 5) (4 1) !(5 x 4)
( 1) n n ! ( 1) n (3 n) ! n
i.e y n n 1
(4) n (5)
(4 x 5) 3!(5 x 4) n 4
Evaluate
1 1 x2
1. (i) (ii) (iii)
x2 6x 8 1 x x2 x3 2x 2 7x 6

x 2 1 1 x 1 1 x
(iv) (v) tan (vi) tan 1 x (vii) tan
x 1 4x 2
12 x 9 a 1 x

1 1
Sol: (i) Let y 2
. The function can be rewritten as y
x 6x 8 ( x 4)( x 2)
This is proper fraction containing two distinct linear factors in the denominator.
So, it can be split into partial fractions as

1 A B
y Where the constant A and B are found
( x 4)( x 2) ( x 4) ( x 2)

as given below.

1 A( x 2) B( x 4)
( x 4)( x 2) ( x 4)( x 2)

1 A( x 2) B( x 4) -------------(*)

2

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

Similarly putting x = 4 in (*), we get the value of A as A 1

2

1 (1 / 2) ( 1 / 2)
y Hence
( x 4)( x 2) x 4 x 2
1 dn 1 1 dn 1
yn n n
2 dx x 4 2 dx x 2

1 ( 1) n n ! 1 ( 1) n n !
(1) n (1) n
2 ( x 4) n 1 2 ( x 2) n 1

1 1 1
( 1) n n !
2 ( x 4) n 1
( x 2) n 1

1 1 1
(ii) Let y
1 x x2 x3
(1 x) x (1 x) (1 x)(1 x 2 )
2

1 1
ie y
(1 x)(1 x)(1 x) (1 x) 2 (1 x)
Though y is a proper fraction, it contains a repeated linear factor (1 x) 2
in its
denominator. Hence, we write the function as
A B C
y 2
in terms of partial fractions. The constants
(1 x) (1 x) 1 x
A, B, C
are found as follows:

1 A B C
y 2
(1 x) (1 x) (1 x) (1 x) 2 1 x

ie 1 A(1 x)(1 x) B(1 x) C (1 x) 2 -------------(**)

Putting x = 1 in (**), we get B as B 1
2
Putting x = -1 in (**), we get C as C 1
4
Putting x = 0 in (**), we get 1 A B C
A 1 B C 1 1 1 1
2 4 4
A 1
4
(1 / 4) (1 / 2) (1 / 4)
Hence, y 2
(1 x) (1 x) (1 x)

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1 ( 1) n n ! n 1 ( 1) n (2 n 1) ! n 1 ( 1) n n ! n
yn (1) (1) (1)
4 (1 x) n 1 2 (2 1) !(1 x) 2 n 4 (1 x) n 1

1 1 1 1 ( 1) n (n 1) !
( 1) n n !
4 (1 x) n 1
(1 x) n 1
2 (1 x)n 2
x2
(iii) Let y (VTU July-05)
2x 2 7x 6
This is an improper function. We make it proper fraction by actual division
and later
spilt that into partial fractions.
1 ( 7 2 x 3)
i.e x 2 (2 x 2 7 x 6)
2 2x 2 7 x 6
1 7 x
2 3
y Resolving this proper fraction into partial fractions,
2 (2 x 3)( x 2)

we get
1 A B
y . Following the above examples for finding A &
2 (2 x 3) ( x 2)
B, we get
1 9
2 ( 4)
y
2 2x 3 x 2
9 ( 1) n n ! ( 1) n n !
Hence, y n 0 n 1
(2) n 4 n 1
(1) n
2 (2 x 3) ( x 2)
( 2) n
9 4
i.e y n ( 1) n n ! 2

(2 x 3) n 1
( x 2) n 1

( x 2) x
(iv) Let y 2
( x 1) 4x 12 x 9

(i) (ii)
Here (i) is improper & (ii) is proper function. So, by actual division (i)
becomes
x 2 1
1 . Hence, y is given by
x 1 x 1

1 1
y 1 [ (2 x 3) 2 4 x 2 12 x 9 ]
x 1 (2 x 3) 2
Resolving the last proper fraction into partial fractions, we get
x A B
2
. Solving we get
(2 x 3) (2 x 3) (2 x 3) 2

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A 1 and B 3
2 2
1 1
2
3
2
y 1
1 x (2 x 3) (2 x 3) 2
( 1) n n ! n 1 ( 1) n n ! 3 ( 1) n (n 1) ! n
yn 0 (1) (2) n ( 2)
(1 x) n 2 (2 x 3) n 1 2 (2 x 3)n 2

(v) tan 1 x
a
Let y tan 1 x
a
1 1 a
y1 2 2
1 x a x a2
a
a
yn Dn y D n 1 ( y1 ) Dn 1
2
x a2
a a
Consider 2 2
x a ( x ai )( x ai )
A B
, on resolving into partial fractions.
( x ai ) ( x ai )
1 1
2i 2i , on solving for A & B.
( x ai) ( x ai )
a 1 1
Dn 1 2 2
Dn 1 2i
Dn 1 2i

x a x ai x ai
1 ( 1) n 1 (n 1) ! 1 ( 1) n 1 (n 1) !
-----------(*)
2i ( x ai ) n 2i ( x ai ) n
a
We take transformation x r cos a r sin where r x2 a2 , tan 1

x
x ai r cos i sin re i
i
x ai r cos i sin re
1 1 e in 1 e in

n
,
x ai r e in
n
r n
x ai
n
rn

n 1
1 n 1 ! in in
now(*) is y n e e
2 i rn
n 1 n 1
1 1 n 1!
yn 2 i sin n sin n
2 i rn r n

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(vi) Let y tan 1 x .Putting a = 1 in Ex.(v) we get

yn which is same as above with r x2 1 tan 1 1
x
1
cot x or x cot
1 1
r cot 2 1 cos ec n
sin n
r cos ec n
n 1
D n tan 1 x 1 n 1 ! sin n sin n where cot 1 x

1 x 1
(vii) Let y tan
1 x
put x tan tan 1 x
1 tan
y tan 1
1 tan
1 1 tan
tan tan( 4 )  tan
4 1 tan

tan 1 ( x)
4 4
y tan 1 ( x)
4
yn 0 D n (tan 1 x)
1 ( 1) n 1 (n 1) ! 1 ( 1) n 1 (n 1) !
2i ( x ai ) n 2i ( x ai ) n

nth derivative of trigonometric functions:

1. sin( ax b) .
Let y sin( ax b) . Differentiating w.r.t x,

y1 cos(ax b).a As sin( x ) cos x

2
We can write y1 a sin( ax b / 2).
again differentiating w.r.t x, y2 a cos(ax b / 2).a
Again using sin( x ) cos x ,we get y 2 as
2
y2 a sin( ax b /2 / 2).a
2
i.e. y 2 a sin( ax b 2 / 2).
Similarly, we get
y3 a 3 sin( ax b 3 / 2).
y4 a 4 sin( ax b 4 / 2).
yn a n sin( ax b n / 2).

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2. e ax sin bx c .
Let y e ax sin bx c .....(1)
Differentiating using product rule ,we get
y1 e ax cos bx c b sin bx c ae ax
ax
i.e. y1 e a sin bx c b cos bx c . For computation of higher order
derivatives
it is convenient to express the constants „a‟ and „b‟ in terms of the
constants r and
defined by a r cos & b r sin ,so that
r a b 2 and
2
tan 1 b .thus,
a
y1 can be rewritten as
y1 e ax r cos sin bx c r sin cos bx c
ax
or y1 e r{sin bx c cos cos bx c cos }
ax
i.e. y1 re sin bx c ...........(2)
Comparing expressions (1) and (2), we write y 2 as
y 2 r 2 e ax sin bx c 2
y3 r 3 e ax sin bx c 3
Continuing in this way, we get
y 4 r 4 e ax sin bx c 4
y5 r 5 e ax sin bx c 5
…………………………….
yn r n e ax sin bx c n
D n e ax sin bx c r n e ax sin bx c n , where
r a2 b2 & tan 1 b
a

Solve the following:

1. (i) sin 2 x cos 3 x (ii) sin 3 cos 3 x (iii) cos x cos 2 x cos 3x
(iv) sin x sin 2 x sin 3x (v) e 3 x cos 2 x (vi) e 2 x sin 2 x cos 3 x
The following formulae are useful in solving some of the above problems.
1 cos 2 x 1 cos 2 x
(i) sin 2 x (ii) cos 2 x
2 2
(iii) sin 3x 3 sin x 4 sin 3 x (iv) cos 3x 4 cos 3 x 3 cos x

(v) 2 sin A cos B sin A B sin A B

(vi) 2 cos A sin B sin A B sin A B
(vii) 2 cos A cos B cos A B cos A B

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(viii) 2 sin A sin B cos A B cos A B

1 cos 2 x
1
Sol: (i) Let y sin 2 x cos 3 x cos 3 x 3 cos x
2 4
1 1 n
2 cos 2 x n 3 cos 3x n 3 cos x n
n
yn 0
2 2 4 2 2

3
sin 2 x sin 3 2 x 1 sin 6 x 3 sin 2 x
(ii)Let y = sin 3 x cos 3 x
2 8 8 4
1
3 sin 2 x sin 6 x
32
1 n n
yn 3.2 n sin 2 x 6 n sin 6 x
32 2 2
(iii) )Let y = cos 3x cos x cos 2 x
1 1
= cos 4 x cos 2 x cos 2 x cos 4 x cos 2 x cos 2 2 x
2 2
1 1 1 cos 4 x
= cos 6 x cos 2 x
2 2 2
1 cos 2 x 1
cos 6 x 1 cos 4 x
4 4 4
n n
2 n cos 2 x 4 n cos 4 x
1 n n 2 2
yn 6 cos 6 x
4 2 4 4
(iv) )Let y = sin 3x sin x sn2 x
1
sin 2 x sin 4 x sin 2 x
2
1
sin 2 2 x sin 4 x sin 2 x
2
1 1 cos 4 x 1
= sin 2 x sin 6 x
2 2 2
1 cos 4 x 1
sin 2 x sin 6 x
4 4
1 n n n n
yn 4 cos 4 x 2 n sin 2 x 6 n sin 6 x
4 2 2 2

(v) Let y e 3 x cos 2 x

yn re 3 x cos 2 x n
2
where r 32 22 13 & tan 1

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(vi) Let y = e 2 x sin 2 x cos 3 x

1 cos 2 x 1
We know that sin 2 x cos 3 x cos 3x 3 cos x
2 4
1 cos 2 x e2x
y = e 2 x sin 2 x cos 3 x e2x cos 3x 3 cos x
2 4
1 2x 1 2x
y e e 2 x cos 2 x e cos 3x 3e 2 x cos x
2 4
Hence,
1 n 2x 1 n 2x
yn 2 e r1n e 2 x cos 2 x n 1 r2 e cos 3x n 2 3r3n e 2 x cos x n 3
2 4
where r1 22 22 8 ; r2 22 32 13 ; r3 2 2 12 5
1 2 1 3 1 1
1 tan ; 2 tan ; 3 tan ;
2 2 2

Leibnitz’s Theorem

functions.

Statement of the theorem:

If u and v are functions of x, then
D (uv) D n uv nC1 D n 1uDv n C 2 D n 2 uD 2 v .... n C r D n r uD r v ...uD n v ,
n

d n nn 1 n!
where D , C1 n , n C 2 ,........,n C r
dx 2 r! n r !

Examples
1. If x sin t , y sin pt prove that
1 x 2 yn 2 2n 1 xyn 1 p 2 n 2 yn 0
Solution: Note that the function y f (x) is given in the parametric form with a
parameter t.
So, we consider
dy dy dt p cos pt
(p – constant)
dx dx dt cos t
2
dy p 2 cos 2 pt p 2 (1 sin 2 pt ) p 2 (1 y 2 )
or
dx cos 2 t 1 sin 2 t 1 x2
or 1 x 2 y12 p 2 1 y 2
So that 1 x 2 y12 p 2 1 y 2 Differentiating w.r.t. x,
2 2 2
1 x 2 y1 y 2 y1 2 x p 2 yy1 0

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

1 x 2 y 2 xy1 p 2 y 0 --------------- (1) [ 2y1 , throughout]

Equation (1) has second order derivative y 2 in it. We differentiate (1), n times,
term wise,
using Leibnitz‟s theorem as follows.
D n 1 x 2 y 2 xy1 p 2 y 0
i.e D n (1 x 2 ) y 2 D n xy1 Dn p2 y 0 ---------- (2)

(a) (b) (c)

Consider the term (a):
D n 1 x 2 y 2 . Taking u y 2 and v (1 x 2 ) and applying Leibnitz‟s theorem
we get
D n uv D n uv nC1 D n 1uDv nC2 D n 2 D 2 v nC3 D n 3uD 3 v ...
i.e
D n y2 (1 x 2 ) D n ( y2 ).(1 x 2 ) nC1 D n 1 ( y2 ).D(1 x 2 ) nC2 D n 2 ( y2 ) D 2 (1 x 2 ) nC3 D n 3 ( y2 ) D 3 (1 x 2 )

n(n 1) n(n 1)(n 2)

y(n) 2 x 2 ) ny ( n 1) 2 .( 2 x) y(n 2) 2 .( 2) . y(n 3) 2 .(0) ...
2! 3!
D n 1 x 2 y2 1 x 2 yn 2 2nxyn 1 n(n 1) yn ----------- (3)
Consider the term (b):
D n xy1 . Taking u y1 and v x and applying Leibnitz‟s theorem,
we get
D n y1 ( x) D n ( y1 ).( x) n C1 D n 1 y1 .D( x) n C 2 D n 2 ( y1 ).D 2 ( x) ....
n(n 1)
y ( n ) 1 .x ny ( n 1) 1 y ( n 2) 2 (0) ....
2!
D n xy1 xyn 1 ny n ---------- (4)
Consider the term (c):
D n ( p 2 y) p 2 D n ( y) p 2 y n --------- (5)
Substituting these values (3), (4) and (5) in Eq (2) we get
1 x 2 y n 2 2nxyn 1 n(n 1) yn xyn 1 ny n p 2 yn 0
2 2 2
ie 1 x yn 2 (2n 1) xyn 1 n yn ny n ny n p yn 0
1 x 2 yn 2 (2n 1) xyn 1 p2 n 2 yn 0 as desired.

1
2. If sin y 2 log( x 1) or y sin 2 log( x 1) or y sin log( x 1) 2 or
2
y sin log( x 2 2 x 1) , show that x 1 y n 2 2n 1 x 1 y n 1 n 2 4 yn 0
(VTU Jan-03)
Sol: Out of the above four versions, we consider the function as
sin 1 ( y ) 2 log( x 1)
Differentiating w.r.t x, we get

DEPT OF MATHS, SJBIT Page 19

ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

1 2
( y1 ) ie ( x 1) y1 2 1 y2
1 y 2 x 1
Squaring on both sides
2
x 1 y12 4(1 y 2 )
Again differentiating w.r.t x,
2
x 1 2 y1 y2 y12 2( x 1) 4( 2 yy1 )
2
or x 1 y2 ( x 1) y1 4 y ( 2 y1 )
2
or x 1 y 2 ( x 1) y1 4 y 0 -----------*
Differentiating * w.r.t x, n-times, using Leibnitz‟s theorem,
n(n 1) n 2
D n y 2 ( x 1) 2 nD n 1 ( y 2 )2( x 1) D ( y 2 )(2) D n ( g1 )( x 1) nD n 1 y1 (1) 4D n y 0
2!
On simplification, we get
2
x 1 y n 2 2n 1 x 1 y n 1 n 2 4 y n 0

3. If x tan(log y) , then find the value of

1 x 2 yn 1 2nx 1 y n n(n 1) yn 1 (VTU July-04)
Sol: Consider x tan(log y)
1
i.e. tan 1 x log y or y e tan x
Differentiating w.r.t x,
1 1 y
y1 e tan x . 2
1 x 1 x2
1 x 2 y1 y ie 1 x 2 y1 y 0 -----------*
We differentiate * n-times using Leibnitz‟s theorem,
We get
D n 1 x 2 y1 D n ( y) 0
ie.
D ( y1 )(1 x 2 ) nC1 D n 1 ( y1 ) D(1 x 2 ) n C 2 D n 2 ( y1 ) D 2 (1 x 2 ) ....
n
Dn y 0
n(n 1)
ie y n 1 (1 x 2 ) ny n (2 x) y n 1 (2) 0 .... yn 0
2!
1 x 2 yn 1 2nx 1 y n n(n 1) y n 1 0

1 1
m m
4. If y m y m 2 x , or y x x2 1 or y x x2 1
Show that x 2 1 yn 2 (2n 1) xyn 1 n 2 m 2 yn 0 (VTU Feb-02)

1 1 1 1
Sol: Consider y m
y m
2x y m
1
2x
ym
1 2 1 1
y m
2x y m
1 0 Which is quadratic equation in y m

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

1 ( 2 x) ( 2 x) 2 4(1)(1) 2x 4x 2 4
y m

2(1) 2
2x 2 x 2 1 1
x x2 1 y m
x x2 1
2
m
y x x2 1
m m
so, we can consider y x x2 1 or y x x2 1

m
Let us take y x x2 1
m 1 1
y1 mx x2 1 1 ( 2 x)
2 x2 1
m 1 x2 1 x
y1 mx x2 1
x2 1
or
x 2 1 y1 my . On squaring

x 2 1 y12 m2 y 2 .

Again differentiating w.r.t x,

x 2 1 2 y1 y 2 y12 (2 x) m 2 (2 yy1 )
or
x 2 1 y2 xy1 m 2 y ( 2 y1 )
or
x 2 1 y2 xy1 m2 y 0 ------------(*)

Differentiating (*) n- times using Leibnitz‟s theorem and simplifying, we get

x 2 1 yn 2 (2n 1) xyn 1 n 2 m 2 yn 0

POLAR CURVES
Angle between Polar Curves:
Introduction:- We are familiar with Cartesian coordinate system for specifying a point
in the xy – plane. Another useful system for similar purpose is Polar coordinate system,
and the curves specified by these coordinates are referred to as polar curves.
A polar curve by name “three-leaved rose” is displayed below:

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

ө=
2

3
ө= ө=
4 4

ө=π ө=0

3
ө=
2

Any point P can be located on a plane with co-ordinates r ,

called polar co-ordinates of P where r = radius vector OP,(with pole „O‟)
= projection of OP on the
initial axis OA.(See Fig.)
The equation r f is known as a polar curve.
Polar coordinates r , can be related with Cartesian coordinates x, y through
the relations
Fig.1. Polar coordinate system
x r cos & y r sin .

Theorem 1: Angle between the radius vector and the tangent:

Y T

d
i.e., With usual notation prove that tan r L
dr φ
P(r, ө)
Proof:- Let “ ” be the angle between the radius vector OPL φ
and the tangent TPT 1 at the point `P` on the polar r
ψ
Ө A
curve r f . (See fig.2) O T
r = f(ө)
From Fig.2, Fig.2. Angle between radius
vector and the tangent
1
tan tan 1
tan tan
1 tan tan 1

dy tan tan
i.e. .................(1)
dx 1 tan tan

DEPT OF MATHS, SJBIT Page 22

ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

On the other hand, we have x r cos ; y r sin differentiating these,

w.r.t ,
dx dr dy dr
r sin cos & r cos sin
d d d d
dr
dy r cos sin
dy d d dr
dividing the Nr & Dr by cos
dx dx dr d
d r sin cos
d
dy rd tan
dr
dx rd dr tan 1
dy tan rd
i.e. dr ………………….(2)
dx 1 tan rd
dr
Comparing equations (1) and (2)
we get tan rd
dr
1 dr
Note that cot
rd
A Note on Angle of intersection of two polar curves:-
If 1 and 2 are the angles between the common radius vector and the tangents
at the point of intersection of two curves r f1 and r f 2 then the
angle intersection of the curves is given by 1 2

Theorem 2: The length “p” of perpendicular from pole to the tangent in a polar curve
1 1 1 dr 2
i.e.(i) p r sin or (ii) 2 2
p r r4 d
Proof:- In the Fig.3, note that ON = p, the length of the perpendicular from the pole to
the tangent at p on r f .from the right angled triangle OPN,
ON
sin ON OP sin
OP
φ
i.e. p r sin ..............(i) P(r, ө)

1 1 1
r φ Ψ
Consider cos ec O Ө
p r sin r
r = f (ө)
1 1 1
2 2
cos ec 2 1 cot 2 P
p r r2
1 1 1 dr
2 N
1 Fig.3 Length of the perpendicular
p2 r2 rd
from the pole to the tangent

DEPT OF MATHS, SJBIT Page 23

ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

2
1 1 1 dr
............(ii)
p2 r2 r4 d
2
1 1 2 du
Note:-If u , we get 2 u
r p d

In this session, we solve few problems on angle of intersection of polar curves and pedal
equations.
Examples:-
Find the acute angle between the following polar curves
1. r a 1 cos and r b 1 cos (VTU-July-2003)

2 r sin cos and r 2 sin (VTU-July-2004)

3. r 16 sec 2 and r 25 cos ec 2
2 2
4. r a log and r a (VTU-July-2005)
log
a a
5. r and r 2
1 1
Sol:

1. Consider Consider
r a 1 cos r b 1 cos
Diff w.r.t Diff w.r.t

dr dr
a sin b sin
d d
d a 1 cos d b 1 cos
r r
dr a sin dr b sin
2 cos 2 2 sin 2
tan 2 tan 1 2
1
2 sin cos 2 sin cos
2 2 2 2
cot tan
2 2
i.e tan 21 2
tan 1 2 2
tan 1 tan
2 1 2

Angle between the curves

1 2
2 2 2 2
Hence, the given curves intersect orthogonally.

2. Consider Consider
r sin cos r 2 sin
Diff w.r.t Diff w.r.t

DEPT OF MATHS, SJBIT Page 24

ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

dr dr
cos sin 2 cos
d d
d sin cos d 2 sin
r r
dr cos sin dr 2 cos
tan 1
tan 1 (÷ Nr & Dr cos ) tan 2 tan
1 tan
tan 1
i.e tan 1 tan
1 tan 4 2

1 4
Angle between the curves = 1 2 4 4

3. Consider Consider
r 16 sec 2 r 25 cos ec 2
2 2
Diff w.r.t Diff w.r.t
dr dr
32 sec 2 tan .1 50 cos ec 2 cot .1
d 2 2 2 d 2 2 2
16 sec tan 25 cos ec 2 cot
2 2 2 2
2
d 16 sec d 25 cos ec 2
r 2 r 2
2 2
dr 16 sec tan dr 25 cos ec cot
2 2 2 2
tan cot tan tan tan tan
1 2 2 2 2 2 2

1 2 2 2 2
Angle of intersection of the curves = 1 2 2 2 2

4. Consider Consider
r a log r a
log
Diff w.r.t Diff w.r.t
dr a dr
.1
2
a log
d d
2
d d a log
r a log r
dr a dr log a
tan 1 log ..........(i) tan 2 log ..........(ii)
We know that

DEPT OF MATHS, SJBIT Page 25

ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

tan 1 tan 2
tan 1 2
1 tan 1 tan 2

log log
1 log log
2 log
i.e tan 1 2 2
............(iii)
1 log
From the data: a log r a log
2
1 or log 1
log
As is acute, we take by =1 e NOTE
Substituting e in (iii), we get
2e log e 2e
tan 1 2 2
 log ee 1
1 e log e 1 e2
2e
1 2 tan 1
1 e2

5. Consider Consider
a a
r as r
1 1 2
1 1 1 1 2 a
1 1
r a a r
Diff w.r.t Diff w.r.t
1 dr 1 1 dr
a
2 2 2
r2 d a r d
1 dr r 2r 1 dr
rd a 2 a rd
d a 2 d a
r i.e r
dr r dr 2r

2 2
a a 1
tan 1 tan 2
a 2 a
1
1 2
tan 1 1 tan 2 1
2
Now, we have
a a 2
r 2
a 1 a1
1 1
3 3
or 1 1 or 1
tan 1 2 & tan 2 1

DEPT OF MATHS, SJBIT Page 26

ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

tan 1 tan 2
Consider tan 1 2
1 tan 1 tan 2

2 1
3 3
1 2 1
1
1 2 tan 3

Pedal equations (p-r equations):- Any equation containing only p & r is

known as pedal equation of a polar curve.

(i) Eliminate r and from the Eqs.: (i) r f & p r sin

2
1 1 1 dr
(ii) Eliminate only from the Eqs.: (i) r f &
p2 r2 r4 d
Find the pedal equations for the polar curves:-
2a
1. 1 cos
r
2. r e c cot
3. r m a m sin m b m cos m (VTU-Jan-2005)
4. l r 1 e cos
Sol:
2a
1. Consider 1 cos ……….(i)
r
Diff. w.r.t
dr
2a 1 2 sin
r d
1 dr r sin
rd 2a
d 2a 1
r
dr r sin
1 cos 2 sin 2
tan 2 tan
sin 2 sin cos 2
2 2
tan tan
2 2
Using the value of is p r sin , we get
p r sin r sin .............(ii)
2 2
Eliminating “ ” between (i) and (ii)

DEPT OF MATHS, SJBIT Page 27

ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

1 cos r 2 2a
p2 r 2 sin 2 r2 [See eg: - (i)]
2 2 2 r
p2 ar.

This eqn. is only in terms of p and r and hence it is the pedal equation of the polar
curve.

2. Consider r e cot
Diff. w.r.t
dr
e cot cot r cot r e cot

d
We use the equation
2
1 1 1 dr
p2 r2 r4 d
1 1 2
r cot
r2 r4
1 1 1 1
cot 2 1 cot 2 cos ec 2
r2 r4 r2 r2
1 1
cos ec 2
p2 r 2

p2 r2 or r 2 p 2 cosec 2 is the required pedal equation

cosec 2

m m m
3.Consider r a sin m b cos m
Diff. w.r.t
dr
mr m 1 a m m cos m bm ( m sin m )
d
m
r dr
a m cos m b m sin m
r d
1 dr a m cos m b m sin m
r d a m sin m b m cos m

a m cos m b m sin m
cot
a m sin m b m cos m
1 1
Consider p r sin , cos ec
p r
1 1
cos ec 2
p2 r 2

1
1 cot 2
r2

DEPT OF MATHS, SJBIT Page 28

ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11
2
1 a m cos m bm sin m
1
r2 a m sin m bm cos m
2 2
1 a m sin m bm cos m a m cos m bm sin m
2
r2 a m sin m bm cos m
1 1 a 2m b2m
p2 r2 r 2m
r2 m 1
p2 is the required p-r equation
a 2m b2 m

4. Consider l r 1 cos
Diff w.r.t
1 dr l 1 dr
l e sin e sin
2
r d r rd
l cot e sin
r
cot r e sin
l
1 1
We have 2 1 cot 2 (see eg: 3 above)
p r2
1 1 l2 e 2 r 2 sin 2
Now
p2 r2 l2
1 2 2
2
1 e r 2 sin 2
r l
l l r
1 e cos ecos
r r
2
l r l r
cos sin 2 1 cos 2 1
re re
2
l r
l2 e2 r 2 1
1 1 re
p2 r2 l 2

1 e2 1 2
On simplification
p2 e2 lr

DEPT OF MATHS, SJBIT Page 29

ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

DERIVATIVES OF ARC LENGTH:

Consider a curve C in the XY plane. Let A be a fixed point on it. Let P and Q be
two neighboring positions of a variable point on the curve C. If „s‟ is the distance of P
from A measured along the curve then „s‟ is called the arc length of P. Let the tangent to
C at P make an angle with X-axis. Then (s, ) are called the intrinsic co-ordinates of
the point P. Let the arc length AQ be s + s. Then the distance between P and Q
measured along the curve C is s. If the actual distance between P and Q is C. Then
s= C in the limit Q P along C.

y
Q

s
s
P(s, )
A

x
0

s
i.e. Lt 1
Q P C

Cartesian Form:

Q( x x, y y)

C s

P ( x, y )

DEPT OF MATHS, SJBIT Page 30

ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

Let y f ( x) be the Cartesian equation of the curve C and let

P( x, y ) and Q( x x, y y ) be any two neighboring points on it as in fig.
Let the arc length PQ s and the chord length PQ C . Using distance between two

points formula we have PQ2 = ( C)2 =( x)2 +( y)2

2 2 2
C y C y
1 or 1
x x x x

2
s s C s y
1
x C x C x
s
We note that x 0 as Q P along C, also that when Q P, 1
C
When Q P i.e. when x 0, from (1) we get
2
ds dy
1 (1)
dx dx
Similarly we may also write
2
s s C s x
1
y C y C y

and hence when Q P this leads to

2
ds dx
1 (2)
dy dy

Parametric Form: Suppose x x(t ) and y y (t ) is the parametric form of the curve C.
Then from (1)
2
dy 2 2
ds dt 1 dx dy
1
dx dx dx dt dt
dt dt

2 2
ds ds dx dx dy
(3)
dt dx dt dt dt

Note: Since is the angle between the tangent at P and the X-axis,

DEPT OF MATHS, SJBIT Page 31

ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

dy
we have tan
dx
ds 2
1 y 1 tan 2 sec
dx
Similarly

ds 1 1
1 1 1 cot 2 co sec
dy 2 2
y tan

dx dy
i.e. cos and sin
ds ds
2 2
dx dy 2 2 2
1 ds dx dy
ds ds
We can use the following figure to observe the above geometrical connections
among dx, dy, ds and .

dy
ds

dx

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

Polar Curves:
Suppose r f ( ) is the polar equation of the curve C and P(r , ) and Q(r r, )
be two neighboring points on it as in figure:

C
Q( r r, )
N
s

P(r, )

O x

Consider PN OQ.
PN PN
In the right-angled triangle OPN, We have sin PN r sin r
OP r
since Sin = when is very small.
ON ON
From the figure we see that, cos ON r cos r (1) r
OP r
 cos 1 when 0
NQ OQ ON (r r) r r

From  PNQ, PQ 2
PN 2 NQ 2 i.e, ( C ) 2 (r )2 ( r )2
2 2
C r S S C S 2 r
r2  r
C C
S
We note that when Q P along the curve, 0 also 1
C
2
dS 2 dr
when Q P, r (4)
d d
2
C
Similarly, ( C )2 (r )2 ( r )2 1 r2
r r

DEPT OF MATHS, SJBIT Page 33

ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

2
S S C S
and  1 r2
r C r C r
2
dS 2 d
when Q P, we get 1 r (5)
dr dr
Note:
d
We know that tan r
dr
2
ds dr
r2 r 2 r 2cot 2 r 1 cot 2 rco sec
d d
Similarly
2
ds d
1 r2 1 tan2 sec
dr dr
dr d 1
cos and sin
ds ds r

The following figure shows the geometrical connections among ds, dr, d and

ds rd

dr

Thus we have :
2 2 2 2
ds dy ds dx ds dx dy
1 , 1 ,
dx dx dy dy dt dt dt

DEPT OF MATHS, SJBIT Page 34

ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

2 2
ds d ds dr
1 r2 and r2
dr dr d d
ds ds
Example 1: and for the curve x 2/3 y 2/3 a 2/3
dx dy
-1 1
2 -1/3 2 -1/3 x3 y 3
x 2/3 y 2/3 a 2/3 x y y' 0 y' -1
3 3 x
y3
2
ds dy y 2/3
Hence 1 1
dx dx x 2/3
1/3
x 2/3 y 2/3 a 2/3 a
x 2/3 x 2/3 x
Similarly
2
ds dx x 2/3 x 2/3 y 2/3
1 1
dy dy y 2/3 y 2/3
1/3
a 2/3 a
y 2/3 y

ds a2
Example 2: Find for the curve y a log
dx a 2 -x 2

dy 2x 2ax
y a log a 2 a log a 2 x2 a
dx a x2
2
a x2
2

2
ds dy 4a 2 x 2
1 1
dx dx a2 x2
2
a2 x2 4a 2 x 2 a2 x2
2 2
a2 x2 a2 x2
a2 x2
a2 x2
ds
Example 3: If x ae t sint, y ae t cost, find
dt
dx
x aet sint aet sint aet cost
dt

DEPT OF MATHS, SJBIT Page 35

ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

dy
y aet cost aet cost ae t sint
dt
2 2
ds dx dy 2 2
a 2e2t cos t sin t a 2e2t cos t sin t
dt dt dt
2 2
aet 2 cos 2t sin 2t a 2 et  a b a b 2 a 2 b2

t ds
Example 4: If x a cos t log tan ,y a sin t, find
2 dt

dx sec 2 t 1
a sin t 2 a sin t
dt 2 tan t t t
2 2sin cos
2 2

1 1 sin2t a cos 2t
a sin t a a cost cot t
sin t sin t sin t

dy
a cos t
dt
2 2
ds dx dy
dt dt dt
a 2 cos 2t cot 2t a 2cos 2t

a 2 cos 2t cot 2t 1

a 2cos 2t co sec2 t a 2cot 2t

a cot t
ds
Example 5: If x a cos3 t, y sin 3t, find
dt
dx dy
3 a cos 2t sin t , 3 a sin2t cos t
dt dt
2 2
ds dx dy
9a 2 cos 4t sin 2t 9a 2 sin 4t cos 2t
dt dt dt

DEPT OF MATHS, SJBIT Page 36

ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

ds
Example 6: If r 2 a 2 cos 2 , Show that r is constant
d
dr dr a2
r2 a 2cos 2 2r 2a 2 sin2 sin2
d d r
2
ds dr a4 1 4
r2 r2 2
sin2 2 r a 4 sin2 2
d d r r
ds
r r 4 a 4 sin2 2 a 4cos 2 2 a 4 sin2 2
d
ds
a 2 cos 2 sin2 2 a2 constant r is constant for r 2 a 2cos2
d

r k 2 r2 ds
Example 7: For the curve cos-1 , Show that r is constant.
k r dr

2r
r k 2 r 2 (1)
d 1 1 2 k 2
r 2
1 r2 k2 r2
dr r2 k r2 k2 r2 r2 k2 r2
1
k2

1 k2 r2 k2 k2 r2
k2 r2 r2 k2 r2 r2 k2 r2 r

ds d
1 r2 2
dr dr

2
k2 r2 r2 k2 r2 k
1 r 2
r r r
ds
Hence r k (constant)
dr
ds r ds r2
Example 8: For a polar curve r f show that ,
dr r2 p2 d p

dr d 1
We know that cos and sin
ds ds r

dr p2 r2 p2
cos 1 sin2 1 p rsin
ds r2 r

DEPT OF MATHS, SJBIT Page 37

ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

ds r
dr r 2
p2

ds r r r2
Also
d sin p p
r

CURVATURE:
Consider a curve C in XY-plane and let P, Q be any two neighboring points on it.
Let arc AP=s and arc PQ= s. Let the tangents drawn to the curve at P, Q respectively
make angles and + with X-axis i.e., the angle between the tangents at P and Q is
. While moving from P to Q through a distance„ s‟, the tangent has turned through the
angle „ ‟. This is called the bending of the arc PQ. Geometrically, a change in

represents the bending of the curve C and the ratio represents the ratio of bending of
s
C between the point P & Q and the arc length between them.

y
Q
s
P

o x

d
Rate of bending of Curve at P is Lt
ds Q P s

This rate of bending is called the curvature of the curve C at the point P and is denoted by
d
(kappa). Thus We note that the curvature of a straight line is zero since there
ds
exist no bending i.e. =0, and that the curvature of a circle is a constant and it is not equal
to zero since a circle bends uniformly at every point on it

DEPT OF MATHS, SJBIT Page 38

ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

1
If 0, then is called the radius of curvature and is denoted by (rho - Greek letter).

1 ds
d
Radius of curvature in Cartesian form :
Suppose y = f(x) is the Cartesian equation of the curve considered in figure.

y
c

x
0

dy d2 y d d ds
we have y tan y sec 2 1 tan2
dx dx 2 dx ds dx
2
ds dy
But we know that 1
dx dx
3
2 2
dy
2 2
1
d2y dy d dy ds dx
1 1
dx 2 dx ds dx d d2y
dx 2
3
2 2
ds 1 y
d y
This is the expression for radius of curvature in Cartesian form.

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11
3
2 2
dx
1
dy
NOTE: We note that when y‟= , we find using the formula
d 2x
dy 2

Example 9: Find the radius of curvature of the curve x3+y3 = 2a3 at the point (a, a).
x2
x3 y3 2a 3 3x 2 3 y 2 y 0 y hence at a, a , y 1
y2

y2 2x x2 2 y y 2a3 2a3 4
y , hence at a, a , y
y4 a4 a
3 3
2 2 2 2
1 y 1 1 a a
i.e., 2 2
y 4 4 2
a
Example 10: Find the radius of curvature for x y a at the point where it meets

the line y=x.

a
On the line y x, x x a i.e 2 x a or x
4
a a
i.e., We need to find at ,
4 4

1 1 y a a
x y a y 0 i.e y , hence at , ,y 1
2 x 2 y x 4 4

1 1
x y y
2 y 2 x
Also, y
x

a 1 a 1
( 1)
4 a 4 a 1 1
2 2 ( )
a a 4 4 2 2 ( 1) 4
at , , y
4 4 a a a a
4 4 4

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11
3 3
2 2 2 2
1 y 1 1 a a
2 2
y 4 4 2
a
Example 11: Show that the radius of curvature for the curve y 4 Sin x - Sin 2x

at x is 5 5
2 4
y 4 sin x - sin 2x y 4 cos x 2 cos 2 x

2 2

Also, y -4 sin x 4 sin 2x and when x ,y -4 sin 4 sin 4

2 2
3
2 2 3
1 y 1 22 2
5 5
y 4 4

Example 12: Find the radius of curvature for xy2 = a 3 - x 3 at (a, 0).

xy 2 a3 x3 y 2 2 xy y 3x 2

3x 2 y 2
y and at (a, 0), y
2 xy
dx 2 xy dx
In such cases we write 2 2
and at (a, 0), 0
dy 3x y dy

dx dx
2
3x 2 y2 2 y 2x 2 xy 6 x 2y
dx 2 xy dx dy dy
Also 2
dy 3x y 2
2
dy 2 3x 2 y2

d2 x 3a 2 0 0 2a 0 6a 3 2
At a, 0 , 2
dy2 3a 2 0 9a 4 3a

3
2 2
dx
1 3
dy 1 o2 2
3a
2
or
d x 2 2
dy 2 3a

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

1. Find the radius of curvature of the curve

x a log(sect tant), y asect
x a log(sect tant)
dx a a sec t (seet tant)
sec t tan t sec 2 t
dt sec t tan t (seet tant)
dx
a sec t
dt
Also y a sec t gives
dy
a sec t tan t
dt
dy dy dt a sec t tan t
Now , y1
dx dt dx a sec t
y1 tan t
Differentiating w.r.t x we get
dt
y2 sec 2 t
dx
sec t
y2
a
3
1 y12 2

we have
y2
3
a 1 tan 2 t 2

sec t
a sec 2 t

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

2.

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1.

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2.

3.

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

MODULE II

DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS-II
CONTENTS:

Taylor‟s and Maclaurin‟s theorems for function of o ne

variable……………………………………………………49

Indeterminate forms……………………………………………… 53

L‟Hospital‟s rule (without proof)…………………………………55

Partial derivatives…………………………………………68

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

Statement:

Suppose a function f (x) satisfies the following two conditions:

(i) f (x) and it‟s first (n-1) derivatives are continuous in a closed interval a, b

(ii) f (n 1) ( x) is differentiable in the open interval a, b

Then there exists at least one point c in the open interval a, b such that

(b a )2 (b a )3
f (b) f (a ) (b a ) f (a ) f (a ) f (a ) …..
2 3
(b a )n 1 ( n 1) (b a )n ( n)
..... f (a) f (c) (1)
n 1 n
Taking b a h and for 0 1 , the above expression (1) can be rewritten as
h2 h3 h n 1 ( n 1) h n ( n)
f (a h) f (a ) hf (a ) f (a ) f (a ) .... f (a ) f (a h) (2)
2 3 n 1 n
Taking b=x in (1) we may write

( x a)2 ( x a )3 ( x a) n 1 ( n 1)
f ( x) f (a) ( x a) f (a) f (a) f (a) ... f ( a) Rn (3)
2 3 n 1
( x a)n ( n)
Where Rn f (c ) Re mainder term after n terms
n

When n , we can show that Rn 0 , thus we can write the Taylor‟s series as

( x a)2 ( x a)n 1 ( n 1)
f ( x) f (a) ( x a) f (a) f (a) ... f (a) ....
2 n 1
( x a)n ( n)
f (a) f (a) (4)
n 1
n

Using (4) we can write a Taylor‟s series expansion for the given function f(x) in powers
of (x-a) or about the point „a‟.

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

Maclaurin‟s series:
(Scottish Mathematician Colin Maclaurin‟s 1698-1746)

When a=0, expression (4) reduces to a Maclaurin‟s expansion given by

x2 x n 1 ( n 1)
f ( x) f (0) xf (0) f (0) ... f (0) ....
2 n 1
x n ( n)
f (0) f (0) (5)
n 1
n

x up to the fourth degree term.

4
The Taylor‟s expansion for f (x) about is
4
(x )2 (x )3 (x )4
f ( x) f ( ) (x )f ( ) 4 f ( ) 4 f ( ) 4 f (4) ( ) .... (1)
4 4 4 2 4 3 4 4 4

1 1
f ( x) sin x f sin ; f ( x) cos x f cos
4 4 2 4 4 2
1
f ( x) sin x f sin
4 4 2

1
f ( x) cos x f cos
4 4 2

1
f (4) ( x) sin x f (4) sin
4 4 2
Substituting these in (1) we obtain the required Taylor‟s series in the form
(x )2 (x )3 (x )4
1 1 4 1 4 1 4 1
f ( x) (x )( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ....
2 4 2 2 2 3 2 4 2

(x )2 (x )3 (x )4
1 4 4 4
f ( x) 1 (x ) ...
2 4 2 3 4

Example 2………………………….: Obtain a Taylor‟s expansion for f ( x) loge x up

4
to the term containing x 1 and hence find loge(1.1).

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

The Taylor‟s series for f (x) about the point 1 is

( x 1)2 ( x 1)3 ( x 1)4 (4)
f ( x) f (1) ( x 1) f (1) f (1) f (1) f (1) .... (1)
2 3 4

1
Here f ( x) loge x f (1) log 1 0 ; f ( x) f (1) 1
x
1 2
f ( x) f (1) 1; f ( x) f (1) 2
2
x x3
6
f (4) ( x) f (4) (1)
6 etc.,
4
x
Using all these values in (1) we get
( x 1)2 ( x 1)3 ( x 1)4
f ( x) loge x 0 ( x 1)(1) ( 1) (2) ( 6) ....
2 3 4

( x 1)2 ( x 1)3 ( x 1)4

loge x ( x 1) ....
2 3 4

(0.1)2 (0.1)3 (0.1) 4

loge (1.1) (0.1) .... 0.0953
2 3 4

Example 18: Using Taylor‟s theorem Show that

x2 x3
loge (1 x) x for 0 1, x 0
2 3

Taking n=3 in the statement of Taylor‟s theorem, we can write

x2 x3
f (a x) f (a) xf (a) f (a) f (a x) (1)
2 3
1 1 2
Consider f ( x) loge x f ( x) ; f ( x) and f ( x)
2
x x x3
Using these in (1), we can write,
1 x2 1 x3 2
log(a x) log a x (2)
a 2 a2 3 (a x)3
For a=1 in (2) we write,
x 2 x3 1 x2 x3 1
log(1 x) log1 x x
2 3 (1 x)3 2 3 (1 x)3

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

1
Since x 0 and 0, (1 x)3 1 and therefore 1
(1 x )3
x2 x3
log(1 x) x
2 3

Example 19: Obtain a Maclaurin‟s series for f ( x) sin x up to the term containing x5.

The Maclaurin‟s series for f(x) is

x2 x3 x 4 (4) x5 (5)
f ( x) f (0) x f (0) f (0) f (0) f (0) f (0) .... (1)
2 3 4 5

f ( x) sin x f (0) sin 0 0 f ( x) cos x f (0) cos 0 1

f (4) ( x) sin x f (4) (0) sin 0 0 f (5) ( x) cos x f (5) (0) cos 0 1

Substituting these values in (1), we get the Maclaurin‟s series for f ( x) sin x as
2 3 4 5
x x x x
f ( x) sin x 0 x (1) (0) ( 1) (0) (1) ....
2 3 4 5
x3 x5
sin x x ....
3 5

Indeterminate Forms:

While evaluating certain limits, we come across expressions of the form

0
, ,0 , , 00 , 0 and 1 which do not represent any value. Such expressions are
0
called Indeterminate Forms.

We can evaluate such limits that lead to indeterminate forms by using L‟Hospital‟s Rule
(French Mathematician 1661-1704).

L‟Hospital‟s Rule:
If f(x) and g(x) are two functions such that

x a x a

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

(ii) f ( x) andg ( x) exist and g (a) 0

f ( x) f ( x)
Then lim lim
x a g ( x) x a g ( x)

The above rule can be extended, i.e, if

f ( x) f ( x) f ( x)
f (a) 0 and g (a) 0 then lim lim lim .....
x a g ( x) x a g ( x) x a g ( x)

Note:

0
1. We apply L‟Hospital‟s Rule only to evaluate the limits that in , forms. Here we
0
f ( x)
differentiate the numerator and denominator separately to write and apply the
g ( x)
0
limit to see whether it is a finite value. If it is still in or form we continue to
0
f ( x)
differentiate the numerator and denominator and write further and apply the
g ( x)
limit to see whether it is a finite value. We can continue the above procedure till we
get a definite value of the limit.

2. To evaluate the indeterminate forms of the form 0 , , we rewrite the functions

0
involved or take L.C.M. to arrange the expression in either or and then apply
0
L‟Hospital‟s Rule.
3. To evaluate the limits of the form 00 , 0 and 1 i.e, where function to the power of
function exists, call such an expression as some constant, then take logarithm on both
0
sides and rewrite the expressions to get or form and then apply the L‟Hospital‟s
0
Rule.

4. We can use the values of the standard limits like

sin x tan x x x
lim 1; lim 1; lim 1; lim 1; lim cos x 1; etc
x 0 x x 0 x x 0 sin x x 0 tan x x 0

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

Evaluate the following limits:

sin x x
Example 1: Evaluate lim
x 0 tan 3 x

sin x x 0 cos x 1 0 sin x 0

lim lim lim
x 0 tan 3 x 0 x 0 2 2
3tan x sec x 0 x 0 4 3 2
6 tan x sec x 6 tan x sec x 0

cos x 1
lim
x 0 6sec x 24 tan x sec x 18 tan 2 x sec 4 x 12 tan 4 x sec 2 x
6 2 4
6

Method 2:

sin x x
sin x x 0 x3 0 sin x x 0 tan x
lim lim 3
lim  lim 1
x 0 tan 3 x 0 x 0 0 x 0 x 3
0 x 0 x
tan x
x
cos x 1 0 sin x 0 cos x 1
lim 2
lim lim
x 0 3x 0 x 0 6x 0 x 0 6 6

a x bx
Example 2: Evaluate lim
x 0 x

ax bx 0
lim
x 0 x 0
a x log a b x log b
lim
x 0 1
a
log a log b log
b

x sin x
Example 3: Evaluate lim 2
x 0
ex 1

x sin x 0 sin x x cos x 0 cos x cos x x sin x 1 1 0 2

lim 2
lim lim 1
x 0
e x
1 0 x 0 2 ex 1 ex 0 x 0 2 e x .e x (e x 1)e x 2[1 0] 2

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

x e x log(1 x)
Example 4: Evaluate lim
x 0 x2
1
ex x ex
1 ex ex x ex 2
x e x log(1 x) 0 1 x 0 1 x 1 1 0 1 3
lim lim lim
x 0 x2 0 x 0 2x 0 x 0 2 2 2

cosh x cos x
Example 5: Evaluate lim
x 0 x sin x
cosh x cos x 0 sinh x sin x 0 cosh x cos x 1 1 2
lim lim lim 1
x 0 x sin x 0 x 0 sin x x cos x 0 x 0 cos x cos x x sin x 1 1 0 2

cos x log(1 x) 1 x
Example 6: Evaluate lim
x 0 sin 2 x

1 1
sin x 1 cos x
cos x log(1 x) 1 x 0 1 x 0 (1 x)2 1 1
lim lim lim 0
x 0 sin 2 x 0 x 0 sin 2 x 0 x 0 2 cos 2 x 2

xx x
Example 7: Evaluate lim
x 1 x 1 log x

xx x 0 x x (1 log x) 1 0 x x (1 log x) 2 xx 1
1 1
lim lim lim 2
x 1 x 1 log x 0 x 1 1 0 x 1 1 1
1
x x2

1
since y xx log y x log x y
y
1 log x y y (1 log x)
d
then ( x x ) x x (1 log x)
dx

sec2 x 2 tan x
Example 8: Evaluate lim
x 1 cos 4 x
4
2
sec x 2 tan x 0 2sec2 x tan x 2sec2 x 0 2sec4 x 4sec2 x tan 2 x 4sec2 x tan x
lim lim lim
x 1 cos 4 x 0 x 4 sin 4 x 0 x 16 cos 4 x
4 4 4

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11
4 2 2
2 2 4 2 (1) 2 4 2 8 1
16 16 2

log(sin x. cos ec a)
Example 9: Evaluate lim
x a log(cos a.sec x)
cos x cos ec a
log(sin x. cos ec a) 0 sin x. cos ec a cot x
lim lim lim cot 2 a
x a log(cos a.sec x) 0 x a sec x tan x.cos a x a tan x

cos a.sec x

ex e x 2 cos x
Example 10: Evaluate lim
x 0 x sin x
ex e x 2 cos x 0 ex e x
2sin x 0 e x e x 2 cos x 1 1 2
lim lim lim 2
x 0 x sin x 0 x 0 sin x x cos x 0 x 0 cos x cos x x sin x 1 1 0

x cos x log(1 x)
Example 11: Evaluate lim
x 0 x2
1
cos x x sin x
x cos x log(1 x) 0 1 x 0
lim lim
x 0 x2 0 x 0 2x 0

1
sin x sin x x cos x
(1 x) 2 0 0 0 1 1
lim
x 0 2 2 2

log(1 x 2 )
Example 12: Evaluate lim
x 0 log cos x

2x
log(1 x 2 ) 0 1 x2 2 x cos x 0 2 cos x 2 x sin x 2 0
lim lim lim 2
lim 2
x 0 log cos x 0 x 0 sin x x 0 (1 x )sin x 0 x 0 (1 x 2 ) cos x 2 x sin x 1 0
cos x

tan x sin x
Example 13: Evaluate lim
x 0 sin 3 x

tan x sin x 0 sec 2 x cos x 0 2sec 2 x tan x sin x 0

lim lim lim
x 0 sin 3 x 0 x 0 3sin 2 x cos x 0 x 0 6sin x cos 2 x 3sin 3 x 0

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

4sec 2 x tan 2 x 2sec 4 x cos x 0 2 1 3 1

lim
x 0 6 cos 3 x 12sin 2 x cos x 9 sin 2 x cos x 6 0 0 6 2

Method 2:
tan x sin x
tan x sin x x3 tan x sin x 0 sin x
lim lim 3
lim  lim 1
x 0 sin 3 x x 0
sin x x 0 x 3
0 x 0 x
x
2
sec x cos x 0 2sec2 x tan x sin x 0
lim lim
x 0 3x 2 0 x 0 6x 0

4sec2 x tan 2 x 2sec4 x cos x 0 2 1 3 1

lim
x 0 6 6 6 2

tan x x
Example 14: Evaluate lim
x 0 x 2 tan x

tan x x
tan x x x3 tan x x 0 tan x
lim lim lim  lim 1
x 0 x 2 tan x x 0 tan x x 0 x3 0 x 0 x
x
sec2 x 1 0 2sec2 x tan x 0 4sec2 x tan 2 x 2sec4 x 0 2 1
lim lim lim
x 0 3x 2 0 x 0 6x 0 x 0 6 6 3

eax e ax
Example 15: Evaluate lim
x 0 log(1 bx)

eax e ax 0 aeax ae ax
lim lim
x 0 log(1 bx ) 0 x 0 b / (1 bx )

a a 2a
b b

a x 1 x log a
Example 16: Evaluate lim
x 0 x2
a x 1 x log a 0 a x log a log a 0 a x (log a) 2 1
lim lim lim (log a) 2
x 0 x2 0 x 0 2x 0 x 0 2 2

e x log(e ex)
Example 17: Evaluate lim
x 0 x2

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e x log(e ex) e x log e(1 x) e x log e log(1 x) 0

lim lim lim
x 0 x2 x 0 x2 x 0 x2 0
1 1
ex ex
1 x 0 (1 x) 2 1 1
lim lim 1
x 0 2x 0 x 0 2 2

Limits of the form :

log(sin 2 x)
Example 18: Evaluate lim
x 0 log(sin x)

log(sin 2 x) (2cos 2 x / sin 2 x) 2cot 2 x 2 tan x 0 2sec 2 x 2

lim lim lim lim lim 1
x 0 log(sin x) x 0 (cos x / sin x) x 0 cot x x 0 tan 2 x 0 x 0 2sec 2 2 x 2

log x
Example 19: Evaluate lim
x 0 cos ecx

log x 1\ x sin 2 x 0 2sin 2 x 0

lim lim lim lim 0
x 0 cos ecx x 0 cos ec x.cot x x 0 x cos x 0 x 0 cos x x sin x 1 0

log cos x
Example 20: Evaluate lim
x tan x
2

log cos x tan x tan x sin x cos x 0

lim lim lim lim 0
x tan x x sec 2 x x sec 2 x x 1 1
2 2 2 2

log(1 x)
Example 21: Evaluate lim
x 1 cot x

log(1 x) 1/(1 x) sin 2 x 0 2 sin x cos x 0

lim lim lim lim 0
x 1 cot x x 1 cos ec 2 x x 1 (1 x) 0 x 1

x 0

log tan 3 x log e a

lim log tan 2 x tan 3 x lim  log b a
x 0 x 0 log tan 2 x log e b

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

3sec 2 3 x / tan 3 x 3 / sin 3 x.cos 3 x 3 / sin 3 x.cos 3 x

lim lim lim
x 0 2sec 2 2 x / tan 2 x x 0 2 / sin 2 x.cos 2 x x 0 2 / sin 2 x.cos 2 x

6 / sin 6 x 6sin 4 x 0 24 cos 4 x 24

lim lim lim 1
x 0 4 / sin 4 x x 0 4sin 6 x 0 x 0 24 cos 6 x 24

log( x a)
Example 23: Evaluate lim
x a log(e x ea )

log( x a) 1/( x a) (e x e a ) 0 ex ea
lim lim lim lim 1
x a log(e x ea ) x a e /(e x
x
ea ) x a ex ( x a) 0 x a ex ( x a) e x ea

Limits of the form 0 : To evaluate the limits of the form 0 , we rewrite the
0
given expression to obtain either or form and then apply the L‟Hospital‟s Rule.
0
1
Example 24: Evaluate lim(a x 1) x
x
1
1 1
1 a x (log a )
x
(a x
1) 0 x2
lim(a 1) x 0 form lim lim
x x 1 0 x 1
x x2
1
lim a x (log a) a 0 log a log a
x

Example 25: Evaluate lim(1 sin x) tan x

x
2

(1 sin x) 0
lim(1 sin x) tan x 0 form lim
x x cot x 0
2 2

cos x 0
lim 0
x cos ec 2 x 1
2

Example 26: Evaluate limsec .log x

x 1 2x
log x 0
limsec .log x 0 form lim
x 1 2x x 1
cos 0
2x

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

1/ x 2x 2
lim lim
x 1 x 1
2 sin sin
2 2x x2 2x

Example 27: Evaluate lim x log tan x

x 0

log tan x
lim x log tan x 0 form lim
x 0 x 0 (1/ x)

sec2 x / tan x x2
lim lim
x 0 1 x 0 sin x.cos x

x2

2 x2 0 4x 0
lim lim 0
x 0 sin 2 x 0 x 0 2cos 2 x 2

x
Example 28: Evaluate lim (1 x 2 ) tan
x 1 2
x
lim (1 x 2 ) tan 0 form
x 1 2
1 x2 0 2x
lim lim
x 1 x 0 x 1 x
cot cos ec 2
2 2 2
2 4

Example 29: Evaluate lim tan x.log x

x 0

log x
lim tan x.log x 0 form lim
x 0 x 0 cot x
1/ x sin 2 x 0 sin 2 x 0
lim lim lim 0
x 0 cos ec 2 x x 0 x 0 x 0 1 1

Limits of the form : To evaluate the limits of the form , we take

0
L.C.M. and rewrite the given expression to obtain either or form and then apply
0
the L‟Hospital‟s Rule.

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1
Example 30: Evaluate lim cot x
x 0 x

1 1 cos x
lim cot x lim form
x 0 x x 0 x sin x

sin x x cos x 0 cos x cos x x sin x

lim lim
x 0 x sin x 0 x 0 sin x x cos x

x sin x 0
lim
x 0 sin x x cos x 0
sin x x cos x
lim
x 0 cos x cos x x sin x
0 0
0
1 1 0

Example 31: Evaluate lim sec x tan x

x
2

1 sin x
lim sec x tan x lim form
x x cos x cos x
2 2

1 sin x 0 cos x 0
lim lim 0
x cos x 0 x sin x 1
2 2

1 x
Example 32: Evaluate lim
x 1 log x x 1

1 x ( x 1) x log x 0
lim form lim
x 1 log x x 1 x 1 ( x 1) log x 0

1 1 log x log x 0 l/ x 1 1
lim lim lim
x 1 x 1 x 1 1 0 x 1 1 1 1 1 2
log x 1 log x
x x x2 x

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1 1
Example 33: Evaluate lim x
x 0 x e 1

1 1 (e x 1) x 0
lim x
form lim
x 0 x e 1 x 0 x(e x 1) 0

ex 1 0 ex
lim lim
x 0 (e x 1) xe x 0 x 0 ex e x xe x
1 1
1 1 0 2

1 1
Example 34: Evaluate lim
x 0 sin x x

1 1 x sin x 0
lim form lim
x 0 sin x x x 0 x sin x 0

1 cos x 0 sin x 0
lim lim 0
x 0 sin x x cos x 0 x 0 cos x cos x x sin x 1 1

1 log(1 x)
Example 35: Evaluate lim
x 0 x x2

1 log(1 x) x log(1 x) 0
lim lim
x 0 x x2 x 0 x2 0
1 1
1
1 x 0 (1 x) 2 1
lim lim
x 0 2x 0 x 0 2 2

a x
Example 36: Evaluate lim cot
x 0 x a

x x
cos cos
a x a a a a 0
lim cot lim form lim
x 0 x a x 0 x x x 0 x x 0
sin sin
a a

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x x 1 x x x x
a sin x cos a. cos cos sin
a a 0 a a a a a
lim lim
x 0 x 0 x 0 x x x
x sin sin cos
a a a a

x x 1 x x 1 x
sin sin . .cos
a a 0 a a a a a 0 0
lim lim 0
x 0 x x x 0 x 0 1 x 1 x x x 1 1
sin cos cos cos 2
sin 0
a a a a a a a a a a a

sin 2 x a sin x
Example 37: Find the value of „a‟ such that lim is finite. Also find the
x 0 x3
value of the limit.

sin 2 x a sin x 0 2 cos 2 x a cos x 2 a

Let A= lim lim finite
x 0 x3 0 x 0 3x 2 0

We can continue to apply the L‟Hospital‟s Rule, if 2+a=0 i.e., a= -2 .

For a 2,
2 cos 2 x 2 cos x 0 4sin 2 x 2sin x 0
A lim lim
x 0 3x 2 0 x 0 6x 0

8cos 2 x 2cos x 8 2
lim 1
x 0 6 6

x(1 a cos x) b sin x 1

Example 38: Find the values of „a‟ and „b‟ such that lim .
x 0 x3 3

x(1 a cos x) b sin x 0 (1 a cos x) ax sin x b cos x 1 a b

Let A lim lim finite
x 0 x3 0 x 0 3x 2 0

For a b 1 ,

(1 a cos x) ax sin x b cos x 0 2a sin x ax cos x b sin x 0

A lim lim
x 0 3x 2 0 x 0 6x 0

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

3a cos x ax sin x b cos x 3a b

lim finite
x 0 6 6

1 3a b 1
This finite value is given as . i.e., 3a b 2
3 6 3
1 1
Solving the equations a b 1 and 3a b 2we obtain a and b .
2 2

a cosh x b cos x
Example 39: Find the values of „a‟ and „b‟ such that lim 1.
x 0 x2

a cosh x b cos x a b
Let A lim finite
x x20 0
We can continue to apply the L‟Hospital‟s Rule, if a-b=0, since the denominator=0 .

For a b 0 ,
a cosh x b cos x 0
A lim
x 0 x2 0
a sinh x b sin x 0
lim
x 0 2x 0
a cosh x b cos x a b
lim
x 0 2 2

a b 2

Limits of the form 00 , 0

and 1 : To evaluate such limits, where function to the
power of function exists, we call such an expression as some constant, then take
0
logarithm on both sides and rewrite the expressions to get or form and then apply
0
the L‟Hospital‟s Rule.

x 0

Let A lim x x (00 form)

x 0
Take log on both sides to write

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

log x
log e A lim log x x lim x.log x (0 form) lim
x 0 x 0 x 0 1/ x

1/ x x 0
lim lim 0
x 0 ( 1/ x 2 ) x 0 1 1

loge A 0 A e0 1 lim x x 1
x 0

1
x2
Example 41: Evaluate lim(cos x)
x 0
1
x2
Let A lim(cos x) (1 form)
x 0

Take log on both sides to write

1
x2
1 log cos x 0
log e A lim log(cos x) lim log cos x ( 0 form) lim
x 0 x 0 x2 x 0 x2 0

tan x 0 sec2 x 1
lim lim
x 0 2x 0 x 0 2 2

1 1
1 1 2 1
log e A A e2 lim(cos x) x
2 e x 0 e

x
2

form)
x
2

x x
2 2

log tan x sec2 x / tan x cos x 0

lim lim lim 0
x sec x x sec x.tan x x sin 2 x 1
2 2 2

x
2

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11
1
tan x x2
Example 43: Evaluate lim( )
x 0 x
1
tan x x2
Let A lim( ) (1 form)
x 0 x

Take log on both sides to write

1
tan x x2 1 tan x
log e A lim log( ) lim 2 log( )( 0 form)
x 0 x x 0 x x
tan x sec2 x 1
log( )
x 0
lim 2
lim tan x x
x 0 x 0 x 0 2x
1 1 2 1
2 x sin 2 x 0
lim sin x.cos x x lim sin 2 x x lim 2
x 0 2x x 0 2x x 0 2 x sin 2 x 0

2 2 cos 2 x 0 4sin 2 x 0
lim 2
lim 2
x 0 4 x sin 2 x 4 x cos 2 x 0 x 0 4sin 2 x 16 x cos 2 x 8 x sin 2 x 0

8cos 2 x 8 1
lim
x 0 24cos 2 x 48 x sin 2 x 16 x 2 cos 2 x 24 3

1 1 1
1 3
tan x x2 3
log e A A e lim( ) e
3 x 0 x
1
Example 44: Evaluate lim(a x x) x
x 0
1
Let A lim(a x x) x (1 form)
x 0

Take log on both sides to write

1
1
log e A lim log(a x x) x lim log(a x x) ( 0 form)
x 0 x 0 x

lim lim
x 0 x 0 x 0 1

log a 1 log a log e log ae

1
log e A log ea A ea Hence lim(a x x) x ea.
x 0

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

x tan 2 ax
Example 45: Evaluate lim(2 )
x a a
x tan 2 ax
Let A lim(2 ) (1 form)
x a a

Take log on both sides to write

x tan 2 ax x x
log e A lim log(2 ) lim tan .log(2 ) 0 form
x a a x a 2a a

( 1/ a)
x x x
log(2
) 2 sin 2
lim a 0 lim a lim .
2 2a 2
x a x 0 x a x x a x
cot cos ec 2 2
2a 2a 2a a

2
2 x tan 2 ax 2
log e A A e Hence lim(2 ) e .
x a a

PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION:
Introduction: We often come across qualities which depend on two or more variables.
For e.g. the area of a rectangle of length x and breadth y is given by
Area = A(x,y) = xy. The area A(x, y) is, obliviously, a function of two variables.
Similarly, the distances of the point (x, y, z) from the origin in three-dimensional space is
an example of a function of three variables x, y, z.

Partial derivatives: Let z = f(x, y) be a function of two variables x and y.

z f
The first order partial derivative of z w.r.t. x, denoted by or or zx or fx is defined
x x
z f x x, y f x, y
as lim
x x 0 x
z
From the above definition, we understand that is the ordinary derivative of z
x
w.r.t x, treating y as constant.
z f
The first order partial derivative of z w.r.t y, denoted by or or zy or fy is defined as
y y

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

z f x, y y f x, y
lim
y y 0 y
z
From the above definition, we understand that is the ordinary derivative of z
y
w.r.t y, treating x as constant
2 2
z z f
The partial derivatives 2
or or zxx or fxx;
x x x x2
2 2
z z f
2
or or zyy or fyy;
y y y y2
2
z z
or zyx or fyx
y y x y
2
z z
and or zxy or fxy
y y x y
are known as second order Partial derivatives.

In all ordinary cases, it can be verified that

2 2
z z
x y y x
The third and higher order partial derivatives of f(x,y) are defined in an analogous
way Also, the second and higher order partial derivatives of more than two
independent variables are defined similarly.

A note on rules of partial differentiation:-

All the rules of differentiation applicable to functions of a single
independent variable are applicable for partial differentiation also; the only
difference is that while differentiating partially w.r.t one independent variable all
other independent variables are treated as constants.

In this lesson we learn the concept of total derivatives of functions of two or

more variables and, also rules for differentiation of composite and implicit functions.

a) Total differential and Total derivative:-

For a function z f ( x, y ) of two variables, x and y the total differential (or
exact differential ) dz is defined by:
f f
dz dx dy --------------------------(1)
x x
Further, if z f ( x, y ) where x x(t ) , y y (t ) i.e. x and y are themselves
functions of an independent variable t, then total derivative of z is given by

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

dz f dx f dy
-------------------------(2)
dt x dt y dt
Similarly, the total differential of a function u f ( x, y, z ) is defined by
f f f
du dx dy dz -----------------(3)
x y z
Further, if u f ( x, y, z ) and if x x(t ) , y y (t ) , z z (t ) , then the total
derivative of u is given by

du f dx f dy f dz
---------------(4)
dt x dt y dt z dt

An implicit function with x as an independent variable and y as the dependent

variable is generally of the form z f ( x, y ) 0 . This gives
dz df
0 .Then, by virtue of expression (2) above, we get
dx dx

dz f f dy df f f dy
or , and hence
dx x y dx dx x y dx
f
f f dy dy x
0 , so that we get ----------- (5)
x y dx dx f
y

(c) Differentiation of composite functions:-

Let z be an function of x and y and that x (u, v) and y (u, v) are functions
of u and v then,

z f x f y
u x u y u

z f x f y
& -------------------(6)
v x v y v

Similarly, if z f (u, v) are functions of u and v and if u ( x, y ) and

v ( x, y ) are functions of x and y then,

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

z f u f v
x u x v x

z f u f v
& --------------------------(7)
y u y v y

Note:-1) The above formulae can be extended to functions of three are more
variables and formulas (6) and(7) are called Chain rule for partial differentiation.

2) The second and higher order partial derivatives of z f ( x, y ) can be obtained

by repeated applications of the above formulas

Evaluate:
1. Find the total differential of
(i) e x x sin y y cos y (ii) e xyz
Sol:- (i) Let z f x, y e x x sin y y cos y Then
z
e x 1 x sin y y cos y
x
z
and e x 1 x cos y y sin y Hence, using formula (1), we get
y
z z
dz dx dy
x y
i.e dz e x 1 x sin y y cos y dx e x 1 x cos y y sin y dy

(ii) Let z f ( x, y, z ) e xyz Then

u u u
yz e xyz ; xz e xyz ; xy e xyz
x y z
Total differential of z f ( x, y, z ) is (see formula (3) above)
u u u
du dx dy dz
x y z
e xyz yzdx zxdy xydz
dz
2. Find if
dt
(i) z xy 2 x 2 y ,where x at 2 , y 2at
(ii) u tan 1 y x ,where x e t e t , y e t e t (VTU-Jan 2003)

Sol:- (i) Consider z xy 2 x 2 y

z z
y 2 2 xy & 2 xy x2
x y

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

dx dy
Since x at 2 & y 2at , We have 2at , 2a
dt dt
Hence, using formula (2), we get
dz z dx z dy
dt x dt y dt
2
y 2 xy 2at 2 xy x 2 2a
y 2 2 xy y 2a 2 xy x 2 , Using y 2at
dz
y 3 2 xy 2 4axy 2ax 2
dt
dz
To get explicitly in terms of t, we substitute
dt
x at 2 & y 2at , to get
dz
2a 3 8t 3 5t 4
dt

(ii) Consider
u tan 1 y
x
u y u x
2 2
, 2
x x y y x y2
Since x e t e t
& y e t e t ,we have
dx dy
et e t y et e t x
dt dt
du u dx u dy
Hence ( see eqn (2))
dt x dt y dt
y x x2 y2
y x
x2 y2 x2 y2 x2 y2
Substituting x et e t & y et e t , we get
du 2
2t
dt e e 2t
dy
3. Find if (i) x y y x =Constant
dx
(ii) x e y 2 xy
Sol: - (i) Let z f ( x, y ) x y y x =Constant. Using formula (5)
f
dy x -----------------(*)
dx f
y

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

f f
But yx y 1
y x log y and x y log x xy x 1 Putting those in(*), we get
x y
dy yx y 1 y x log y
dx x y log x xy x 1
(ii) Let z f ( x, y ) e x e y 2 xy =Constant
f f
Now, ex 2y ; e y 2 x Using this in (8),
x y
f
dy x ex 2y
dx f ey 2x
y

4. (i) If z f ( x, y ) ,where x r cos , y r sin show that

2 2 2 2
z z z 1 z
(VTU July-2005)
x y r r2

(ii) If z f ( x, y ) ,where x e u e v
& y e u
e v ,Show that
z z z z
x y
u v x y

Sol: As x r cos and y r sin , we have

x x y y
cos , r sin ; sin & r cos .
r r
Using Chain rule (6) & (7) we have
z z x z y z z
cos sin
r x r y r x y

z z x z y z z
r sin r cos
x y x y
Squaring on both sides, the
above equations, we get
2 2 2
z z 2 z z z
cos sin 2 2 sin cos
r x y x y

2 2 2
1 z z 2 z z z
cos sin 2 2 sin cos
r2 x y x y

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

2 2 2 2
z 1 z z z
cos 2 sin 2
r r2 x y
2 2
z z
= as desired.
x y
(ii) As x e u e v & y e u e v , We have
x x y y
eu , e v, e u& ev
u v u v
Using Chain rule (6) we get
z z x z y z u z v
e e
u x u y u x y
z z x z y z z
e v ev
v x v y v x y

z z z u z
e e v e u
ev
u v x y
z z
x y
x y
u u u
5. (i) If u f ( x, z, y / z ) Then show that x y z 0 (VTU-July-2004)
x y z
(ii) If H f ( x y, y z , z x) , show that
H H H
0 (VTU-July-2003)
x y z
Sol: - (i) Let u f (v, w) , where v xz and w y
z
v v v w w 1 , w y
z, 0, x & 0,
x y z x y z z z2
Using Chain rule,
u u v u w u u u
z 0 z
x v x w x v w v

u u v u w u u 1 1 u
0
y v y w y v w z z w
u u v u w u u y u y u
x 2 x
z v z w z v w z v z2 w
From these, we get
u u u u y u u y u
x y z xz z x
x y z v z w v z2 w
=0
(ii) Let H f (u, v, w) Where u x y, v y z, w z x

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

u u u
Now, 1, 1, 0
x y z
v v v
0, 1, 1
x y z
w w u
1, 0, 1 Using Chain rule,
x y z
H H u H v HH w H H
1 0 1
x u x v x w u x v w
H H u H v HH w H v
1 1 0
y u y v y w u y v w
H H u H v HH w H H
0 1 1
z u z v z w u z v w
u u u
Adding the above equations, we get the required result x y z 0
x y z

Applications to Jacobians:
In this lesson, we study Jacobians, errors and approximations using the
concept of partial differentiation.

Jacobians:-
Jacobians were invented by German mathematician C.G. Jacob Jacobi (1804-
1851),who made significant contributions to mechanics, Partial differential equations and
calculus of variations.

Definition:- Let u and v are functions of x and y, then Jacobian of u and v w.r.t x and
denoted by
u, v u, v
J or J or
x, y x, y
is defined by
u u
u, v x y
J
x, y v v
x y
Similarly, if u, v, w are functions of three independent variables of x, y, z, then

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

u u u
x y z
u , v, w v v u
J J
x, y , z x y z
w w w
x y z
Remark:- In a similar way, Jacobian of n functions in n-variables can be defined
u, v
Note:- (i) If J , then the "inverse Jacobian" of the Jacobian J,
x, y
denoted by J ,is defined as

x, y
J
u, v
u, v, w x, y , z
(ii) Similarly, "inverse Jacobian" of J is defined as J
x, y, z u , v, w

Properties of Jacobians :-

u, v x, y
Property 1:- If J and J then JJ 1
x, y u, v

Proof:- Consider
u u x x
u, v x, y x y u v
JJ 1
x, y u, v v v y y
x y u v
u x u y u x u y
x u y u x v y v 1 0
1
v x v y v x v y 1 0
x u y u x v y v

Property 2:- (Chain rule for Jacobians):- If u and v are functions of r&s and r,s
are functions x&y,then
u, v u, v r, s
J J J
x, y r, s x, y

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

Proof:- Consider
u u r r
u, v r, s r s x y
J J
r, s x, y v v s s
r s x y
u r u s u r u s
r x s x r y s y
v r v s v r v s
r x s x r y s y
u u
x y u, v
J
v v x, y
x y

1. In Polar co-ordinates, x r cos , y r sin

u, v
we have r
r,
2. In spherical coordinates, x cos , y sin , z z, we have
x, y , z
, ,z

3. In spherical polar co-ordinates, x r sin cos , y r sin sin , z r cos

x y
Proof of 1:- we have, cos and sin
r r
x y
r sin and r cos

x x
x, y r cos r sin
r, y y sin r cos
r
r cos 2 r sin 2 r cos 2 sin 2 r

x y z
Proof of 2 :-we have cos , sin , 0

x y z
sin , cos , 0

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

z z z
0, 0, 0
z
x x x
z
cos sin 0
x, y , z y y y
sin cos 0
, ,z z
0 0 1
z z z
z

Proof of 3:- We have

x x x
sin cos , r cos cos , r sin sin
r
y y y
sin sin , r cos sin , r sin cos
r
z z z
cos , r sin , 0
r
sin cos r cos cos r sin sin
x, y , z
sin sin r cos sin r sin cos
r, ,
cos r sin 0
r 2 sin

Evaluate
1. If u x 2 2y 2 , v 2 x 2 y 2 , where
x r cos , y r sin show that
u, v
6r 3 sin 2 (VTU-Jan-2006)
r,
Consider u x 2 2 y 2 r 2 cos 2 2r 2 sin 2
v 2x 2 y2 2r 2 cos 2 r 2 sin 2
u v
2r cos 2 4r sin 2 , 4r cos 2 2r sin 2
r r
u
2r 2 cos sin 4r 2 sin cos
v
4r 2 cos sin 2r 2 sin cos

u u
u, v r 2r cos 2 4r sin 2 2r 2 cos sin 4r 2 sin cos
r, v v 4r cos 2 2r sin 2 4r 2 cos sin 2r 2 sin cos
r

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

2r cos 2 4r sin 2 4r 2 cos sin 2r 2 sin cos

2 2 2
2r cos sin 4r sin cos 4r cos 2r sin
3
6r sin 2

x, y x, y
2. If x u1 v ,y uv, Prove that J J1 1 (VTU-2001)
u, v u, v
x x
Consider 1 v, u
u v
y y
v, u
u v
x x
x, y u v 1 v u
J
u, v y y v u
u v
1 vu uv u uv uv u
x, y
J u (1)
u, v
Further, as x u 1 v , y uv,
u uv
We write, x u y u x y and
y y y
v v
u x y x y
u u
1, 1 and
x y
v y v x
2
, 2
x x y y x y
u u
1 1
1u, v x y
J y x
x, y v v 2 2
x y x y
x y
x y 1 1 1
2 2
JJ 1 u 1
x y x y x y u u

3. If x e u cos v, y e u sin v, Prove that

x, y u, v
1
u, v x, y
Consider x e u cos v y e u sin v

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

x y
e u cos v e u sin v
u u
x y
e u sin v e u cos v
v v
x x
x, y u v eu cos v eu sin v
u, v y y eu sin v eu cos v
u v
x, y
i.e e 2u (1)
u, v
Again Consider x e u cos v, y e u sin v,
1
x 2 y 2 e2u or u log x 2 y 2
2
y
& tan v or v tan 1 y x
x
u x u y
Hence ,; ,;
x x y2 2
y x y2 2

v y v x
& 2 2
;
x x y y x y2 2

u u x y
2 2 2
u, v x y x y x y2 1 1
2 2
x2 y2
x, y v v y x x y
2
x y x y2 x 2
y 2

u, v
i.e e 2u (2)
x, y
x, y u, v
e 2u e 2u 1
u, v x, y
yz zx xy u , v, w
4. If u ,v ,w , Show that 4
x y z x, y , z
u u u yz z y
x y z x2 x x
u , v, w v v v z zx x
Now,
x, y , z x y z y y2 y
w w w y x xy
x y z z z z2

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

u , v, w yz zx xy z z xy y x
x, y , z x2 y2 z2 x y z2 z y
i.e
y z x y zx
x y z z y2

= 4, as desired.

x, y, z
5. If x r sin cos , y r sin sin , z r cos ,show that r 2 sin
r, ,
Now, by definition
x x x
r
x, y , z y y y
r, , r
z z z
r

sin cos r cos cos r sin sin

x, y , z
i.e sin sin r cos sin r sin cos
r, ,
cos r sin 0

r 2 sin cos2 sin 2

r 2 sin , as required

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

MODULE III

VECTOR CALCULUS

CONTENTS:

Vector function……………………………………………………83

Solenoidal and Irrotational vectors……………………………..94

Vector Identities…………...…………………….....……………..99

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

Introduction:
Basically vector is a quantity having both magnitude and direction. Vector
quantities like force, velocity, acceleration etc. have lot of reference in physical and
engineering problems. We are familiar with vector algebra which gives an exposure to all
the basic concepts related to vectors.
Differentiation and Integration are well acquainted topics in calculus. In the
background of all these we discuss this chapter vector calculus comprising vector
Differentiation. Many concepts are highly significant in various branches of engineering.

Basic Concepts – Vector function of a single variable and the derivative

of a vector
Let the position vector of a point p(x, y, z) in space be

r xi yi zk
If x, y, z are all functions of a single parameter t, then r is said to be a vector function of

t which is also referred to as a vector point function usually denoted as r = r (t). As the
parameter t varies, the point P traces in space. Therefore

r = x(t) i+y (t) j+z(t) k

is called as the vector equation of the curve.
dr dx dy dz
r ' (t ) i j k
dt dt dt dt
Is a vector along the tangent to the curve at P.
If t is the time variable,

dr
gives the velocity of the particle at time t.
dt
d d dr d 2r
Further a represents the rate of change of velocity
dt dt dt dt 2
and is called the acceleration of the particle at time t.
d
1. c1 r1 (t ) c2 r2 (t ) c1 r1'(t ) c2 r2 (t ) where c1 , c2 are constants.
dt

2. d F . G F.
dG dF
.G
dt dt dt

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

d dG dF
F G F. G
3. dt dt dt

Where F F (t ) and G G (t ).
If is scalar function A is vector function A a1i a2 j a3k then

1. ie., grad i j k
x y z

2. If A a1i a2 j a3k ,

div A .A i j k . a1i a2 j a3k

x y z
a1 a2 a3
div A .A
x y z

3. If A a1i a2 j a3k ,
i j k

div A A .
x y z
a1 a2 a3
a3 a2 a3 a1 a2 a1
i j k
y z x z x y

2 2 2
2
4. Laplacian of
x2 y2 z2

2 2 2
2 A A A
5. Laplacian of A A 2 2 2
x y z

Important points:
ˆ dr d2 r
1. If r x(t )iˆ ˆ
y (t ) j z (t )k , then is velocity and is acceleration.
dt dt 2

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

d r dT
dt ds where
2. The unit tangent vector Tˆ and unit normal vector is nˆ

d r
dt

ds
Tˆ .
dt
3. If A and B are any two vector and is angle between two vectors, then

1 A. B
cos .
A. B

4. Component of a vector (velocity or acceleration) F along a given vector C is the

c
resolved part of F given by F . nˆ where nˆ .
c

F resolved part of acceleration along c F F . c .cˆ .

1. Find the unit tangent vector to the curve r cos tiˆ sin tjˆ tkˆ.

Soln: Given the space curve r cos tiˆ sin tjˆ tkˆ
dr
T sin tiˆ cos tjˆ kˆ
dt
T cos 2 t sin 2 t 1 1 1 2

Therefore, the unit tangent vector to the given curve at any point is
T sin tiˆ cos tjˆ kˆ 1
Tˆ sin tiˆ cos tjˆ kˆ
T 2 2

2. Find the unit normal vector to the curve r 4sin tiˆ 4 cos tjˆ 3tkˆ.

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dr
T 4 cos tiˆ 4sin tjˆ 3kˆ
dt
T 16 cos 2 t sin 2 t 9 25 5

Therefore, the unit tangent vector to the given curve at any point t is
T 4 cos tiˆ 4sin tjˆ 3kˆ 1
Tˆ 4 cos tiˆ 4sin tjˆ 3kˆ
5 5
T

dTˆ dTˆ
dTˆ 1 1
dt dt 4sin tiˆ 4 cos tjˆ
ds ds 5 5
dr
dt
dt

dTˆ 4
sin tiˆ cos tjˆ
ds 25
dTˆ
2
4 4
and sin 2 t cos 2 t
ds 25 25

The unit normal vector to the given curve is

dTˆ
ds ( 4 / 25) sin tiˆ cos tjˆ
nˆ sin tiˆ cos tjˆ
dTˆ (4 / 25)
ds

3. Find the angle between tangents to the curve x t2, y t3, z t 4 at t=2 and
t=3.
Soln: Define the position vector r x(t )iˆ y (t ) ˆj z (t )kˆ
r r 2iˆ t 3 ˆj t 4 kˆ

dr
i.e., T 2tiˆ 3t 2 ˆj 4t 3kˆ
dt
A T t 2 4iˆ 12 ˆj 32kˆ 4(iˆ 3 ˆj 8kˆ)

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A 16(1 9 64) 4 74

A. B 4 iˆ 3 ˆj 8kˆ .3 2iˆ 9 ˆj 36kˆ

1 1
cos cos .
A. B 4 74 3 1381

1 2 27 248 1
cos cos 0.8665
74 1381
30
3 2
4. A particle moves along the curve x 1 t , y 1 t , z 2t 5. Determine its
velocity and acceleration. Find the component of velocity and acceleration at t=1 in
the direction 2iˆ ˆj 2kˆ
Soln: Given the position vector
r (1 t 3 )iˆ (1 t 2 ) ˆj (2t 5)kˆ

dr
the velocity , v ( 3t 2 )iˆ (2t ) ˆj (2)kˆ
dt
d2 r
and acceleration a ( 6t 3 )iˆ 2 ˆj
dt 2
at t 1, v 3iˆ 2 ˆj 2kˆ

a 6iˆ 2 ˆj
Therefore, the component of velocity vector in the given direction
a 2iˆ ˆj 2kˆ.
(2iˆ ˆj 2kˆ) 6 2 4
v . nˆ ( 3iˆ 2 ˆj 2kˆ). 0
4 1 4 3
The normal component of acceleration in the given direction

(2iˆ ˆj 2kˆ) 12 2 10
a . nˆ ( 6iˆ 2 ˆj ). .
4 1 4 3 3

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5. A particle moves on the curve x 2t 2 , y t 2 4t , z 3t 5, where t is the time.

Find the components of velocity and acceleration at time t=1 in the direction
iˆ 3 ˆj 2kˆ.

Soln: The position vector at any point (x,y,z) is given r xi yj zk , but

r 2t 2iˆ (t 2 4t ) ˆj (3t 5)kˆ
Therefore, the velocity and acceleration are
dr
v 4tiˆ (2t 4) ˆj 3kˆ
dt
d2 r
a 4iˆ 2 ˆj
dt 2
at t 1, v 4iˆ 2 ˆj 3kˆ

a 4iˆ 2 ˆj
Therefore the component of velocity in the given direction iˆ 3 ˆj 2kˆ is
(iˆ 3 ˆj 2kˆ) 16
v . nˆ (4iˆ 2 ˆj 3kˆ).
1 9 4 14
Since dot product of two vector is a scalar.
The components of acceleration in the given direction iˆ 3 ˆj 2kˆ is
(iˆ 3 ˆj 2kˆ) 2
a . nˆ (4iˆ 2 ˆj ).
1 9 4 14

Unit Normal Vector:

n
nˆ  where nˆ Normal vector
n

Directional Derivative (D.D.):

If a is any vector and is any scalar point function then Directional Derivative

 .a
(D.D.)= .a 
a
Maximum directional derivative (Normal derivative)

2

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Note : The maximum directional derivative is also called normal derivative i.e., Normal
derivative =

Let ( x, y, z ) c be any given surface and ( x1 , y1 , z1 ) be a point on it, then

(i) Equation of tangent plane to ( x, y , z ) c at P( x1 , y1 , z1 ) is

(x x ) (y y ) (z z ) 0
1 x 1 y 1 z
p p p
(ii) Equation of normal line to ( x, y, z ) c at P( x1 , y1 , z1 ) is
x x y y z z
1 1 1

x p y z p
p

ˆ ˆ

Soln: Given x3 y3 z3 , then

= ˆi+
ˆj+ kˆ
x y z
ˆ x3 y 2 z 3 )jˆ (3x3 y3 z 2 )kˆ
=(3x 2 y3 z3 )i+(3

(1,2,1)
24iˆ 12ˆj 24kˆ

1 4 4 3

a ˆi 2ˆj 2kˆ

3
a

at (1,2,1) along the vectors a is

ˆi 2ˆj 2kˆ
ˆ ˆ
. a = 24i 12 j 24k . ˆ
3
1 96
(24 24 48)
3 3
. a = 32

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3 2
Ex. 2: Find the unit normal vector to the surface xy z 4 at the point
(-1,-1,2).
xy 3 z 2

Soln: Let = ˆi+ ˆj+ kˆ ˆ x 2 z 2ˆj 2 xy3 zkˆ

y3 z 2 )i+3
x y z
and ( 1, 1,2)
4iˆ 12jˆ 4kˆ
Therefore, the normal vector to the given surface is
n 4iˆ 12ˆj 4kˆ
( 1, 1,2)

n 16 144 16 176 4 11

n 1 ˆi 3jˆ kˆ
n
n 11

Ex. 3: Find the angle between the normals to the surface xy z 2 at the points (1, 4, 2)
and (-3,-3, 3).
Soln: Let x, y, z xy z 2 be the surface
The normal to the surface is

x y z
=yiˆ xˆj 2 zkˆ
ˆ ˆ ˆ
4i+j-4k
(1,4,2)

ˆ ˆ ˆ
3i-3j+6k
( 3, 3,3)

Are normals to the surface at (1, 4, 2) and (-3,-3,3).

Let be the angle between the normals
n1 . n2 4iˆ ˆj-4k
ˆ . -3i-3j
ˆ ˆ ˆ
6k
cos =
n1 n2 16 1 16 9 9 36

12 3 24
33 54
39
33 54
1 39
cos
33 54

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Ex.4: Find the directional derivative of x 2 yz 4 xz 2 at the point

(-1,-2,-1) in the direction of the vector 2iˆ - ˆj- 2k.
ˆ
=x 2 yz + 4xz 2

= ˆ
(x 2 yz+4xz 2 )i+ (x 2 yz+4xz 2 )ˆj+ (x 2 yz+4xz 2 )kˆ
Soln: Given x y z
(2 xyz 4 z 2 )iˆ ( x 2 z )ˆj+(x 2 y+8xz )kˆ

(1, 2, 1)
8iˆ - ˆj-10kˆ
The directional derivative of at the point (1,-2,-1) in the direction of vector
2iˆ - ˆj- 2k.
ˆ is

2iˆ - ˆj- 2k
ˆ 1 37
(8iˆ - ˆj-10k).
ˆ 16 1 20
4 1 4 3 3
Ex.5: Find the directional derivative of xy 2 yz 3 at the point (1,-2,-1) in the
direction of the normal to the surface x log z y 2 4at ( 1, 2,1).
xy 2 yz 3

y 2iˆ 2 xy z 3 ˆj 3 yz 2 kˆ
Soln: Given
(1, 2, 1) 4iˆ 5 ˆj 5kˆ

Letx log z y 2
1
Therefore the normal vector to the surface x log z y2 4 is 1
x ˆ
=logziˆ -+(-2y)jˆ k
1 z
1 ˆ
and n log(1)iˆ (2 2)ˆj k 4ˆj kˆ
1 ( 1, 2,1) 1

n 16 1 17

n 1
nˆ 4ˆj kˆ
17
n

Therefore, the directional derivative of the surface xy 2 yz 3 at (1,-2,-1)

in the direction normal to the surface
2
x log z y 4at ( 1, 2,1). is
1 1 25
.nˆ 4iˆ 5 ˆj 5kˆ . 4 ˆj kˆ 20 5 .
17 17 17

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Ex.6: Find the equation of tangent plane and normal to line to the surface x log
z y2 4at the point ( 1, 2,1).
Soln: Let x log z y2.

=logz =0
x x ( 1,2,1)

= 2y = 4
Therefore y y ( 1,2,1)

x
= = 1
z z z ( 1,2,1)

Thertefore, equation of the tangent plane is

(x x ) +( y y ) +( z z ) 0
1 x p 1 y p 1 z p
Hence ( x , y , z ) ( 1, 2,1), then
1 1 1
( x 1)0 ( y 2)( 4) ( z 1)( 1) 0
4y 8 z 1 0
4y z 9 0
And the equation of the normal line is
x x y y z z x 1 y 2 z 1
1 1 1
0 4 1
x y z
Properties of divergence:
1.Prove that div A B div A div B

Or . A B .A .B

1. Pr oof: Let A A1iˆ A2 ˆj A3kˆ, B B1iˆ B2 ˆj B3kˆ

A B A1 B1 iˆ A2 B2 ˆj A3 B3 kˆ

. A B A1 B1 A2 B2 A3 B3
x y z
A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 B3
x y z x y z

. A B .A .B

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2. Prove that
div A grad .A div A

Or . A .A .A

then , A A1iˆ A2 ˆj A3kˆ

. A A1 A2 A3 by the property,
x y z
A1 A2 A3
A1 A2 A3
x x y y z z
A1 A2 A3
A1 A2 A3
x y z x y z

.A A1iˆ A2 ˆj A3kˆ . iˆ ˆj kˆ
x y y

. A .A .A

Properties of curl :
1. Prove that curl:
A1 B1 curl A curl B

Or A1 B1 A B

Pr oof: Let A A1iˆ A2 ˆj A3 kˆ, B B1iˆ B2 ˆj B3 kˆ

Therefore, A B A1 B1 iˆ A2 B2 ˆj A3 B3 kˆ
iˆ ˆj kˆ

A B
x y z
A1 B1 A2 B2 A3 B3

iˆ ˆj kˆ iˆ ˆj kˆ

x y z x y z
A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 B3

A1 B1 A B

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Or A A A

then , A A1iˆ A2 ˆj A3kˆ

iˆ ˆj kˆ

A A3 A3 iˆ
x y z y z
A1 A2 A3
A3 A2
A3 A2 iˆ
y y z z
A3 A2
A3 A2 iˆ
y z y z
A3 A2 ˆ
i A3 A2 iˆ
y z y z
iˆ ˆj kˆ iˆ ˆj kˆ

x y z x y z
A1 A2 A3 A1 A2 A3

A A A
2
Laplacian: The Laplacian operator is defined by
2 2 2
2

x2 y2 z2
Irrotational Vector (or Conservative Force Field): A vector field F is said to be
irrotational vector or conservative force field or curl free vector if F 0 or curl
F 0.
Scalar Potential: A vector field F which can be derived from the scalar field such

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free vector if div A . A 0.

Curl of a vector function: If A is any vector function differentiable at each point
(x,y,z) then curl of A is denoted by curl A or A and it is defined by

iˆ ˆj kˆ

curl A A
x y z
A A A
1 2 3
A A A A A A
curl A A 3 2 iˆ 3 1 ˆj 2 1 kˆ
y z x z x y
Hence, curl of a vector function is a vector.

Ex.1: If F grad x3 y y 3 z z 3 x x 2 y 2 z 2 then find div F at (1, 2,3).

Soln: Given

F grad x3 y y3 z z 3 x x 2 y 2 z 2

x3 y y3 z z 3 x x 2 y 2 z 2

F 3x3 y z 3 2 xy 2 z 2 iˆ x3 3 y 2 z 2 x 2 yz 2 ˆj y3 3z 2 x 2 x 2 y 2 z kˆ

div F 6 xy 2 y 2 z 2 6 yz 2 x 2 z 2 6 zx 2 x 2 y 2

F 12 72 36 18 18 8 32.
1, 2,3

iˆ ˆj kˆ

curl F F
x y z
x y 1 1 (x y)

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( 1 0)iˆ ( 1 0) ˆj (0 1) kˆ

curl F iˆ ˆj kˆ

F .curl F x y 1 iˆ ˆj ( x y )kˆ . iˆ ˆj kˆ

x y 1 1 (x y)
0

Soln: Given

F (ax 3 y 4 z )iˆ ( x 2 y 3z ) ˆj (3x 2 y z )kˆ, then

.F (ax 3 y 4 z ) ( x 2 y 3z ) (3x 2 y z ) a 2 1
x y z

.F a 3

a 3 0 a 3

Since the vector field is irrotational, therefore F 0.

iˆ ˆj kˆ

curl F
x y z
x y az bx 2 y z x cy 2 z
(c 1)iˆ (1 a) ˆj (b 1)kˆ
i.e., (c 1)iˆ (1 a) ˆj (b 1)kˆ 0
This is possible only when,
c-1=0, 1-a=0, b-1=0 a=1, b=1, c=1.

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n n 2
Ex.5: Prove that 1. r nr r ,
Soln: We have by the relation x=rcos , y=r sin .
By definition
rn r n iˆ r n ˆj r n kˆ
x y z
rˆ r ˆ r ˆ
nr n 1
i nr n 1
j nr n 1
k
x y z
But r 2 x2 y2
r r x r y r z
2r 2x lll ly ,
x x r y r z r
x ˆ y ˆ z ˆ
nr n 1
i nr n 1 j nr n 1
k
r r r
nr n 2 xiˆ nr n 2 yjˆ nr n 2 xzkˆ
nr n 2
xiˆ yˆj zkˆ

nr n 2
r

2 f (r ) 2
Ex.6: Prove that f (r ) f (r ), wherer r 2 x2 y 2 z 2.
r
Soln: Given r 2 x2 y 2 z 2 .
r r x r y r z
2r 2x similarly ,
x x r y r z r
2 2 r
Let f ( x) 2 f ( x) f (r )
x 2 x 2 x x
2 2 2 2
Where
x2 x2 y2 z2
x xf (r )
f (r )
x r x r
1 r
r xf (r ) xf (r )
r2 x x
1 r x
r xf (r ) 1. f (r ) xf (r )
r 2 x r

1 x x2
r xf (r ) f (r ) f (r )
r2 r r

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1 x2
x 2 f (r ) rf (r ) f (r )
r 2 r

1 x2
x 2 f (r ) r f (r )
r 2 r

1 x2 1 y2
x 2 f (r ) r f (r ) x 2 f (r ) r f (r )
r 2 r r 2 r

1 z2
x 2 f (r ) r f (r )
r 2 r

1 1 x2 y2 z2
x2 y2 z2 f (r ) r r r f (r )
r 2 r2 r r r
1 2 1 1 2
r f (r ) 3r x y2 z2 f (r )
r2 r2 r
1 1 1 2
r 2 f (r ) 3r r f (r )
r 2 r2 r
1 1
r 2 f (r ) 3r r f (r )
r 2 r2
2 f (r ) 3
f (r ) f (r )
r

Ex.7: Find the constants „a‟ and „b‟ so that F axy z 3 iˆ 3x 2 z ˆj bxz 2 y kˆ

Since F is irrotational i.e., F 0.

iˆ ˆj kˆ

0
x y z
axy z3 3x 2 z bxz 2 y

i.e., ( 1 1)iˆ (bz 2 3 z 2 ) ˆj (6 x ax)kˆ 0

i.e., z 2 (b 3) ˆj (6 a) 0
which holds good if any only if b-3=0 and 6-a=0 a =6 and b=3.
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iˆ ˆj kˆ 6 xy z3 iˆ (3x 2 z ) ˆj (3xz 2 y )kˆ

x y z

6 xy z3 3x 2 y xz3 f ( y, z )
x 1

3x 2 z 3x 2 y yz f ( x, z )
y 2

3xz 2 y xz 3 yz f ( x, y )
z 2
Hence 3x 2 y xz3 yz.

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1.

2.

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MODULE IV

INTEGRAL CALCULUS
CONTENTS:

Introduction……………………………...………………………..106

Reduction formulae for the integrals of sinnx, cosnx, sinmx

cosnx………………………………………………………………..107
Evaluation of these integrals with standard limits problems…..108

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

Solution of first order and first degree equations………………110

Exact equations…………………………………………………...114

Orthogonal trajectories…………………………………………121

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Reduction formula:
/2
n
1. Reduction formula for sin x dx and sin n x dx, n is a positive integer.
0

In sin n x dx
Let
= sin n 1 x .sin x dx u v dx ( say)

We have the rule of integration by parts,

u v dx u v dx v dx.u dx
I sin n 1 x( cos x) cos x n 1 sin n 2 x.cos x dx
n
sin n 1 x.cos x (n 1) sin n 2 x.cos 2 x dx
sin n 1 x.cos x (n 1) sin n 2 x(1 sin 2 x) dx
sin n 1 x.cos x (n 1) sin n 2 x dx (n 1) sin n x dx
i.e., I sin n 1 x.cos x (n 1) I (n 1) I
n n 2 n
i.e., I 1 (n 1) sin n 1 x.cos x (n 1) I
n n 2
n sin n 1 x.cos x n 1
I sin x dx I
n n n n 2

This is the required reduction formula.

/2
n
2. . Reduction formula for co s x and cos n x dx,
0
Where n is a positive integer.
In cos n x dx
Let
= cos n 1 x .cos x dx

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I cosn 1 x.sin x sin x n 1 cos n 2 x( sin x) dx

n
cosn 1 x.cos x (n 1) cosn 2 x.sin 2 x dx
cosn 1 x.sin x (n 1) cos n 2 x(1 cos 2 x) dx
cosn 1 x.sin x (n 1) cos n 2 x dx (n 1) cos n x dx
I cosn 1 x.sin x (n 1) I (n 1) I
n n 2 n
i.e., I 1 (n 1) cos n 1 x.sin x (n 1) I
n n 2
n cosn 1 x.sin x n 1
I cos x dx I
n n n n 2
/2
Next, let I cos n xdx
n
0
/2
cosn 1 x.sin x n 1
from (1), I I
n n n n 2
0

But cos /2 0 sin 0.

n 1 \
Thus I I
n n n 2

/2
m n
1. Reduction formula for sin x cos x dx and sin m cos n x dx where m and n
0
are positive integers.

I m,n sin m x cos n xdx

= sin m 1 x sin x cos n x dx u v dx (say)

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we have u v dx u v dx v dx.u dx
Here u dx sin x cos n dx
Put cos x t sin xdx dt
tn 1 cos n 1 x
Hence v dx t n dt
n 1 n 1
cos n 1 x cos n 1 x
Now I m,n sin m 1 x (m 1)sin m 2 x cos xdx
n 1 n 1
sin m 1 x cos n 1 x m 1
i.e., sin m 2 x cos n 2 xdx
n 1 n 1
m 1 n 1
sin x cos x m 1
sin m 2 x.cos n x.cos 2 xdx
n 1 n 1
sin m 1 x cos n 1 x m 1
sin m 2 x cos n x(1 sin 2 x)dx
n 1 n 1
m 1 n 1
sin x cos x m 1 m 1
sin m 2 x cos n xdx sin m x cos n xdx
n 1 n 1 n 1
m 1 n 1
sin x cos x m 1 m 1
I m,n I m 2, n I m,n
n 1 n 1 n 1
m 1 1
i.e., I m,n 1 sin m 1 x cos n 1 x (m 1) I m 2, n
n 1 n 1
m 1 1
I m,n sin m 1 x cos n 1 x (m 1) I m 2, n
n 1 n 1
m n sin m 1 x cos n 1 x m 1
I m ,n sin x cos xdx Im 2, n ......(1)
m n m n

PROBLEMS:

1. Let I sin 4 x dx
0
4
f ( x) sin x and 2a or a /2
f (2a x) sin 4 ( x) sin 4 x f ( x) ie., f (2a x) f ( x)
2a a
Thus by the property f ( x)dx 2 f ( x)dx we have,
0 0
/2
3 1
I 2 sin 4 x dx 2. . . by reduction formula.
0
4 2 2
Thus I=3 / 8

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2. Let I x sin 8 x dx
0
a a
We have the property f ( x)dx f (a x)dx
0 0

0 0

sin 8 xdx x sin 8 xdx

0 0

I sin 8 xdx I
0
/2
or 2 I .2 sin 8 xdx
0

7 5 3 1
Hence I . . . . . , .
8 6 4 2 2
Thus by reduction formula
35 2
I=
256

0

0

0

sin 2 x cos 4 x dx x sin 2 x cos 4 x dx

0 0

sin 2 x cos 4 x dx I
0
/2
2I .2 sin 2 x cos 4 x dx
0

(1).(3).(1)
I . . by reduction formula.
6 4 2 2
Thus I= 2 / 32

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2.

Introduction:
Many problems in all branches of science and engineering when analysed for
putting in a mathematical form assumes the form of a differential equation.
An engineer or an applied mathematician will be mostly interested in obtaining a solution
for the associated equation without bothering much on the rigorous aspects. Accordingly
the study of differential equations at various levels is focused on the methods of solving
the equations.
Preliminaries:
Ordinary Differential Equation (O.D.E)
If y = f (x) is an unknown function, an equation which involves atleast one derivative of
y, w.r.t. x is called an ordinary differential equation which in future will be simply
referred to as Differential Equation (D.E).
The order of D.E is the order of the highest derivative present in the equation and the
degree of the D.E. is the degree of the highest order derivative after clearing the
fractional powers.
Finding y as a function of x explicitly [y = f (x)] or a relationship in x and y satisfying the
D.E. [f (x, y)= c] constitutes the solution of the D.E.
Observe the following equations along with their order and degree.

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dy
1 2x [order = 1, degree = 1]
dx
2
dy dy
2 3 2 0 [order = 1, degree = 2]
dx dx

General solution and particular solution:

A solution of a D.E. is a relation between the dependent and independent
variables satisfying the given equation identically.

The general solution will involve arbitrary constants equal to the order of the D.E.

If the arbitrary constants present in the solution are evaluated by using a set of given
conditions then the solution so obtained is called a particular solution. In many physical
problems these conditions can be formulated from the problem itself.

Note : Basic integration and integration methods are essential prerequisites for this
chapter.

Solution of differential equations of first order and first degree

Recollecting the definition of the order and the degree of a D.E., a first order and
first degree equation will be the form
dy
f ( x, y) or M(x,y)dx+N(x,y)dy=0
dx
We discuss mainly classified four types of differential equations of first order and first
degree. They as are as follows:
Variables separable equations
Homogenous equations
Exact equations
Linear equations
Variables separable Equations:
If the given D.E. can be put in the form such that the coefficient of dx is a
function of the variable x only and the coefficient of dy is a function of y only then the
given equation is said to be in the separable form.
The modified form of such an equation will be,
P (x) dx + Q (y) dy = 0

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This is the general solution of the equation.

dy y x2
Example 1: Solve xe given that y(0)=0
dx
dy x2 dy x2
xe y or xe y e
Soln: dx dx

put - x 2 t 2 xdx dt or xdx dt

Hence we have, e
y et dt c
dy x2
i.e. xe dx by separating theVariables
ey
x2
e y dy xe dx 0
y x2
i.e e xe dx c

The general solution becomes

y et
i.e. e c
2
x2
e y
or e
c is the general solution.
2
Now we consider y (0) =0 That is y =0 when x =0,

1 1
1 c or c =
2 2
Now the general solution becomes
x2
e y 1
e
2 2
This is the required solution.

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dy
Example –2 solve : xy 1 x y xy
dx
dy
 xy 1 x y xy
dx
dy
i.e., xy (1 x) y (1 x)
dx
dy
i.e., xy (1 x)(1 y )
dx
ydy 1 x
or dx by separating the variables.
1 y x
y 1 x
dy dx c
1 y x
(1 y ) 1 1
or dy dx 1dx c
1 y x
1
ie., 1dy dy log x x c
1 y
i.e y log y log x x c
or y x log yx c is the required solution

dy dy
Solve : y x y2
Example – 4 : dx dx
>> Rearranging the given equation we have,
dy
y y2 x 1
dx
dx dy
or
x 1 y y2
dy
i.e log x 1 (1)
y 1 y

We have to employ the method of partial fractions for the second term of the above.
1 A B
Let
y 1 y y y 1
1 A y 1 By
Put y=0,1 A=-1 and B=1

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dy dy dy
y 1 y y 1 y
dy 1 y
log y log 1 y log
y 1 y y

Using this result in (1) we get,

1 y
log x 1 log c
y
x 1 1 y
or log log k
y
x 1 1 y ky is the required solution.
Example – 5 :
Solve:
dy
tan y cos( x y) cos( x y)
dx
 The given equation on expanding terms in the R.H.S. becomes
dy
tan y cos x cos y sin x sin y cos x cos y sin x sin y
dx
dy
ie., tan y 2 cos x cos y
dx
tany
or dy 2 cos x dx by separating the variables.*
cosy
tany. sec y dy 2 cos x dx c
sec y 2sin x c is the required solution.

Exact Differential Equations:

The differential equation M(x , y) dx + N(x , y)dy=0 to be an exact equation is
M N
y x
Further the solution of the exact equation is given by
M dx N ( y) dy c
Where, in the first term we integrate M(x,y) w.r.t x keeping y fixed and N(y) indicate the
terms in N with out x
(not containing x)
4
1. Solve: 5 x 3x 2 y 2 2 xy 3 dx 2 x3 y 3x 2 y 2 5 y 4 dy 0

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(Though it is evident that the equation is a homogeneous one, before solving by putting
y=vx we should check for exactness)
 Let M 5 x 4 3x 2 y 2 2 xy 3and N 2 x 3 y 3x 2 y 2 5 y 4
M N
6 x 2 y 6 xy 2 and 6 x 2 y 6 xy 2
y x
M N
Since , the given equation is exact.
y x
The solution is M dx N ( y ) dy c
ie., 5x4 3x 2 y 2 2 xy 3 dx 5 y 4 dy c
Thus x 5 x3 y 2 x2 y3 y5 c, is the required solution.

2. Solve: cos x tan y cos( x y ) dx sin x sec 2 y cos( x y ) dy 0

 Let M cos x tan y cos( x y ) : N sin x sec2 y cos( x y )
M N
cos x sec2 y sin( x y ); cos x sec2 y sin( x y )
y x
M N
Since , the given equation is exact.
y x
The solution is M dx N ( y ) dy c
ie., cos x tan y cos( x y ) dx 0 dy c
Thus sin x tan y sin( x y) c, is the required solution.

dy y cos x sin y y
3. Solve: 0
dx sin x x cos y x
>> The given equation is put in the form,
y cos x sin y y dx sin x x cos y x dy 0.
Let M y cos x sin y y and N sin x x cos y x
M N
cos x cos y 1 and cos x cos y 1
y x
M N
Since , the given equation is exact.
y x
The solution is M dx N ( y ) dy c
ie., y cos x sin y y dx 0 dy c
Thus y sin x x sin y xy c, is the required solution.

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4. Solve: ye xy dx xe xy 2 y dy 0
 Let M ye xy , N xe xy 2 y
M N
ye xy x e xy ; xe xy y e xy
y x
M N
Since , the equation is exact.
y x
solution is given by M dx N ( y ) dy c
ie., ye xy dx 2 y dy c
e xy
ie., y y2 c
y
Thus e xy +y 2 c, is the required solution.
5. Solve: y (1 1/ x) cos y dx x log x x sin y dy 0
 Let M y (1 1/ x) cos y and N x log x x sin y
M N
1 1/ x sin y and 1 1/ x sin y
y x
M N
Since , the given equation is exact.
y x
The solution is M dx N ( y ) dy c
ie., y (1 1/ x) cos y dx 0 dy c
Thus y ( x log x) x cos y c, is the required solution.

Suppose that, for the equation M dx + N dy =0

M N
, then we take their difference.
y x
M N
The difference should be close to the expression of M or N.
y x
1 M N 1 M N
If it is so, then we compute or
M y x N y x
1 M N 1 M N
If f ( x) or g ( y)
N y x M y x

f ( x ) dx g ( y ) dy
Then e or e is an integrating factor.

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The following basic results will be useful :

log x n log x
(i) e x (ii) e xn

2
1. Solve: 4 xy 3 y x dx x x 2 y dy 0
 Let M 4 xy 3 y 2 x and N x x 2y x 2 2 xy
M N
4 x 6 y and 2 x 2 y. The equation is not exact
y x
M N
Consider 2x 4 y 2( x 2 y )....close to N .
y x
1 M N 2( x 2 y ) 2
Now f ( x)
N y x x( x 2 y ) x
f ( x)dx
Hence e is an integrating factor.
2
f dx
f ( x)dx 2log x log( x 2 )
ie., e e x e e x2
Multiplying the given equation by x 2 we now have,
M 4 x3 y 3x 2 y 2 x3 and N x 4 2 x3 y
M N
4 x3 6 x 2 y and 4 x3 6 x 2 y
y x
Solution of the exact equation is M dx N ( y ) dy c
ie., 4 x3 y 3x 2 y 2 x3 dx 0 dy c
x4
Thus x 4 y x 3 y 2 c, is the required solution.
4

2. Solve: y(2x-y+1)dx+x(3x-4y+3)dy=0
 Let M y 2 x y 1 and N x 3x 4 y 3
ie., M 2 xy y 2 y and N 3x 2 4 xy 3x
M N
2 x 2 y 1, 6x 4 y 3
y x
M N
4 x 2 y 2 2(2 x y 1)....near to M .
y x
1 M N 2(2 x y 1) 2
Now g ( y)
M y x y (2 x y 1) y
2
dy
g ( y )dy y 2log y log( y 2 )
Hence I .F e e e e y2

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Multiplying the given equation by y 2 we now have,

M 2 xy 3 y 4 y 3 and N 3x 2 y 2 4 xy 3 3xy 2
M N
6 xy 2 4 y 3 3 y 2 and 6 xy 2 4 y 3 3 y 2
y x
The Solution is M dx N ( y ) dy c
ie., 2 xy 3 y4 y 3 dx 0 dy c
Thus x 2 y 3 xy 4 xy 3 c, is the required solution.

If the given equation M dx +N dy=0 is of the form

yf (xy) dx+xg(xy)dy=0
1
then is an integrating factor provided Mx Ny 0
Mx Ny

1. Solve: y 1 xy x 2 y 2 dx x 1 xy x 2 y 2 dy 0
>> The equation is of the form yf(xy)dx+xg(xy)dy=0 where,
M yf ( xy ) y xy 2 x 2 y3 and
N xg ( xy ) x x 2 y x3 y 2

Now Mx Ny xy x 2 y 2 x3 y 3 xy x 2 y 2 x3 y 3 2x2 y 2

1 1
is the I .F .
Mx Ny 2x y2
2
2 2
Multiplying the given equation with 1/ 2x y it becomes an exact equation where we now have,
1 1 y 1 1 x
M and N
2 x2 y 2x 2 2 xy 2 2y 2

The solution is given by M dx N ( y )dy c

1 1 y 1
ie., dx dy c
2 x2 y 2x 2 2y
1 1 xy 1
ie., log x log y c
2 xy 2 2 2

2. Solve: y xy 2 x 2 y 2 dx x xy x 2 y 2 dy 0
>> The equation is of the form yf(xy)dx+xg(xy)dy=0 where,
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M xy 2 2 x 2 y3 and
N x 2 y x3 y 2
Now Mx Ny x 2 y 2 2 x3 y3 x 2 y 2 x3 y 3 3 x3 y 3
3 3
Thus 1/ 3x y is the I.F. Multiplying the given equation by this I.F we have an exact equation
where we now have,
1 1 1 1
M and N
3x 2 y 3x 3xy 2 3y

The solution is M dx N ( y )dy c

1 2 1
ie., dx dy c
3x 2 y 3x 3y
1 2 1
ie., log x log y c
3xy 3 3

xk1 y k2 (c1 ydx c2 x dy) xk3 y k4 (c3 ydx c4 x dy) 0

Where ki and ci (i=1 to 4) are constants then x a y b is an integrating factor. The constants a and
b are determined such that the condition for an exact equation is satisfied.

Multiplying the equation by x a y b we have,

4(b 1) 2(a 2) and 3(b 4) 5(a 1)
ie., a 2b and 5a 3b 7
By solving we get a=2and b=1

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M 4 x a 1 yb 1 3x a yb 4 and
N 2 x a 2 yb 5 x a 1 yb 3
M
4(b 1) x a 1 yb 3(b 4) x a yb 3
y
N
2(a 2) x a 1 yb 5(a 1) x a yb 3
x
M N
We have to find a and b such that
y x

ie., 4 x3 y 2 3x 2 y5 dx 0 dy c

Thus x4 y 2 3x2 y5 =c, is the required solution.

2. Solve: ( y 2 2 x 2 y )dx (2 x3 xy ) dy 0

>>Multiplying the given equation by x a y b we have,

M x a yb 2 2 x a 2 yb 1 and
N 2 x a 3 yb x a 1 yb 1
M
(b 2) x a yb 1 2(b 1) x a 2 yb
y
N
2(a 3) x a 2 yb (a 1) x a yb 1
x
M N
Let us find a and b such that
y x
(b 2) (a 1) and 2(b 1) 2(a 3)
ie., a b 3 and a b 2

By solving we get a = -5/2 and b=-1/2.

M x 5 / 2 y3 / 2 2 x 1/ 2 y1/ 2 and
We now have,
N 2 x1/ 2 y 1/ 2 x 3 / 2 y1/ 2

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ie., x 5 / 2 y3 / 2 2 x 1/ 2 y1/ 2 dx 0 dy c

x 3/ 2 3/ 2 x1/ 2 1/ 2
ie., y 2 y c
3/ 2 1/ 2
2 3/ 2 3/ 2
ie., x y 4 x1/ 2 y1/ 2 c
3
Thus 6 xy y3 / x3 = k , is the required solution, where k=3c/2

1. Solve : 1 y tan( xy ) dx x tan( xy ) dy 0

>> The given equation can be put in the form
dx tan ( xy ) y dx x dy 0
ie., dx tan( xy )d ( xy ) 0
Integrating we get, x log sec( xy ) c , being the required solution.

y dx x dy
2. Solve: ( x dx y dy ) 0
y2
>> The given equation is equivalent to the form,
x
d x dx y dy 0
y
x x2 y2
c, on integration.
y 2 2
x 1 2
Thus x y2 c, is the required solution.
y 2

Orthogonal trajectories

Definition: If two family of curves are such that every member of one family intersect
every member of the other family at right angles then they are said to be
orthogonal trajectories each other

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

1.

2.

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3) Find the orthogonal trajectories of the family of curves

x2 y2
1 ' ' being the parameter . (July 2015)
a2 b2
x2 y2
Soln: we have 1 ..........(1)
a2 b2

Differentiating the (1) equation we get,

2x 2 y dy
2 2
0
a b dx
x y dy
i.e 2 2
........(2)
a b dx

x2 y2
Also from(1) 1
a2 b2
x2 a2 y2
.............(3)
a2 b2
Now , dividing (2) by(3) we get
x y dy
2 2
x a y 2 dx
x 1 dy
2 2
x a y dx
dy dx
Now let us replace by
dx dy
x 1 dx
2 2
x a y dy
x2 a2
or ydy dx by separating the variables
x
dx
ydy xdx a 2 c
x
y2 x2
i.e a 2 log x c is the required orthogonal trajectories
2 2

4) Find the orthogonal trajectory of the cardiods r a 1 cos , using the

differential equation method . (
Jan 2015 ,Jan2014)
Soln:

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dr
Differentiating the given equation w.r.t θ,we get a sin .Substituting for a in the given equation,we get
d
1 cos dr
r .........DE of given equation
sin d
dr d 1 cos d
Changing to r 2 r r2
d dr sin dr
dr
cos ec cot d 0........DE of orthogonal trajectories
r
solving this equation,we get
log r log cos ec cot log sin log c
cos ec cot 1 cos
r c r c
sin sin 2
r c 1 cos , this is requried orthogonal trajectories.

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

MODULE V

LINEAR ALGEBRA

CONTENTS:

Elementary transformation………………………………………127

Gauss Seidel method………………………………………. ..... 143

Linear transformations…………………………………………..148

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Definition: A system of mn nos. arranged in a rectangular formation along m-rows &

n-columns & bounded by the brackets or is called as m by n matrix or mxn matrix
Matrix is denoted by a single capital letters A,B,C etc.
a11 a12 .......a1n
A a21 a22 .......a2 n
am1 am 2 ......amn m n

Elementary operations on Matrices:

The following 3 operations are said to be elementary operations
1. Interchange of any two rows or columns.
2. Multiplication of each element of a row or column by a non-Zero scalar or constant.
3. Addition of a scalar multiple of one row or column to anpother row or column.
R3 kR1 R3
a1 a2 a3 a1 a2 a3
A b1 b2 b3 B b1 b2 b3
c1 c2 c3 (ka1 c1 ) (ka2 c1 ) (ka3 c3 )

If a matrix A gets transferred into another matrix B by any of these transformations then
A is said to be equivalent to B written as A  B.
Echelon form or Row reduced Echelon form.
A matrix A of order mxn is said to be in a row reduced echelon form if
1. The leading element (the first non-Zero entry) of each row is unity.
2. All the entries below this leading entry is Zero.
3. The no of Zeros appearing before the leading entry in each row is greater than that
appears in its previous row.
4. The Zero rows must appear below the non-zero rows.
1 2 3 2 1 2 3 2 1 4 2
A 0 0 1 2 0 1 2 9 0 1 0
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Normal form of a matrix
The given matrix A is reduced to an echelon form first by applying a series of elementary
row transformations.
Later column transformations row performed to reduce the matrix to one of the
following four forms, called the normal form of A.
Ir Ir o
i ) Ir ii ) Ir , o iii ) iv) where Ir is the identity matrix of order r.
o o o

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1 0 1 0 0 0
1 0 0 1 0 0 0
0 1 0 1 0 0
0 1 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 1 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
I2 I3 0
I3 I3 , 0
0 0 0

Rank of a matrix: The number of non-zero rows in echelon or normal form. It‟s in
denoted by f(A)
1. Reduce the matrix to the row reduced echelon form
1 2 2 3
0 0 1 2
A
1 3 2 1
2 4 1 3
Sol : R2 R2 2 R1 , R3 R3 R1 R4 R4 2 R1
1 2 2 3 1 2 2 3
0 1 8 1 0 1 8 1
A A
0 1 0 2 0 0 8 3
0 0 3 3 0 0 3 3
R3 R3 / 8, R4 R4 R4 R4 R3
3

1 2 2 3 1 2 2 3
0 1 8 1 0 1 8 1
A A 0 0 1 3
0 0 1 3 8
8
0 0 1 3 0 0 0 11
8
8
R4 R4
11
1 2 2 3
0 1 8 1
A
0 0 1 3
8
0 0 0 1

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1 3 1 2
2) 0 1 2 3 find rank of a matrix
3 4 1 2
Sol : R3 R3 3R1 , R3 R3 13R2
1 3 1 2 1 3 1 2
A 0 1 2 3 A 0 1 2 3
0 13 2 8 0 0 28 34
( A) 3

8 2 1 6
3) 2 1 0 1 find the rank
5 1 1 4
Sol : R2 4 R2 R1 , R3 8 R3 3R1 R4 R4 R2
8 2 1 6 8 2 1 6
0 2 1 2 0 2 1 2
A A
0 6 5 6 0 0 2 0
0 2 3 2 0 0 2 0
R4 R4 R3
8 2 1 6
0 2 1 2
A
0 0 2 0
0 0 0 0
( A) 3

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1 3 2
4) Using the elementary transformation reduce the matrix A 2 1 4 to
1 11 14
echelon form
Sol : R2 R2 2 R1 , R3 R3 R1
1 3 2 1 3 2
A 2 1 4 0 7 8
1 11 14 0 14 16
R2
R3 R3 2 R2 , R2
7
1 2 2 1 2 2
0 7 8 A 0 1 8
7
0 0 0 0 0 0

5) Applying elementary transformations reduce the following matrix to the normal form &
3 2 5 7 12
hence find rank of matrix given 1 1 2 3 5
3 3 6 9 15
Sol : R1 R2
3 2 5 7 12 1 1 2 3 5
A 1 1 2 3 5 3 2 5 7 12
3 3 6 9 15 3 3 6 9 15
R2 R2 3R1 , R3 R3 3R1
1 1 2 3 5
A 0 1 1 2 3
0 0 0 0 0
This echelon form, now we have to perform column trans to reduce to the normal form.

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c2 c2 c1 , c3 c3 2c1 c4 c4 3c1 c5 c5 5c1

1 0 0 0 0
A 0 1 1 2 3
0 0 0 0 0
c3 c3 c2 , c4 c4 2c2 c3 c5 3c2
R2 R2
1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
A 0 1 0 0 0 A 0 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
I2 0
A ( A) 2
0 0
6) By performing elementary row & column transformations, reduce the following matrix to
2 4 3 1 0
0 2 1 4 2
the normal form
0 1 1 3 1
4 7 4 4 5

Sol : R2 R2
2 4 3 1 0 1 2 1 4 2
0 2 1 4 2 2 4 3 1 2
A
0 1 1 3 1 0 1 1 3 1
4 7 4 4 5 4 7 4 4 5

R2 R2 2 R1 , R4 R4 4 R2 R2 R3
1 2 1 4 2 1 2 1 4 2
0 0 1 9 4 2 1 1 3 1
A
0 1 1 3 1 0 0 1 9 4
0 1 0 12 3 0 1 0 12 3

1 0 0 0 0
0 1 1 3 1
0 0 1 9 4
0 0 0 0 0

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c3 c3 c2 , c4 c4 3c2 , c5 c5 c2 c4 c4 9c3 c5 c5 4c3

1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0
0 0 1 9 4 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
I3 0
A
0 0
( A) 3
1 1 1 6
1 1 2 5
7) Re ducing the matrix A int o normal form and find the rank
3 1 1 8
2 2 3 7
R2 R2 R1 , R3 R3 3R1 R4 R4 2 R1
1 1 1 6 1 1 1 6
1 1 2 5 1 2 1 1
A
3 1 1 8 0 2 2 10
2 2 3 7 0 4 1 5
1
R3 R3 R2 , R4 R4 2 R2 R3 R3
3
1 1 1 6 1 1 1 6
1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1
A
0 0 3 9 0 0 1 3
0 0 1 3 0 0 1 3

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R2 R2 c3 2c3 2c2 c4 2c4 c2

1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
0 2 1 1 0 2 1 1
A
0 0 1 3 0 0 1 3
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
c2
c3 c4 c4 3c3
2
1 0 0 0
0 10 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0
I3 0
( A) 3.
0 0

2 2 1 3
5 4 2 6
8) Find the rank of the matrix
1 3 2 2
2 4 1 6
Sol : R2 R2 2 R1 , R3 R3 R1 R4 R4 2 R1
1 2 2 3 1 2 2 3
2 5 4 6 0 1 0 0
A
1 3 2 2 0 1 0 1
2 4 1 6 0 0 3 0
1
R3 R3 R2 , R3 R4 R3 R3
3
1 2 2 3 1 2 2 3
0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0
A
0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0
0 0 3 0 0 0 0 1

1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
( A) 4
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1

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9) Find the rank of the matrix by reducing to the normal form

1 1 1 1
1 2 3 4
2 3 5 5
1) 3 4 5 8
Sol : R2 R2 R1 , R3 R3 2 R1 R4 R4 3R1

2) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 2 3 4 0 1 2 5
A
2 3 5 5 0 1 3 7
3 4 5 8 0 7 8 5
R3 R3 R2 , R4 R4 7 R2 R4 R4 6 R3
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
0 1 2 5 0 1 2 5
A
0 0 1 2 0 0 1 2
0 0 6 30 0 0 0 18
c2 c2 c1 , c3 c3 c1 c4 c4 c1 c3 c3 2c2 c4 c4 5c2
1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
0 1 2 5 0 1 0 0
0 0 1 2 0 0 1 2
0 0 0 18 0 0 0 18
1
c4 c4 2c3 c4 c4
18
1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
0 1 2 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0 10
0 0 0 18 0 0 0 1
( A) 4.

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1 1 1 1
10) Find the value of K such that the following matrix A = 1 2 4 k may have rank equal
1 4 10 k 2
to a) 3 b) 2.

Sol : R2 R2 R1 R3 R3 R1
3)
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
A 1 2 4 k 0 1 3 k 1
1 4 10 k 2 0 3 9 k2 1
R3 R3 3R2
1 1 1 1
0 1 3 k 1
0 0 0 k 2 3k 2
a) Rank of A can be 3 if the equivalent form of A has 3 non-Zero rows.
This is possible if k 2 3k 2 0
i.e, (k 1)(k 2) 0
( A) 3 if k 1 & k 2
4) b) Rank of A can be 2 if the equivalent form of A has 2 non-zero rows.

This is possible if k 2 3k 2 0
5)
i.e, (k 1)(k 2) 0 k 1 or k 2
6) ( A) 2 if k 1 & k 2
a11a12 .........a1n : b1
A: B a21a22 .........a2 n : b2
am1am 2 .........amn : bm
The given sys of equation is consistent & will have unique soln.
Let us convert A : B into a set of equation as follows
x+ y + z = 6
-2y + z = 7 -2y+3=-1 x+y+z=6
-3z = -9 -2y=-4 x=6-2-3=1
z= 3 y=2 x=1

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7) Solve the system of equations: x+2y=3z=0

2x+3y+z=0
4x+5y+4z=0
x+y-2z=0
1 2 3 :0
2 3 1 :0
Sol : A : B
4 5 4 :0
1 1 2 :0
R2 R2 2 R1 R3 R3 4 R1 R4 R4 R1 R3 R3 3R2 R4 R4 R2
1 2 3 :0 1 2 3 :0
0 1 5 :0 0 1 5 :0
0 3 8:0 0 0 7:0
0 1 5: 0 0 0 0:0
( A) 3
A: B 3 n 3
Hence the system is consistent & will have trivial soln x=0 y=0 z=0

8) Does the following system of homogenous equations possess a non-trivial

solutions? If so find them
x1 x2 x3 x4 0
x1 x2 2 x3 x4 0
3x1 x2 x4 0
1 1 1 1 :0
A: B 1 1 2 1 :0
3 1 0 1 :0
R2 R2 R1 R3 R3 3R1 R3 R2
1 1 1 1 :0 1 1 1 1 :0
0 2 3 2 :0 0 2 3 2 :0
0 2 3 2 :0 0 0 0 0 :0

Gauss elimination method:

The simplest method of solving systems of the form (1) of section 5.2 is the
elimination method.
The Working Rule for the method is as given below.

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Working rule:

Step1: Reduce the augmented matrix (A:B) to the form where A is in echelon form or in
upper triangular form, by employing appropriate elementary row operations.

Step2: Write the linear equations associated with the reduce form obtained in Step 1. Let
the number of equations in this reduced system be equal to r, If r=n, then the reduced
system yields the unique solution the given system. If r<n, then n-r unknowns in the
reduce system can be chosen arbitrarily and the reduced system yields infinitely many
solutions of the given system.

1. : Solve the following system of linear equations by the Gauss elimination method
x1 x2 x3 4
2 x1 x2 x3 1
x1 x2 2 x3 2
1 2 1
Sol: For the given system, the coefficient matrix is A 2 1 1
1 1 2
1 1 1:4
And the augmented matrix is A : B 2 1 1: 1
1 1 2 :2
We reduce this matrix A : B to the upper triangular form by using elementary operations
Using the row operation R2 R2 2 R1 and R3 R3 R1 ,We get
1 1 1:4
A : B  0 1 3: 7
0 2 1: 2
Now, Using the row operation R 3 R 3 2 R 2 in this, we get
1 1 1: 4
A : B  0 1 3: 7
0 0 7 : 12
We note that A is now reduced to the upper triangular form. The linear equations which
correspond to this reduced form of A : B are

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x1 x2 x3 4
x2 3x3 7
7 x3 12
From equation (iii), wew find that x3 12 / 7.
36 13
x2 7 3 x3 7
7 7
Substituting for x3and x2 found above in (i), we get
13 12 3
x1 4 x2 x3 4 = .
7 7 7
Thus, x1 =3/7, x2 =13/7, x3 =12/7 constitute the solutionof the given system.

2. Solve the following system of equations by Gauss‟s elimination method:

4 x1 x2 x3 4
x1 4 x2 2 x3 4
3x1 2 x2 4 x3 6
4 1 1:4
Sol: The augmented matrix is A : B 1 4 2: 4
3 2 4 :6
4 1 1 :4
A : B  0 15 / 4 9 / 4 :3
0 10 2 : 6
Using R 2 R 2 (1/ 4)R1 , R 3 R 3 3R 2
4 1 1 :4
A: B  0 5 3 : 4
0 5 1: 3
Using R 2 (4 / 3)R 2 , R 3 (1/ 2)R 3
4 1 1 :4
A: B  0 5 3 :4
0 0 2 :1
Using R 3 R3 R2,
We note that A is now reduced to the upper triangular form. The equations that
correspond to (i) are

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4 x1 x2 x3 4
5 x2 3x3 4
2 x3 1.
These yield .
1 1 1 1
x3 , x2 (4 3x3 ) , x1 (4 x2 x3 ) 1.
2 5 2 4
Thus, x1 =1, x2 =1/2, x3 =-1/2 constitute the solution of the given system.

3. Solve the following system of equations by Gauss‟s elimination method:

x 2y 2y 1
2x y z 2
3x 2 y 2 z 3
x z 0
1 2 2 :1
2 1 1: 2
Sol: The augmented matrix is A : B
3 2 2 :3
0 1 1:0
1 2 2 :1
0 3 3: 0
A: B 
0 4 4: 0
0 1 1:0
Using R 2 R 2 2R1 , R 3 R 3 3R1
1 2 2 :1
0 1 1: 0
A: B 
0 1 1: 0
0 1 1:0
Using R 2 ( 1/ 3)R 2 , R 3 ( 1/ 4)R 3
1 2 2 :1
0 1 1: 0
A: B 
0 0 0: 0
0 0 0 :0
Using R 3 R3 R 2 , R 4 R4 R2,

We note that A is now reduced to the echelon form. The system correspond to (i) is
x 2 y 2z 1
y z 0

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These are two equations for three unknowns. Therefore, we can choose one of the un-
known arbitrarily. Taking z=k, we get y=-k and x=1
Thus x=1,y=-k, z=k, Where k is arbitrary, is a solution of the given system.

5) Solve the following system of equations by Gauss‟s elimination method:

5 x1 x2 x3 x4 4
x1 7 x2 x3 x4 12
x1 x2 6 x3 x4 5
x1 x2 x3 x4 6
Sol : Consider augmented matrix A : B by R1 R4
1 1 1 4 : 6
1 7 1 1 : 12
A: B
1 1 6 1 : 5
5 1 1 1 : 4
R2 R2 R1 , R3 R3 R1 , R4 R4 5R1
1 1 1 4 : 6 1 1 1 4 : 6
0 6 0 3 : 18 0 2 0 1 : 6
A: B
0 0 5 3 : 1 0 0 5 3 : 1
0 4 4 19 : 34 0 4 4 19 : 34
R4 R4 2 R2
1 1 1 4 : 6
0 2 0 1 : 6
A: B
0 0 5 3 : 1
0 0 4 21 : 46
R4 5R4 4 R3
1 1 1 4 : 6
0 2 0 1 : 6
A: B
0 0 5 3 : 1
0 0 0 117 : 234
Hence we have x1 x2 x3 4 x4 6
2 x2 x4 6
5 x3 3x4 1
117 x4 234
x4 2, x3 1, x2 2 and x1 1is the reqd . so ln .

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Gauss -Jordan method:

This method can be regarded as the modification of Gauss – elimination method.
This method aims in reducing the coefficient matrix A to a diagonal matrix.
1) Applying Gauss Jordan method solve 2 x 3 y z 5 , 4x 4 y 3z 3 , 2x 3 y 2 z 2
2 3 1 : 5
Soln: A : B 4 4 3: 3
2 3 2 : 2
R2 R2 2 R1 , R3 R3 R1
2 3 1 : 5 2 3 1 : 5
A: B 0 2 1: 7  0 2 1: 7
0 6 3 : 3 0 2 1 : 1
R1 2 R1 3R2 , R3 R3 R2
4 0 5 : 11 4 0 5 : 11
A: B 0 2 1: 7  0 2 1: 7
0 0 2 : 6 0 0 1 : 3
R1 R1 5 R3 , R2 R2 R3
4 0 0 : 4
A: B 0 2 0: 4
0 0 2 : 6
Hence 4 x 4, 2 y 4, 2 z 6
x 1, y 2, z 3

2.

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Problem 1

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Problem 2

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

Problem 3

Soln:

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LINEAR TRANSFORMATION:

A Linear transformation in two dimensions is given by

y1 a1 x1 a2 x2
y2 b1 x1 b2 x2
This can be represented in the matrix form as
y1 a1 a2 x1
) Y AX
y2 b1 b2 x2
Similarly a linear transformation in 3 dimensions along with its matrix form is as,
y1 a1 x1 a2 x2 a3 x3
y2 b1 x1 b2 x2 b3 x3
y3 c1 x1 c2 x2 c3 x3
A is called transformation matrix
If A 0 Then y=AX is called non-Singular transformation or regular transformation.
If A 0 Then y=AX is called Singular transformation
X= A 1 y is called the inverse transformation.
Let z=By =B(AX)=(BA)X=CX Where C=BA Z=CX is called a composite linear
transformation .
1. Show that the transformation
y1 2 x1 x2 x3 ; y2 x1 x2 2 x3 y3 x1 2 x3 is regular. Write down the
inverse transformation.
Sol: The given transformation may be written as
Y=AX
y1 2 1 1 x1
y2 1 1 2 x2
y3 1 0 2 x3
2 1 1
A 1 1 2 2( 2) 1( 2 2) 1( 1) 4 4 1 1 0
1 0 2
A 0 A is a non-singular matrix
The transformation is regular
The inverse transformation is X= A 1Y

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2 2 1
A 4 5 3
A
1 1 1
X A 1Y
x1 2 2 1 y1
x2 4 5 3 y2
x3 1 1 1 y3
x1 2 y1 2 y2 y3
x2 4 y1 5 y2 3 y3 is the inverse transformation.
x3 y1 y2 y3

2. Prove that the following matrix is orthogonal

2 1 2
3 3 3
A 2 2 1
3 3 3
1 2 2
3 3 3
2 1 2 2 2 1
3 3 3 3 3 3 1 0 0
Sol:Consider AA I 2 2 1 1 2 2 0 1 0
3 3 3 3 3 3
1 2 2 2 1 2 0 01
3 3 3 3 3 3

1 2 a
1
3. If A=1/3 2 1 b is orthogonal. Find a,b,c & A A is orthogonal AA I
2 2 c
1 2 a 1 2 2 1 0 0
1 1
Sol : 2 1 b 2 1 2 0 1 0
3 3
2 2 c a b c 0 0 1
1 4 a2 2 2 ab 2 4 ac 9 0 0
2
2 2 ab 4 1 b 4 2 bc 0 9 0
2 4 ac 4 2 bc 4 4 c2 0 0 9
5 a2 9 5 b2 9 8 c2 9
2 2 2
a 4 b 4 c 1
a 2 b 2 c 1

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1 2 2
1 1
AA I A A 2 1 2
3
2 2 1

4. Find the inverse transformation of the following linear transformation

y1 x1 2 x2 5 x3
y2 2 x1 4 x2 11x3
y3 x1 2 x3
Sol: Y=AX
x1 19 9 2 y1
1
A Y x2 4 2 1 y2
x3 2 1 0 y3
x1 19 y1 9 y2 2 y3
x2 4 y1 2 y2 y3 is the inverse transformation
x3 2 y1 y2
5. Represents each of the transformation y1 z1 2 z2 & x2 y1 4 y2 , y2 3z
by the use of matrix & find the composite transformation which express
x1 , x2 in terms of z1 , z2
Sol : x1 3 y1 2 y2
x2 y1 4 y2
x1 3 2 y1
x AY
x2 1 4 y2
y1 z1 2 z2
y1 1 2 z1
y2 3z1 y BZ
y2 3 0 z2
X AY A( BZ ) ABZ AB Z
3 2 1 2 9 6
AB
1 4 3 0 11 2
x1 9 6 z1
x2 11 2 z2
x1 9 z1 6 z2
x2 11z1 2 z2 is the required composite transformation

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y1 5 x1 3 x2 3 x3
y2 3 x1 2 x2 2 x3
y3 2 x1 x2 2 x3

Sol : z1 4 x1 2 x3
z2 x2 4 x3
z3 5 y3
Express y1, y2, y3
int erms of z1 , z2 , z3
Given : Y=AX
1 0 1
4 10
Z BX X B 1Z B 1
0 1 4
5
0 0 1
5
Y ( AB 1 ) Z
5 3 23
y1 4 10 Z1
y2 3 1 23 z2
4 10
y3 1 z3
1 1
2

Definition: Let A be a given square matrix of order n. suppose I a non-zero Column

vector X of order n and real or complex no. Such that AX= x
Then X is called an Eigen vector of A.
is called the corresponding Eigen value of A.
Working Rule:
1. Given square matrix A write down the characteristic equation A I 0
2. Solve the characteristic equation for Eigen values 1 , 2 , 3 ,.......
3. To find Eigen vector, write down the matrix equation as
x1
A I X 0 where X x2
xn
4. We set 1 in the matrix equation & solve it for Eigen vector x1 . Similarly we
obtain Eigen vector x2 , x3 ..... for corresponding Eigen value 2 , 3 .....

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1.Find the Eigen values & corresponding eigen vector of the following matrix
3 8
A
2 7
3 8
Sol : A I ( 3 )(7 ) 16
2 7
2
4 5
( 5) ( 1) 0
The roots of this equation are 1 =5 & 2 =-1. These are the two Eigen value of the given
T
matrix A. Let X= x, y , then the matrix equation ( A I)X 0
3 8 x 0
2 7 y 0
1 5
8 8 x 0
2 2 y 0
-8x+8y=0, -2x+2y=0. Both of these reduces to some equation x-y=0 =) x=y. If we choose
a
x=a, then y=a These, when 1 5, x1 is the solution of (1)
a
0 2 1 equation (1) becomes
-2 8 x 0
-2 8 y 0
For 2 x 8 y 0, x 4 y 0.Hence if we choose y=b, then x=4b
Ab
Thus when 2 1, x2 is the soln of (1)
b

2. Find the Eigen values & the Eigen vectors of the matrix
2 0 1
A 0 2 0
1 0 2
Sol: For the given matrix, the characteristic polynomial is
2 0 1
A I 0 2 0
1 0 2
(2 x)3 (2 )
( 3)(2 )( 1)

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The characteristic equation of the given matrix is

(2 )( 3)( 1) 0
The roots are 1 1 2 2 & 3 3 these are the Eigen value of the given matrix.
T
x, y , z X , then the matrix equation (A- I)x=0
2- 0 1 x 0
0 2 0 y 0 (1)
1 0 2 z 0
For 1 1
1 0 1 x 0
0 1 0 y 0
1 0 1 z 0
x z 0&y 0
T
If we choose x=a, then z=-a; x1 a1 01 a
T
If a 1 x1 1 0 1
0 0 1 x 0
For 2 2 0 0 0 y 0
1 0 0 z 0
T
x 0, z 0. we take y=b; x 2 0 b 0
T
If b 2 x2 0 2 0
Let 1 0 1 x 0
For 3 3 0 1 0 y 0
1 0 1 z 0
T
x z 0, y 0. we take x=c; then z=c x 3 c o c
T
If c 3 x3 3 0 3

1 1 3
3. Find the matrix P which reduces the matrix A 1 5 1 to diagonal form
3 1 1
Hence find A4
1- 1 3
A I 1 5 1 0
3 1 1
1 2 2 3 3 6

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1- 1 3
A I 1 5 1 0
3 1 1
1 2 2 3 3 6
3 1 3 x 0
Case(1): 1 7 1 y 0
3 1 3 z 0
3x y 3z 0
x 7y z 0
x y z
1 3 3 3 3 1
7 1 1 1 1 7
x y z
20 0 20
Caseii ): 2 3
2 1 3 x 0
1 2 1 y 0
3 1 2 z 0
2x y 3z 0
x 2y z 0
3x y 2z 0
x y z
2 1 1 1 1 2
1 2 3 2 3 1
x y z
5 5 5
Caseiii ): 3 6
5 1 3 x 0
1 1 1 y 0
3 1 5 z 0
5 x y 3z 0
x y z 0
3x y 5 z 0
x y z
1 1 1 1 1 1
1 5 3 5 3 1
x MATHS,
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x y z
4 8 4
x1 x2 x3 1 1 1
p x1 x2 x3 y1 y2 y3 0 1 2
z1 z2 z3 1 1 1
1 1
0
2 2
1 1 1 1
p
3 3 3
1 1 1
6 3 6
2 0 0
1
p AP 0 3 0 D
0 0 6
1 1
0
1 1 1 16 0 0 2 2
4 4 1 1 1 1
A PD p 0 1 2 0 81 0
3 3 3
1 1 1 0 0 1296
1 1 1
6 3 6
251 405 235
405 891 405
235 405 251

11 4 7
5) Diagonalizable the matrix A 7 2 5 and find A5
10 4 6
(A I) 0
11 4 7
7 2 5 0
10 4 6
3 3
3 2 0
2
3 2 0
x 0 1 2

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Casei : 0
11 4 7 x 0
7 2 5 y 0
10 4 6 z 0
11x 4 y 7 z 0
7 x 2 y 5z 0
10 x 4 y 6 z 0
x y z
2 5 7 5 7 2
4 6 10 6 10 4
x y z
8 8 8

Caseii : 1
10 4 7 x 0
7 3 5 y 0
10 4 7 z 0
10 x 4 y 7 z 0
7 x 3 y 5z 0
10 x 4 y 7 z 0
x y z
4 7 10 7 10 4
3 5 7 5 7 3
x y z
1 1 2
Caseiii : 2
9 4 7 x 0
7 4 5 y 0
10 4 8 z 0
9x 4 y 7z 0
7 x 4 y 5z 0
10 x 4 y 8 z 0

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x y z
4 5 7 5 7 4
4 8 10 8 10 4
x y z
12 6 12
1 1 2
p x1 x2 x3 0 1 1
1 2 2
4 2 3
1
p 1 0 1
3 1 2
0 0 0
p 1 AP 0 1 0 D
0 0 2
191 64 127
A5 PD 5 p 1
97 32 65
190 64 126

A homogeneous expression of the second degree in any number of variables is
In general for two variables x1 , x2 i.e, n 1, 2 a11 x12 2a12 x1 x2 a22 x22
is called QF in
two variables.
1
coeff of x12 coeff of x1 x2
The matrix A of the above Q.F is A 2
1
coeff of x1 x2 coeff of x12
2
1
1
Eg : x 2 y 2 xy A 2
1
1
2
2 3
2) 2 x 2 3 y 2 6 xy A
3 3
5 6
3)5 x12 7 x22 12 x1 x2 A
6 7

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Similarly Q.F in 3 variables is

a11 x12 a22 x22 a33 x32 2a12 x1 x2 2a13 x1 x2 2a23 x1 x2
1 1
coeff of x12 coeff x1 x2 coeff x1 x3
2 2
1 1
Coeff of x1 x2 coeff of x12 coeff x2 x3
A 2 2
1 1
Coeff of x1 x2 coeff x2 x3 coeff of x32
2 2

1
1 2
2
1
Examples :1) QF : x 2 y2 z2 xy 2 yz 4 zx A 1
2
2 1 1

5 2 0
2 2 2
2)5 x 2 yz 6 y 9z 4 xy A 2 6 1
0 1 9

1 1
0
2 2
1 1
3) xy yz zx A 0
2 2
1 1
0
2 2

Canonical Form (sum of squares):

Q 1 y12 2
2 y2 ....... n yn2 where 1 , 2 ,....... n are Eigen values called canonical form.
Rank Index & Signature of canonical form

The number of non-zero terms present in a canonical form of Q is called rank of Q it, (r)
Ex :2 y12 y22 y32 r 3 y12 y32 r 2

1. The number of the terms present in a canonical form is called index of Q. (p)
Ex :2 y12 3 y22 5 y32 p 2

2. The difference between the negative terms in a canonical form is called signature
of Q (s)
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Ex : y12 3 y22 y32 s 2 1 1

r=rank, p=index n=number of variables
Condition Meaning Nature of Q.F Eg;
r=n,p=n All n Co efficient +ve definite 2 y12 y22 8 y32 +
are positive
r=n,p=0 All n Co efficient -ve definite y12 y22 6 y32
are
-ve
r=p,p<n for r=2=p At least one of the +ve Semi y22 5 y32
2<3 Co-efficient Zero definite
& all other Co-
efficientp are +ve
r<n,p=0 At least one of the -ve Semi definite y22 10 y32
Co-efficient Zero
& all other Co-
efficient are -ve
Note: Q.F is indefinite if some of the Co-efficient are +ve and some are -ve
Eg: y12 y22 3 y32

Working rule to reduce Q.F to Canonical (sum of squares) form by

orthogonal transformation.

1. Write down the matrix A to Q.F

2. Find the Eigen values & the corresponding eigen vectors of matrixA.
3. Normalise the Eigen vector x1 , x2 , x3
x1
i.e, x11
x1
a
If x1 b x11 a 2 b2 c2
c
x2 x3
111iy x12 x31
x2 x3
4. Write down the associated orthogonal model matrix Q x11 x12 x31
5. Since pp1 I p 1
p1
Then p 1 AP p1 AP diagonal matrix 1 , 2 , 3

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2 2 2
6. The associated canonical form is y
1 1 y
2 2 3 3 y
x1 y1
7. x=py where X x2 & Y y2
x3 y3
will give us the orthogonal linear transformation.

1) Obtain the canonical form of the quadratic form

Sol : 2 x 2 2 y 2 2 z 2 2 xy 2 yz 2 zx
2 1 1
A 1 2 1
1 1 2
(A I) 0
2 1 1
1 2 1 0
1 1 2
(2 ) (2 )2 1 1 (2 ) 1 1 1 (2 ) 0
2
(2 ) 4 4 1 2 1 3 0
2
2 4 3 3 3 0
2 3 2
2 8 6 4 3 3 3 0
3 2 3 2
6 9 0 6 9 0
2
( 6 9) 0 ( 3)3 0
0,3,3 i.e, 1 0, 2 0, 3 0 are roots and are the Eigen values of A.

2) The canonical form of the given Q.P that we get by an orthogonal transformation
is 1 y12 2
2 y2
2
3 y3 3 y22 3 y32
Sol: Since one Co- efficient in this canonical form is zero & the other two are +ve,
the Q.F is +ve Semi-definite
Rank, r=2 Index, p=2 & Signature, s=2.

3) Reduce the Q.F x12 3x22 3x32 2 x2 x3 to the canonical form by an orthogonal
transformation
1 0 0
Sol : A 0 3 1
0 1 3

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(A I) 0
1 0 0
0 3 1 0
0 1 3
(1 ) (3 )2 1 0 0
2
(1 ) 9 6 1 0
2
(1 ) 6 8 0
2 3 2
6 8 6 8 0
3
7 2 14 8 0 3
7 2
14 8 0
( 1) ( 2) ( 4) 0
The eigen values of A are 1 1 2 2 3 4
Casei : For 1 1
0 0 0 x1 0
0 2 1 x2 0
0 1 2 x3 0
x y z
2 1 0 1 0 2
1 2 0 2 0 1
x y z
3 0 0
3 1
x1 0 0
0 0
11x111 12 0 0 1
T
1 x1 100 T
x1 1 0 0
x1 1
2 2
1 0 0 x1 0
0 1 1 x2 0
0 1 1 x3 0
x y z
1 1 1 0 1 0
1 1 0 1 0 1

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x y z
0 1 1
3
x2 1
1
11x211 0 1 1 2
T
x2 1 T 1 1
x2 0 1 1 0
x2 2 2 2

3 4
3 0 0 x1 0
0 1 1 x2 0
0 1 1 x3 0
x y z
1 1 3 0 3 0
1 1 0 1 0 1
x y z
0 3 3
0 0
x1 3 1
3 1
11x311 0 1 1 2
T T
1 x3 0 1 1 1 1
x3 1
x3 2 2 2
The orthogonal model matrix for A is

0 0 1
1 1
Q x11 x12 x31 0
2 2
1 1
0
2 2
X=Q.F is the orthogonal transformation that reduces the given Q.F to the canonical form.
The canonical form is
2 2 2
1 y1 2 y2 3 y3 y12 2 y22 4 y32

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

Rayleigh‟s power method is an iterative method to determine the numerically largest

eigen value and the corresponding eigen vector of a square matrix.

Working procedure:
 Suppose A is the given square matrix, we assume initially an eigen vector X 0 in a
simple for like [1, 0, 0] or [0,1, 0] or [0, 0,1] or [1,1,1] and find the matrix
product AX 0 which will also be a column matrix.
1
 We take out the largest element as the common factor to obtain AX 0
1
X .
1 1 2
 We then find AX and again put in the form AX 2
X by normalization.
 The iterative process is continued till two consecutive iterative values of λ and X
are same upto a desired degree of accuracy.
 The values so obtained are respectively the largest eigen value and the
corresponding eigen vector of the given square matrix A.

Problems:
1) Using the Power method find the largest eigen value and the corresponding eigen
vector starting with the given initial vector.
2 0 1
T
0 2 0 given 1 0 0
1 0 2
2 0 1 1 2 1
0 1 1
Solution : AX 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 X
1 0 2 0 1 0.5
2 0 1 1 2.5 1
1 2 2
AX 0 2 0 0 0 2.5 0 X
1 0 2 0.5 2 0.8
2 0 1 1 2.8 1
2 3 3
AX 0 2 0 0 0 2.8 0 X
1 0 2 0.8 2.6 0.93

DEPT OF MATHS, SJBIT Page 163

ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

2 0 1 1 2.93 1
3 4 4
AX 0 2 0 0 0 2.93 0 X
1 0 2 0.93 2.86 0.98
2 0 1 1 2.98 1
4 5 5
AX 0 2 0 0 0 2.98 0 X
1 0 2 0.98 2.96 0.99
2 0 1 1 2.99 1
5 6 6
AX 0 2 0 0 0 2.99 0 X
1 0 2 0.99 2.98 0.997
2 0 1 1 2.997 1
6 7
AX 0 2 0 0 0 2.997 0 X 7
1 0 2 0.997 2.994 0.999
Thus the largest eigen value is approximately 3 and the corresponding eigen vector is
[1 ,0, 1]‟

2) Using the Power method find the largest eigen value and the
corresponding eigen vector starting with the given initial vector.
4 1 1
T
2 3 1 given 1 0.8 0.8
2 1 5
4 1 1 1 5.6 1
0 1 1
Solution : AX 2 3 1 0.8 5.2 5.6 0.93 X
2 1 5 0.8 5.2 0.93
4 1 1 1 5.86 1
1 2 2
AX 2 3 1 0.93 5.72 5.86 0.98 X
2 1 5 0.93 5.72 0.98
4 1 1 1 5.96 1
2 3 3
AX 2 3 1 0.98 5.92 5.96 0.99 X
2 1 5 0.98 5.92 0.99
4 1 1 1 5.98 1
3 4 4
AX 2 3 1 0.99 5.96 5.98 0.997 X
2 1 5 0.99 5.96 0.997
4 1 1 1 5.994 1
4 5 5
AX 2 3 1 0.997 5.988 5.994 0.999 X
2 1 5 0.997 5.988 0.999

DEPT OF MATHS, SJBIT Page 164

ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I 15MAT11

Thus after five iterations the numerically largest eigen value is 5.994 and corresponding
eigen vector is [1, 0.999, -0,999]‟

6) Using Rayleigh‟s power method to find the largest Eigen value and the corresponding
Eigen vector of the matrix.
(Dec 2012)
6 2 2
Sol: A 2 3 1 X ( 0) 1,0,0
2 1 3
6 2 2 1 6 1
(0 )
AX 2 3 1 0 2 6 0.333
2 1 3 0 2 0.3333
6 2 2 1 7.3332 1
(1 )
AX 2 3 1 0.333 3.3332 7.3332 0.4545
2 1 3 0.3333 3.3332 0.4545
6 2 2 1 7.818 1
(2 )
AX 2 3 1 0.4545 3.818 7.818 0.488
2 1 3 0.4545 3.818 0.488
6 2 2 1 7.952 1
(3 )
AX 2 3 1 0.488 3.952 7.952 0.4969
2 1 3 0.488 3.952 0.4969
The largest Eigen value is 7.952 and the corresponding Eigen vector is
1 0.4969 0.4969