PHT – 7
(ii) Molar heat capacity at constant pressure (C _{P} ) : It is defined as the heat required to raise the temperature by 1 K of 1 mole of gas at constant pressure. Mathematically
C _{P}
(dQ)
P
ndT
(dQ)
P
nC dT
P
Here (dQ) _{P} is the required heat for this process i.e. for isobaric process to raise the on n moles of gas.
Remember the following points :
(i) C _{P} is always greater than C _{V}
(ii) C _{P} – C _{V} = R for ideal gas
temperature by dT
C14
(i) Isochoric Process (Constant Volume Process) : W = 0, Q = U
(ii) Isobaric Process (Constant Pressure Process) : W = P(V _{2} – V _{1} ) = nR(T _{2} – T _{1} )
Application of the First Law of Thermodynamics
Q = nC _{P} (T _{2} – T _{1} )
(iii) Isothermal Process (Constant Temperature Process)
U = 0, Q = W = nRT
ln
V
2
V
1
nRT ln
1
2
nRT ln
P
1
P
2
.
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(iv)
(v)
(vi)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Adiabatic Process
PV ^{} = constant, TV ^{} ^{–} ^{1} = constant, P ^{1} ^{–} ^{}^{} T ^{} = constant.
For this process Q = 0,
U
nR
1
(T
2
T )
1
1
1
(P V
2
2
P V )
1
1
and W = –U
Cyclic Process
There is process in which, after certain interchanges of heat and work, the system is restored to its initial state, named as cyclic process. In this case U = 0 and Q = W
Free expansions
These are adiabatic process in which no transfer of heat occurs between the system and its environment and no work is done on or by the system. Thus, Q = W = 0 and hence from the first law thermodynamics U =
0.
Practice Problems :
A monatomic gas ( = 5/3) is suddenly compressed to (1/8) of its initial volume adiabatically, then the pressure of the gas will change to :
(a)
In an adiabatic change, the pressure P and temperature T of a diatomic gas are related by the relation P T ^{C} where c equals
(a)
One mole of an ideal gas requires 207 J heat to raise the temperature by 10 K when heated at constant pressure. If the same gas is heated at constant volume to raise the temperature by the same 10 K, the heat required is : [R = 8.3 J/mol K]
(a)
The following cyclic process is performed on one mole of monoatomic gas.
24/5
5/3
(b)
(b)
8
2/5
198.7 J
(b)
29 J
Find W, U and Q in the individual process and in the complete process ?
The following cyclic process is performed on one mole of monoatomic gas.
Find W, U and Q in the individual process and in the complete process ?
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6. The following cyclic process is performed on one mole of diatomic gas.
Find W, U and Q in the individual process and in the complete process ?
7.
C15
1.
Is the efficiency of the cycle is defined ? If yes, find
C16
Carnot Cycle : This cycle consists of four processes given in the figure : (i) AB is isothermal expansion at temperature T _{1} (ii) BC is adiabatic expansion (iii) CD is isothermal compression at temperature T _{2} (iv) DA is adiabatic compression.
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The efficiency of the cycle is 1 – T _{2} /T _{1} , where T _{2} < T _{1} .
Practice Problems :
1. A Carnot engine working between 300 K and 600 K has a work output of 800 J per cycle. The amount of heat energy supplied to the engine from the source in each cycle is
C17
(a)
[Answers : (1) b]
800 J
(b)
1600 J
Second Law of Thermodynamics
(c)
3500 J
(d)
6400 J
A perfect black body is one which absorbs all the radiations (from = 0 to = ) incident on it.
Black Body Radiation
The graph is plotted between intensity of heat radiation I and wave length of heat radiation emitted by the black body as shown in figure
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There is particular wavelength _{m} at which the intensity of emitted heat radiation is maximum, this wave length is relates with the temperature of the black body using the following law _{m} T = b = constant. This law is known as Wien’s Displacement law. Here b is known as Wien’s constant having value 0.29 cmK.
Practice Problems :
1. The intensity of radiation emitted by the Sun has its maximum value at a wavelength of 510 nm and that emitted by the North Star has the maximum value at 350 nm. If these stars behave like black bodies, then the ratio of the surface temperature of the Sun and the North Star is
(a)
1.46
(b)
0.69
(c)
1.21
(d)
0.83
2. The plots of intensity versus wavelength for three black bodies at temperatures T _{1} , T _{2} and T _{3} respectively are as shown in figure. Their temperature are such that
T _{3} > T _{2} > T _{1}
The energy of heat radiation emitted per unit time E is directly proportional to the fourth power of absolute temperature of the body i.e., E = e(T ^{4} – T _{0} ^{4} )
where e is the emissivity of the surface defined as the ratio of emissive power of the surface to the emissive power of black body surface at the same temperature. Its value lies between 0 and 1. For black body e = 1. is known as Stefan’s constants, its numerical value is 5.68 × 10 ^{–}^{8} Wm ^{–}^{2} K ^{–}^{4} . T _{0} is the surrounding tem perature in which body is placed. If A is the surface area of the body, then the rate of heat emitted by the body is
Newton’s Law of Cooling
When the temperature difference between the body and is surrounding is not very large, i.e. T – T _{0} = T is
small then the rate of cooling is given by
dT
dt
k(T
T )
0
. This law is known as Newton’s Law of
Cooling which is derived from Stefan’s Law. There is another way to express the Newton’s Law Cooling
T
T
1
2
t
Here
T
1
T
2
K
2
T
0
T _{1} : Initial temperature of the body, T _{2} : Temperature of the body after time t
T _{0} : Surrounding temperature, K : A constant
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Practice Problems :
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
SINGLE CORRECT CHOICE TYPE
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(a) 
K _{1} + K _{2} 
(b) 
(K _{1} + 3K _{2} )/4 
(a) 
265 J 
(b) 
575 J 
(c) 
K _{1} K _{2} /(K _{1} + K _{2} ) 
(d) 
(3K _{1} + K _{2} )/4 
(c) 
765 J 
(d) 
975 J 
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(a)
(c)
Lh ^{2}
2K
Lh ^{2}
4K
(b)
(d)
Lh ^{2}
3K
Lh ^{2}
5K
25. If 70 calorie of heat is required to raise the temperature of 2 mole of an ideal gas at constant pressure from 30 to 35 ^{0} C, the change in internal energy is
(a) 
40 cal. 
(b) 
60 cal. 
(c) 
20 cal 
(d) 
50 cal. 
(a) 
1.42 
(b) 
1.65 
(c) 
1.55 
(d) 
1.32 
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31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
(a)
(c)
(1 )mRT
MV
(2 )mRT
MV
(b)
(d)
(1 )mRT
MV
(2 )mRT
MV
37.
An oxygen cylinder of volume 30 litres has an initial gauge pressure of 15 atm and a temperature of 27 ^{0} C. After some oxygen is withdrawn from the cylinder, the gauge pressure drops to 11 atm and its temperature drops to 17 ^{0} C. The mass of oxygen taken out of the cylinder is
150 ^{0} C is passed from a boiler into a copper coil
immersed in water. The steam condenses in the coil and is returned to the boiler as water at 90 ^{0} C. The mass of steam required per hour is
(a) 
0.5 kg 
(b) 
0.75 kg 
(c) 
1 kg 
(d) 
1.25 kg 
Consider the cyclic process ABCA, shown in figure performed on a sample of 2.0 mole of an ideal gas. A total of 1200 J of heat is withdrawn from the sample in the process. The work done by the gas during the part BC is
(a) 
–4715 J 
(b) 
–4253 J 
(c) 
–3790 J 
(d) 
–4520 J 
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42. very low temperature, the molar heat capacity At 
44. A metal of mass 1 kg at constant atmospheric 

of 
rock salt varies with temperature according to 
pressure and at initial temperature 20 ^{0} C is given a 
C 
= k(T/ _{D} ) ^{3} with k = 2000 (J/mol K) and 
heat of 20000 J. Use the following data : 
_{D} = 300 K. The average molar heat capacity of rock
salt in the temperature range 10K to 50K is
Specific heat 400 J/kg ^{0} C, coefficient of cubical expansion, = 9 × 10 ^{–}^{5} / ^{0} C, density = 9000 kg/m ^{3} ,
(a) 
9.26 J/mol.K 
(b) 
2.9 J/mol.K 
atmospheric 
pressure = 10 ^{5} N/m ^{2} . 
(c) 
2.2 J/mol.K 
(d) 
7.2 J/mol.K 
The change in internal energy of the metal is 
(c)
R( 1)T
0
(d)
2
R(1)T
0
3. The bulk modulus of elasticity of this process at the pressure of the gas P is
(a) 
P 
(b) 
–P 
(c) 
P/2 
(d) 
–2P 
(a) 


(b) 



(c) 


(d) 

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6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
The final temperature of the gas is
(a) 
600 K 
(b) 
700 K 
(c) 
800 K 
(d) 
900 K 
The heat capacity for the process performed is
(a) 
1.24 J/K 
(b) 
1.34 J/K 
(c) 
1.44 J/K 
(d) 
1.54 J/K 
Heater is removed and the system is restored to its original equilibrium position, where the spring is relaxed. Now the piston is disturbed by a very amount and released such that it performs SHM. The time period of SHM of the piston is if the mass of the piston is 0.25 kg
For the above problems (510) take the following assumptions where ever it requries :
The cylinder and the piston are thermally insulated. The piston is massless and there is no friction between the piston and the cylinder. Neglect heat loss through the lead wires of the heater. The heat capacity of the heater coil is negligible. Assume the spring is massless.
Comprehension3
One mole of an ideal monatomic gas is taken around the cyclic process ABCA as shown in the figure.
1 V
2 0
P
0
2P _{0} V _{0}
The work done by the gas is
(b)
(d)
Consider the system as shown in figure without the spring and the piston is fixed. An ideal monoatomic gas is confined in the cylinder at the pressure 10 ^{5} N/m ^{2} . Initially is gas is at 300 K and occupies the volume of 2.4 × 10 ^{–}^{3} m ^{3} . Using the heater a very small amount of heat 1.2 J is provided. The percentage change in rms speed of the gas molecule in the container is
(a)
(c)
1
3
%
(b)
The ratio of heat in the path CA and the heat in the path AB is
(b)
(d)
6
_{5}
5
6
P
0
13. The heat absorbed in the path BC is
(a)
(c)
P _{0} V _{0}
3P _{0} V _{0}
(b)
(d)
1 V
2 0
2P _{0} V _{0}
14. The temperaturevolume diagram for the above cyclic process is represented by


(a) 



(b) 
Consider the system as shown in figure without the spring and the piston is movable. An ideal monoatomic gas is confined. Initially is gas is at 300 K and occupies the volume of 2.4 × 10 ^{–}^{3} m ^{3} . Initially the piston is stationary. The corsssectional area of the piston is 8 × 10 ^{–}^{3} m ^{2} . Using the heater, some amount of heat is provided such that piston moves very slowly by 0.3 m. The amont of heat supplied is
(a) 
400 J 
(b) 
600 J 
(c) 
800 J 
(d) 
1000 J 
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(c)
(d) none
15. The maximum temperature attained by the gas during the cycle is
The bulk modulus of elasticity for isothermal process and adiabatic process performed on ideal
gas is shown in figure which is changing with pressure of the gas. Ideal gases are taken He, O _{2} and mixture of one mole of He and two moles of O _{2} . One of the graph is for isothermal process and other three graphs for adiabatic process performed on different gases or mixture of gases given in the problem.
20. Which graph must be for the isothermal process ?
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(a) 
69 cm 
(b) 
79 cm 
Comprehension7 

(c) 
82 cm 
(d) 
89 cm 
A 
rod of negligible heat capacity has length 20 cm, 
Comprehension6
Convection requires a medium and is the process in which heat is transferred from one place to the other by the actual movement of heated substance (usually fluid). It is found that rate of heat convection from an object is proportional to the temperature difference () between the object and convective fluid and the contact area A, i.e.,
crosssectional area 1sq.cm and thermal conductivity 200 SI unit. The one end of the rod is placed in a ice container which contains 5.36 g ice at 0 ^{0} C. The temperature of other end of the rod increases from 0 ^{0} C to 60 ^{0} C linearly with time and maintains at the temperature of 60 ^{0} C. The other end of the rod will attain the temperature of 60 ^{0} C at 10 minutes. Neglect the heat capacity of the ice container.
The time at which ice will completely melt
dQ
31.
where h is a constant of propotionally called convection coefficient and depends on the properies of fluid such as density, viscosity, specific heat and thermal conductivity, etc.
26. The dimension of ‘h’ is
(a)
(c)
27. While measuring the thermal conductivity of a liquid we keep the upper part hot and the lower cool so that
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
28. A flat vertical wall of dimension (2m × 3m) is maintained at a constant temperature of 116 ^{0} C and the surrounding air on both side is at 35 ^{0} C. If the value of ‘h’ for the wall is 1.27 × 10 ^{–}^{3} kcal/m ^{2} .s. ^{0} C, then the heat lost in one hour is
(a)
(c)
The air in a room at 26 ^{0} C is separated from the outside air at –4 ^{0} C by a vertical glass window 3 mm thick and 10 m ^{2} in area. We must expect a small difference in temperature between the inner and outer surfaces of the glass. For the purpose of calculation, assume that the centre of the glass is at the mean temperature (11 ^{0} C). The value of ‘h’ is
8.34 × 10 ^{–}^{4} kcal/m ^{2} .s. ^{0} C.
(thermal conductivity of
glass = 2.5 × 10 ^{–}^{4} kcal/m . s . K).
29. The steady state rate of heat flow is 
(A) 
PV diagram is 
(p) 

(a) 
0.125 kcal/s 
(b) 
0.50 kcal/s 

(c) 
0.75 kcal/s 
(d) 
none 

30. The inner surface temperatures of the glass window is (B) 
U diagram is 
(q) 

(a) 
11 ^{0} C 
(b) 
26 ^{0} C 

(c) 
11.075 ^{0} C 
(d) 
11.125 ^{0} C 
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(C)
(D)
PT diagram is
(r)
Pn _{0} diagram is (n _{0} is the number of molecules per unit volume)
Matching2
(s)
Matching4
A monatomic ideal gas of two moles is taken through
a cyclic process starting from A as shown in the
4
.
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(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
PHT – 23
Matching14 
Matching16 

Column  A 
Column  B 
Column  A 
Column  B 

Solar constant 
(p) 
W/m ^{2} 
(A) 
Variation of temperature 
(p) 
constant 
Stefan’s constant 
(q) 
W/m ^{2} K ^{4} 
gradient with distance in a rod of constant 

Coefficient of thermal conductivity 
(r) 
W/mK 
thermal conductivity with longitudinal heat 

Planck’s constant 
(s) 
Js 
flow at steady state 

Matching15 
(B) 
Variation of temperature 
(q) 
hyperbolic 

Column  A 
Column  B 
gradient with distance in a cylindrical shell of 
One mole of monoatomic ideal gas is going through the process shown in figure. The volume increased from V _{1} to V _{2} and this line has the slope . Choose the correct statement :
(a)
The change in internal energy is
3
2
R
(V
2
V )
1
(b)
The molar heat capacity of this process is constant
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9. For an ideal gas :
(a)
The change in internal energy in a constant pressure process from temperature T _{1} to T _{2} = nC _{V} (T _{2} – T _{1} ) where C _{V} is the molar specific heat at constant volume and n the number of moles of the gas.
(c)
(d)
PHT – 25
the molar heat capacity at constant
pressure is
f
2
R R
difference of molar heat capacity at constant pressure and at constant volume is independent of f
(b)
the molar heat capacity at constant
volume is
f
2
R
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16.
17.
18.
PHT – 26
19.
In the PV diagram shown in figure, the process I is performed on one mole of monoatomic gas, process II is performed on two moles of diatomic gas and process III is performed on three moles of monoatomic gas. Let the change in internal energy, work done and amount of heat in the I, II and III. Processes are U _{1} , W _{1} and Q _{1} , U _{2} , W _{2} and Q _{2} and U _{3} , W _{3} and Q _{3} respectively. Which of the following must be correct
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
The plots of intensity versus wavelength for three black bodies at temperatures T _{1} , T _{2} and T _{3} respectively are as shown in figure. One body is sun, other is human body and third is mercury lamp. Choose the correct statement
Second graph is for mercury lamp
Third graph is for human body
Can’t be predicted as the data is insufficient
In a vessel of negligible water equivalent, 0.05 kg steam at 100 ^{0} C and 0.45 kg of ice at 0 ^{0} C are mixed. Use the following data :
Two bodies of equal mass m are heated at a uniform rate under identical conditions. Their change in temperature are shown graphically in figure. Then
(a)
The final temperature is 100 ^{0} C
The total mass of water in the mixture is < 0.5 kg
The total mass of water in the mixture is 0.5 kg
(b)
(c)
(d)
Each question contains STATEMENT1 (Assertion) and STATEMENT2 (Reason). Each question has 4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY ONE is correct.
Statement1 is True, Statement2 is True; Statement2 is a correct explanation for Statement1
A solid copper sphere (density and specific heat c) of radius r at an initial temperature 200 K is suspended inside a chamber of infinite heat capacity whose walls are at almost 0 K. The time required for the temperature of the sphere to drop to 100 K
Statement1 is True, Statement2 is True; Statement2 is NOT a correct explanation for Statement1
(C) 
Statement1 is True, Statement2 is False 
(D) 
Statement1 is False, Statement2 is True 
(a) 
inversely proportional to density of sphere 
(b) 
directly proportional radius of the sphere 
(c) 
directly proportional to specific heat capacity 
(d) 
inversely proportional to square of the radius of sphere 
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1. STATEMENT1 : A sphere, a cube and a thin circular plate all made of the same mass and finish are heated to a temperature of 200 ^{0} C. Sphere will cool slowest when left in air at room temperature. All objects are made of the same material.
STATEMENT2 : According to Stefan’s Boldzmann law, rate of cooling is directly proportional to surface area for the same mass and same material. For the given mass sphere has the minimum surface area.
2. STATEMENT1 : A ball A has twice the diameter as another ball B of the same material and with same surface finish. A and B are both heated to the same temperature and allowed to cool radiatively; then rate of cooling of A is same as that of B.
8. STATEMENT1 : The earth without its atmosphere would be inhospitably cold.
STATEMENT2 : The lower layer of earth atmosphere reflect infrared radiations from earth back to the surface of the earth.
9. STATEMENT1 : An ink dot on cup of porcelain appears dark. When the same cup is heated to a high temperature, the dot becomes brighter than the rest of the cup.
STATEMENT2 : Ink dot is a better absorber then porcelain and hence a good absorber is a good radiator.
STATEMENT1 : Newton’s law of cooling is not applicable at all temperature difference between the system and the surrounding.
STATEMENT2 : A black body emits radiation of all wavelengths.
STATEMENT2 : This law is derived from Stefan’s Boltzmann law when the temperature difference is a small between the system and the surrounding.
3. STATEMENT1 : Two identical objects A and B are at temperature T _{A} and T _{B} respectively. Both objects are placed in a room with perfectly absorbing walls maintained at a temperature T(T _{A} > T > T _{B} ). The objects A and B attain the temperature T eventually. A loses more heat by radiation than it absorbs, while B absorbs more radiation than it emits, until they attain the temperature T.
STATEMENT1 : A metallic block is heated to 80 ^{0} C and left in a room to cool. The temperature of the block will change with time exponentially as shown in figure
STATEMENT2 : Each object continues to emit and
absorb
temperature T
4. STATEMENT1 : Two samples of air A and B having same composition and initially at the same temperature and pressure are compressed from a volume V to V/2, the sample A isothermally and the sample B adiabatically. The final pressure of A is lesser than B
STATEMENT2 : Rate of cooling of the block is directly proportional to temperature difference between the system and the surrounding.
STATEMENT1 : A black spherical ball, when gradually heated, appears first dull red, then blue and finally white.
STATEMENT2 : Adiabatic process is more steeper than the isothermal process.
STATEMENT2 : As the temperature will increase the wavelength of thermal radiation corresponding to maximum intensity will decrease.
5. STATEMENT1 : Air pressure in a car tyre increases during driving.
STATEMENT1 : Black body radiation is white.
STATEMENT2 : During driving the temperature of air inside the tyre increases.
STATEMENT2 : Black body emits all types of wavelength.
6. STATEMENT1 : The carnot engine cab be realised in practice.
STATEMENT2 : A heat engine cannot have 100% efficiency.
7. STATEMENT1 : If a drop of water falls on a very hot iron, it takes long time to evaporate.
STATEMENT2 : When a drop of water falls on a very hot iron, it gets insulated from the hot iron due to a thin layer of water vapour which is a bad conductor of heat.
STATEMENT1 : Emissivity of the body is equal to its absorptive power.
STATEMENT2 : According to Kirchhoff’s law the ratio of emissive power to absorptive power is same for all surfaces at the same temperature and is equal to the emissive power of a perfectly black body at that temperature. For a perfectly black body absorptive power equals to 1 and emmisivity is defined as the ratio of emmisive power of the body to the emmisive power of the black body.
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15. STATEMENT1 : Heat is generated continuously in an electric heater but its temperature become constant after some time.
STATEMENT2 : At the higher temperature electric heater starts loosing its energy by radiation and convection. The rate of loss of heat equals to rate of heat production at this higher temperature.
16. STATEMENT1 : Water in a closed tube is heated with one arm vertically splaced above the lamp. Water will begin to circulate along the tube in counter clockwise direction.
22. STATEMENT1 : A bucket full of hot water is hung in vacuum. It will cool by radiation.
STATEMENT2 : Water is usually heated by convection.
23. STATEMENT1 : A slab of ice is one half covered with black cloth and the other half with white cloth. This is then placed in sunlight. More ice has melted under black cloth.
STATEMENT2 : A hollow enclosure blackened inside with soot and having a small hole is a best approximation of an ideal black body.
STATEMENT1 : There is no atmosphere on the moon.
STATEMENT2 : rms speed of gas molecule is greater than the escape speed on the moon.
STATEMENT1 : For the solid, C _{P} C _{V} is negligible and positive.
STATEMENT2 : Convection will occur in fluid.
STATEMENT2 : Solid body has very small expansion coefficient.
17. STATEMENT1 : In conduction at steady state there is not absorption of amount of heat.
STATEMENT1 : For ideal gas, C _{P} is always greater then C _{V} .
STATEMENT2 : Temperature does not change with time in conduction process at steady state.
STATEMENT2 : At constant pressure the work done is nonzero, whereas at constant volume work done is zero.
18. STATEMENT1 : A solid sphere and hollow sphere made of the same material and have same radius are heated to the same temperature and placed in the same sourrounding. Both will emit equal amount of radiation per second at t = 0 and after some time solid sphere will emit larger amount of radiation per second as compare to hollow sphere.
STATEMENT1 : The value of C _{P} – C _{V} is 1.00 R for
gas sample in state A and is 1.08 R in state B. Let
p _{A} , p _{B} denotes the pressure and T _{A} and T _{B} denote
the temperatures of the states A and B respectively.
STATEMENT2 : In the above case the rate of cooling is inversely proportional to mass
STATEMENT2 : A real gas can behave like an ideal gas at high temperature and low pressure.
19. STATEMENT1 : In natural convection a heated portion of the liquid moves.
STATEMENT1 : If two strips of equal length but of different metals are placed on each other and riveted, the single strip so formed is called ‘bimetallic strip’. This strip has the characteristic property of bending on heating.
STATEMENT2 : The density of the heated portion of the liquid is less then that of the surrounding liquid.
STATEMENT2 : It is due to unequal linear expansion of the two metals.
20. STATEMENT1 : It is hotter at the same distance over the top of a fire than it is on the side of it.
STATEMENT1 : If there is a hole A in a plate C (or cavity A inside a body C), the area of hole (or volume of cavity) will increase when body expands on heating, just as if the hole (or cavity) were solid
B of the same material.
STATEMENT2 : Convection takes more heat upwards.
21. STATEMENT1 : Consider a rod of uniform cross section and consists of a material of constant thermal conductivity. The ends of the rod are maintained at constant different temperatures. In steady state the temperature of the rod decreases linearly from high temperature to lower temperature along the length of the rod. Neglect any loss.
STATEMENT2 : If there is a loss of heat then temperature will decrease exponentially from higher temperature to lower temperature with distance.
STATEMENT2 : The expansion of area (or volume) of the body C will be independent of shape and size of hole or cavity
30. STATEMENT1 : Two spheres of same radius and material at the same initial temperature but one is solid and another is hollow. If they are heated to the same temperature then they have the same expansion.
Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
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