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Regional Plan of Action for Disaster Risk Reduction in Agriculture 2014-2018 Bicol Region, Philippines February
Regional Plan of Action for
Disaster Risk Reduction
in Agriculture
2014-2018
Bicol Region, Philippines
February 2014

i

Regional Plan of Action for Disaster Risk Reduction in Agriculture

2014-2018

Bicol Region, Philippines

i Regional Plan of Action for Disaster Risk Reduction in Agriculture 2014-2018 Bicol Region, Philippines February

February 2014

The designations employed and the presentations of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The mention of specific companies or products of manufacturers, whether or not these have been patented, does not imply that these have been endorsed or recommended by FAO in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned.

The views expressed in this information product are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of FAO.

ii

FOREWORD
FOREWORD

Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in the agri-fishery sector is one of the key challenges faced by Department of Agriculture considering that most of the government efforts in DRR as well as CCA (Climate Change Adaptation) are still focused in saving lives rather than livelihoods.

Bicol Region, due to its geographic location, experiences about 20-22 tropical storms/typhoons annually that trigger landslides and widespread flooding that results to heavy losses in the agriculture industry. Thus, a proactive approach is essential to enhance the capacities of the agency and partner institutions, specifically the Local Government Units (LGUs), in planning and implementing sector specific researches, interventions and projects to effectively reduce the impacts of different hazards affecting the primary livelihood of Bicolanos.

The development of this Plan of Action, (PoA) in partnership with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (UN-FAO), European Commission's Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection (ECHO), Bicol University (BU), Central Bicol State University of Agriculture (CBSUA) and Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA), builds upon the lessons learned from being frequently affected by hydro-meteorological hazards, volcanic eruptions, pest and disease infestation.

This document takes into account the current gaps and issues on institutional reforms in accordance to the directives of the Department of Agriculture (DA) which were identified through the consultation workshops conducted under the different foreign-funded projects that were focused on mainstreaming DRR/CCA in agriculture.

To sustain the benefits gained from previous projects and achieve the goals and objectives of this proposal, the Department of Agriculture Regional Field Office - 5 (DA-RFO- 5) shall need the full support from the national government as well as the cooperation and commitment from partner institutions, LGUs, civil society, and the private sector to become responsive in providing the appropriate services to its clientele-farmers and fisherfolk.

the private sector to become responsive in providing the appropriate services to its clientele-farmers and fisherfolk.

iii

Acknowledgement

The Plan of Action for disaster risk reduction in agriculture is an attempt to systematically address the daunting challenge of increasing the livelihood resilience of vulnerable households and communities in the Bicol Region. Preparation of this document drew heavy input from the consultation dialogue with various stakeholders of the agriculture sector in the region. Putting all these inputs into a Plan of Action was a challenging task as it required the integration of ideas into one coherent document without sacrificing the concerns of other stakeholders.

It would have been very difficult for the undersigned to prepare this Plan of Action if not for the support of numerous individuals at the regional, provincial, and municipal levels during the consultation process. The TCP/PHI/3203 and OSRO/RAS/201/EC Project Management Office which also served as DA-RFU’s ad hoc climate change/disaster risk reduction office was instrumental in facilitating the schedule for the conduct of brainstorming and consultation dialogues all over the region. Special thanks are due to Dr. Badz Gavino for facilitating the schedule and arranging the logistic support during the consultation process; Gadz dela Torre for his encouragement and technical inputs; Potoy Alvina for all the secondary documents/data shared and incisive thoughts; Cely Binoya for providing some technical inputs during the revision of the document; and Bimboy Bañaria for ensuring his safety while on the road.

The participants during the series of consultation dialogue - Provincial Agriculturists and their Technical Staff, Provincial/Municipal Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Officers and their staffs, provincial and municipal Planning Officers, Municipal Agriculturists, Agricultural Technicians, and other individuals - deserve special thanks for sharing their thoughts and valuable experience in the crafting of this plan of action. The undersigned wishes also to acknowledge the Technical Working Group of the OSRO/RAS/201/EC project for their critiquing and technical input which enhanced the content of the plan of action.

Finally, the undersigned is greatly indebted to the Food and Agriculture Organization for providing the opportunity to extend his frontier of knowledge. This is a new endeavor for the undersigned which made the task doubly challenging. The undersigned owes his gratitude to Dr. Stephan Baas for the trust and extra “push”, patience and guidance, technical insight, and critiquing of the Plan of Action.

ARNULFO M. MASCARIÑAS Disaster Risk Reduction Planning Facilitator OSRO/RAS/201/EC
ARNULFO M. MASCARIÑAS
Disaster Risk Reduction Planning Facilitator
OSRO/RAS/201/EC

iv

Executive Summary

Due to its geographic location, the Bicol Region is one of the most disaster-prone areas in the Philippines. The region experiences about 20-22 tropical storms/typhoons annual that trigger landslides, flashfloods, mudslides and widespread flooding causing heavy damage and losses on the agriculture sector. The occurrence of climate-related natural disasters is expected to further intensify due to climate change. Climate-related hazards are likely to have serious and long lasting impact on agriculture and on the livelihoods of vulnerable farmers. There is, therefore, a need to proactively deal with these hazards, thru a regional Plan of Action (POA) for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in agriculture, in order to mitigate their negative impacts on agriculture.

Preparation of the POA for DRR in agriculture for Bicol Region was guided by a number of international and national frameworks such as the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA), the Climate Change Act 0f 2009, Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act of 2010, among others. The process was carried out as a participatory stakeholder dialogue involving representatives from different agencies in the region thru brainstorming sessions/workshops and field validation meetings. Existing materials related to DRR were also reviewed to provide some background information.

The regional POA for DRR in agriculture is in line with the Philippines’ DRRM framework and DRRM Act of 2010 and supports the implementation of the national DRRM plan for 2010-2018 from a sectoral perspective. It flags key topics and suggests concrete actions for DA to contribute to the overall implementation of the DRRM Act of 2010, focusing at the sector and region specific situation and demands of Bicol Region. The POA is expected to contribute to the operationalization on the ground, of the paradigm shift from reactive to proactive DRRM wherein farmers and fisherfolks - men and women - have increased their awareness, understanding and actions for DRRM with the impact of increased resilience. Specifically, the POA shall (a) provide guidance on the translation of national DRRM framework into concrete and operational action in the agricultural sector; (b) identify the priority areas of action, key areas of support, and activities for mainstreaming DRRM in agriculture; and (c) facilitate the systematic and coordinated delivery of interventions for disaster risk reduction in agriculture.

The POA for DRR in agriculture is expected to achieve the following major outcomes, namely: (a) Institutional and technical capacity for DRRM in agriculture, as well as, policy frameworks and coordination mechanisms at regional and sub-regional levels strengthened; (b) Assessment and monitoring of disaster risks and vulnerabilities, as well as, early warning systems for proactive DRRM in agriculture enhanced at the provincial and municipal levels; (c) Knowledge and database management and awareness raising on DRRM in agriculture improved at the local level; (d) Disaster risks and underlying vulnerabilities in local communities reduced through technical options and adoption of DRR good practices; and (e) Capacities and procedures for effective disaster mitigation, prevention, preparedness, response, and rehabilitation strengthened and integrated into community based DRRM plans and initiatives in agriculture.

v

Acronym

AADMER

-

ASEAN Agreement on Disaster Management and Emergency Response

AMAD

-

Agribusiness and Marketing Assistance Division

ASEAN

-

Association of Southeast Asian Nations

ATI

-

Agricultural Training Institute

BAS

-

Bureau of Agriculture Statistics

BDC

-

Barangay Development Council

BDRRMC

-

Barangay Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Committee

BFAR

-

Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources

CBA

-

Community Based Adaptation

CBDRM

-

Community Based Disaster Risk Management

CCA

-

Climate Change Adaptation

CSO

-

Civil Society Organization

DA

-

Department of Agriculture

DA-RFU V

-

Department of Agriculture Regional Field Unit V

DCC

-

Disaster Coordinating Council

DILG

-

Department of Interior and Local Government

DIPECHO

-

Directorate-General Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection-ECHO

DRR

-

Disaster Risk Reduction

DRR for FNS

-

Disaster Risk Reduction for Food and Nutrition Security

DRM

-

Disaster Risk Management

DRRM

-

Disaster Risk Reduction and Management

DRRMO

-

Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Office

DSWD

-

Department of Social Welfare and Development

EC

-

European Commission

ENSO

-

El Niño Southern Oscillation

FAO

-

Food and Agriculture Organization

FIDA

-

Fiber Industry Development Authority

GPOs

-

Good Practice Options

HFA

-

Hyogo Framework of Action

IRA

-

Internal Revenue Allotment

LDRRMC

-

Local Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council

LDRRM Fund

-

Local Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Fund

LDRRMO

-

Local Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Office

LGU

-

Local Government Unit

MGB

-

Mines and Geoscience Bureau

NCCAP

-

National Climate Change Action Plan

NDCC

-

National Disaster Coordinating Council

NDRRMC

-

National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council

NDRRMF

-

National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Framework

NDRRM Fund

-

National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Fund

NFA

-

National Food Authority

NEDA

-

National Economic and Development Authority

OCD

-

Office of Civil Defense

OMA

-

Office of the Municipal Agriculturist

OPA

-

Office of the Provincial Agriculturist

PAGASA

- Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services

 

Administration

PAR

-

Philippine Areas of Responsibility

PCA

-

Philippine Coconut Authority

vi

PDP

-

Philippine Development Plan

PHI

-

Philippines

POA

-

Plan of Action

QRF

-

Quick Response Fund

RAFID

-

Regional Agriculture and Fisheries Information Division

RDCC

-

Regional Disaster Coordinating Council

RDRRMC

-

Regional Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council

RED

-

Regional Executive Director

ROS

-

Research Outreach Station

RTD

-

Regional Technical Director

SAFDZ

-

Strategic Agriculture and Fisheries Development Zone

SNAP

-

Strategic National Action Plan

SUCs

-

State Universities and Colleges

TCP

-

Technical Cooperation Programme

vii

Table of Content

Foreword

iii

Acknowledgement

iv

Executive Summary

v

Acronym

vi

Table of Contents

viii

1

Background and Rationale Profile of the Bicol Region

1

Main Hazards, Risks, and Disaster to be Addressed

2

Tropical Cyclones/Typhoons

2

Flood and Landslides/Erosion

3

Continuous Rains

4

El Niño/Drought

5

Pests and Disease Incidence

6

Volcanic Eruption

7

8

The Need for a Plan of Action for Disaster Risk Reduction in Agriculture

 

9

Objectives and Expected Outcomes of the POA for DRRM in Agriculture

Key Policy Frameworks Relevant to the Formulation of the POA for DRRM in Agriculture

10

10

International Policy Frameworks Hyogo Framework of Action 2005-2015

10

ASEAN Agreement on Disaster Management and Emergency Response

10

Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) for Food and Nutrition Security (FNS) Framework Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

11

National Policy Frameworks

11

Climate Change Act of 2009 (RA 9729) and the National Climate Change Action

12

Plan Strategic National Action Plan on Disaster Risk Reduction 2009-2019

12

Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act of 2010

13

National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Framework and the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Plan for 2011-2028

13

Philippine Development Plan 2011-2016

15

15

Governance Structure and Resources for DRRM

 

17

Priority Framework for Action Scope of the Plan of Action for DRRM in Agriculture

17

Guiding Principles for the Development and Implementation of the PoA

18

Structure of the POA

19

Priority Area 1: Strengthened Institutional and Technical Capacity for disaster risk reduction and management in agriculture and enhanced policy frameworks and coordination at regional and local levels

19

Priority Area 2: Enhanced application of climate information products and early warning systems for proactive disaster risk reduction and management in agriculture

20

viii

Priority Area 3: Improved knowledge management, database and awareness raising in support of disaster risk reduction in agriculture

20

Priority Area 4: Reducing climate related risks and underlying vulnerabilities thru the use of technical options and integrating Community Based Adaptation (CBA) and Community Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM) approaches in agriculture

21

Priority Area 5: Strengthened capacities and procedures for effective disaster preparedness, response, and rehabilitation at all levels and integration of DRR measures into response, recovery, and rehabilitation initiatives

22

23

Cross-Cutting Priorities Capacity Development

 

23

Partnership/Linkage Development

23

Gender Equity

23

Institutional Arrangements and Mechanisms for Implementing the

23

POA for DRR Existing Structure and Institutional Arrangements at the Regional and Local Levels

23

Proposed Institutional Arrangements for the Implementation of the POA for DRR in Agriculture

25

Funding Mechanism

26

Coordination Mechanism

26

Monitoring and Evaluation

27

28

References

Annexes Annex 1: Planning Matrix 2014-2018

30

Annex 2: Definitions of Important Terminology

40

Annex 3: Hyogo Framework of Action

43

Annex 4: Duties and Responsibilities of the LDRRMOs

44

Annex 5: Tropical Cyclones which Affected Areas in Bicol Region from 2003 to 2013

46

Annex 6: Institutional Environment at DA to Address DRR/CCA

49

Annex 7: Memorandum from DA Secretary on Mainstreaming Climate Change in the DA Programs, Plans, and Budget

52

Annex 8: Output

During

the

Consultation and Planning Workshop for the

55

Preparation of the Regional POA for DRR in Agriculture last October 31, 2013

Annex 9: List of Workshop Meetings and Participants

58

ix

I.

Background

1. Profile of the Bicol Region

L ocated in the southernmost tip of the Luzon landmass, the Bicol Region straddles

between 11 0 30 to 14 0 20 north latitude

and 122 0 20 to 124 0 30east longitude. Northwest, it is bounded by Quezon province, east by the Pacific Ocean, southeast by Samar Sea, and southwest by Sibuyan Sea.

Figure 1. Map of the Bicol Region showing the six provinces.
Figure
1.
Map
of
the
Bicol
Region
showing
the
six
provinces.

It

has

a

total

land

area

of

approximately 17,632.50 square kilometers, comprising 5.9% of the country’s total land area. The region is politically subdivided into six provinces, one chartered city, six component cities, 107 municipalities, and 3,471 barangays. It has a total population of more than 5.6 million (as of 2010), with a population growth rate of 1.2 % and a population density of 5.24 people per hectare. Its economy is predominantly agriculture with more than 42% of the total

workforce deriving their living from agriculture.

The region’s topography is generally described as slightly undulating to rolling and hilly to mountainous, with a number of plains stretching from the province of Camarines Sur to Albay, making up the so-called Bicol River Basin and covering around 312,000 hectares. Prominent elevations mark the landmass of Bicol Region, foremost of which is Mayon Volcano in the province of Albay with an elevation of 2,462 meters above sea level. Other volcanoes and mountains dominating the countryside are Mt. Malinao (1,548 meters), Mt. Masaraga (337 meters), and Mt. Carburawan (473 meters) in Albay; Mt. Isarog (1,966 meters) and Mt. Iriga (1,143 meters) in Camarines Sur; and Bulusan Volcano (1,560 meters) in Sorsogon. The region is also rich in marine resources found in the numerous bays and gulfs such as Ragay Gulf, San Miguel Bay and Lagonoy Gulf outlining the coasts of Camarines Norte and Camarines Sur; Albay Gulf and Sorsogon Bay in Albay and Sorsogon; and Aliman Ilog and Nin Bays in Masbate.

The region has two pronounced seasons- dry and wet- and the normal average year- round temperature falls between 27.4 0 C to 29.6 0 C. The prevailing types of climate in the region are Type 2 and Type 4. Type 2 climate, which is characterized by a very pronounced maximum rainfall (November-January) and no dry season is observed in the province of Catanduanes, Sorsogon, eastern Albay, and eastern and northern Camarines Sur, and Camarines Norte. Type 4 climate is characterized by evenly distributed rainfall throughout the year with the exception of the occurrence of tropical cyclones in the vicinity which can cause rainfall abnormalities. Areas in Bicol under this climate type include the western part extending from Camarines Sur to the southwestern tip of Sorsogon. The region receives an

1

average rainfall of 3,013 millimeters and experiences 20-22 tropical cyclones/typhoons yearly.

The region is a predominantly agricultural area. Based on the 1991 Census of Agriculture, the farmlands of the region were utilized mostly for permanent crops, occupying 65.1% of the total farm area. Arable lands accounted for 30.9% of the total farm area. This consists of temporary cropland (29.5%), lands temporary fallowed (0.3%), and lands under temporary meadows (1.1%). Only 4% were used for other purposes such as permanent meadows/pastures (2.8%), woodland and forestland (0.7%), and home lot, etc. (0.5%). The Land Use Report of 2003, on the other hand, would show that a total of more than 62,035 hectares are continuously in production year round although it only represents 7.0% of the total resources. A total of 536,225 hectares are planted to coconut, 116,064 hectares are planted to irrigated paddy rice, 63,628 hectares are planted to non-irrigated paddy rice, 62,035 hectares for corn, while the remaining 109,355 hectares are pastureland.

With a predominantly agricultural economy, close to 50 percent of the region’s work force are dependent on the industry. Report from the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) shows that agriculture contributes 32 percent of the region’s economic output. It also accounts for 70 percent of all commodity outflows of the region. The major agricultural commodities produced in the region are rice, corn, coconut, abaca, pineapple, cassava, pili, livestock and poultry, and aquaculture and marine fisheries.

2. Main Hazards, Risks, and Disasters to be Addressed

The Bicol Region has one of the highest risk environments in the country due to its geographic location and physical environment. With an economy that is largely dependent on agriculture and fisheries and given the fact that it is exposed to a range of threats and hazards, there is a pressing need to formulate a PoA for DRR in agriculture. The threats being addressed by this plan of action are those that affect agriculture, namely, tropical cyclones/typhoons, flood, continuous rain, landslide/soil erosion, saline water intrusion, drought/long dry spell, and pests and disease incidence.

2.1. Tropical Cyclones/Typhoons

By far, tropical cyclones/storms are the most serious hazard to agriculture in Bicol Region. Being in the “typhoon highway”, mainland Bicol and the island-province of Catanduanes would usually experience the effects of typhoons when they enter the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR). Typhoons would usually hit

Bicol Region during the later part of the year, starting in September. The latter part of the year (October-December) coincides with rice harvest season and early planting season in some parts of Bicol. Heavy rainfall, flooding, and strong wind brought by these typhoons cause heavy damage and losses to rice crop.

Table 1. Ten most intense typhoons which hit Bicol.

Category/Name (Local/Int’l)

Inclusive Dates

Highest Wind Speed (kph)

STY Reming (Durian)

Nov. 26-Dec 1, 2006

320

STY Rosing (Angela)

Oct. 30-Nov. 4, 1995

260

STY Loleng (Babs)

Oct. 15-24, 1998

250

TY Unsang (Ruby)

Oct. 21-26, 1988

215

STY Dindo (Nida)

May 13-19, 2004

185

TY Milenyo (Xangsane)

Sep. 25-30, 2006

180

TY Yoning (Skip)

Nov. 03-12, 1988

175

TY Monang (Lola)

Dec. 02-07, 1993

170

TY Unding (Muifa)

Nov. 14-21, 2004

130

TY Saling (Dan)

Oct. 06-13, 1989

120

Source: Situational Assessment Report, CBSUA

2

Data from PAGASA would show that 64 tropical cyclones had directly affected the Bicol Region between 2003 and 2013 which resulted to thousands in human casualty and heavy losses in agriculture, infrastructures, and private properties (see Annex 5). The most intense typhoon ever recorded that battered Bicol Region and other parts of Luzon was super Typhoon Reming (Durian) in 2006, with wind speeds gusting up to 320 kph. The super typhoon left at least more than a thousand dead and almost 3,000 injured. Damage to agriculture and infrastructures was valued at P 5.4 billion. Reming’s heavy rains also caused lahar deposit at the slope of Mayon Volcano to roll down burying houses up to their rooftops in Legazpi City, Daraga, and Guinobatan.

to their rooftops in Legazpi City, Daraga, and Guinobatan. Figure 2. Risk to typhoon map of

Figure 2. Risk to typhoon map of the Philippines showing the relative location

of the Bicol Region (source: Manila Observatory and DENR).

2.2. Flood and Landslides/ Erosion

Some of the devastating floods and landslides in the region were triggered by typhoons and continuous rains brought by tail-end of the cold front. The Bicol River Basin which covers major rice areas in the provinces of Albay and Camarines Sur is the most flood prone area in the region. It has a drainage area of about 3,156 sq. km., of which some 2,000 sq. km. are agricultural and the rest are forests, wetlands, rivers, and lakes. Through the years, flood events had washed into the river system volcanic materials from Mt. Mayon which caused the upstream bed level to rise. Settlements and livelihood, especially agriculture, are threatened by extensive flooding and inundation. The low lying areas in the Bicol River Basin are generally associated with deep prolonged flooding that destroys rice and other crops. Urbanization and other human activities have accelerated flooding and caused permanent loss of prime agricultural lands. Sedimentation and soil erosion further aggravate flooding in the entire basin area including the rapid changes in the brackish water and morphology of the estuaries and riparian landscapes of major rivers in the basin area.

From the geo-hazard studies conducted by the Mines and Geo-Sciences Bureau (MGB) of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), 26 municipalities in Bicol Region were identified as high risk for flooding while another 14 towns are highly vulnerable to landslides. Almost half of the municipalities of Camarines Sur were classified as high risk areas for flooding while several municipalities/cities in the province of Albay,

3

Sorsogon, Camarines Norte, and Catanduanes are also considered as flood-prone. 1 The Bato-Baao area serves as catch basin of flood waters from Albay before it flows to Naga City and San Fernando.

The Province of Catanduanes has been identified as the most landslide-prone in the region, mainly because rock formations in the province are already old and cracked and many of its mountains are covered with thick soil which erodes during heavy rains partially due to the absence of tree covers. The cities of Ligao and Sorsogon were classified as moderately prone to landslides.

2.3. Continuous Rains

Recent events show that the annual monsoon season in the

country

brought severe

flooding

most areas. In

2011, most of

the

that

the

people

affected

properties and

livelihoods of

the most vulnerable were brought about by increased rainfall which caused massive flash flooding in areas which do not normally experience such. Between January to September 2011, more than 50 incidents of flash flooding and flooding and more than 30 landslides occurred, mostly caused by increased rainfall and illegal logging.

Amount in mm.

8 Years Average Monthly Rainfall (2001 - 2008)

JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
JAN
FEB
MAR
APR
MAY
JUN
JUL
AUG
SEP
OCT
NOV
DEC
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 445.63 850.50 380.60 377.20
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 445.63 850.50 380.60 377.20
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 445.63 850.50 380.60 377.20
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 445.63 850.50 380.60 377.20
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 445.63 850.50 380.60 377.20
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 445.63 850.50 380.60 377.20
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 445.63 850.50 380.60 377.20
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 445.63 850.50 380.60 377.20
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 445.63 850.50 380.60 377.20
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 445.63 850.50 380.60 377.20
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 445.63 850.50 380.60 377.20
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 445.63 850.50 380.60 377.20
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 445.63 850.50 380.60 377.20
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 445.63 850.50 380.60 377.20
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 445.63 850.50 380.60 377.20
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 445.63 850.50 380.60 377.20
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 445.63 850.50 380.60 377.20
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 445.63 850.50 380.60 377.20
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 445.63 850.50 380.60 377.20
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 445.63 850.50 380.60 377.20
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 445.63 850.50 380.60 377.20
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 445.63 850.50 380.60 377.20

445.63

850.50

380.60

377.20

597.55

487.28

581.00

955.55

832.15

683.58

763.63

924.08

150.85

31.55

94.60

43.55

92.35

118.83

180.95

191.50

151.60

201.55

280.23

222.40

Min150.85 31.55 94.60 43.55 92.35 118.83 180.95 191.50 151.60 201.55 280.23 222.40

Figure 3.

Monthly rainfall pattern in the provinces of Albay, Camarines Sur, and Sorsogon.

has

in

disasters

claimed

lives

of

and

Data from PAGASA would show that the province of Camarines Sur receives the highest amount of rainfall between the months of October and December. Based on the 16- year average monthly rainfall, November recorded the highest rainfall of 305.95 mm, followed by October with 294 mm. The months of November and December are the rainiest months for Albay and Sorsogon over a 35-year period. An average monthly rainfall of 515.60 mm and 539.20 mm were recorded in Albay and Sorsogon, respectively, for the months of December. The month of November recorded an average rainfall of 478.70 mm for Albay and 511.30 mm for Sorsogon.

1 High risk areas for flooding in the province of Camarines Sur are the towns of Baao, Bato, Bombon, Buhi, Bula, Cabusao, Calabanga, Camaligan, Canaman, Gainza, Libmanan, Magarao, Milaor, Minalabac, Nabua, San Fernando, including Iriga City. In the province of Albay, the municipalities of Oas, Polangui, and Libon are classified as flood-prone areas together with the municipalities of Bato and Viga in Catanduanes, Juban in Sorsogon, and Mercedez, Talisay and Vinzons in Camarines Norte. The cities of Legazpi, Tabaco and Naga were classified as moderately susceptible to flooding. The cities of Legazpi, Tabaco and Naga were classified as moderately susceptible to flooding.

4

Heavy rainfall

last

quarter of the year

during

the

further

intensifies

during

the

first

quarter of succeeding year due to the tail-

end of the cold front.

also felt

Its effect is

in coastal areas in the

form

of

coastal

flooding

and

saline

water intrusion

that

destroy

rice

areas

nearby.

Heavy

rainfall

also

makes

communities

living

around

Mt.

Mayon

vulnerable

to

secondary

hazards

posed

by

volcanic

eruption.

Lahar

deposits

along

the

slopes of Mt. Mayon

are

carried

downstream

during

heavy

rainfall,

causing flooding and

destruction

of

agricultural

areas,

public infrastructures,

and

private

properties.

public infrastructures, and private properties. Figure 4. Risk to projected rainfall change map of the

Figure 4. Risk to projected rainfall change map of the Philippines showing the relative

location of the Bicol Region (source: Manila Observatory and DENR).

2.4. El Niño/Drought

The climate of the Philippines is highly influenced by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). El Niño is a periodic climate risk which is associated with an increased chance of drier conditions resulting to drought or long dry spell.

Since 1949, there have been 17 El Niño events based on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s classification, many of which have brought adverse

soecioeconomic impacts in the Philippines. The Philippines previously experienced severe drought due to El Niño in 1982-1983, 1992-1993, and 1997-1998. Damage to agriculture

P 4.1 billion, and P 4.6 billion,

during the period was estimated at P 700 million, respectively.

The latest El Niño phenomenon in the country occurred during the last quarter of 2009 and lasted until second quarter of 2010. Areas or regions with distinct wet and dry seasons such as Ilocos Sur, Ilocos Norte, La Union, Pangasinan, Cagayan, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Bataan, Tarlac, Zambales, Cavite, Rizal, Occidental Mindoro, Palawan, Capiz,

5

Iloilo, Negros Occidental, Misamis Oriental, Zamboanga City, Saranggani, and South Cotabota, were declared as “highly vulnerable” to El Niño. On the other hand, only Sorsogon in Bicol Region along with the provinces of Abra, Ifugao, Benguet, Apayao, Isabela, Quirino, Nueva Viscaya, Batangas, Laguna, Quezon, Romblon, Aklan, Antique, Bohol, Zamboanga del Norte, Bukidnon, Davao Oriental, Davao del Sur, and Davao City were declared as “moderately vulnerable” to El Niño.

were declared as “moderately vulnerable” to El Niño. Figure 5. Risk to El Niño map of

Figure 5. Risk to El Niño map of the Philippines showing the relative location of the

Bicol Region (source: Manila Observatory and DENR).

Although Bicol Region was declared

as

vulnerable” to El Niño, the DA-RFU V

estimated that about 20,721 hectares of rice

areas and 15,210 hectares of corn areas were vulnerable areas or drought prone in Bicol. The damage brought by the long dry spell to agriculture was estimated at P 492.17 million.

“moderately

2.5. Pests and Disease Incidence

Aside from climate risks, pests and disease incidence also poses a serious hazard to agriculture in the region. The DA-RFU V reported a total damage valued at P 3,818,084.66 in 2010 due to armyworm infestation. Crops affected were rice in the provinces of Albay and Camarines Sur, corn in the provinces of Camarines Sur and Masbate, and High Value Commercial Crops in the provinces of Albay and Camarines Sur.

In 2012, the DA had to brace also for rice grain bug (RGB) attack which was identified by the Regional Crop Protection Center (RCPC) of DA-RFU VIII in Tacloban City as Paromius longulus. The pest was found to be infesting rice panicles, from flowering stage to milking stage, which results to unfilled or discolored grains that eventually reduces quality and subsequently yield. The presence of RGB was first discovered in Bicol when it wreak havoc on rice fields in Dimasalang, Masbate in 2011 then in Ragay, Camarines Sur during the onset of summer in 2012. The RGB is very agile and can easily evade chemical spraying

6

by staying on the upper side or underneath the leaves. The insect also becomes active when the monsoonal rains begin while warm weather, overcast skies and frequent drizzles favor its population buildup. Rice farms in Bicol attacked by RBG were practically rendered totally unproductive. It is estimated that approximately 100 hectares of rice crops in Ragay, Camarines Sur and Dimasalang, Masbate, the extent of damaged of which was estimated at 50 to 70 percent.

The province of Sorsogon was placed under quarantine by the Department of Agriculture among other 26 areas across the country in 2007 to prevent and control the spread of coconut leaf beetle (Bronthispa Longissima Gestro). The coconut pest which is also known as coconut hispine beetle, is an insect that feeds on the young leaves of coconuts and other palm species. The larvae of Brontispa feeds on young leaves of coconut, leaving it scorched in a ragged appearance, while the adults leave chewing marks on the leaves. The damage that the pest causes impairs the physiological activity of the leaves, which can lead to the death of the plants. Coconuts that are 4-5 years old are most heavily attacked by this pest. The Philippine Coconut Authority (PCA) reported that more than 11,000 fruit-bearing and young coconut trees had been infected by coconut leaf beetle in the province of Sorsogon. The infestation in Sorsogon topped those cases in the province of Albay and Camarines Sur.

The fisheries sector was not also spared by pest infestation. In 2007, the city government of Sorsogon sounded the worsening condition of Sorsogon Bay which has affected more than 6,000 families after the Bureau of Aquatic and Fishery Resources imposed a shellfish ban since September 2006 due to presence of red tide organism. The ban resulted to a loss reaching P 70 million. The figure represented the losses incurred by the fishermen as well as local businessmen who export shellfish products to Metro Manila and abroad.

2.6. Volcanic Eruption

The Bicol Region has two active volcanoes, namely, Mt. Mayon (in Albay) and Mt. Bulusan (in Sorsogon) and five dormant volcanoes. The presence of these two active volcanoes poses a risk to the surrounding areas because of the hazards from volcanic quakes, pyroclastic flow, ash fall, lava flows, and lahar flows. Their periodic eruptions had resulted in human casualties, destruction of agricultural crops and production losses, damage in rural infrastructures, and alteration of the physical landscape/environment of surrounding areas.

Mt. Mayon is one of the prime hazards in the province of Albay due to its frequent eruption resulting to human losses, heavy damage in agriculture, destruction of properties and public infrastructures, and displacement of hundreds of households living around the danger zone. With an elevation of 2,462 meters (8,077 ft) from the shore of Albay Gulf, Mt. Mayon is geographically shared by the municipalities of Daraga, Camalig, Guinobatan, Malilipot, Bacacay, and Sto. Domingo and the cities of Ligao, Tabaco, and Legazpi. Practically most of the LGUs in the province of Albay are affected during its eruptions. The most violent eruption of Mt. Mayon was recorded in 1814 when more than 1,200 people were killed and devastated nearby towns and even neighboring provinces of Camarines Sur and Sorsogon. Its eruption in 2005 resulted to an accumulation of millions of tons of lahar and pyroclastic materials around crater and along the slope which swooped down at the height of Typhoon Reming wrath that killed hundreds of lives, destroyed houses and private properties, damaged public infrastructures, and covered hundreds of hectares of farmlands. The huge lahar materials deposited along the slope of Mt. Mayon are being washed out during heavy rains causing the siltation of river system and flooding in low-lying areas.

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Mt. Bulusan is the southernmost volcano in Luzon Island that is situated in the province of Sorsogon, 70 km southeast of Mt. Mayon in Albay. It is classified by volcanologists as a stratovolcano (or a composite cone) and covers the northeast rim of Irosin that was formed about 40,000 years ago. Mt. Bulusan has a peak elevation of 1,565 meters (5,135 ft) above sea level with a base diameter of 15 km. Located around the mountain are four craters and four hot springs. Bulusan is generally known for its sudden steam-driven or phreatic explosions. It has erupted 15 times since 1885 and is considered as the 4 th most active volcano in the Philippines after Mayon, Taal, and Kanlaon.

A total of 60 barangays in six municipalities (Barcelona, Bulusan, Casiguran, Gubat, Irosin, and Juban) are covered by Bulusan Volcano hazard zone established by the Philippines Volcanology and Seismology Institute (Phivolcs). These barangays lie within the 4-10 km radius from the volcano’s summit. The latest eruption of Bulusan Volcano was in February 2011, sending steam and ash 500 meters above the crater. Heavy ash fall from the explosion damaged some 20 hectares planted to rootcrops and vegetables such as bitter gourd, eggplant, and string beans. Also at risk are coconut, abaca, and banana plantations as the wind drifted southwest toward the agricultural towns of Irosin, Bulusan , and Matnog. Early estimates place the damage to agriculture at more than P 3 million.

II. The Need for a Plan of Action for Disaster Risk Reduction and Management in Agriculture

Due to its geographic location and physical environment, the Bicol Region is one of the most disaster-prone areas in the country. Located in the eastern seaboard and facing the Pacific Ocean where tropical cyclones emanate, the region experiences about 20-22 tropical storms/typhoons annually. These natural weather disturbances trigger landslides, lashfloods, mudslides and widespread flooding, resulting in the destruction of and damage to homes, public infrastructures, and agriculture sector and put the livelihoods of vulnerable households at risk. Households who are highly dependent on agriculture usually suffer the most because this sector is the most vulnerable to climate-related hazards.

Table 2. Estimated damage to agriculture in 2006-2011 of weather and climate-related disturbances in Bicol Region (in P).

Weather

Date

 

Commodities

Disturbances

Rice

Corn

HVCC

Livestock

Fisheries

Typhoon Reming

11/25/2006

153,840,977.55

44,973,935.12

343,063,738.71

137,162,364.00

-

Typhoon Milenyo

9/00/2006

493,931,259.13

31,536,516.07

417,462,376.71

18,956,798.00

129,540,840.00

Typhoon Mina

 

44,030,816.04

-

135,208,817.53

878,765.00

-

Continuous rain due TECF

 

84,395,700.02

-

-

-

-

Typhoon Frank

 

923,756.00

3,665,067.10

54,037,431.47

874,990.00

2,600,000.00

TD Crising and Dante

 

826,222,640.00

30,842,486.00

58,776,073.00

1,687,8760.00

22,602,850.00

Tropical Storm Feria

 

16,854,307.00

12,116,441.00

14,466,050.00

59,100.00

-

El Niño

 

435,320,066.39

49,376,286.23

7,747,783.82

178,000.00

-

Armyworm Infestation

 

3,650,803.07

165,781.59

1,500.00

-

-

Continuous rain due TECF

 

67,764,940.44

4,396,964.06

7,903,893.57

1,561,650.00

-

Tropical Storm Bebeng

 

221,543,407.17

18,077,131.90

23,680,245.99

2,175,397.00

-

Source: DA-RFU V

Weather disturbances in Bicol Region often trigger disasters that affect agricultural production and put a serious strain on the socioeconomic well-being of farmers in vulnerable areas. Based on records of the Department of Agriculture (DA), the damage to agriculture in Region V due to tropical depression/tropical storm/typhoon which affected Bicol Region is estimated at P 3.26 billion from 2006 to 2011. Continuous rains brought by the tail-end of the cold front also result to heavy damage to agriculture. The DA has estimated that the

8

damage to agriculture during the first quarter of 2010 and 2011 due to heavy rains was approximately P 152.16 million. Aside from typhoons and continuous rains due to tail-end of cold front, the Bicol Region has to contend also with the negative effects on agriculture of El Niño and/or long dry spell. Records from the DA would show that total loss/damage in agriculture in the Bicol Region in 2010 due to El Niño was valued at P 492.17 million.

The occurrence of climate-related natural disasters is expected to further intensify due to climate change. Climate-related hazards are likely to have serious and long lasting impact on agriculture and on the livelihoods of vulnerable farmers. There is, therefore, a need to proactively deal with these hazards, thru a regional Plan of Action (POA) for Disaster Risk Reduction and Management (DRRM) in agriculture, in order to mitigate their negative impacts on agriculture.

III. Objectives and Expected Outcomes of the POA for DRRM in Agriculture

The Philippines’ Disaster Risk Reduction and Management (DRRM) framework

envisions

a

country

which

has

“safer,

adaptive

and

disaster-resilient

Filipino

communities toward sustainable development”. The regional POA for DRRM in

Agriculture is in line with Philippines DRRM framework, the DRRM Act of 2010 and it supports the implementation of the national DRRM Plan for 2011-2018 from a sectoral perspective. Along these lines the POA flags key topics and suggests concrete actions for DA to contribute to the overall implementation of the DRRM Act of 2010, focusing at the sector and region specific situation and demands of Bicol Region. It is also envisioned to contribute to the operationalization on the ground, of the paradigm shift from reactive to proactive DRRM wherein farmers and fisherfolks - men and women - have increased their awareness, understanding and actions for DRRM with the impact of increased resilience. The following are the specific objectives of the POA for DRRM in agriculture:

(a)

Provide guidance on the translation of national DRRM framework into concrete and operational action in the agricultural sector;

(b)

Identify the priority areas of action, key areas of support, and activities for mainstreaming DRRM in agriculture; and

(c)

Facilitate the systematic and coordinated delivery of interventions for disaster risk reduction in agriculture.

With the foregoing objectives, and guided by the national DRRM framework and the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Plan, adoption of the POA for DRR in agriculture is expected to achieved the following major outcomes:

(a)

Institutional and technical capacity for DRRM in agriculture, as well as, policy frameworks and coordination mechanisms at regional and sub-regional levels strengthened;

(b)

Assessment and monitoring of disaster risks and vulnerabilities, as well as, early warning systems for proactive DRRM in agriculture enhanced at the provincial and municipal levels;

9

(c)

Knowledge and database management and awareness raising on DRRM in agriculture improved at the local level;

(d)

Disaster risks and underlying vulnerabilities in local communities reduced through technical options and adoption of DRR good practices; and

(e)

Capacities and procedures for effective disaster mitigation, prevention, preparedness, response, and rehabilitation strengthened and integrated into Community Based DRRM plan and initiatives for agriculture.

IV. Key Policy Frameworks Relevant to the Formulation of the POA for DRRM in Agriculture

There are a number of international and national policy frameworks that guided the effort of the Philippine government in building the resilience of communities and in enhancing disaster preparedness and response capabilities at various levels of governance. These are also the same policy frameworks which became the basis in the formulation of the POA for DRR in agriculture.

1. International Policy Frameworks

1.1.

Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015

The Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) 2005-2015 provides the main guidance at international level for the Philippines’ DRRM approach and framework. The HFA is an action plan agreed upon by 168 governments and international organizations, including the Philippines, focused on building resilience to disasters for all nations. The overarching objective of the HFA is to make the world safer against natural hazards. It has three strategic goals, namely: (a) to integrate DRM in development policies, strategies and planning; (b) to strengthen institutions responsible for DRM at all levels, and; (c) to build a culture of disaster resilience in response and recovery operations. The HFA outlines five priorities for action, which cover the main areas of DRR, namely:

(a)

Ensure that DRR is a national and a local priority with a strong institutional basis for implementation;

(b)

Identify, assess, and monitor disaster risks and enhance early warning;

(c)

Use knowledge, innovation, and education to build a culture of safety and resilience at all levels;

(d)

Reduce the underlying risk factors; and

(e)

Strengthen disaster preparedness for effective response at all level.

1.2.

ASEAN

Response

Agreement

on

Disaster

Management

and

Emergency

The ASEAN Agreement on Disaster Management and Emergency Response (AADMER) is a regional legally-binding agreement that binds Association of South East Asian

10

Nations (ASEAN) member states together to promote regional cooperation and collaboration in reducing disaster losses and intensifying joint emergency response to disasters in the ASEAN region. AADMER is also ASEAN's affirmation of its commitment to HFA and it contains provisions on disaster risk identification, monitoring and early warning, prevention and mitigation, preparedness and response, rehabilitation, technical cooperation and research, mechanisms for coordination, and simplified customs and immigration procedures.

The agreement has objectives to provide effective mechanisms to achieve substantial reduction of disaster losses in lives and in the social, economic and environmental assets of the Parties, and to jointly respond to disaster emergencies through concerted national efforts and intensified regional and international cooperation. This should be pursued in the overall context of sustainable development and in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement.

1.3. Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) for Food and Nutrition Security (FNS) Framework Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

The DRR for FNS Framework Programme builds on and supports the implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action to reduce disaster risks in the agricultural sector. Although it did not directly influence the government’s effort of crafting its DRRM approach and framework, the DRR for FNS Framework guided the more sectoral approach of formulating DRR in agriculture. The Framework Programme has four thematic pillars and cross-cutting priorities that contribute to the achievement of the five priorities of the Hyogo Framework for Action.

of the five priorities of the Hyogo Framework for Action. Figure 6. The DRR for FNS

Figure 6. The DRR for FNS framework of the FAO.

Pillar 1 seeks to support the enabling environment of member countries, with appropriate legislation, policies and institutional frameworks for disaster risk reduction for food and nutrition security in agriculture, livestock, fisheries/aquaculture, forestry and

11

natural resource management, and to strengthen the institutional capacities to implement them. Pillar 2 seeks to strengthen and harmonize food and nutrition security information and early warning systems to better monitor the multiple threats and inform decision- making in preparedness, response, policy, advocacy and programming. Pillar 3 addresses the underlying risks to food and nutrition security and build the resilience of livelihoods through the application of technologioes, pracrices and approaches in farming, fisheries/aquaculture, forestry and natural resources management. Pillar 4 is about strengthening capacities at all levels in preparedness to improve response to, and recovery from, future threats to food and nutrition security, and to reduce their potential negative impacts on livelihoods.

The DRR for FNS Framework Programme goes beyond the HFA in that it includes a wider range of threats such as animal and plant pests and diseases, the volatility of food prices, and others.

2. National Policy Frameworks

2.1. Climate Change Act of 2009 (RA 9729) and the National Climate Change Action Plan

The Climate Change Act of 2009 (RA 9729) mainstreams climate change into government policy formulation and establishes the framework strategy and program on climate change. It also adopts the strategic goals to build national and local resilience to climate change-related disasters and integrate disaster risk reduction into climate change programs and initiatives. The law established the Climate Change Commission which is the sole policymaking body of the government tasked to coordinate, monitor and evaluate the programs and action plans of the government relating to climate change. The Climate Change Act of 2009 called for the formulation of the National Climate Change Action Plan (NCCAP) and mandated local government units (LGUs) to be “the frontline agencies in the formulation, planning, and implementation of climate change action plans in their respective areas” in accordance with the NCCAP and provisions of the Local Government Code.

The NCCAP outlines the agenda for climate change adaptation and mitigation for

Consistent with the provisions of the Climate Change Adaptation Framework,

2011-2038.

the NCCAP’s ultimate goal is to “build the adaptive capacities of women and men in their communities, increase the resilience of vulnerable sectors and natural ecosystems to climate change and optimize mitigation opportunities towards gender-responsive and rights-based sustainable development.” NCCAP pursues

seven

namely: (a) food security; (b) water efficiency; (c) ecosystem and environmental stability;

strategic priorities within the 2 long-term objectives of adaptation and mitigation,

(d)

human security; (e) climate-smart industries and services; (f) sustainable energy; and

(g)

knowledge and capacity development.

Both the Climate Change Act of 2009 (RA 9729) and the NCCAP recognize the importance of DRRM and support its implementation as part of climate change adaptation.

2.2. Strategic National Action Plan on Disaster Risk Reduction 2009-2019

As signatory to the HFA, the Philippines had to formulate an action plan, the Strategic National Action Plan (SNAP), to implement the HFA. The SNAP is a statement of

12

commitment by governments to implement comprehensive DRR programme in their country in accordance with their country’s requirement and capacity.

The SNAP was adopted on June 21, 2010, through Executive Order Number 888, as a road map indicating the vision and strategic objectives on disaster risk reduction of the country for the next 10 years. It was based on (a) an assessment of the disaster risks, vulnerability, and capacity; (b) gap analysis that identifies and maps out significant on-going initiatives; and (c) DRR activities based on the HFA that are considered by stakeholders as achievable priorities for the country, with adequate relevant resources and capacity for implementation over the next three to 10 years.

The SNAP for DRR was built on a set of assumptions, scenarios, and related information up to the year 2019. Its development and implementation were based on two guiding principles, namely: (1) DRR is directly linked to poverty alleviation and sustainable development; and (2) DRR entails the participation of various stakeholders in order to mainstream DRR in relevant sectors in the society. It is consistent with the global commitment which aims to build the resilience of communities to disasters in order to

“reduce disaster losses in lives, in the social, economic and environmental assets

of communities and countries.” The SNAP paved the way for the Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act of 2010 and was catalytic for the formulation of the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Framework and the National Plan for DRRM for 2011-2028 which have now superceded the SNAP.

2.3. Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act of 2010

Republic Act 10121 of 2010, otherwise known as the Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act of 2010, transformed the Philippine’s Disaster Management System from Disaster Relief and Response to Disaster Risk Reduction and Management (DRRM), which is a proactive approach rather than reactive. Interventions and programs take into consideration the pre-disaster phase - knowing and mitigating the hazards in order to lessen vulnerability of communities at risks. The primary consideration in this approach is the development of policies and plans and the implementation of measures pertaining to all aspects of disaster risk reduction, management and recovery, to include good governance, risk assessment and early warning, knowledge building and awareness raising, to reduce underlying risk factors, and to prepare for effective response and early recovery. RA 10121 mandated the development of the National DRRM Framework upon which the National DRRM Plan was based.

2.4. National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Framework and the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Plan for

2011-2028

With the enactment of the DRRM Act of 2010 (RA 10121), the government formulated the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Framework (NDRRMF) which was approved on June 16, 2011 by the executive committee of the National Disaster

Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC). The framework is in conformity with and captures the essence and priorities of Republic Act 10121. It envisions a country which

has

sustainable development.” The goal is to have a paradigm shift from reactive to proactive DRRM wherein men and women have increased their awareness, and understanding of DRRM with the end in view of increasing people’s resilience and decreasing their vulnerabilities.

“safer,

adaptive

and

disaster-resilient

Filipino

communities

toward

13

Figure 7. The National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Framework of the Philippines . The

Figure 7. The National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Framework of the Philippines .

The NDRRMF emphasizes that through time, resources invested in disaster prevention, mitigation, preparedness, and climate change adaptation will be more effective towards attaining the goal of adaptive, disaster-resilient communities, and sustainable development. Further, the framework shows that mitigating the potential impacts of existing disaster and climate risks, preventing hazards and small emergencies from becoming disasters, and being prepared for disasters, will substantially reduce loss of life and damage to social, economic and environmental assets.

Formulation of the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Plan (NDRRMP) was guided by the NDRRM framework. The Plan highlights, among others, the importance of mainstreaming DRRM and CCA in the development processes such as policy formulation, socioeconomic development planning, budgeting and governance particularly in the area of environment, agriculture, water, energy, health, education, poverty reduction, land-use and urban planning and public infrastructure and housing among others. Mainstreaming also puts to forth the need to develop common tools to analyze the various hazards and vulnerability factors which put our communities and people into harms way.

The NDRRMP also highlights the need for institutionalizing DRRM policies, structures, coordination mechanisms and programs with continuing budget appropriation on DRR from national down to local levels. Through permanent mechanisms, competency and science- based capacity building activities can be done, alongside the nurturing of continuous learning through knowledge development and management of good DRRM practices on the

ground. The NDRRM Plan has four distinct yet mutually reinforcing priority areas, namely,

(a)

disaster prevention and mitigation; (b) disaster preparedness; (c) disaster response; and

(d)

disaster recovery and rehabilitation.

14

2.5.

Philippine Development Plan 2011-2016

The Philippine Development Plan (PDP) 2011-2016 is the overall development roadmap of the country. It translates the country’s development agenda - “Social Contract with the Filipino People” - into priority actions and projects. The PDP has identified DRRM and CCA as main cross-cutting concerns. As such, these have been integrated into the different sectors and sub-sectors using various strategies in order to address the underlying causes of people’s vulnerabilities and contribute to the reduction of people’s risks to disasters.

V. Governance Structure and Resource Allocation for DRRM

With the enactment of RA 10121, otherwise known as “An Act Strengthening the

Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management System, Providing for the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Framework and Institutionalizing the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Plan, Appropriating Funds Therefor and for Other

Purposes”, the National Disaster Coordinating Council (NDCC) was replaced by the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC). The NDRRMC has the overall responsibility of approving the NDRRMP and ensuring it is consistent with the NDRRMF. It also has the main responsibility of monitoring the development and enforcement by agencies and organizations of the various laws, guidelines, codes or technical standards required by this Act; managing and mobilizing resources for DRRM, including the National DRRM Fund (NDRRMF); monitoring and providing the necessary guidelines and procedures on the Local DRRM Fund (LDRRMF) releases as well as utilization, accounting and auditing thereof. The NDRRMC is headed by the Secretary of the Department of National Defense, with the Secretary of the Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG) as Vice Chairperson for Disaster Preparedness, the Secretary of the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) as Vice Chairperson for Disaster Response, the Secretary of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) as Vice Chairperson for Disaster Prevention and Mitigation, and the Director-General of the National Economic Development Authority (NEDA) as Vice-Chairperson for Disaster Rehabilitation and Recovery.

As prescribed in RA 10121, the Office of Civil Defense (OCD) has the primary mission of administering a comprehensive national civil defense and disaster risk reduction and management program by providing leadership in the continuous development of strategic and systematic approaches as well as measures to reduce the vulnerabilities and risks to hazards and manage the consequences of disasters. The Administrator of the OCD serves as Executive Director of the National Council and, as such, has the same duties and privileges of a department undersecretary. The National Council utilizes the services and facilities of the OCD as the secretariat of the National Council.

At the regional level, the Regional Disaster Coordinating Council (RDCC) is now known as the Regional Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (RDRRMC) which coordinates, integrates, supervises, and evaluates the activities of Local Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Councils (LDRRMCs). The RDRRMC is responsible for ensuring disaster sensitive regional development plans, and in case of emergencies shall convene the different regional line agencies and concerned institutions and authorities. The Regional Director of the OCD serves as Chairperson of the RDRRMC while the Regional Directors of DSWD, DILG, DOST, and NEDA serve as chairpersons of the RDRRMC. The existing regional

15

office of the OCD serves as secretariat of the RDRRMC which is composed of the executives of the regional offices and field stations at the regional level of government agencies.

The existing provincial, city, and municipal Disaster Coordinating Council (DCC) is now known as provincial, city, and municipal DRRMC. Under RA 10121, the barangay DCC ceases to exist and its power and functions are now assumed by the Barangay Development Council which shall serve as the LDRRMC in the barangay. The LDRRMC has the following functions: (1) approve, monitor and evaluate the implementation of the LDRRMPs and regularly review and test the plan consistent with other national and local planning programs; (2) ensure the integration of disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation into local development plans, programs and budgets as a strategy in sustainable development and poverty reduction; (3) recommend the implementation of forced or preemptive evacuation of local residents, if necessary; and (4) convene the local council once every three months or as necessary.

The law provides that a Local Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Office (LDRRMO) be established in every province, city, and municipality, and a Barangay Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Committee (BDRRMC) in every barangay which shall be responsible for setting the direction, development, implementation, and coordination of disaster risk management programs within their territorial jurisdiction. The LDRRMO is under the office of the local chief executive of the province, city, or municipality and Barangay Chairman in the case of BDRRMC. The LDRRMO is composed of a Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Officer (DRRMO) and assisted by three (3) staff responsible for:

(a) administrative and training; (b) research and planning; and (c) operations and warning. The LDRRMO and the BDRRMC shall organize, train and directly supervise the local emergency response teams and the accredited community disaster volunteers (ACDVs). The LDRRMO is the key body responsible for the coordination and implementation of DRRM work at decentralized level. It has a wide range of clearly defined responsibilities as shown in Annex 4.

The BDRRMC shall be a regular committee of the existing BDC and shall be subject thereto. The Punong Barangay shall facilitate and ensure the participation of at least two (2) CSO representatives from existing and active community-based people’s organizations representing the most vulnerable and marginalized groups in the barangay.

To finance the various activities for DRRM, a National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Fund (NDRRM Fund) has been appropriated under the annual General Appropriations Act. The NDRRM Fund shall be used for disaster risk reduction or mitigation, prevention and preparedness activities such as but not limited to training of personnel, procurement of equipment, and capital expenditures. It can also be utilized for relief, recovery, reconstruction and other work or services in connection with natural or human- induced calamities which may occur during the budget year or those that occurred in the past two (2) years from the budget year. The specific amount of the NDRRM Fund and the appropriate recipient agencies and/or LGUs shall be determined upon approval of the President of the Philippines in accordance with the favorable recommendation of the NDRRMC.

Of the amount appropriated for NDRRM Fund, the law provides that 30% shall be allocated as Quick Response Fund (QRF) or stand-by fund for relief and recovery programs in order that situation and living conditions of people in communities or areas stricken by disasters, calamities, epidemics, or complex emergencies, may be normalized as quickly as possible. All departments/agencies and LGUs that are allocated with DRRM fund must

16

submit to the NDRRMC their monthly statements on the utilization of DRRM funds and make an accounting thereof in accordance with existing accounting and auditing rules. All departments, bureaus, offices and agencies of the Government are also authorized to use a portion of their appropriations to implement projects designed to address DRRM activities in accordance with the guidelines to be issued by the NDRRMC in coordination with the DBM.

It should be noted that the LGUs had their own Local Calamity Fund prior to the enactment of RA 10121. The Local Calamity Fund will now be known as Local Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Fund (LDRRM Fund). The law stipulates that not less than five percent (5%) of the estimated revenue from regular sources shall be set aside as the LDRRMF to support disaster risk management activities such as, but not limited to, pre- disaster preparedness programs including training, purchasing life-saving rescue equipment, supplies and medicines, for post-disaster activities, and for the payment of premiums on calamity insurance. The LDRRMC shall monitor and evaluate the use and disbursement of LDRRMF based on the LDRRMP as incorporated in the local development plans and annual work and financial plan. Upon the recommendation of the LDRRMO and approval of the sanggunian concerned, the LDRRMC may transfer the said fund to support disaster risk reduction work of other LDRRMCs which are declared under state of calamity.

Of the amount appropriated for LDRRMF, 70% shall be allocated for mitigation, prevention and preparedness activities while the 30% shall be allocated as Quick Response Fund (QRF) or stand-by fund for relief and recovery programs in order that situation and living conditions of people in communities or areas stricken by disasters, calamities, epidemics, or complex emergencies, may be normalized as quickly as possible. Unexpended LDRRMF shall accrue to a special trust fund solely for the purpose of supporting disaster risk reduction and management activities of the LDRRMCs within the next five (5) years. If such amount is still not fully utilized after five (5) years, it shall revert back to the general fund and will be available for other social services to be identified by the local sanggunian.

VI. Priority Framework for Action

This Plan of Action for DRRM in agriculture contributes a sector specific perspective and activities to the overarching national policies and plans for disaster risk reduction and management coordinated by NDRRMC. It is guided by the main areas of action outlined in the Hyogo Framework for Action and provides the roadmap for proactively responding to the impacts of natural disasters and builds on the salient provisions of the NDRRM Framework. Concrete measures and approaches are consolidated in the plan to assist agriculture to better prevent, mitigate, and cope with the impacts of natural disasters and climate change on agriculture.

1. Scope of the Plan of Action for DRRM in Agriculture

The plan covers a five-year (2014-2018) planning horizon and all hazard prone areas in Bicol Region, where agriculture has become a risky undertaking and farming communities have become increasingly vulnerable to disaster impacts. More specifically, the plan will:

Facilitate the systematic, strategic coordination and delivery of interventions for disaster risk reduction in agriculture, in line with the national commitment to implement the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) for DRR;

17

Complement and build on the already existing mandates and responsibilities of DA in the context of disaster response management and recovery; it will not replace these already existing mandates for emergency response, but ensure better linkages to them from of enhanced planning of preparedness to response;

Contribute to creating synergies between interventions related to disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. The rationale is that the short term climate change impacts are likely to be mainly felt through more frequent and intense hydro-meteorological hazards and that most measures applied in the current contexts of DRR and CCA are identical. However, the plan does not aim to explore all interventions that would be needed to holistically address climate change adaptation in the sector.

Outline main action areas for a five year period (2014-2018). Given DA’s financial and technical resource limitations, the need to prioritize interventions is reflected in the document; indicators, key deliverables and time lines for implementation are provided.

Establish

higher

agriculture.

commitment

for

enhanced

DRRM

among

stakeholders

in

It is envisaged that the activities outlined by this plan will be included during next planning cycles into DA RFU 5 overall agricultural development planning. It is hoped that this sectoral plan for DRRM for Bicol, is considered as pilot within the national agriculture sector context and that it may also serve as model and catalyst for the development for DRRM plans in other sectors.

2. Guiding Principles for the Development and Implementation of the POA

The development of this POA was built on the following key principles which correspond to the guiding principles of National DRRM Policies, the National Climate Change Policies, and National Agricultural Policies, including to:

Integrate and link DRRM and CCA into sustainable agricultural development planning.

Ensure consistency, continuity and close coordination between preventive measures for DRR and emergency response planning and recovery.

Use a results-based planning approach.

Ensure full participation of key stakeholders including governmental, nongovernmental and community-based organizations and private sector in the design and delivery of the plan.

Recognize DRRM as an investment in sustainable agricultural development.

Ensure linkages between economic and environmental resilience, DRRM and CCA.

Use existing knowledge and capacities as the foundation to build on.

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Define agricultural communities as the ultimate beneficiaries of government involvement and contribution to DRRM

.

3. Structure of the POA

The POA is structured in five priority action areas that seek to promote strong institutional mechanisms and good practices for implementing disk risk reduction in agriculture at various levels including adaptation to climate change. These priority action areas are as follows:

Strengthened institutional and technical capacities for disaster risk reduction and management in agriculture and enhanced policy frameworks and coordination at regional and local levels

Enhanced provision of and access to climate information products and early warning systems for pro-active disaster risk reduction and management in agriculture

Improved knowledge management, and awareness raising in support of disaster risk reduction in agriculture

Reduced underlying vulnerabilities thru the promotion of technical options and integrated approaches for Community Based Adaptation (CBA) and Community Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM) in agriculture

Strengthened capacities and procedures for effective disaster preparedness, response, and rehabilitation at all levels and integration of climate change adaptation into response, recovery, and rehabilitation initiatives

Priority Area 1: Strengthened institutional and technical capacities for disaster risk reduction and management in agriculture and enhance policy frameworks and coordination at regional and local levels.

Objective: Ensure efficient institutional mechanisms within the agriculture sector at the regional and local levels to address disaster risk reduction and management activities and enhancing coordination with other agencies.

Gaps to be Addressed: At present, enabling policies are in place for disaster risk reduction but yet to be translated and adapted to the specific needs of the agriculture sector. A draft operational protocol on disaster risk reduction and management for

agriculture has been prepared by the Department of Agriculture but there is a need to operationalize it at the regional and local/ground level to make it more context- and site- specific considering the national scope of the manual. Capacity for DRR in agriculture has to be enhanced and expanded to ensure its mainstreaming at various levels of the agriculture

sector.

Strategy: Strengthening institutional and technical capacities and mainstreaming disaster risk reduction and management in agriculture, food security policies, strategies and plans at various levels, including links to climate change adaptation.

1.1. Strengthen capacity within the DA-RFU V to effectively contribute in the delivery of DRRM related tasks in agriculture in the region.

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1.2.

Strengthen the technical capacity of provincial and municipal agriculture services on DRRM.

1.3. Mainstream DRRM into existing agriculture and food security policies, plans and strategies at the regional, provincial, and municipal levels.

1.4. Strengthen linkage with state universities and colleges and research institutions in the region in the conduct of research and development undertakings on climate change adaptation and DRR in agriculture.

1.5. Enhanced coordination with DRRM units at all levels.

Priority Area 2: Enhanced provision of and access to climate information products and early warning systems for proactive disaster risk reduction and management in agriculture.

Objective: Improve services for and the knowledge of local communities and access and use climate information and early warning messages tailored to the needs of farmers.

Gaps to be Addressed: PAGASA regularly issues different early warning products, of which six cater to the agriculture sector. These products include tropical cyclone warnings, flood warnings, gale warnings issued twice a day, El Niño/La Niña advisories (updated monthly), monthly weather forecasts, and 10-day weather forecast. There are, however, two challenges concerning PAGASA’s weather information and early warning messages, namely, improved access and timeliness of delivery and relevance/usefulness to farmers. The TCP/PHI/3203 project has proposed a simplified procedure of disseminating weather information. There is a need to train technical staff at various levels on the use of weather information for application to agriculture.

Strategy: Enhance capacities at various levels to analyze climate information, early warning messages, and climate impact in the agriculture sector and improve dissemination down to the community level.

1.1. Strengthen the capacity of DA-RFU V in providing climate outlook and farm weather bulletin/advisories as part of the existing routine early warning system for agriculture sector.

1.2. Enhance the capacity of provincial and municipal LGUs to apply climate and weather information products and early warning systems in agriculture.

Priority Area 3: Improved knowledge management and awareness raising in support of disaster risk reduction in agriculture.

Objective: More systematic collection and use of data and information to promote knowledge and enhance awareness about the impacts of climate variability and change, and to improve capacity for disaster risk reduction in agriculture.

Gaps to be Addressed: The DA-RFU V has implemented a number of projects related to climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction for the past five years (e.g. TCP/PHI/3203 and AMICAF). These projects had developed methodologies/approaches and good practices which can be used to improve operational skills needed at various institutional levels (e.g. DA-RFU V, LGU, and local communities) to implement disaster risk

20

reduction and climate change adaptation in agriculture. There is, however, a great need to enhance awareness among stakeholders and to build their knowledge on the available approaches/methodologies to enhance their capacities for disaster risk reduction and management in agriculture.

Strategy: Knowledge management, information dissemination and awareness raising on disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in agriculture.

1.1. Design and application of awareness creation strategy for climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction in agriculture at the regional, LGU, and local community levels.

1.2. Enhance knowledge base on innovations and good practices for climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction in agriculture.

1.3. Mobilize local communities and farmer groups/associations for showcasing climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction interventions in agriculture.

1.4. Knowledge sharing and strategic dissemination of key reports and information materials related to climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction.

Priority Area 4:

promotion of

technical options and integrated approaches for Community Based Adaptation (CBA) and Community Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM) in agriculture.

Reduced underlying vulnerabilities thru the

Objective: Increase livelihood resilience of vulnerable communities by enhancing capacities of extension staff and farmers to disseminate and implement, respectively, a range of good practice options (GPOs) for disaster risk reduction in agriculture and climate change adaptation.

Gaps to be Addressed: A range of technical options to enhance livelihood resilience against climate change impacts and other natural hazards are already known and available from various sources at the local, regional, and national levels. The DA Central Office, for instance, has prepared a manual for disaster risk reduction and management that includes a menu of technical options to choose from for selected commodities. Similarly, the DA-RFU V with support from the TCP/PHI/3203 project, had identified and field tested a number of good practice options for climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction in different agroecological zones 2 . Aside from these identified technical options, there is a wealth of indigenous knowledge available in local communities, which can be systematically assessed and considered for possible dissemination. There is a need, however, to further enhance the menu of good practice options and to ensure that the available technical options are continuously documented, tested, monitored and adapted to location-specific needs of farmers living in different agro-ecosystems. Furthermore, field validated good practice

2 Some of these good practice options include the use of early maturing rice variety, submergence rice variety, salt-tolerant rice variety, timing of planting plus ratooning, and rice plus duck farming system in lowland rice area; strip intercropping, coconut leaf pruning plus intercropping, and crop-livestock (goat) integration in upland/coconut areas; and backyard tilapia farming, seaweed farming, freshwater prawn farming, and squid pot for fisheries/aquaculture.

21

options need to be promoted on a wider scale to enhance the livelihood resilience of other vulnerable communities.

Strategy: Continuous research, documentation, assessment, and testing/adaptation of available and potentially new good practice options for disaster risk reduction to location- specific conditions of farmers and fishermen, while promoting the upscaling of field-validated technical options.

1.1. Promote the adoption of integrated production and farm diversification on a wider scale to build the resilience of local communities to disaster impacts.

1.2. Support for postharvest practices to proactively manage climate-related risks.

1.3. Promote risk sharing and transfer mechanisms.

1.4. Reduce risks from landslide and soil erosion through CBDRM approaches.

Priority Area 5: Strengthen capacities and procedures for effective disaster mitigation, prevention, preparedness, response, and rehabilitation at all levels and integration of DRR measures into response, recovery and rehabilitation initiatives in agriculture.

Objective: Enhance regional and local capacities for disaster mitigation, prevention, preparedness, response and rehabilitation and ensure that climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction issues are integrated into response and recovery intervention in agriculture.

Gaps to be Addressed: Disaster response in the agriculture sector, in general, has been reactive rather than proactive. The DA-RFU V and the LGUs allocate significant resources for response and rehabilitation after a natural disaster. Most of these efforts are focused on the replacement of assets and short-term and immediate needs of affected communities. Response and recovery interventions, however, should be designed in different ways so that they also support measures and objectives of preparedness and disaster risk reduction. Preparedness activities need to be institutionalized and systematically strengthened at all levels.

Strategy: Facilitate sustainable disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation measures as part of response and rehabilitation interventions.

1.1. Promote regular contingency planning for disaster risk reduction in agriculture at all levels.

1.2. Standardize the content and procedure of information collection on disaster impacts.

1.3. Build the capacity of local government units to integrate disaster risk reduction and sustainable natural resource management into response and rehabilitation projects.

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Cross-Cutting Priorities

The POA for DRR in agriculture has identified three cross-cutting priorities that underpin the five proposed priority actions presented in the preceding section. These are capacity development, partnership/linkage development, and gender equity.

Capacity development. Strengthening institutional and technical capacities at all levels, from the regional down to local, is necessary for effective implementation of the priority actions for disaster risk reduction and management in agriculture. The need for capacity development runs through Priority Area 1 to 5 along the core areas of research and development, technology transfer, assessment tools and methods, awareness raising, policy mainstreaming, and early warning systems.

Partnership/linkage development. One of the lessons learned from the TCP/ PHI/3203 project was that climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction and management need a broad and long-term programmatic implementation approach. Thus, cross-sectoral partnerships for DRRM are needed to adequately tackle climate change and undertake adaptation measures. The TCP/PHI/3203 project was able to demonstrate that mutual cooperation and/or partnership between and among LGUs, academe, and other institutions is necessary in implementing climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction and management activities in agriculture. The partnership promoted greater synergy and complementation of project activities and allowed each partner to concentrate on areas where it has comparative strength.

The five priority areas of the POA for DRRM in agriculture requires that strategic coordination and partnerships be forged with other agencies. The present devolved set-up and given resource limitation will make it impossible for the DA-RFU V to implement all activities outlined in the POA.

Gender equity. The DRR for FNS takes into account the differences in women’s and men’s vulnerability to disasters, as well as their differentiated role in fostering a culture of disaster resilience. Gender is a cross-cutting priority of the POA which ensures that gender concerns, needs and capacities are integrated and that it is mainstreamed in the five priority areas of the POA.

VII. Institutional Arrangements and Mechanisms for Implementing the POA for DRR

1. Existing Structure and Institutional Arrangements at the Regional and Local Levels

Before the passage of R.A. 7160 otherwise known as Local Government Code of 1991, the plans and programs of the Department of Agriculture were implemented thru the various organizational hierarchy of the DA at the regional, provincial, and municipal levels. The Code mandated the devolution of agricultural extension service including the power, authority, resources, responsibilities, and accountabilities from the national government to the provincial, city, and municipal local government units in order to hasten the delivery of agricultural information and extension services to the farmers and other clientele.

With the devolution, agricultural extension service of LGUs became autonomous from the DA and the latter do not have anymore direct supervision over the agricultural extension

23

personnel of the LGUs. Devolution also transformed DA Regional Offices to Regional Field Units (RFUs) headed by the Regional Executive Director (RED). Assisting the RED are two Regional Technical Directors (RTDs), one for Research and Regulation and another one for Operations and Extension. The DA-RFU is

made up of several divisions and sections directly reporting either to the RED or to the two RTDs. Reporting directly to the RED are the following divisions: (a) Agriculture and Fisheries Information Division (RAFID); (b) Planning Project Development and Evaluation Division; (c) Administrative Division; and (d) Finance Division. On the other hand, the RTD for Research and Regulations has direct supervision over the Research Division and the Regulatory Division while the RTD for Operations and Extension has direct supervision over the Agribusiness and Marketing Assistance Division, Field Operations Division, and Regional Agricultural Engineering Division.

Division, and Regional Agricultural Engineering Division. Figure 8. Organizational structure of the DA-RFU V. Based on

Figure 8. Organizational structure of the DA-RFU V.

Based on the DRRM Plan of the Department of Agriculture, the Regional Executive Director who is the alter ego of the Secretary at the regional level, shall see to it that matters affecting regional/local agriculture are properly addressed. The Regional Executive Director is expected to perform the following DRRM functions: (a) organize a Regional Disaster Quick Response Center; (b) ensure that a DRRM program and action plans for agriculture are implemented in place in his respective region; (c) responsible for the formulation and implementation of regional contingency plans for emergencies; (d) advise the Secretary and the Undersecretary for Operations on important issues relevant to DRRM in the agriculture of the Region; and on the disaster mitigation and prevention, preparedness, response, and rehabilitation and recovery operations undertaken by the Regional Field Unit; (e) conduct onsite assessment of situation and critical needs; (f) receive DRRM related reports from the regional heads of the DA bureaus and attached agencies; (g) prepare and submit required DRRM reports to the Undersecretary; and (h) work with the Regional Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council and other DRRM related agencies.

The Regional Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Policy Committee shall be the policy making body of the Department of Agriculture at the regional level on matters pertaining to disaster risk reduction and management. The RFUs shall also put up their respective Quick Response Center. The Regional Disaster Response Center is the hub of

24

response operation at the regional level with the following functions: (a) conduct situational assessment; (b) direct and coordinate response operations; (c) disseminate warnings, advisories, and educational type of information for the public; (d) perform market monitoring, price and supply stabilization activities, and (e) perform damage assessment and reporting. The Regional Response Center shall be composed of the Commodity Program Coordinators, Operations Division, PMED, RAFID, AMAD, RIARC Managers, GSD, RAED and at least 2 core staffs, who must be responsible employees, to serve as secretariat to the Regional Response Center and the Regional Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Committee (RDRRM-C).

2. Proposed Institutional Arrangements for the Implementation of the POA for DRRM in Agriculture

The DA has already laid out its plan to pursue systems-wide program on climate change in accordance with the provisions of Climate Change Act of 2009. Given the mandate to implement these systems-wide program on climate change is the Climate Change Office (renamed as DA Systems-Wide Climate Change Office) under the Office of the Undersecretary for Policy Planning. On the other hand, the task of implementing disaster risk reduction and management in agriculture is led by the Secretary of Agriculture. The Undersecretary for Operations who is the focal person for DRRM in the DA, is tasked to direct, control, monitor, and evaluate the implementation of the DRRM annual programs and action plans of the DA.

At the DA-RFU V, there is currently no unit established to carry out disaster risk management and climate change adaptation activities. An ad hoc unit was established in 2009 to serve as Project Management Office (PMO) of the project implemented by DA-RFU V and funded by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) designed to strengthen climate risk management and disaster preparedness in selected provinces in Bicol Region (TCP/PHI/3203). The same ad hoc unit was also mobilized by the DA-RFU V in the implementation of two more projects assisted by the FAO related to climate change adaptation (GCP/INT/126/JPN) and disaster risk reduction (OSRO/RAS/201/EC). This unit needs to be upgraded as a technical core group with dedicated and trained staff responsible for coordinating and implementing the activities relevant to disaster risk management and climate change adaptation. The upgraded unit will then serve as the Secretariat/Focal Unit within the DA-RFU V in the implementation of the POA for DRR in agriculture.

The Regional DRRM Policy Committee which is stipulated in the DRRM plan of the DA can be activated by the DA-RFU V, with its RED as chairman, to serve as Steering Committee for the implementation of the POA for DRR in agriculture. The Regional DRRM Policy Committee will be responsible for approving the annual work plans related to the POA for DRR in agriculture in close coordination with the Secretariat/Focal Point. National government agencies in the region (such as Office of Civil Defense, National Economic and Development Authority, Department of Interior and Local Government, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, etc.) , academe, representative from the provincial and municipal LGUs, and private sector may comprise the committee.

Technical assistance in the implementation of the POA will be provided by a Technical Working Group whose members will come from the various divisions of the DA- RFU V and representatives from the Office of the Provincial Agriculturist and Office of Municipal Agriculturist of concerned LGUs.

25

Considering the devolved nature of the agriculture sector in the country, field level DRRM activities will be under the direct supervision of municipal LGUs. The provincial LGUs (thru the Office of the Provincial Agriculturist) shall provide the coordination mechanism and possible funding assistance while the DA-RFU V shall provide capacity building, technical backstopping, coordination mechanism, and possible funding support to project implementation. The municipal LGUs, with assistance from DA-RFU V and provincial LGUs, shall take charge of: creating awareness among farmers and local communities about climate change and disaster risk reduction, conducting training program on the impact of climate change and disaster risk management in agriculture, preparing and updating their disaster risk reduction management plan for agriculture, demonstrating good practice options for climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction, climate farmer field school, and other related extension activities.

3. Funding Mechanism

The funding requirement for the implementation of the POA will come from national and local sources. In order that the POA will not become a financial burden for DA-RFU V, it is a must that their plans and programs should be realigned and run parallel with priority areas and key areas of support of the POA. This is one way to facilitate the mainstreaming of climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction and management in the plans and programs of the DA as articulated in the department’s DRRM plan and systems-wide program on climate change.

It should be noted that a NDRRM Fund is appropriated under the annual General Appropriations Act to finance various activities for DRRM. The DA-RFU can request funding assistance from the NDRRMC to augment their budget for the training of personnel, for the conduct of disaster reduction, prevention, and preparedness activities, and for disaster response and rehabilitation activities (e.g. start-up capital for seeds/planting materials, fertilizer, and other farm inputs).

Local funding support for the POA will come from the Internal Revenue Allotment (IRA) of the LGUs wherein a certain percentage is allocated for the operation of the provincial/municipal agriculture service. The plans and programs of the LGUs for agriculture should be aligned with the POA as part of the mainstreaming effort as stipulated in the Climate Change Act and NDRRM Act. Aside from the budget allotment for the agriculture service of the LGU, the 20% Development Fund can also be considered as additional source of fund for the POA. The LDRRM Fund of the LGUs can also be used to support the implementation of the POA especially pre-disaster preparedness programs, purchase of postharvest facilities, payment of premium for crop insurance, and disaster response and rehabilitation.

4. Coordination Mechanism

There are a number of institutional players involved in climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction at the national, regional, and local levels. This is because the Climate Change Act and the DRRM Act mandates that all climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction and management should be mainstreamed in the policies, plans, and programs of all government units and offices. To ensure and facilitate the implementation of the activities proposed in the POA, clear understanding of coordination mechanism is important. Two types of coordination mechanisms are recommended, namely: (a) inter- sectoral/interagency collaboration mechanism and (b) intra-sectoral mechanism.

26

Inter-sectoral/interagency collaboration mechanism is being proposed due to the fact that national government agencies and LGUs are also active in DRRM and CCA activities. At the regional level, the RDRRMC is already in place, chaired by the OCD Director and executives of regional offices of national government agencies as members. Local DRRMCs are now also in place at the provincial and municipal LGUs and local DRRMOs are also organized in the different LGUs. Proper coordination with these councils and offices is needed to avoid possible conflict and to facilitate complementation of resources and activities in the implementation of the POA activities for disaster risk reduction in agriculture. The Secretariat/Focal Unit at the DA-RFU V (of the POA for DRR) shall coordinate and liaise with RDRRMC, local DRRMCs, local DRRMOs at the provincial and municipal levels, and steering committees of the different national government agencies in the region.

Within the DA-RFU V, there is also a need to strengthen coordination with DA line agencies (e.g., BFAR, NIA, BPI, PCA, etc.) and between and among the different divisions and sections to ensure complementation of activities and technical support to the POA. The proposed Secretariat/Focal Unit shall coordinate and liaise with the different divisions and sections and concerned line agencies to ensure the alignment of their programs and activities with the priority areas of the POA.

5. Monitoring and Evaluation

A monitoring and evaluation (M & E) system will be developed by the DA-RFU V thru its Planning, Project Development and Evaluation Division in order to assess the status of implementation of POA activities. Monitoring and evaluation of performance shall be based on the indicators which are outlined in the planning matrix.

Monitoring and evaluation of the POA for DRR in agriculture and fisheries shall be the responsibility of the Secretariat/Focal Point proposed to be organized within the DA-RFU V. Concerned offices/units implementing the programs and activities shall be required to submit their monthly monitoring/accomplishment report to the Secretariat/Focal Point for collation and submission to the Steering Committee of the POA for their information and feedback. Part of the monitoring is the identification of success and failures of implementation and lessons learned which can be shared with the various divisions of the DA-RFU V, DA line agencies and other concerned government agencies.

27

References

Amano, L. O.; V. L. Amano; and A. P. Candelaria. 2012. Disaster Reduction/Climate Change Adaptation Good Practice Options for Rainfed and Upland Agro-ecological Zones.

Report on Strengthening Capacities for Climate Risk Management and Disaster Preparedness in Selected Provinces of the Philippines (Bicol Region) (TCP/PHI/3203),

Bicol University, Legazpi City, Philippines.

Binoya, C.

S.

and

P.

P

Muñez, Jr. 2011. Situation Assessment

Report. Report on

Strengthening Capacities for Climate Risk Management and Disaster Preparedness in Selected Provinces of the Philippines (Bicol Region) (TCP/PHI/3203), Central Bicol

State University for Agriculture, San Jose, Pili, Camarines Sur, Philippines.

Bordado, E. B. 2012. New Rice Bug Infesting Rice Crops in Four Regions, Including Bicol.

Calleja, Danny. 2012. DA Braces for Rice Grain Bug Attack in Bicol Farms. PNA Bicol

Congress of the Philippines. 2010. Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act of 2010. Official Gazette, Manila, Philippines.

Dalida, L. U. 2011. PAGASA’s Assessment of Existing Early Warning Systems (EWS) in Selected Provinces of Bicol Region. Report on Strengthening Capacities for Climate

Risk Management and Disaster Preparedness in Selected Provinces of the Philippines

(Bicol Region) (TCP/PHI/3203), PAGASA Regional Center, Legazpi City, Philippines.

DA-RFU V. 2005.

Coconut Leaf Beetle Infests Young Palms. Umasenso, Vol. 14 No. 3

July-September 2005, DA-RFU V, San Agustin, Pili, Camarines Sur.

Development Updates. 2007.

Quarterly Regional Economic Situationer, 3 rd Quarter 2007,

DevPulse. 2010. Government Responds to El Niño. Vol. XIV No. 3 March 15, 2010, National Economic and Development Authority, Legazpi City.

Food and Agriculture Organization. 2013. Resilient Livelihoods: Disaster Risk Reduction for Food and Nutrition Security. Rome, Italy.

GMA News On-line. 2011. Rice Fields Suffer Wrath of Bulusan Blast. News filed February 23, 2011 at 8:37 PM. Downloaded:

Hilario, F., R. De Guzman, D. Ortega, P. Hayman, and B. Alexander. 2009. El Niño Southern Oscillation in the Philippines: Impacts, Forecasts, and Risk Management. Philippine Journal of Development, No. 66, First Semester 2009, Vol. 36, No. 1, Makati City.

areas/. Forty Towns Identified as Geo-Hazard Areas.

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Mascariñas, A. M., S. Baas, N. Köksalan, L. O. Amano, P. M. Nieves, C. S. Binoya, V. Foronda, L. U. Dalida, M. R. Carbonel, E. R. Dela Torre, and E. C. Torrente. 2013. Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction into Agriculture: A Case Study from Bicol Region, Philippines. Environment and Natural Resources Management Series No. 20, Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy.

Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives. 2011. Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Management in Agriculture: Priority Framework for Action 2011-2020, Government of Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Office of Civil Defense. 2011. National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Plan 2011- 2028. Manila, Philippines.

Office of Civil Defense. 2013. Regional Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Plan: Bicol Region 2013-2016, Legazpi City.

United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction. 2007. Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015: Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters (Extract from the final report of the World Conference on Disaster Reduction).

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Annex 1 Action Plan Matrix 2014-2018

 

Description of Main Actions

 

Specific Activities

 

Indicators of Monitoring

Year of Implementation

Responsible

2014-2018

 

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

Institution/s

Goal:

To increase the resilience of agriculture.

the agriculture sector to natural hazards/disasters by

providing guidance to sectoral planning for DRR in

Priority Area 1: Strengthen institutional and technical capacity for disaster risk reduction and management in agriculture and enhance policy frameworks and coordination at regional and local levels.

1.

Strengthen capacity within the DA-RFU V to effectively contribute in the delivery of DRRM related tasks in agriculture in the region.

 

1.1. Establish

the

focal

Identification of personnel who will comprise the focal point.

Focal point/unit established equipped with equipment and other logistics.

x

       

ORED/DA-RFU V

 

point/secretariat at

DA-RFU

V

to

Issuance of appointment/ designation to DA-RFU V personnel who will comprise the focal point/secretariat.

provide

guidance

Appointments/designations issued to DA-RFU V personnel assigned to the focal point.

and

coordination

within

DA-RFU

V

and at various levels

Briefing of the focal point staff about CCA, DRR, and POA.

 

on

CCA/DRR

matters.

Preparation of IEC materials, guidelines, reportorial formats, and other documents.

1.2. Training of DA-RFU V personnel on the technical aspects of CCA and DRRM and other related topics.

Develop training design on CCA/DRR.

Number of DA-RFU V personnel trained.

x

x

     

ATI, RAFID, HRMO,

and

Focal

Point/

Identify experts within and outside DA-RFU V who will comprise the training team on CCA/DRR.

Develop and package training materials on CCA/DRR.

Training materials on CCA/DRR developed and packaged.

Secretariat

Number of trainings conducted.

 
 

Conduct the training program to the different divisions/sections of DA-RFU V.

2.

Strengthen the technical capacity of provincial and municipal agriculture service on CCA and DRR.

 

2.1.

Expansion

 

of

Coordinate with provincial and municipal LGUs to determine the

Number of trainings conducted.

 

x

     

ATI, Focal Point/

 

training

on

CCA/

 

30

Description of Main Actions

Specific Activities

Indicators of Monitoring

Year of Implementation

Responsible

2014-2018

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

Institution/s

 

DRR covering other

personnel who will be trained

Number of

LGU-based

         

ATI,

Focal

Point/

provinces

and

Conduct the training program in each province

agricultural staff trained.

Secretariat,

and

municipalities.

SUCs

2.2.

Enhance information sharing with LGUs.

Provide up-to-date information or IEC materials to LGU staff.

Number of IEC materials prepared and distributed.

x

x

x

x

x

RAFID

3. Mainstream DRRM into existing agriculture and food security policies, plans and strategies at various levels of the agriculture sector.

 

3.1.

Establish

a

Briefing of provincial and municipal LGU-based staff on the need to organize a committee to draft or integrate CCA and DRM priorities into agriculture and food security policies, strategies and plans of the LGU.

Organize a committee or task force at the provincial and municipal LGU levels that will integrate the CCA and DRR priorities, respectively.

Committees established in selected LGUs, with updated

 

x

x

   

Focal

Point/

committee or task

Secretariat LGU committee/ task force (planning service, agriculture service and local DRRMCs)

force at

the

 

provincial and municipal levels to draft and/or integrate climate change adaptation and disaster risk management priorities into agriculture, and food security policies and plans.

policies, plans, and strategies adopted by respective LGUs.

Review existing plans (e.g. CLUP) and priorities of the LGUs to assess the extent of CCA/DRR integration in their programs.

 
 

Prepare or update adaptation and disaster risk management plans and ensure that climate change issues and food security policies are integrated in the municipal and provincial plans.

Update the LGUs strategic agriculture and forestry development zone (SAFDZ) in view of climate related risks.

31

Description of Main Actions

 

Specific Activities

 

Indicators of Monitoring

Year of Implementation

 

Responsible

2014-2018

 

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

Institution/s

 

Submit to the sangguniang panlalawigan/pangbayan updated adaptation and disaster risk management plans and SAFDZ for approval and adoption by the LGU.

             

4.

Strengthen R&D capability of state universities and colleges and other research institutions in the region in the conduct of applied research on climate change impacts, adaptation and mitigation, and disaster risk reduction.

4.1.

Strengthen research

Meet with R&D unit of SUCs to determine possible areas of collaboration.

Signed MOA between/among SUCs and DA-RFU V.

 

x

x

x

x

DA-RFU

V

and development (research-extension) linkage with state

 

Research

Division

Research agenda for DRR and CCA formulated.

and ROS

Draft memorandum of agreement that specifies the terms of reference or obligations of SUCs and DA-RFU V.

Joint R&D agenda setting with SUCs on CCA/DRR.

SUCs

 

universities

and

New research projects for CCA/ DRR jointly prepared and implemented with SUCs.

 

colleges on climate

change adaptation and disaster risk management.

 

Joint on-farm demonstration of technologies for CCA/DRR like varieties tolerant to drought, flood, saline water intrusion and integrated farming system.

 

Joint conduct of in-house review and evaluation of the performance of the technology.

Priority Area 2: Promote and enhance early warning systems from climate information products for pro-active disaster risk reduction and management in agriculture.

1.

Strengthen the institutional and technical capacity of PAGASA to be able to provide the necessary forecast products and early warning systems for agriculture application.

1.1.

Enhance

human

Conduct of training/workshops for technical staff on application of forecast products for agriculture.

Number of PAGASA staff trained and involved to provide forecast products relevant to agriculture.

 

x

     

PAGASA

in

resources, logistics

collaboration with DA-RFU V and ATI

and facilitate

need-

based

training

Procurement of IT equipment as

 

32

Description of Main Actions

 

Specific Activities

 

Indicators of Monitoring

Year of Implementation

 

Responsible

 

2014-2018

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

Institution/s

programs

for

part

of

EWS

infrastructure

             

PAGASA.

improve

reliability

of

forecast

 

data.

1.2.

Communicate

Regular updating of climate information and weather data in the website. Disseminate forecast data to DA- RFU V and LGUs.

Forecast

products made

 

x

x

x

x

PAGASA

in

available

early

available to and accessed by farmers in at least five vulnerable barangays to climate risks in each province.

collaboration

with

warning

messages

provincial

and

and

seasonal

municipal

LGUS/

forecasts

for

agriculture service

agriculture

     

application.

Strengthen the capacity of DA-RFU V in translating PAGASA’s forecast products and early warning messages into farm weather bulletin/ advisories for dissemination to LGUs as part of the early warning system for agriculture sector.

1.3. Enhance human resources, logistics and facilitate need- based training programs within DA- RFU V.

Identify a unit in the DA-RFU V that will be tasked to prepare farm weather bulletin/advisories from PAGASA forecast products and early warning messages for dissemination to LGUs. Identify and designate technical staff who will man the unit. Conduct of training for technical staff on interpretation of forecast products and translation into farm weather bulletin. Procurement of IT equipment as part of EWS infrastructure.

Number

of

DA-RFU

V

staff

 

x

     

PAGASA

in

trained

and

involved

to

 

collaboration with

interpret/translate forecast products to location-specific farm weather bulletin.

ATI and DA-RFU V HRMO

1.4. Develop and communicate to LGUs available farm weather bulletin/

Collect climate and weather data from PAGASA and translate them into location or site-specific farm weather bulletin/advisories. Propose and trial run a mechanism for timely dissemination of early warning messages to the farmers.

Farm weather bulletin made available to and accessed by farmers in at least five vulnerable barangays to climate risks in each province.

 

x

x

x

x

V

DA-RFU

in

 

collaboration

with

provincial

and

municipal

LGUs/

 

advisories as part of early warning

agriculture service

system

for

   

agriculture.

33

 

Description of Main Actions

Specific Activities

Indicators of Monitoring

Year of Implementation

Responsible

 

2014-2018

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

Institution/s

Priority Area 3: Improve knowledge management, database and awareness raising in support of disaster risk reduction in agriculture.

 

1.

Design and application of awareness creation strategy for climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction in agriculture at the regional, LGU, and local community levels.

1.1. Training and local level awareness raising campaigns in other barangays on lessons learned and best practices of DRM.

Survey or field assessment to determine the information and training needs of farmers relevant to CCA and DRR. Organize a pool of trainors on DRR and CCA in the region. Prepare and package IEC materials. Farmers’ training.

Number of training programs organized for farmer groups in at least 10 barangays per province.

 

x

x

x

x

V

DA-RFU

in

collaboration

with

ATI, provincial and

municipal

LGUs/

 

agriculture service,

and SUCs.

1.2. Organize farmer field school, field days, farmer exchange visit to create awareness on CCA and DRR.

Set up on-farm demonstration of GPOs for CCA/DRR adopting the FFS strategy. Identify model farms for CCA/DRR within and outside the region for farmer exchange visit. Conduct farmer consultation to disseminate lessons learned and good practices.

At

least one event per year

 

x

x

x

x

V

DA-RFU

in

conducted in at least 10 vulnerable barangays to climate risks per province.

collaboration

with

provincial

and

municipal

LGUs/

 

agricultural service,

and

barangay

 

council.

2.

Enhance knowledge base on innovations and good practices for climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction in agriculture.

 
 

2.1.

Develop database for good practice options that include indigenous and local

Identification and documentation of location specific good practice options for enhanced DRR or CCA from various sources. Conduct literature and internet research and assess with leading research institutes/centers potential good practices and processes for enhanced DRR. Conduct field observation to identify indigenous and local

Database

for

good practice

 

x

x

x

x

DA-RFU

V

in

options developed and posted in a dedicated website at DA- RFU V and linked with provincial and municipal LGUs.

collaboration

with

SUCs,

provincial

and

municipal

 

LGUs/

agriculture

 

practices for CCA/ DRR in agriculture.

 

services.

34

Description of Main Actions

Specific Activities

Indicators of Monitoring

Year of Implementation

 

Responsible

2014-2018

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

Institution/s

 

good practices with CCA/DRR potential.

             

Prepare a compendium of good practices for CCA/DRR in agriculture.

Package IEC materials or techno- guides for field tested good practice options.

2.2.

Establish information resource centers for climate risks, site- specific hazards, and good practices

Prepare risk and vulnerability maps for posting in the barangay hall.

Information centers established and maintained in at least 10 vulnerable barangays to climate risks per province.

 

x

x

x

x

DA-RFU V-RAFID in collaboration with provincial and municipal LGUs/ agriculture service.

Prepare charts showing weather patterns and pest incidence.

in

selected

Prepare recommended good practices for selected hazards.

   

barangays.

3. Mobilizing local communities and farmer groups/associations for showcasing climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction interventions in agriculture.

3.1. Promote the establishment of techno-demo at Research Outreach Stations (ROSs) and local communities to showcase good practice options for CCA/DRR.

Identify technologies with proven CCA/DRR potential for techno- demonstration at ROS sites.

At least one techno-demo project per agro-ecological zone established in 10 vulnerable barangays per province with five farmer-cooperators per project every cropping season.

 

x

x

x

x

DA-RFU V-ROS in collaboration with

 

provincial

and

Identify and select farmers to conduct on-farm demonstration of selected good practice options.

municipal LGUs/

agriculture service

and

farmer

Compare performance of on-farm demonstration versus existing farmers’ practice in the area.

 

association.

3.2. Organize field days at various stages of the techno-demo

Identify which techno-demo projects will be included in the field day.

At

least one event per year

 

x

x

x

x

V

DA-RFU

in

conducted in at least 10 vulnerable barangays to climate risks per province.

 

collaboration

with

provincial

and

 

project

in

Identify participants for the field day.

municipal

LGUs/

collaboration with farmer groups/ associations to

 

agricultural service,

Formulate the mechanics to be observed during the field day.

and

barangay

council.

35

 

Description of Main Actions

Specific Activities

Indicators of Monitoring

Year of Implementation

Responsible

2014-2018

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

Institution/s

 

create

mass

               

awareness.

4.

Knowledge sharing and strategic dissemination of key reports and information materials related to climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction.

4.1.

Disseminate information on

Organize media conference and/

Routine information sharing

 

x

x

x

x

DA-RFU V-RAFID in collaboration with provincial and municipal LGUs/ agricultural service.

 

climate change impacts and tested good practice option for CCA/DRR through print and broadcast media.

or briefing regarding climate risks and adaptation measures.

Develop and disseminate leaflets and information briefs.

mechanism established through mass media.

Printed leaflets and information briefs developed and disseminated to local communities.

Priority Area 4: Reducing climate related risks and underlying vulnerabilities thru the use of technical options and integrating Community Based Adaptation (CBA) and Community Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM) approaches in agriculture.

1.

Promote integrated production and farm diversification on a wider scale to build the resilience of local communities to disaster impacts.

 

1.1. Encourage the use of crop and animal species and varieties resistant to climate risks.

Develop new cropping models (including fisheries/aquaculture) for different agrocecological zones for CCA/DRR.

On-farm evaluation of different

New crop and animal species introduced and progressively adopted by farmers in 10 vulnerable barangays per province.

 

x

x

x

x

DA-RFU

V

Operations Division in collaboration with, BFAR, DILG, provincial and municipal LGUs/ agricultural service and farmer groups.

1.2. Inclusion of the fishery sector in the CBDRM plan of pilot communities

crop varieties (e.g. rice, corn, vegetables, etc.) that are tolerant to climate risks (e.g. excessive rainfall, flooding, saline water intrusion, long dry spell, etc.)

Sustainable backyard/small scale fishery and aquaculture production model developed.

1.3. Disseminate

and

Develop site-specific intercropping models for different agroecological zones.

New models of integrated production/ diversified farming system introduced and adopted in each agro-ecological zone in at least 10 barangays per province.

   

x

x

x

DA-RFU

V

 

encourage

adoption

Operations Division in collaboration with provincial and municipal LGUs/ agricultural service and farmer groups.

of

mixed

cropping,

crop-livestock/

Develop crop-livestock integration models for lowland (rice + duck) and upland (coconut + intercrop + goat)

backyard

fishery

integration

for

increased

livelihood

 

resilience.

Study integration of backyard fish farming with crop production.

 

36

 

Description of Main Actions

Specific Activities

   

Indicators of Monitoring

Year of Implementation

 

Responsible

2014-2018

 

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

Institution/s

2.

Support for postharvest practices to proactively manage climate-related risks.

 

1.4.

Expansion

of

Experiment other mechanisms/ strategies to improve existing seed bank system for rice.

Expanded seed bank and seed storage system established in at least 10 barangays per province covering at least five commodities.

 

x

x

x

x

Municipal LGUs/ agriculture service with support from provincial LGU and DA-RFU V.

 

community

seed

banks

and

seed

storage system