Sei sulla pagina 1di 22

PHT – 7

(ii) Molar heat capacity at constant pressure (C P ) : It is defined as the heat required to raise the temperature by 1 K of 1 mole of gas at constant pressure. Mathematically

C P

(dQ)

P

ndT

(dQ)

P

nC dT

P

Here (dQ) P is the required heat for this process i.e. for isobaric process to raise the on n moles of gas.

Remember the following points :

(i) C P is always greater than C V

(ii) C P – C V = R for ideal gas

temperature by dT

C P (iii) The ratio is known as adiabatic exponent () C V R R
C
P
(iii) The ratio
is known as adiabatic exponent ()
C
V
R
R 
(iv) C V
and
C P
 1
 1
f
2 
C V 
R,
C
 
1
f   R and

1
(v)
In terms of degree of freedom (f)
P
2
2
 
f
n C
n C
n C
1
V
2
V
3
V
(vi) C V for mixture of gases
C
1
2
3
V
n
n
n
1
2
3
n
n
n
1
2
(vii)
 for mixture of gases
Here n = n 1 + n 2 + n 3 +
 1
1  1
2  1
m
m
m
m 1
1
2
2
(viii)
Molecular weight of mixture of gases
M
M
1 M
2
Practice Problems :
1.
Find the molar heat capacity for the following process performed on ideal monoatomic gas :
(i) P = KV 2 (ii) P 2 V =K (iii) PT = K (iv) PV  = K (v) VT = K (vi) V = KT where P, V and T are pressure
volume and temperature of gas and K is a constant quantity.
2.
Find the adiabatic exponent and molar mass of the following gaseous mixture :
(i)
1 mol. of O 2 mixed with 2 moles of He
(ii)
1 mol. of He mixed with 2 moles of H 2

C14

(i) Isochoric Process (Constant Volume Process) : W = 0, Q = U

(ii) Isobaric Process (Constant Pressure Process) : W = P(V 2 – V 1 ) = nR(T 2 – T 1 )

Application of the First Law of Thermodynamics

Q = nC P (T 2 – T 1 )

(iii) Isothermal Process (Constant Temperature Process)

U = 0, Q = W = nRT

ln

V

2

V

1

nRT ln

1

2

nRT ln

P

1

P

2

.

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PHT – 8

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Adiabatic Process

PV = constant, TV 1 = constant, P 1 T = constant.

For this process Q = 0,

 

U

nR

 1

(T

2

T )

1

1

 1

(P V

2

2

P V )

1

1

and W = –U

Cyclic Process

There is process in which, after certain interchanges of heat and work, the system is restored to its initial state, named as cyclic process. In this case U = 0 and Q = W

Free expansions

These are adiabatic process in which no transfer of heat occurs between the system and its environment and no work is done on or by the system. Thus, Q = W = 0 and hence from the first law thermodynamics U =

0.

Practice Problems :

A monatomic gas (= 5/3) is suddenly compressed to (1/8) of its initial volume adiabatically, then the pressure of the gas will change to :

(a)

In an adiabatic change, the pressure P and temperature T of a diatomic gas are related by the relation P T C where c equals

(a)

One mole of an ideal gas requires 207 J heat to raise the temperature by 10 K when heated at constant pressure. If the same gas is heated at constant volume to raise the temperature by the same 10 K, the heat required is : [R = 8.3 J/mol K]

(a)

The following cyclic process is performed on one mole of monoatomic gas.

(c) 40/3 (d) 32 (c) 3/5 (d) 7/2 (c) 215.3 J (d) 124 J
(c)
40/3
(d)
32
(c)
3/5
(d)
7/2
(c)
215.3 J
(d)
124 J

24/5

5/3

(b)

(b)

8

2/5

198.7 J

(b)

29 J

215.3 J (d) 124 J 24/5 5/3 (b) (b) 8 2/5 198.7 J (b) 29 J
215.3 J (d) 124 J 24/5 5/3 (b) (b) 8 2/5 198.7 J (b) 29 J
215.3 J (d) 124 J 24/5 5/3 (b) (b) 8 2/5 198.7 J (b) 29 J

Find W, U and Q in the individual process and in the complete process ?

The following cyclic process is performed on one mole of monoatomic gas.

cyclic process is performed on one mole of monoatomic gas. Find W,  U and Q

Find W, U and Q in the individual process and in the complete process ?

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PHT – 9

6. The following cyclic process is performed on one mole of diatomic gas.

cyclic process is performed on one mole of diatomic gas. Find W,  U and Q

Find W, U and Q in the individual process and in the complete process ?

7.

C15

1.

The following cyclic process is performed on one mole of diaatomic gas. Find W, 
The following cyclic process is performed on one mole of diaatomic gas.
Find W,  U and Q in the individual process and in the complete process ?
[Answers : (1) d (2) d (3) d]
Efficiency of a Themodynamic Cycle
The efficiency of a thermodynamic cycle is defined as
W net

Q in
where
W net is the net work done by the cycle, and Q in is total heat input of the cycle.
Practice Problems :
Following cyclic process is performed on one mole of monoatomic gas.

Is the efficiency of the cycle is defined ? If yes, find

C16

Carnot Cycle : This cycle consists of four processes given in the figure : (i) AB is isothermal expansion at temperature T 1 (ii) BC is adiabatic expansion (iii) CD is isothermal compression at temperature T 2 (iv) DA is adiabatic compression.

at temperature T 2 (iv) DA is adiabatic compression. Einstein Classes , Unit No. 102, 103,

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PHT – 10

The efficiency of the cycle is 1 – T 2 /T 1 , where T 2 < T 1 .

Practice Problems :

1. A Carnot engine working between 300 K and 600 K has a work output of 800 J per cycle. The amount of heat energy supplied to the engine from the source in each cycle is

C17

(a)

[Answers : (1) b]

800 J

(b)

1600 J

Second Law of Thermodynamics

(c)

3500 J

(d)

6400 J

(i) Kelvin Planck Statement : No process is possible whose sole result is the absorption
(i) Kelvin Planck Statement : No process is possible whose sole result is the absorption of heat from a
reservoir and the conversion of the heat into work.
(ii)
Clausius’ Statement : No process is possible whose sole result is the transfer of heat from a colder object
to
a hotter object. According to this law no engine has the efficiency equals to 1, it is always less than 1
C18
Entropy : Entropy is a measure of disorder of the molecular motion of a system. The greater the disorder,
dQ
the greater is the entropy. The change in entropy is given by
dS 
.
T
C19
Heat Transfer
There are three mechanisms for heat transfer : Conduction, Convection and Radiation.
Conduction : Conduction occurs in solids. If the ends of a rod of thermal conductivity k is kept at the
temperature T 1 and T 2 then heat flowing per unit time through the rod is given by (T 1 – T 2 )/R, where R is the
thermal resistance of the rod. If the length of the rod is l and cross-sectional area A then R = l/kA.
Practice Problems :
1.
Two ends of rods of length L and radius r of the same material are kept at the same temperature.
Which of the following rods conducts most heat
(a)
L = 50 cm, r = 1 cm
(b)
L = 100 cm, r = 2 cm
(c)
L = 25 cm, r = 0.5 cm
(d)
L = 75 cm, r = 1.5 cm
2.
Heat is flowing through two cylindrical rods of the same material. The diameter of the rods are in the
ratio 1 : 2 and their lengths are in the ratio 2 : 1. If the temperature difference between their ends is
the same, then the ratio of the amounts of heat conducted through them per unit time will be
(a) 1 : 1
(b)
2 : 1
(c)
1 : 4
(d)
1 : 8
[Answers : (1) b (2) d]
Convection : It occurs in fluids.
Heat Radiation : Heat radiation is electro-magnetic energy transfer in the form of electromagnetic waves
(infrared waves) through any medium. Heat radiation has the same character as the electromagnetic wave.
This transfer does not require any material medium. The surface of any material medium emits heat
radiations if its temperature is above 0 K.
Black Body

A perfect black body is one which absorbs all the radiations (from = 0 to = ) incident on it.

Black Body Radiation

The graph is plotted between intensity of heat radiation I and wave length of heat radiation emitted by the black body as shown in figure

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PHT – 11

There is particular wavelength m at which the intensity of emitted heat radiation is maximum, this wave length is relates with the temperature of the black body using the following law m T = b = constant. This law is known as Wien’s Displacement law. Here b is known as Wien’s constant having value 0.29 cm-K.

Practice Problems :

1. The intensity of radiation emitted by the Sun has its maximum value at a wavelength of 510 nm and that emitted by the North Star has the maximum value at 350 nm. If these stars behave like black bodies, then the ratio of the surface temperature of the Sun and the North Star is

(a)

1.46

(b)

0.69

(c)

1.21

(d)

0.83

2. The plots of intensity versus wavelength for three black bodies at temperatures T 1 , T 2 and T 3 respectively are as shown in figure. Their temperature are such that

(a) T 1 > T 2 > T 3 (b) T 1 > T 3
(a)
T 1 > T 2 > T 3
(b)
T 1 > T 3 > T 2
(c)
T 2 > T 3 > T 1
(d)
[Answers : (1) b (2) b]
Stefan’s Boltzmann Law
dQ
4
 
e A(T
T
4 )
0
dt
As dQ = msdT then the rate of cooling if T > T 0
dT
e
 A

(T 4 
T
4 )
0
dt
ms
dQ
dT
e
A
4
If T 0 = 0 or T > > T 0 then
 
e
T
and

T 4
dt
dt
ms

T 3 > T 2 > T 1

The energy of heat radiation emitted per unit time E is directly proportional to the fourth power of absolute temperature of the body i.e., E = e(T 4 – T 0 4 )

where e is the emissivity of the surface defined as the ratio of emissive power of the surface to the emissive power of black body surface at the same temperature. Its value lies between 0 and 1. For black body e = 1. is known as Stefan’s constants, its numerical value is 5.68 × 10 8 Wm 2 K 4 . T 0 is the surrounding tem- perature in which body is placed. If A is the surface area of the body, then the rate of heat emitted by the body is

Newton’s Law of Cooling

When the temperature difference between the body and is surrounding is not very large, i.e. T – T 0 = T is

small then the rate of cooling is given by

dT

dt

 

k(T

T )

0

. This law is known as Newton’s Law of

Cooling which is derived from Stefan’s Law. There is another way to express the Newton’s Law Cooling

T

T

1

2

t

Here

  T

1

T

2

K

2

  T

0

T 1 : Initial temperature of the body, T 2 : Temperature of the body after time t

T 0 : Surrounding temperature, K : A constant

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PHT – 12

Practice Problems :

1. A spherical black body with a radius of 12 cm radiates 450 W power
1.
A
spherical black body with a radius of 12 cm radiates 450 W power at 500 K. If the radius were
halved and the temperature doubled, the power radiates in watt would be
(a)
225
(b)
450
(c)
900
(d)
1800
2.
A
sphere, a cube and a thin circular plate all made of the same mass and finish are heated to a
temperature of 200 0 C; which of these objects will cool slowest when left in air at room temperature
(a)
The sphere
(b)
The cube
(c)
The circular plate
(d)
All will cool at the same rate
3.
A ball A has twice the diameter as another ball B of the same material and with same surface finish.
A and B are both heated to the same temperature and allowed to cool radiatively; then
(a)
Rate of cooling of A is same as that of B
(b)
Rate of cooling of A is twice that of B
(c)
Rate of cooling of A is half that of B
(d)
Rate of cooling of A is four times that of B
4.
The temperature of a body is increased from 27 0 C to 127 0 C. The radiation emitted by it increases by
a
factor of
(a)
(256/81)
(b)
(15/9)
(c)
(4/3)
(d)
(12/27)
5.
A
liquid cools in 6 minutes from 80 0 C to 60 0 C. Take the temperature of surrounding to be 30 0 C and
assume that Newton’s law of cooling is applicable throughout the process. Its temperature after 10
minutes is
(a)
48.2 0 C
(b)
42.8 0 C
(c)
37.5 0 C
(d)
32.5 0 C
[Answers : (1) d (2) a (3) c (4) a (5) b]

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PHT – 13

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

SINGLE CORRECT CHOICE TYPE

(a) 4m A = 9m B (b) 2m A = 3m B A thin tube
(a)
4m A = 9m B
(b)
2m A = 3m B
A thin tube of uniform cross section sealed at one
end and other end is closed by a mercury column
of length 5 cm. The tube contains oxygen and lies
horizontally. In this position the length of the
oxygen column is 45 cm. Now the tube is suddenly
rotated such that the angle with the vertical is 60 0 .
The new length of the oxygen column is
(c)
3m A = 2m B
(d)
9m A = 4m B
6. If the indicator diagram for expansion of a gas is as
shown in figure, the gas
(a)
44 cm
(b)
43 cm
(c)
46 cm
(d)
none
(a)
must be heated
(b)
must be cooled
(c)
The apparatus shown in figure consists of four glass
columns connected by horizontal sections. The
height of two central columns B and C are 49 cm
each. The two outer columns A and D are open to
the atmosphere. A and C are maintained at a
temperature of 95 0 C while the columns B and D
are maintained at 5 0 C. The height of the liquid in A
and D measured from the base line are 52.8 cm and
51 cm respectively. The coefficient of thermal
expansion of the liquid is
(d)
must be first cooled and then heated
must be first heated and then cooled
7.
A vessel containing one gm-mol oxygen is enclosed
in a thermally insulated vessel. The vessel is moved
with a constant speed v 0 and then suddenly stopped.
The process results in a rise in the temperature of
the gas 1 0 C. The speed v 0 is
(a)
15 m/s
(b)
36 m/s
(c)
25 m/s
(d)
60 m/s
8.
(a)
6.7 × 10 –5 / 0 C
(b)
5.7 × 10 –5 / 0 C
(c)
4.7 × 10 –5 / 0 C
(d)
3.7 × 10 –5 / 0 C
A thermally insulated vessel contains 100 g of
water at 0 0 C. When air above the water is pumped
out, some of the water freezes and some evaporates
at 0 0 C itself. Latent heat of vaporization of water
at 0 0 C is 2.1 × 10 6 J/kg and latent heat of fusion of
ice is 3.36 × 10 5 J/kg. The mass of the ice formed if
no water is left in the vessel is
Two cylinders A and B fitted with pistons contain
equal amounts of an ideal diatomic gas at 300 K.
The piston of A is free to move, while that of B is
held fixed. The same amount of heat is given to the
gas in each cylinder. If the rise in temperature of
the gas in A is 30 K, then the rise in temperature of
the gas in B is:
(a)
62 g
(b)
86 g
(c)
54 g
(d)
78 g
9.
(a)
30 K
(b)
18 K
The initial pressure and volume of a gas are P i and
V i . The gas after expansion attains final volume V f .
Let W 1 , W 2 and W 3 are the corresponding work
done under isothermal, adiabatic and isobaric
pressure. Then
(c)
50 K
(d)
42 K
(a)
W 1 = W 2 = W 3
(b)
W 2 > W 1 > W 3
When an ideal diatomic gas is heated at constant
pressure, the fraction of the heat energy supplied
which increases the internal energy of the gas is
(c)
W 1 > W 2 > W 3
(d)
W 3 > W 1 > W 2
(a)
(2/5)
(b)
(3/5)
(c)
(3/7)
(d)
(5/7)
Two identical containers A and B with frictionless
pistons contain the same ideal gas at the same
temperature and the same volume V. The mass of
the gas in A is m A , and that in B is m B . The gas in
each cylinder is now allowed to expand isothermally
to the same final volume 2V. The changes in the
pressure in A and B are found to be P and 1.5 P
respectively. Then
10. A cylinder of radius R made of a material of
thermal conductivity K 1 is surrounded by a
cylindrical shell of inner radius R and outer radius
2R made of a material of thermal conductivity K 2 .
The two ends of the combined system are
maintained at two different temperature. There is
no loss of heat across the cylindrical surface and
the system is in steady state. The effective thermal
conductivity of the system is

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PHT – 14

(a)

K 1 + K 2

(b)

(K 1 + 3K 2 )/4

(a)

265 J

(b)

575 J

(c)

K 1 K 2 /(K 1 + K 2 )

(d)

(3K 1 + K 2 )/4

(c)

765 J

(d)

975 J

11. One end of a copper rod of length 1.0 m and area of cross-section
11. One end of a copper rod of length 1.0 m and area of
cross-section 10 –3 m 2 is immersed in boiling water
and the other end in ice. If the coefficient of
thermal conductivity of copper is 92 cal/m s C 0 and
the latent heat of ice is 8 × 10 4 cal/kg, then the
amount of ice which will melt in one minute is
15. In the above problem, the efficiency of the cycle is
(a)
10.82 %
(b)
7.65 %
(c)
8.55 %
(d)
9.75 %
(a)
9.2 × 10 –3 kg
(b)
8 × 10 3 kg
(c)
6.9 × 10 –3 kg
(d)
5.4 × 10 –3 kg
12. The amount of heat involved for the cyclic process
shown in figure is
16. A cylindrical pipe consists of a material of thermal
conductivity k having length L, and the inner and
outer radii are R 1 and R 2 , respectively. The pipe
conducts heat radially outward at a constant rate
dQ/dt. The temperature difference between the
inner and outer radii is
1 dQ
R
1
ln
(a)
(2
l
)K
dt
R
2
1 dQ
R
1
ln
(b)
(3
l
)K
dt
R
2
1
dQ
R
2
ln
(c)
(2
l
)K
dt
R
1
(a)
(P 2
P )(V
V )
1
2
1
4
1 dQ
R
2
ln
(d)
(4
l
)K
dt
R
1
(b)
(P
P )(V
V )
2
1
2
1
4
17.
(c)
(P
P )(V
V )
2
1
2
1
4
A source of power P is placed at the centre of a
spherical shell of coefficient of thermal
conductivity k with inner radius r 1 and outer
radius r 2 . The temperature difference between
inner surface and outer surface is
(d)
(P
P )(V
V )
2
1
2
1
2
P(r
r )
4
P(r
 r
2 )
2
1
1
2
(a)
(b)
4
 kr r
4
kr r
13. For the thermodynamic processes shown in figure,
440 J of work are performed by the system along
the diagonal path AC and 320 J of work are done
by the system along the path ADC. The work does
the system do along the path ABC is
1
2
1
2
P(r
r )
P(r
r )
2
1
1
2
(c)
(d)
6
kr r
4
kr r
1
2
1
2
18.
A parallel beam of nitrogen molecules moving with
velocity v impinges on a wall at an angle  to its
normal. The concentration of molecules in the beam
n. The pressure exerted by the beam on the wall
assuming the molecules to scatter in accordance
with the perfectly elastic collision law
(a)
2nmv 2 cos
(b)
2nmv 2 cos 2 
(a)
320 J
(b)
440 J
(c)
2nmv 2 sin
(d)
2nmv 2 sin 2 
(c)
560 J
(d)
120 J
14. An ideal gas is taken through a cyclic
thermodynamic process through four steps. The
amount of heat involves in these steps are
Q 1 =
5960J, Q 2 = –5585J, Q 3 = –2980J and
Q 4 = 3645J respectively. The corresponding
quantities of work involved are W 1 = 2200 J,
W 2 = –825J, W 3 = –1100 J, and W 4 respectively.
The value of W 4 is
19. On a cold water winter day, the atmospheric
temperature is –  (on Celsius scale) which is below
0 0 C. A cylindrical drum of height h made of a bad
conductor is completely filled with water at 0 0 C and
is kept outside without any lid. Thermal
conductivity of ice is K and its latent heat of fusion
is L. Neglect expansion of water on freezing. The
time taken for the whole mass of water to freeze is

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PHT – 15

(a)

(c)

Lh 2

2K

Lh 2

4K

(b)

(d)

Lh 2

3K

Lh 2

5K

25. If 70 calorie of heat is required to raise the temperature of 2 mole of an ideal gas at constant pressure from 30 to 35 0 C, the change in internal energy is

(a)

40 cal.

(b)

60 cal.

(c)

20 cal

(d)

50 cal.

20. Three rods made of the same material and having the same cross-section have been
20. Three rods made of the same material and having
the same cross-section have been joined as shown
in the figure. Each rod is of the same length. The
left and right ends are kept 0 0 C and 90 0 C
respectively. The temperature of the junction of the
three rods will be
26. The internal energy of a monatomic ideal gas is 1.5
nRT. One mole of helium is kept in a cylinder of
cross-section 8.5 cm 2 . The cylinder is closed by a
light frictionless piston. The gas is heated slowly in
a process during which a total of 42 J heat is given
to the gas. If the temperature rises through 2 0 C.
The distance moved by the piston is
(a)
10 cm
(b)
20 cm
(c)
25 cm
(d)
30 cm
27.
Three rods of same length l and cross-sectional area
A
are joined in series between two heat reservoirs
(a)
45 0 C
(b)
60 0 C
(c)
30 0 C
(d)
20 0 C
21. A thermodynamics process, PT = , is performed
on a system, containing one mole of ideal gas. Here
 is constant. The work performed if the
temperature changes from T 0 to 2T 0 is
having temperatures 100 0 C and 0 0 C. Their
conductivities are 2K, K and K/2 respectively.
Assuming that the conductors are lagged from the
surroundings the ratio of temperature at the
junction in the steady state condition is
(a)
3 : 2
(b)
(a)
2RT 0
(b)
RT 0
(c)
4 : 3
(d)
3 : 1
4 : 1
(c)
RT 0 /2
(d)
3/2 RT 0
28.
The volume of one mole of an ideal gas with the
adiabatic exponent  is varied according to the law
22. An ideal gas whose adiabatic exponent  is expanded
according to the law P = V, where  is constant.
The initial volume of the gas is V 0 . As a result of
expansion the volume becomes V 0 . The increment
of the internal energy of the gas is
V
  , where  is a constant. The amount of heat
T
required by the gas in this process if the gas
temperature increased by T is
2
2
2
2
(a)
(
 
1)V
2 (b)
(
 
1)V
R
T(2

)
R
T(2

)
0
0
 1
 1
(a)
(b)
(

1)
(

1)
2
(c)
(
 
1)V
2 (d)
none
0
R
T(2

)
R
T(2

)
2(

1)
(c)
(d)
(

1)
(

1)
23. Two ideal gases of number of moles n 1 and n 2 , and
temperatures T 1 and T 2 respectively are mixed.
There is no loss of energy. Assume only translation
kinetic energy of the molecules. The final
temperature of the mixture is
29.
An ice cube of mass 0.1 kg of 0 0 C is placed in an
isolated container which is at 227 0 C. The specific
heat S of the container varies with temperature T
according to the relation S = A + BT, where
A
= 100 cal/kg-K and B = 2 × 10 –2 cal/kg-K 2 . If the
n 1 T
 n
T
n 1 n
T
T
final temperature of the container is 27 0 C, the mass
2
2
1
1
2
2
(a)
(b)
n
 n
2(n
 n
)
of
the container is (L f = 8 × 10 4 cal/kg) specific heat
1
2
1
2
of
water = 10 3 cal/kg-K).
n
 n
T
n 1 T
 n
T
1 T
2
2
1
1
2
2
(a)
0.395 kg
(b)
0.495 kg
(c)
(d)
2(n
 n
)
n
 n
1
2
1
2
(c)
0.595 kg
(d)
0.695 kg
24. Three moles of an ideal gas at 300 K are
isothermally expanded to five times its initial
volume and heated at this constant volume so that
the pressure is raised to its initial value before
expansion. In the whole process 83.14 kJ heat is
required. The ratio (C P /C V ) of the gas is
30.
A
vessel of volume V contains mass m of nitrogen
(molecular weight = M) at a temperature T. If %
of gas molecules are dissociated into atoms at this
temperature then the gas pressure is

(a)

1.42

(b)

1.65

(c)

1.55

(d)

1.32

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PHT – 16

31.

32.

33.

34.

35.

36.

(a)

(c)

(1  )mRT

MV

(2  )mRT

MV

(b)

(d)

(1  )mRT

MV

(2  )mRT

MV

37.

An oxygen cylinder of volume 30 litres has an initial gauge pressure of 15 atm and a temperature of 27 0 C. After some oxygen is withdrawn from the cylinder, the gauge pressure drops to 11 atm and its temperature drops to 17 0 C. The mass of oxygen taken out of the cylinder is

A thermally insulated vessel with gaseous nitrogen (a) 10 g (b) 20 g at a
A thermally insulated vessel with gaseous nitrogen
(a)
10 g
(b)
20 g
at a temperature t = 27 0 C moves with velocity
(c)
25 g
(d)
none
v = 100 m/s. The percentage change in gas pressure
change on a sudden stoppage of the vessel is
38.
(a)
0.15%
(b)
1.25%
(c)
2.2%
(d)
3%
The mass m = 15 g of nitrogen is enclosed in a
vessel at a temperature T = 300 K. The amount of
heat has to be transferred to the gas to increase the
root mean square velocity of its molecules  = 2.0
times is
(a)
5 kJ
(b)
10 kJ
(c)
15 kJ
(d)
20 kJ
A pendulum clock with a pendulum made of Invar
( = 0.7 × 10 –6 /C 0 ) has a period of 0.5 s and is
accurate at 25 0 C. If the clock is used in a country
where the temperature averages 35 0 C, the
necessary correction is made at the end of the month
(30 days) to the time given by the clock is
Figure shows the variation in the internal energy U
with the volume V of 2.0 mole of an ideal gas in a
cyclic process abcda. The temperature of the gas at
b and c are 500 K and 300 K respectively. The heat
absorbed by the gas during the process is
(a)
1700 J
(b)
1900 J
(c)
2100 J
(d)
2300 J
39.
For the above cyclic process (previous problem),
the pressure density diagram is represented by
(a)
9.1 s
(b)
11 s
(c)
13.5 s
(d)
21.7 s
An earthen pitcher loses 1 gm of water per minute
due to evaporation. The water equivalent of pitcher
(a)
(b)
is 0.5 kg and the pitcher contains 9.5 kg of water.
Neglect radiation effects. Latent heat of
vaporisation of water in this range of temperature
is
580 cal/gm and specific heat of water is 1 k cal/kg
(c)
(d)
none
C
0 . The time required for the water in the pitcher
to cool from 30 0 C to 28 0 C is
(a)
27.8 min.
(b)
34.5 min.
40.
(c)
37.6 min.
(d)
45.2 min.
An electrically heating coil was placed in a
calorimeter containing 360 gm of water at 10 0 C. The
coil consumes energy at the rate of 90 watt. The
water equivalent of the calorimeter and the coil is
One gm mole of oxygen at 27 0 C and 1 atmospheric
pressure is enclosed in a vessel. Assuming the
molecules are moving with v rms , the number of
collisions per sec, which the molecules make with
one square metre area of the vessel wall is
(a) 1.965 × 10 27
(b)
40
gm. The temperature of the water after
(a) 1.965 × 10 25
(d)
1.965 × 10 26
1.965 × 10 24
10 minutes is
41.
(a)
37.3 0 C
(b)
40.4 0 C
(c)
42.14 0 C
(d)
45.32 0 C
In an industrial process 10 kg of water per hour is
to be heated from 20 0 C to 80 0 C. To do this, steam at

150 0 C is passed from a boiler into a copper coil

immersed in water. The steam condenses in the coil and is returned to the boiler as water at 90 0 C. The mass of steam required per hour is

(a)

0.5 kg

(b)

0.75 kg

(c)

1 kg

(d)

1.25 kg

Consider the cyclic process ABCA, shown in figure performed on a sample of 2.0 mole of an ideal gas. A total of 1200 J of heat is withdrawn from the sample in the process. The work done by the gas during the part BC is

(a)

–4715 J

(b)

–4253 J

(c)

–3790 J

(d)

–4520 J

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42. very low temperature, the molar heat capacity

At

44. A metal of mass 1 kg at constant atmospheric

of

rock salt varies with temperature according to

pressure and at initial temperature 20 0 C is given a

C

= k(T/D ) 3 with k = 2000 (J/mol K) and

heat of 20000 J. Use the following data :

D = 300 K. The average molar heat capacity of rock

salt in the temperature range 10K to 50K is

Specific heat 400 J/kg 0 C, coefficient of cubical expansion, = 9 × 10 5 / 0 C, density = 9000 kg/m 3 ,

(a)

9.26 J/mol.K

(b)

2.9 J/mol.K

atmospheric

pressure = 10 5 N/m 2 .

(c)

2.2 J/mol.K

(d)

7.2 J/mol.K

The change in internal energy of the metal is

43. Consider two parallel bars of different metals, (a) 19999.95 J (b) 19999.96 J having
43. Consider two parallel bars of different metals,
(a)
19999.95 J
(b)
19999.96 J
having linear expansion coefficients  ,  and
fastened together so as to keep them at a fixed
distance d apart. A change of temperature will cause
their bending into two circular arcs. The mean
radius of the curvature is
(c)
20000 J
(d)
none
2d
d
(a)
(b)
45. A long wire of length L, radius R, young’s modulus
Y, density  and specific heat s is suspended
vertically from a rigid support, carrying a block of
large mass M. Consider the extension due to the
weight of the block only. If the block gets snapped
then the change in temperature of the wire is
(

)T
(

)T
2
2
2
2
M g
M g
(a)
(b)
d
2d
2
4
2
4
(c)
(d)
2
r Y s
r Y s
2(

)T
3(

)T
2
2
2M g
(c)
(d)
none
2
4
r Y s
EXCERCISE BASED ON NEW PATTERN
4.
COMPREHENSIONS TYPE
The coefficient of volume expansion of the process
at the temperature T is
Comprehension-1
(a)
T –1
(b)
–T –1
The molar heat capacity of a thermodynamic
(c)
2T –1
(d)
1/2T –1
process, performed on a system conaining one mole
of
monoatomic gas, is 2R.
Comprehension-2
1. The equation of the process on P – V diagram is
(a)
pressure is directly proportional to
volume
(b)
pressure is directly proportional to
square root of the volume
(c)
pressure is inversely proportional to
square root of the volume
(d)
pressure is inversely proportional to
square of the volume.
2. The total work done to raise the temperature from
T 0 to T 0 is
An ideal monatomic gas is confined in a cylinder
by a spring loaded piston of cross-section
8 × 10 –3 m 2 . Initially the gas is at 300 K and
occupies a volume of 2.4 × 10 –3 m 3 and the spring is
in its relaxed position. The gas is heated by a small
electric heater until the piston moves out slowly by
0.1 m. The force constant of the spring is 8000 N/m
and atmospheric pressure 1 × 10 5 N/m 2 .
1
5. The process is represented on the pressure volume
(a)
1 R(
2
 
1)T
(b)
R(

1)T
0
0
4
diagram according to

(c)

R(  1)T

0

(d)

2

R(1)T

0

3. The bulk modulus of elasticity of this process at the pressure of the gas P is

(a)

P

(b)

–P

(c)

P/2

(d)

–2P

(a)

(a) (b)
(a) (b)

(b)

(a) (b)
 
 

(c)

(c) (d)
(c) (d)

(d)

(c) (d)
(c) P/2 (d) –2P (a) (b)   (c) (d) Einstein Classes , Unit No. 102, 103,
(c) P/2 (d) –2P (a) (b)   (c) (d) Einstein Classes , Unit No. 102, 103,

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PHT – 18

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

The final temperature of the gas is

(a)

600 K

(b)

700 K

(c)

800 K

(d)

900 K

The heat capacity for the process performed is

(a)

1.24 J/K

(b)

1.34 J/K

(c)

1.44 J/K

(d)

1.54 J/K

Heater is removed and the system is restored to its original equilibrium position, where the spring is relaxed. Now the piston is disturbed by a very amount and released such that it performs SHM. The time period of SHM of the piston is if the mass of the piston is 0.25 kg

(a) 5 s (b) 25 s (c) 75 s (d) none
(a)
5 s
(b)
25 s
(c)
75 s
(d)
none

For the above problems (5-10) take the following assumptions where ever it requries :

The cylinder and the piston are thermally insulated. The piston is massless and there is no friction between the piston and the cylinder. Neglect heat loss through the lead wires of the heater. The heat capacity of the heater coil is negligible. Assume the spring is massless.

Comprehension-3

negligible. Assume the spring is massless. Comprehension-3 One mole of an ideal monatomic gas is taken
negligible. Assume the spring is massless. Comprehension-3 One mole of an ideal monatomic gas is taken

One mole of an ideal monatomic gas is taken around the cyclic process ABCA as shown in the figure.

1 V

2 0

P

0

2P 0 V 0

11. (a) P 0 V 0 (c) 3P 0 V 0 12. 5 (a) 
11.
(a)
P 0 V 0
(c)
3P 0 V 0
12.
5
(a)
2
6
(c)
5

The work done by the gas is

(b)

(d)

Consider the system as shown in figure without the spring and the piston is fixed. An ideal monoatomic gas is confined in the cylinder at the pressure 10 5 N/m 2 . Initially is gas is at 300 K and occupies the volume of 2.4 × 10 3 m 3 . Using the heater a very small amount of heat 1.2 J is provided. The percentage change in rms speed of the gas molecule in the container is

(a)

(c)

1

3

%

(b)

The ratio of heat in the path CA and the heat in the path AB is

(b)

(d)

6

5

5

6

P

0

1 % 6 1%
1
%
6
1%
1 % (d) 9
1
%
(d)
9

13. The heat absorbed in the path BC is

(a)

(c)

P 0 V 0

3P 0 V 0

(b)

(d)

1 V

2 0

2P 0 V 0

14. The temperature-volume diagram for the above cyclic process is represented by

 
 

(a)

 
 

(b)

cyclic process is represented by   (a)   (b) Consider the system as shown in figure

Consider the system as shown in figure without the spring and the piston is movable. An ideal monoatomic gas is confined. Initially is gas is at 300 K and occupies the volume of 2.4 × 10 3 m 3 . Initially the piston is stationary. The corss-sectional area of the piston is 8 × 10 3 m 2 . Using the heater, some amount of heat is provided such that piston moves very slowly by 0.3 m. The amont of heat supplied is

(a)

400 J

(b)

600 J

(c)

800 J

(d)

1000 J

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(c)

PHT – 19 (c) (d) none 15. The maximum temperature attained by the gas during the

(d) none

15. The maximum temperature attained by the gas during the cycle is

The bulk modulus of elasticity for isothermal process and adiabatic process performed on ideal

gas is shown in figure which is changing with pressure of the gas. Ideal gases are taken He, O 2 and mixture of one mole of He and two moles of O 2 . One of the graph is for isothermal process and other three graphs for adiabatic process performed on different gases or mixture of gases given in the problem.

20. Which graph must be for the isothermal process ?

(a) 1 (b) 2 3P V 4P V 0 0 0 0 (a) (b) (c)
(a)
1
(b)
2
3P V
4P V
0
0
0
0
(a)
(b)
(c)
3
(d)
4
R
R
21. Which graph must be for the adiabatic process
17 P V
25 P V
0
0
0
0
performed on mixture of gases ?
(c)
(d)
5
R
8
R
(a)
1
(b)
2
16. The molar heat capacity in the process BC is
(c)
3
(d)
4
R
R
22. The ratio of bulk modulus of elasticity
(a)
J / molK
(b)
J / molK
corresponding to the graph 1, 2, 3 and 4 is
4
4
5
19
7
19
5
7
R
R
(a)
:
:
: 1
(b)
:
:
: 1
(c)
J
/ molK
(d)
J
/ molK
3 13
5
13
3
5
2
2
17. The compressibility in the process BC is
7 5
19
7
5
19
(c)
:
:
: 1:
1
(d)
:
:
(a)
directily proportional to volume of the
gas
5
3
13
5
3
13
Comprehension-5
(b)
inversely proportional to volume of the
gas
(c)
directily proportional to pressure of the
gas
During saviour winter in the low temperature zones
of the world, the superficial parts of the lakes are
frozen, leaving water below. Consider that the
atmospheric temperature is –10 0 C.
(d)
inversely proportional to pressure of the
gas
18. The bulk modulus of elasticity of the gas when the
gas will attained maximum temperature is
(a)
1.5 P 0
(b)
2.5 P 0
Density of water = 1000kg/m 3 , latent heat of fusion
of ice = 3.36 × 10 5 J/kg and thermal conductivity of
ice = 1.7 W.m- 0 C. Thermal conductivity of
water = 0.50W/m- 0 C. Assume that the temperature
of entire water reaches 0 0 C before the ice starts
forming.
(c)
3.5 P 0
(d)
4.5 P 0
23.
19. The thermodynamic efficiency of the cycle is
Consider at any moment the thickness of ice formed
is y then the rate of increase of thickness of ice is
directly proportional to time ‘t’
1
2
(a)
(b)
(a)
constant
(b)
t
7
7
(c)
1/t
(d)
none
3
4
24. The time taken to increase the thickness by same
(c)
(d)
7
7
amount is t 1 , t 2 , t 3
times are in
so on respectively then these
Comprehension-4
(a)
A.P.
(b)
G.P.
(c)
H.P.
(d)
none
25. Assume that the temperature of the water at the
bottom of the lake remains constant at 4 0 C as the
ice forms on the surface (the heat required to
maintain the temperature of the bottom layer may
come from the bed of the lake). The depth of the
lakes is 1.0 m. It is found that the thickness of the
ice formed attains a steady state maximum value.
The maximum thickness of ice formed is

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PHT – 20

(a)

69 cm

(b)

79 cm

Comprehension-7

(c)

82 cm

(d)

89 cm

A

rod of negligible heat capacity has length 20 cm,

Comprehension-6

Convection requires a medium and is the process in which heat is transferred from one place to the other by the actual movement of heated substance (usually fluid). It is found that rate of heat convection from an object is proportional to the temperature difference () between the object and convective fluid and the contact area A, i.e.,

cross-sectional area 1sq.cm and thermal conductivity 200 SI unit. The one end of the rod is placed in a ice container which contains 5.36 g ice at 0 0 C. The temperature of other end of the rod increases from 0 0 C to 60 0 C linearly with time and maintains at the temperature of 60 0 C. The other end of the rod will attain the temperature of 60 0 C at 10 minutes. Neglect the heat capacity of the ice container.

The time at which ice will completely melt

dQ

31.

 hA     dt  (a) 5 minutes (b) 8 minutes convection
hA

dt
(a)
5 minutes
(b)
8 minutes
convection
(c)
9 minutes
(d)
10 minutes
32.
The temperature of the other end when the ice will
completely melts
(a)
50 0 C
(b)
60 0 C
(c)
70 0 C
(d)
80 0 C
[MT –3 K –1 ] (b) [MT –2 K –1 ]
33.
[MT –1 K –1 ]
(d)
none
The temperature of the ice container will change
according to
(a)
first remains constant then increases
exponentially
(b)
always constant
Convection may be stopped
(c)
Radiation may be stopped
first remains constant then increases
linearly
Heat conduction is easier downwards
(d)
first remains constant then increases
parabolically
It is easier and convenient to do so
MATRIX-MATCH TYPE
Matching-1
A
cyclic process ABCA is shown on
V
– T diagram.
1.44 Mcal.
(b)
2.44 Mcal.
3.44Mcal.
(d)
4.44Mcal.
Column - A
Column - B
Mcal. 3.44Mcal. (d) 4.44Mcal. Column - A Column - B where h is a constant of

where h is a constant of propotionally called convection coefficient and depends on the properies of fluid such as density, viscosity, specific heat and thermal conductivity, etc.

26. The dimension of ‘h’ is

(a)

(c)

27. While measuring the thermal conductivity of a liquid we keep the upper part hot and the lower cool so that

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

28. A flat vertical wall of dimension (2m × 3m) is maintained at a constant temperature of 116 0 C and the surrounding air on both side is at 35 0 C. If the value of ‘h’ for the wall is 1.27 × 10 3 kcal/m 2 .s. 0 C, then the heat lost in one hour is

(a)

(c)

The air in a room at 26 0 C is separated from the outside air at –4 0 C by a vertical glass window 3 mm thick and 10 m 2 in area. We must expect a small difference in temperature between the inner and outer surfaces of the glass. For the purpose of calculation, assume that the centre of the glass is at the mean temperature (11 0 C). The value of ‘h’ is

8.34 × 10 4 kcal/m 2 .s. 0 C.

(thermal conductivity of

glass = 2.5 × 10 4 kcal/m . s . K).

29. The steady state rate of heat flow is

(A)

P-V diagram is

(p)

(a)

0.125 kcal/s

(b)

0.50 kcal/s

(c)

0.75 kcal/s

(d)

none

30. The inner surface temperatures of the glass window is

(B)

U-diagram is

(q)

(a)

11 0 C

(b)

26 0 C

(c)

11.075 0 C

(d)

11.125 0 C

Einstein Classes,

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PHT – 21

(C)

(D)

P-T diagram is

(r)

P-n 0 diagram is (n 0 is the number of molecules per unit volume)

Matching-2

(s)

is the number of molecules per unit volume) Matching-2 (s) Matching-4 A monatomic ideal gas of

Matching-4

of molecules per unit volume) Matching-2 (s) Matching-4 A monatomic ideal gas of two moles is

A monatomic ideal gas of two moles is taken through

a cyclic process starting from A as shown in the

V V D A thermodynamic system is taken through the cycle B figure. The volume
V
V D
A thermodynamic system is taken through the cycle
B
figure. The volume ratios are
 2
and
V
V
A
A
abcda performed on the ideal one mole of diatomic
gas as shown in figure.
The temperature T A is 27 0 C.
Column - A
Column - B
(A)
Temperature of the gas
at B in kelvin
(p)
4980
(B)
Total work done in Joule
(q)
6902
(C)
Amount of heat in the
process BC
(r)
7470
(D)
Change in internal
energy in the process CD
(s)
600
Column - A
Column - B
Matching-5
(A)
work done in part dab
(p)
–40 J
Column - A
Column - B
 –1
(B)
work done in part cd
(q)
20 J
(A)
Molar heat capacity (p)
is
zero
(C)
change in internal energy (r)
in bcd
5 J
(B)
The ratio of adiabatic
(q)
adiabatic
compressibility to process
(D)
total amount of heat in
abcd
(s)
–25 J
isothermal compressibility
(C)
The ratio of slope of (r)
< 1
Matching-3
4
moles of a monatomic gas are at pressure
3
× 10 5 Nm –2 and temperature 100 K (state A). It is
isothermal curve to
adiabatic curve at the
point of intersection
heated isobarically to temperature 400 K (state B).
Next it undergoes isothermal expansion to pressure
(D)
Sudden burst out of
(s)
U = –W
1
× 10 5 Nm –2 (state C). It is then cooled isobarically
tyre
to 100 K (state D). Finally it is compressed
isothermally to return to state A.
Matching-6
Column - A
Column - B
Column - A Column - B
(A)
(p)
2
(A)
P-T diagram
(p)
coefficient of volume
expansion for the process
performed on ideal
monoatomic gas for which
molar heat capacity is 3R
is /T, then the value of  is
(B)
1
(B)
P-V diagram
(q)
bulk modulus of elasticity (q)
for the process
PV 2 = constant performed
on ideal gas is kP then the
value of k is
(C)
(C)
V-T diagram
(r)
(D)
P- diagram
(s)
none
adiabatic process (r)
TV 6/13 = constant, performed
on a gaseous mixture consists
of one mole of monoatomic
gas and x mole of diatomic
gas, then the value of x is
5/7

4

.

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PHT – 22

(D) If the percentage change in pressure for adiabatic process performed on diatomic gas is
(D)
If the percentage change
in pressure for adiabatic
process performed on
diatomic gas is 1% then
percentage change in
volume
(s)
none
Matching-11
Column - A
Column - B
1
dV
(A)
Graph between
(p)
hyperbolic
V
dT
Matching-7
and temperature for
isobaric process
Column - A
Column - B
(B)
Graph between most
probable speed and
density at constant
temperature
(q)
constant
(A)
U = constant
(p)
isopiestic
process
(B)
P/  = constant
(q)
isentropic
(C)
(r)
linear
process
(C)
VU –1 = constant
(r)
isovolumic
process
(D)
PU –1 = constant
(s)
isobaric
process
Graph between pressure
and volume for the
process for which bulk
modulus of elasticity is
–P, where P is the pressure
of the gas
Matching-8
(D)
(s)
parabolic
Column - A
Column - B
(A)
State quantity
(p)
work done
(B)
Path dependent quantity
(q)
zeroth law of
thermodynamics
Graph between volume
and temperature for the
process for which molar
heat capacity is R/2
performed on the
monotomic gas
(C)
Definition of
(r)
first law of
thermodynamics
Matching-12
temperature
Column - A
Column - B
(D)
Conservation of energy
(s)
internal energy
(A)
Adiabatic compression
(p)
heating process
Matching-9
(B)
(q)
Column - A
Column - B
amount of heat
is zero
(A)
Adiabatic compressibility (p)
P) –1
PV 7/5 = constant
performed on monoatomic
ideal gas is
(B)
Isothermal
(q)
P –1
(C)
PV 7/5 = constant
(r)
amount of heat
compressibility
(C)
Isochoric compressibility (r)
zero
performed on ideal
diatomic gas is
(D)
Isobaric compressibility
(s)
not defined
is negative if
change in
internal energy
is positive
Matching-10
(D)
(s)
temperature
Column - A
Column - B
first increases
(A)
Coefficient of volume
expansion for isothermal
process
(p)
zero
An ideal diatomic gas
on which the following
process is performed
and then
decreases
(B)
Coefficient of volume
expansion for isobaric
process
(q)
not defined
(c)
Coefficient of volume
expansion for adiabatic
process
(r)
T –1
Matching-13
Column - A
Column - B
 (A)
Solar constant
(p)
[MT
–3
]
 1
T
Stefan’s constant
(q)
[MT
–3  –4 ]
(D)
Coefficient of volume
(s)
 
1 
  (B)
(C)
Wien’s constant
(r)
[L]
expansion for isochoric
process
(D)
Planck’s constant
(s)
[ML 2 T –1 ]

Einstein Classes,

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(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

PHT – 23

Matching-14

Matching-16

Column - A

Column - B

 

Column - A

Column - B

Solar constant

(p)

W/m 2

(A)

Variation of temperature

(p)

constant

Stefan’s constant

(q)

W/m 2 K 4

gradient with distance in a rod of constant

Coefficient of thermal conductivity

(r)

W/mK

thermal conductivity with longitudinal heat

Planck’s constant

(s)

J-s

flow at steady state

Matching-15

(B)

Variation of temperature

(q)

hyperbolic

Column - A

Column - B

gradient with distance in a cylindrical shell of

L constant thermal Thermal resistance of (p)  Kab conductivity with radial heat flow at
L
constant thermal
Thermal resistance of
(p)
Kab
conductivity with radial
heat flow at steady state
(C)
Variation of temperature
gradient with distance
in a spherical shell of
constant thermal
conductivity with radial
heat flow at steady state
(r)
rectangular
hyperbola
(D)
(s)
none
L
Thermal resistance of
(q)
2
2
K(
b

a
)
Variation of temperature
gradient with distance
in a frustum of
constant thermal
conductivity with
longitudinal heat flow
at steady state
Matching-17
Column - A
Column - B
(A)
Heat
(p)
[ML 2 T –2 ]
1
b
l n
(B)
Specific-heat
(q)
[L 2 T
–2  –1 ]
Thermal resistance of
(r)
2
KL
a
(C)
Latent heat
(r)
[L 2 T
–2
]
(D)
Water-equivalent
(s)
[M]
MULTIPLE CORRECT CHOICE TYPE
1.
b
a
Thermal resistance of
(s)
4 Kab
TYPE 1. b  a Thermal resistance of (s) 4 Kab  One mole of monoatomic

One mole of monoatomic ideal gas is going through the process shown in figure. The volume increased from V 1 to V 2 and this line has the slope . Choose the correct statement :

(a)

The change in internal energy is

3

2

R

(V

2

V )

1

(b)

The molar heat capacity of this process is constant

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PHT – 24

(c) The molar heat capacity of this process depends on volume of the gas 6.
(c)
The molar heat capacity of this process
depends on volume of the gas
6.
Two conductors A and B are connected in parallel
as shown in figure.
(d)
The work done in the process is
V
2
R(V  V )  RT ln
2
1
0
V
1
2. One mole of an ideal monoatomic gas undergoes
the process p = T 1/2 , where  is a constant. The
change in temperature in the process is 50K.
(a)
The equivalent thermal resistance is
(a)
The work done by the gas is 25R
l
(b)
The molar specific heat of the gas is 2R
.
4kA
(c)
The change in internal energy is 75R
(d)
The amount of heat is 100R
kA
(b)
The heat current is
400
.
3. An ideal gas with adiabatic exponent  is heated at
constant pressure. It absorbs Q amount of heat.
l
(c)
The ratio of heat current in the rod is
(a)
The fractions of heat absorbed in
3
: 1
(d)
The ratio of heat current in the rod is
raising the internal energy is 
1 .
1
: 3
7.
(b)
The fractions of heat absorbed in
work done is 
1 .
(c)
The fractions of heat absorbed in
raising the internal energy is 1 – 
1 .
(d)
The fractions of heat absorbed in
work done is 1 – 
1 .
Two rods A and B of same length and cross
sectional area A are connected in series and a
temperature difference of 100 0 C is maintained
across the combination as shown in figure. If the
thermal conductivity of the rod A is 3k and that of
rod B is k, then
(a)
The effective thermal conductivity is 4k
4. 2m 3 volume of a gas ( = 1.4) at a pressure of
4 × 10 5 N/m 2 is compressed adiatabically so that the
volume becomes 0.5 m 3 . Let the new pressure is P A .
Let the pressure is P I if the compression was
isothermal. Let the work done in each process is
(b)
The heat current flowing through each
  kA 
rod is
75
l
(c)
The temperature T of the junction is 75 0 C
W
A and W I respectively then
(d)
All the above
(a)
P A = 2.78 × 10 6 N/m 2
8.
A double – pane window consists of two glass sheets
(b)
W A = –1.475 × 10 6 J
(c)
P I = 1.6 × 10 6 N/m 2
(d)
W I = –1.1 × 10 6 J
each of area 1 m 2 and thickness 0.01 m separated
by a 0.05 m thick stagnant air space. In the steady
state, the room glass interface and the glass
outdoor interface are at constant temperature of
5. At 27 0 C two moles of an ideal monoatomic gas
27
0 C
and
0 0 C,
respectively.
Take
thermal
occupy a volume V. The gas expands adiabatically
conductivities as K glass = 0.8 Wm –1 K –1 and
to
a volume 2V. Then
K air = 0.08 Wm –1 K –1 . Then
(a)
the final temperature is 189 K
(a)
(b)
change in its internal energy is
–2767.23 J
The rate of heat flow through the
window pane is 41.5 W
(b)
(c)
the work done by the gas during the
process is 2767.23 J
The temperature of other interfaces are
26.48 0 C and 0.52 0 C
(c)
(d)
all of the above
The effective thermal conductivity is
0.25 W/mK
(d)
none of these

Einstein Classes,

Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111

9. For an ideal gas :

(a)

The change in internal energy in a constant pressure process from temperature T 1 to T 2 = nC V (T 2 – T 1 ) where C V is the molar specific heat at constant volume and n the number of moles of the gas.

(c)

(d)

PHT – 25

the molar heat capacity at constant

pressure is

f

2

R R

difference of molar heat capacity at constant pressure and at constant volume is independent of f

(b) The change in internal energy of the gas and the work done by the
(b)
The change in internal energy of the gas
and the work done by the gas are equal
13.
in
magnitude in an adiabatic process.
(c)
The internal energy does not change in
isothermal process.
A blackbody is at a temperature of 2800 K. The
energy of radiation emitted by this object with
wavelength between 499 nm and 500 nm is U 1 ,
between 999 nm and 1000 nm is U 2 and between
1499 nm and 1500 nm is U 3 . The Wien constant
b = 2.88 × 10 6 nm K. Then
(d)
In
isochoric process, work done and
(a)
U 3 > U 1
(b)
U 3 = 0
change in internal energy are equal
(c)
U 2 > U 3
(d)
U 2 > U 1
10. Let v , v rms and v P respectively denote the mean
speed, root mean square speed, and most probable
speed of the molecules in an ideal monatomic gas
at absolute temperature T. The mass of a molecule
is m. Then :
14.
(a)
no molecule can have a speed greater
than 2v rms
.
(b)
the average kinetic energy of a molecule
Two bodies A and B have thermal emissivities of
0.01 and 0.81 respectively. The outer surface areas
of the two bodies are equal. The two bodies emit
total radiant power at the same rate. The
wavelength  B corresponding to maximum spectral
radiancy in the radiation from B is shifted from
the wavelength corresponding to maximum
spectral radiancy in the radiation from A, by 1.00
µm. If the temperature of A is 5802 K
is
¾ mv p
2
(a)
The temperature of B is 1934 K
(c)
v
v
v
P
rms
(b)
 B = 1.5 µm
(d)
all the above speed remains constant if
pressure will change but the temperature
remains constant.
(c)
The temperature of B is 1160 K
(d)
The temperature of B is 2901 K
15.
11. When m gm of water at 10 0 C is mixed with m gm of
ice at 0 0 C, which of the following statements are
false
(a)
The temperature of the system will be
given by the equation
m
× 80 + m × 1 × (T – 0) = m × 1 × (10 – T)
Consider a polytropic process PV  = constant is
perform on an ideal gas (adiabatic exponent ). In
this process the change in temperature is T. Let
the work done, change in internal energy, amount
of heat and molar heat capacity are given by W,
U, Q and C M respectively. Choose the correct
option
(b)
Whole of ice will melt and temperature
will be more than 0 0 C but lesser than
nR
(a)
W
 T
1 
10
0 C
(c)
Whole of ice will melt and temperature
will be 0 0 C
nR
(b)
 
U
 T
 1
(d)
all are incorrect
1
1
12. If the degrees of freedom for the gas is f then choose
the correct statement
(c)
Q
nR
T 
1 
 1
(a)
the adiabatic exponent of the gas is
1
1
2 
(d)
C
 R 
 
1
M
 
1 
 1
 
 f

(b)

the molar heat capacity at constant

volume is

f

2

R

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111

16.

17.

18.

PHT – 26

16. 17. 18. PHT – 26 19. In the P-V diagram shown in figure, the process

19.

16. 17. 18. PHT – 26 19. In the P-V diagram shown in figure, the process

In the P-V diagram shown in figure, the process I is performed on one mole of monoatomic gas, process II is performed on two moles of diatomic gas and process III is performed on three moles of monoatomic gas. Let the change in internal energy, work done and amount of heat in the I, II and III. Processes are U 1 , W 1 and Q 1 , U 2 , W 2 and Q 2 and U 3 , W 3 and Q 3 respectively. Which of the following must be correct

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

The plots of intensity versus wavelength for three black bodies at temperatures T 1 , T 2 and T 3 respectively are as shown in figure. One body is sun, other is human body and third is mercury lamp. Choose the correct statement

(a) First graph is for sun (b) (c) W 1 > W 2 > W
(a)
First graph is for sun
(b)
(c)
W 1 > W 2 > W 3
(d)
Q 1 > Q 2 > Q 3
U 1 = U 2 = U 3
20.
U 1 = U 3 < U 2
L fusion = 80 cal/g
L vaporization = 540 cal/g
S ice = 0.5 cal/gK
S water = 1 cal/gK
(a)
The final temperature is 0 0 C
(b)
(c)
(d)
The ratio of their latent heat of fusion is
3 : 4
Assertion-Reason Type
The melting point of the substance I is
40 0 C
The melting point of the substance II is
60 0 C
The ratio of their specific heat is 1 : 3
when they are solid
(A)
(B)

Second graph is for mercury lamp

Third graph is for human body

Can’t be predicted as the data is insufficient

In a vessel of negligible water equivalent, 0.05 kg steam at 100 0 C and 0.45 kg of ice at 0 0 C are mixed. Use the following data :

kg of ice at 0 0 C are mixed. Use the following data : Two bodies

Two bodies of equal mass m are heated at a uniform rate under identical conditions. Their change in temperature are shown graphically in figure. Then

(a)

The final temperature is 100 0 C

The total mass of water in the mixture is < 0.5 kg

The total mass of water in the mixture is 0.5 kg

(b)

(c)

(d)

Each question contains STATEMENT-1 (Assertion) and STATEMENT-2 (Reason). Each question has 4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY ONE is correct.

Statement-1 is True, Statement-2 is True; Statement-2 is a correct explanation for Statement-1

A solid copper sphere (density and specific heat c) of radius r at an initial temperature 200 K is suspended inside a chamber of infinite heat capacity whose walls are at almost 0 K. The time required for the temperature of the sphere to drop to 100 K

Statement-1 is True, Statement-2 is True; Statement-2 is NOT a correct explanation for Statement-1

(C)

Statement-1 is True, Statement-2 is False

(D)

Statement-1 is False, Statement-2 is True

(a)

inversely proportional to density of sphere

(b)

directly proportional radius of the sphere

(c)

directly proportional to specific heat capacity

(d)

inversely proportional to square of the radius of sphere

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111

PHT – 27

1. STATEMENT-1 : A sphere, a cube and a thin circular plate all made of the same mass and finish are heated to a temperature of 200 0 C. Sphere will cool slowest when left in air at room temperature. All objects are made of the same material.

STATEMENT-2 : According to Stefan’s Boldzmann law, rate of cooling is directly proportional to surface area for the same mass and same material. For the given mass sphere has the minimum surface area.

2. STATEMENT-1 : A ball A has twice the diameter as another ball B of the same material and with same surface finish. A and B are both heated to the same temperature and allowed to cool radiatively; then rate of cooling of A is same as that of B.

8. STATEMENT-1 : The earth without its atmosphere would be inhospitably cold.

STATEMENT-2 : The lower layer of earth atmosphere reflect infrared radiations from earth back to the surface of the earth.

9. STATEMENT-1 : An ink dot on cup of porcelain appears dark. When the same cup is heated to a high temperature, the dot becomes brighter than the rest of the cup.

STATEMENT-2 : Ink dot is a better absorber then porcelain and hence a good absorber is a good radiator.

10. 11. radiation even after attaining the 12. 13. 14.
10.
11.
radiation
even
after
attaining
the
12.
13.
14.

STATEMENT-1 : Newton’s law of cooling is not applicable at all temperature difference between the system and the surrounding.

STATEMENT-2 : A black body emits radiation of all wavelengths.

STATEMENT-2 : This law is derived from Stefan’s Boltzmann law when the temperature difference is a small between the system and the surrounding.

3. STATEMENT-1 : Two identical objects A and B are at temperature T A and T B respectively. Both objects are placed in a room with perfectly absorbing walls maintained at a temperature T(T A > T > T B ). The objects A and B attain the temperature T eventually. A loses more heat by radiation than it absorbs, while B absorbs more radiation than it emits, until they attain the temperature T.

STATEMENT-1 : A metallic block is heated to 80 0 C and left in a room to cool. The temperature of the block will change with time exponentially as shown in figure

STATEMENT-2 : Each object continues to emit and

absorb

temperature T

4. STATEMENT-1 : Two samples of air A and B having same composition and initially at the same temperature and pressure are compressed from a volume V to V/2, the sample A isothermally and the sample B adiabatically. The final pressure of A is lesser than B

STATEMENT-2 : Rate of cooling of the block is directly proportional to temperature difference between the system and the surrounding.

STATEMENT-1 : A black spherical ball, when gradually heated, appears first dull red, then blue and finally white.

STATEMENT-2 : Adiabatic process is more steeper than the isothermal process.

STATEMENT-2 : As the temperature will increase the wavelength of thermal radiation corresponding to maximum intensity will decrease.

5. STATEMENT-1 : Air pressure in a car tyre increases during driving.

STATEMENT-1 : Black body radiation is white.

STATEMENT-2 : During driving the temperature of air inside the tyre increases.

STATEMENT-2 : Black body emits all types of wavelength.

6. STATEMENT-1 : The carnot engine cab be realised in practice.

STATEMENT-2 : A heat engine cannot have 100% efficiency.

7. STATEMENT-1 : If a drop of water falls on a very hot iron, it takes long time to evaporate.

STATEMENT-2 : When a drop of water falls on a very hot iron, it gets insulated from the hot iron due to a thin layer of water vapour which is a bad conductor of heat.

STATEMENT-1 : Emissivity of the body is equal to its absorptive power.

STATEMENT-2 : According to Kirchhoff’s law the ratio of emissive power to absorptive power is same for all surfaces at the same temperature and is equal to the emissive power of a perfectly black body at that temperature. For a perfectly black body absorptive power equals to 1 and emmisivity is defined as the ratio of emmisive power of the body to the emmisive power of the black body.

Einstein Classes,

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PHT – 28

15. STATEMENT-1 : Heat is generated continuously in an electric heater but its temperature become constant after some time.

STATEMENT-2 : At the higher temperature electric heater starts loosing its energy by radiation and convection. The rate of loss of heat equals to rate of heat production at this higher temperature.

16. STATEMENT-1 : Water in a closed tube is heated with one arm vertically splaced above the lamp. Water will begin to circulate along the tube in counter clockwise direction.

22. STATEMENT-1 : A bucket full of hot water is hung in vacuum. It will cool by radiation.

STATEMENT-2 : Water is usually heated by convection.

23. STATEMENT-1 : A slab of ice is one half covered with black cloth and the other half with white cloth. This is then placed in sunlight. More ice has melted under black cloth.

STATEMENT-2 : A hollow enclosure blackened inside with soot and having a small hole is a best approximation of an ideal black body.

24. 25. 26. 27. a It is possible that p A < p B and
24.
25.
26.
27.
a
It is possible that p A < p B and T A > T B .
28.
29.

STATEMENT-1 : There is no atmosphere on the moon.

STATEMENT-2 : rms speed of gas molecule is greater than the escape speed on the moon.

STATEMENT-1 : For the solid, C P -C V is negligible and positive.

STATEMENT-2 : Convection will occur in fluid.

STATEMENT-2 : Solid body has very small expansion coefficient.

17. STATEMENT-1 : In conduction at steady state there is not absorption of amount of heat.

STATEMENT-1 : For ideal gas, C P is always greater then C V .

STATEMENT-2 : Temperature does not change with time in conduction process at steady state.

STATEMENT-2 : At constant pressure the work done is non-zero, whereas at constant volume work done is zero.

18. STATEMENT-1 : A solid sphere and hollow sphere made of the same material and have same radius are heated to the same temperature and placed in the same sourrounding. Both will emit equal amount of radiation per second at t = 0 and after some time solid sphere will emit larger amount of radiation per second as compare to hollow sphere.

STATEMENT-1 : The value of C P – C V is 1.00 R for

gas sample in state A and is 1.08 R in state B. Let

p A , p B denotes the pressure and T A and T B denote

the temperatures of the states A and B respectively.

STATEMENT-2 : In the above case the rate of cooling is inversely proportional to mass

STATEMENT-2 : A real gas can behave like an ideal gas at high temperature and low pressure.

19. STATEMENT-1 : In natural convection a heated portion of the liquid moves.

STATEMENT-1 : If two strips of equal length but of different metals are placed on each other and riveted, the single strip so formed is called ‘bimetallic strip’. This strip has the characteristic property of bending on heating.

STATEMENT-2 : The density of the heated portion of the liquid is less then that of the surrounding liquid.

STATEMENT-2 : It is due to unequal linear expansion of the two metals.

20. STATEMENT-1 : It is hotter at the same distance over the top of a fire than it is on the side of it.

STATEMENT-1 : If there is a hole A in a plate C (or cavity A inside a body C), the area of hole (or volume of cavity) will increase when body expands on heating, just as if the hole (or cavity) were solid

B of the same material.

STATEMENT-2 : Convection takes more heat upwards.

21. STATEMENT-1 : Consider a rod of uniform cross section and consists of a material of constant thermal conductivity. The ends of the rod are maintained at constant different temperatures. In steady state the temperature of the rod decreases linearly from high temperature to lower temperature along the length of the rod. Neglect any loss.

STATEMENT-2 : If there is a loss of heat then temperature will decrease exponentially from higher temperature to lower temperature with distance.

STATEMENT-2 : The expansion of area (or volume) of the body C will be independent of shape and size of hole or cavity

30. STATEMENT-1 : Two spheres of same radius and material at the same initial temperature but one is solid and another is hollow. If they are heated to the same temperature then they have the same expansion.

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111