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Directions: Use the links and read the text to answer the questions.

Read the following excerpt on the Russian Revolution:

For hundreds of years the Mongols ruled Russia and keep it isolated. Mongols were
eventually overthrown and Russia was soon ruled by Czars. Czar means king.
Throughout the 19th century, Russian Czars attempted to westernize and industrialize,
without also importing French Revolution liberal ideas. They were mostly unsuccessful,
and many Russian liberals called for reform. In response, the Czars became harsh and
oppressive. A rigid social class system added to this problem by denying the majority
peasant class most basic rights. The peasant class, composed of both farmers and
urban workers, were mostly poor, overworked, and hungry, which would lead them to
support liberal ideas that promised better living conditions. The Russian revolution
officially happened in 1917. The revolution had many causes including WWI. Vladimir
Lenin was the leader of the revolution and he used a slogan to gain support for the
revolution. The slogan of the Russian revolution (1917) was PEACE, BREAD & LAND.
PEACE – get out of WWI (this happened), Bread – give food to the starving people (kind
of happened for some) , Land - take land from the landowners and give it to the
peasants – (sounds good but never happened)
1. Which group isolated Russia for hundreds of years?
2. What does Czar mean?
3. What did many Czars try to do to Russia?
4. Why were many people in Russia unhappy?
5. What was the slogan of the Russian revolution?

A small revolution in 1905 forced Czar Nicholas II to enact some minor reforms,
however, these did not last. Finally, as Russia suffered through many defeats during
World War I, and the country faced shortages in food, fuel and housing, the people
began to revolt. The czar was forced from power in March of 1917, and a provisional
(temporary) government was setup. In November, after this government had been slow
in reacting to the country's problems, a group known as the Bolsheviks, took control of
the country. This is known as the Bolshevik or Communist Revolution, as the
Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, later renamed themselves Communists.
6. What happened to Czar Nicholas?
7. Who were the Bolsheviks?
8. Who was the leader of the Bolsheviks?
9. What happened in Russia on January 22, 1905?
Scroll down to Bloody Sunday.
10. What did the peasants want when they marched to the Czar’s palace?
11. After Bloody Sunday, how was the Czar perceived by the people?
12. What conditions like for the working class in early 20th century Russia?
13. What happened to the price of goods in 1904?
14. What did workers decide to do in St. Petersburg?
15. Father Gapon to demanded change. List two demands made by Father Gapon to
Czar Nicholas II.
16. Did Food shortages cause the Russian Revolution? If yes, why? If no, why not?

Read the Following paragraph.

The partial industrialization of Russia in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, which
created an urban working class in places like St. Petersburg and Moscow that could
organize against its exploitation through unions and workers councils (known as 'the
soviets'). This enabled the workers to work together much more effectively against their
bosses then the scattered, isolated, and thus largely de-politicized peasantry. The cities
were also connected via trade and communication to the outside world, where
intellectuals and workers alike had access to revolutionary ideas from Western Europe
such as Marxism. Poverty and gross social and economic inequality marked Russian
society creating deep feelings of unhappiness. The czar and the aristocracy, as well as
Russia's wealthy class, lived in luxury while most Russians lived in out-of-date harsh
conditions without electricity or basic conveniences. In the countryside, most farmers still
used wooden plows. Hundreds of thousands died from epidemics on a regular basis
because of poor health care. 1/3 of all Russian babies died before their first birthday.
The entry of Russia into World War I brought all the class tensions of Russian society to
a boiling point, especially when Russia's badly equipped and led army suffered a series
of disastrous defeats. The Czar sent millions of soldiers into WWI against Germany
without weapons or supplies; millions died and Russia lost a large amount of territory.
Food riots broke out in Russia's major cities and the countryside. The army and navy
began to mutiny against a government they had no desire to fight and die for. The czar
of Russia, Nicholas II, was a weak and indecisive leader. He ruled absolutely giving few
rights to the average citizen who was dying in WWI or suffering as a working class
person and peasant. The Czar had difficulty making decisions. He went back and forth
between making allowances to his people and then opting for cruel actions against his
critics. Although many different groups were opposed to the czar, the Russian
Revolution was successful because the group that ended up leading it, the Bolsheviks,
was dedicated, well-organized, and well-led by Vladimir Lenin.
17. List 5 causes of the Russian Revolution.
18. Which cause do you think was most important and why?
19. Why was the Russian Revolution successful?
20. Who was Vladimir Lenin?
21. What happened to Lenin’s brother?
22. How did Lenin feel about Russia’s involvement in WWI?

Read the paragraph:

Totalitarianism is a form of government. After WWI, the world experienced a worldwide
depression. Millions of people were unemployed and homeless. People wanted strong
governments to fix these problems. Totalitarianism became very popular in Europe since
Europe was left destroyed after WWI. Dictators are leaders with total control. Hitler,
Stalin and Mussolini became synonymous with the control they held over their nations
and people.
23. What happened after WWI?
24. Why did totalitarianism seem like a good idea after the war?

Definition of Totalitarianism
The essence of totalitarianism can be found in its very name; it is a form of rule in which
the government attempts to maintain 'total' control over society, including all aspects of
the public and private lives of its citizens.
There are several characteristics that are common to totalitarian regimes, including:
• Rule by a single party
• Total control of the military
• Total control over means of communication (such as newspapers, propaganda,
• Police control with the use of terror as a control tactic
• Control of the economy

25. Define Totalitarianism.
26. Why did Lenin become a revolutionary?

27. What were the conditions like for Russian soldiers during WWI?
28. When did Lenin take over the Russian government?
29. What did Lenin do with land when he became the leader?
30. How did Lenin treat people who spoke out about his government?
31. When did Lenin first establish communism?
32. What was Lenin’s New Economic Policy (NEP)?
33. When was the Soviet Union established?
34. When did Lenin die?
35. How did Lenin impact the Soviet Union?

Russia became the first country to base its government on the writings of Karl Marx.
Marx wrote the book The Communist Manifesto. He believed the proletariat (Workers)
should rise up and control the government. By 1922, Lenin and the Communists had
retaken most of the old Russian Empire and renamed it the Soviet Union. Initially, the
Communists fulfilled their revolutionary promises by improving basic living conditions,
and ending Russia's involvement in World War I, but ultimately failed to provide a
government of equal rights and participation. By 1922, Lenin and the Communists had
retaken most of the old Russian Empire and renamed it the Soviet Union. Lenin
instituted the New Economic Policy where government controlled most banks and
industry, but did allow some private ownership. This allowed the Soviet economy to
slowly recover from the effects of the Czars and World War I. After Lenin died, Stalin
took over. Under Josef Stalin, the Soviet Union switched to a Command Economy,
which gives control of all property and means of production to the
government. Furthermore, a command economy focuses on building up industry, and
produces few consumer products. This often resulted in shortages throughout the
Soviet Union. While Stalin's Five Year Plans did much for rebuilding the Soviet economy
after World War II, his policy of farm collectivization, where peasants lived collectively on
government owned farms, often resulted in widespread famine. Many peasants hated
this policy of collectivism. The Russian Revolution helped make Russia a world power,
however, many Russians soon felt that life did not improve much after the Russian
36. Who was Karl Marx?
37. What book did he write?
38. Define Proletariat.
39. What was the name of Lenin’s plan?
40. Who took over after Lenin?
41. What is a command economy?
42. What is collectivism?
43. What was one effect this revolution had on Russia?